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How to Cite a Website

Last Updated: February 9, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Michelle Golden, PhD and by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Michelle Golden is an English teacher in Athens, Georgia. She received her MA in Language Arts Teacher Education in 2008 and received her PhD in English from Georgia State University in 2015. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 3,556,064 times.

If you're writing a research paper, you'll likely do quite a bit of research online. If you have websites that you want to use as sources for your paper, an entry for the website must appear in the reference list (also called the bibliography or Works Cited) at the end of your paper. You'll also include a citation in-text at the end of any sentence in which you've paraphrased or quoted information that appeared on that website. While the information you need to provide is generally the same across all methods, the way you format that information may vary depending on whether you're using the Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), or Chicago style of citation.

Sample Citation Templates

examples of citing a website in a research paper

  • Example: Claymore, Crystal.
  • If no individual author is listed, but the website is produced by a government agency, organization, or business, use that name as the author. For example, if you're using a CDC web page as a source, you would list the author as "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention."

Tip: For your entire Works Cited entry, if an element doesn't exist or isn't provided, simply skip that part of the citation and move on to the next part.

Step 2 Provide the title of the page in double quotation marks.

  • Example: Claymore, Crystal. "Best-Kept Secrets for Amazing Cupcake Frosting."

Step 3 Give the name of the website in italics followed by the date of publication.

  • Example: Claymore, Crystal. "Best-Kept Secrets for Amazing Cupcake Frosting." Crystal's Cupcakes , 24 Sept. 2018,

Step 4 Include the URL for the web page.

  • Example: Claymore, Crystal. "Best-Kept Secrets for Amazing Cupcake Frosting." Crystal's Cupcakes , 24 Sept. 2018, www.crystalscupcakes.com/amazing-frosting.

Step 5 Close with your date of access if there was no date of publication.

  • Example: Claymore, Crystal. "Best-Kept Secrets for Amazing Cupcake Frosting." Crystal's Cupcakes , www.crystalscupcakes.com/amazing-frosting. Accessed 14 Feb. 2019.

MLA Works Cited Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Title of Web Page in Title Case." Name of Website , Day Month Year of publication, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Step 6 Place a parenthetical citation after referencing the website in your text.

  • For example, you might write: "The best cupcake frosting techniques are often the least intuitive (Claymore)."
  • If you include the author's name in your text, there's no need for a parenthetical citation. For example, you might write: "Award-winning baker Crystal Claymore wasn't afraid to give away all her secrets, sharing her favorite frosting techniques on her website."

Step 1 Start your reference list entry with the name of the author.

  • Example: Canadian Cancer Society.

Step 2 Add the year the website or page was published.

  • Example: Canadian Cancer Society. (2017).
  • If you're citing several pages from the same website that were published in the same year, add a lower-case letter to the end of the year so you can differentiate them in your in-text citations. For example, you might have "2017a" and "2017b."

Step 3 Type the title of the web page in sentence case.

  • Example: Canadian Cancer Society. (2017). Cancer research.
  • If the content you're citing is a stand-alone document, the title should be italicized. This will usually be the case if you're citing a PDF document that appears on a website. If you're not sure, use your best judgment in deciding whether to italicize it or not.

Step 4 Close with the direct URL of the web page.

  • Example: Canadian Cancer Society. (2017). Cancer research. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-101/cancer-research/?region=on

APA Reference List Format:

Author Last Name, A. A. (Year). Title of web page in sentence case. Retrieved from URL

Step 5 Use the author's name and year for in-text parenthetical citations.

  • For example, you might write: "Clinical trials are used to test new cancer treatments (Canadian Cancer Society, 2017)."
  • If you include the author's name in your text, place the year in parentheses immediately after the author's name. For example, you might write: "The Canadian Cancer Society (2017) noted that Canada is a global leader in clinical trials of cancer treatments."

Step 1 Start your bibliographic entry with the name of the author.

  • Example: UN Women.

Step 2 List the title of the web page in double quotation marks.

  • Example: UN Women. "Commission on the Status of Women."

Step 3 Add the name of the website or publishing organization in italics.

  • Example: UN Women. "Commission on the Status of Women." UN Women .

Step 4 Provide the publication date or access date.

  • Example: UN Women. "Commission on the Status of Women." UN Women . Accessed February 14, 2019.

Step 5 Close your entry with a direct URL to the web page.

  • Example: UN Women. "Commission on the Status of Women." UN Women . Accessed February 14, 2019. http://www.unwomen.org/en/csw.

Chicago Bibliography Format:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Title of Web Page in Title Case." Name of Website or Publishing Organization . Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

Step 6 Use commas instead of periods between elements in footnotes.

  • Example: UN Women, "Commission on the Status of Women," UN Women , accessed February 14, 2019, http://www.unwomen.org/en/csw.

Community Q&A

wikiHow Staff Editor

You Might Also Like

Cite an Interview in MLA Format

  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_works_cited_electronic_sources.html
  • ↑ https://libguides.up.edu/mla/common/websites
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_electronic_sources.html
  • ↑ https://libraryguides.vu.edu.au/apa-referencing/7Webpages
  • ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/webpage-website-references
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/chicago_manual_17th_edition/cmos_formatting_and_style_guide/web_sources.html
  • ↑ http://libanswers.snhu.edu/faq/48009

About This Article

Michelle Golden, PhD

To cite a website in text using MLA formatting, include the author's last name in parentheses at the end of the sentence you're using the source in. If there is no author, include the title of the web page instead. If you're using APA formatting, include the author's last name followed by a comma and the year of publication in parentheses at the end of the sentence. If you don't know the author's name, use the name of the web page instead. For more tips from our English co-author, like how to cite a website in Chicago style, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Citation Examples for APA, MLA, and Chicago Style Guides

Matt Ellis

You may think citing sources for research papers is confusing . . . because it absolutely is! It’s one thing to memorize the precise format for your sources’ information, but it’s another thing to know the precise formats required by APA, MLA, and Chicago style guides.

Because different styles have different citation formats, we thought showing you some citation examples in research papers would help you learn to tell the difference. Feel free to use this guide as a resource to help you get the perfect citation, no matter what style you use.

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How to use citation examples in research

In-text citations vs. full citations, parenthetical citations vs. narrative citations, apa citation examples, apa in-text citation examples, apa citation examples: book.

  • APA citation examples: Journal Article

APA citation examples: Website

Apa citation examples: video, apa citation examples: ai, mla citation examples, mla in-text citation examples, mla citation examples: book.

  • MLA citation examples: Journal Article

MLA citation examples: Website

Mla citation examples: video, mla citation examples: ai, chicago citation examples, chicago in-text citation examples, chicago citation examples: book.

  • Chicago citation examples: Journal Article

Chicago citation examples: Website

Chicago citation examples: video, chicago citation examples: ai, citation examples for multiple authors, apa citation examples for more than one author, mla citation examples for more than one author, chicago citation examples for more than one author.

In academic writing like research papers , you must cite your source for each piece of information that’s not your own . In informal writing like personal essays, you are your own source, so you don’t need a citation. But for writing that uses information from outside books, articles, websites, videos, or even AI, citations are necessary.

The tricky part is that each style has its own particular way of citing sources. Most academic papers are written in one of the three main styles:

  • Chicago format

Each of these styles has different rules for what information to include in citations, as well as unique guidelines for particulars like capitalization, the use of italics, and the order in which the information comes. (For more details, read our direct comparison of MLA vs. APA .)

In this blog post, we share citation examples of each style for different types of sources. But first, let’s talk a little about the different types of citations you’ll be using in formal writing.

The two main types of citations are in-text citations and full citations.

In-text citations appear in the body text of the paper and provide the bare minimum of information to identify the source. These usually include the author’s name and sometimes a page number or publication date. They can be either parenthetical or narrative, which we explain below. Alternatively, if you’re using Chicago style, you have the option to use footnotes as in-text citations.

Full citations appear in the bibliography at the end of the text and contain all the relevant information from a source. The idea is that, if your reader is interested in learning more about one of your sources, they can find it in the full citation. Full citations are written in a particular way, and different styles have their own rules for what information goes where.

In APA, the bibliography is called a reference page ; in MLA, it’s called a works cited page . Only Chicago uses the term “bibliography.”

In-text citations can be either parenthetical citations or narrative citations. A parenthetical citation puts a brief credit in parentheses after the related piece of information. Here’s an in-text citation example in APA:

Not all experiments use a placebo group because “if your patients are ill, you shouldn’t be leaving them untreated simply because of your own mawkish interest in the placebo effect” (Goldacre, 2008, p. 60) .

A narrative citation, on the other hand, gives credit in the body text itself, such as by mentioning the author by name. Typically, any information not included in the text is still placed in an abbreviated parenthetical citation afterward.

Not all experiments use a placebo group because, as Ben Goldacre wrote , “if your patients are ill, you shouldn’t be leaving them untreated simply because of your own mawkish interest in the placebo effect” (2008, p. 60) .

Our in-text citation examples below are for standard parenthetical citations. Just remember if you mention the author, page, or year in the main text, you can remove it from the parenthetical citation.

In-text citations in APA use what’s called the author-date style , which includes the author’s last name and the year of publication, separated with commas.

If citing a specific piece of information or a direct quote, also include the location, such as a page number or timestamp. Use the abbreviations p. for page , pp. for pages , and paras. for paragraphs . For general information, such as a concept discussed throughout the source, no location is needed.

(Last Name, Year, p. #)

(Goldacre, 2008, p. 60)

To cite a book in APA , you need the author’s name, year of publication, book title, and publisher. The author’s name is written as “last name, first name initial,” as in “Shakespeare, W.” Titles use sentence-style capitalization, which means only the first letter of the first word in the title (and subtitle, if applicable) are capitalized. If the book edition is relevant, place it in parentheses after the title.

Last name, First name initial. (Year of publication). Title . Publisher.

Goldacre, B. (2008). Bad science. Fourth Estate.

APA citation examples: Journal article

Citing an article in APA requires the author’s last name and first initial; the full date of publication, including month and day if applicable; and the titles of both the article and the journal/periodical, as well as the page number. Note that, unlike MLA and Chicago styles, APA doesn’t abbreviate months in citations.

Last name, First name initial. (Year, Month Day of publication). Article title. Magazine name, volume (issue), page range. DOI

Cardanay, A. (2016, January 12). Illustrating motion, music, and story. General Music Today, 29 (3), 25–29. doi:10.1177/1048371315626498

To cite a website in APA , follow the same format you use to cite journal articles, except without volume, issue, or page numbers. Website citations in APA include a URL, however. If the website represents a print publication, italicize the title. If not, italicize the article name.

Last name, First name initial. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of article, post, or page. Website. URL

Hudson, J. (2023, November 12). What Taylor Swift can teach us about leadership. Forbes . https://www.forbes.com/sites/jameshudson/2023/11/12/what-taylor-swift-can-teach-us-about-leadership/

To cite YouTube in APA , as well as any online video, you need to include both the uploader’s real name and username, the date posted, the video title, the website name, and the URL. You also need to include the word “Video” in brackets after the video title to show what kind of source it is.

Real last name, First initial. [Username]. (Year, Month Day). Video title [Video]. Website. URL.

Desmond, W. [TED-Ed]. (2019, December 19). The philosophy of cynicism [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Utzym1I_BiY

According to the APA website, AI citations in APA should be treated as an “algorithm’s output.” You cite the company that built it as the author, the name of the AI as the title, and the year you interacted with it as the date of publication. You should also include the version you used and a descriptor like “large language model” in brackets, followed by the URL.

Company. (Year). AI Name (version) [Descriptor]. URL

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (March 14 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat

For MLA, in-text citations use only the author’s last name and the page number or timestamp, without abbreviations or commas.

(Last name #)

(Goldacre 60)

To cite a book in MLA , you need the author’s name, book title, place of publication, publisher’s name, and the date of publication. The author’s name is inverted, with the last name coming before the first name. Most parts are separated by periods, except for the author’s names and publication information, which are separated by commas. Titles use title capitalization, which capitalizes the first letter of each major word.

Last name, First name. Book Title . Place of publication, Publisher, publication date.

Goldacre, Ben. Bad Science . London, Fourth Estate, 2008.

MLA citation examples: Journal article

Citing an article in MLA is similar to citing a journal article in other styles, although MLA uses abbreviations for volume (vol.) and issue number (no.), as well as pages (pp.). If you found the article online, you also need to include the database name in italics and the URL or DOI.

Last name, First name. “Title of article.” Journal , vol. #, no. #, Day Month Year of publication, pp. #–#. Database , DOI or URL.

Cardanay, Audrey. “Illustrating Motion, Music, and Story.” General Music Today , vol. 29, no. 3, 2016, pp. 25–29. Academic Search Premier , doi:10.1177/1048371315626498.

To cite a website in MLA , include the page or article title in quotes and the name of the website in italics. In addition to the publication date and URL, you also need to mention the date you visited the website, using the word “Accessed.”

Last name, First name. “Page or Article Title.” Website , Day Month Year of publication, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Hudson, James. “What Taylor Swift Can Teach Us about Leadership.” Forbes , 12 Nov. 2023, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jameshudson/2023/11/12/what-taylor-swift-can-teach-us-about-leadership/. Accessed 13 Nov. 2023.

Citing YouTube in MLA is similar to citing videos in APA, although the information goes in different places. Additionally, you need either the creator’s real name or username, but not both.

Username or Last name, First name. “Title.” Website , Day Month Year, URL.

Desmond, William. “The Philosophy of Cynicism.” YouTube , 19 Dec. 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Utzym1I_BiY.

AI citations in MLA ignore the author altogether and use the AI prompt (what you typed into the chat) as the title. MLA uses “containers” for sources within larger works, and for AI the container is the name of the AI. You also need the version, company (as the publisher), date accessed, and URL.

“Entered text” prompt. AI Name , version, Company, Day Month Year, URL.

“Citation examples for research” prompt. ChatGPT , GPT-4, OpenAI, 15 Nov. 2023, chat.openai.com/chat.

In Chicago, you can choose either parenthetical citations or footnotes for in-text citations. Chicago’s parenthetical citations also use an author-date style just like APA citations; however, there is no comma between the author and year (although there is a comma between the year and the location). Chicago citations do not use abbreviations for page numbers.

(Last Name Year, #)

(Goldacre 2008, 60)

Citing a book in Chicago uses the author’s name, book title, place of publication, publisher, and year of publication. You also include the edition, but only if it’s relevant. The author’s name is inverted, and the title uses title capitalization.

Last Name, First Name. Book Title: Subtitle . Edition (if applicable). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Goldacre, Ben. Bad Science . London: Fourth Estate, 2008.

Chicago citation examples: Journal article

Citing an article in Chicago is most similar to citing an article in MLA, including the type of information to include and the use of abbreviations. Pay attention to the citation examples to see the correct order and punctuation to use; note that in Chicago the volume number directly follows the journal title and is not separated by a comma or preceded by the word “vol.”

Last name, First name. “Article title.” Journal vol. #, no. # (Year): #–#. Database or article URL.

Cardanay, Audrey. “Illustrating Motion, Music, and Story.” General Music Today 29, no. 3 (2016): 25–29. Academic Search Premier.

Compared to citing a website in other styles, citing a website in Chicago is more straightforward. Include all the relevant information, put the article or page title in quotations, and don’t worry about italics or the date you visited (unless the website does not have a publication date; in that case, include the date you accessed the site where you would normally put the publication date).

Last name, First name. “Article or Page Title.” Website, Month Day, Year of publication. URL.

Hudson, James. “What Taylor Swift Can Teach Us about Leadership.” Forbes, Nov. 12, 2023. https://www.forbes.com/sites/jameshudson/2023/11/12/what-taylor-swift-can-teach-us-about-leadership/

To cite YouTube in Chicago , you need to include all the standard information, such as the creator’s name, the title of the video, and the website that hosts it, as well as the date and URL. Unlike other formats, Chicago also requires the total video length written in XX:XX format. You also need to mention the source format (“video”) after naming the website.

Uploader. “Title.” Website and format, duration. Month Day, Year of publication. URL.

TED-Ed. “The Philosophy of Cynicism.” YouTube video, 5:25. Dec. 19, 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Utzym1I_BiY.

AI citations in Chicago work differently than in other styles; Chicago considers AI conversations as “personal communication” because they’re non-retrievable—meaning other people can’t access the same conversation you had. Consequently, do not include AI chatbots in the bibliography ; mention them only as personal communications if necessary.

However, you still need to use in-text citations for AI in Chicago. For parenthetical citations, you can use the name of the AI as the author and when you had the conversation as the publication date.

APA, MLA, and Chicago formats all have different guidelines for citing more than one author. Here are some quick reference tips on how each does it:

Each author in an APA citation is written in the format of Last name, First Initial. Place authors in the same order as the publication lists them, which may not necessarily be alphabetical. Separate each name with a comma and add an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name.

Marieb, E., & Keller, S. (2018). Essentials of human anatomy & physiology (12th ed.) . Pearson.

In-text citations in APA for two authors use both authors’ last names, connected with an ampersand. For more than two authors, use only the first author’s last name and the phrase et al.

(Marieb & Keller, 2018)

(Marieb et al., 2018)

If an MLA citation has two authors, list them both in the full citation but invert only the first name. Separate them with a comma and the word and .

Cohn, Rachel, and David Levithan. Dash & Lily’s Book of Dares . Ember Publishing House, 2011.

In-text citations use both last names with and .

(Cohn and Levitation 55)

For more than two authors, use only the first author’s name and the phrase et al. in both the full and in-text citation.

Heffernan, James, et al. Writing: A College Handbook . New York, W. W. Norton & Company, 2000.

(Heffernan et al. 27)

In the bibliography, Chicago citations list the names of up to ten authors, separated by commas and with the word and before the last author. For more than ten authors, list only the first seven and then add et al . Only the first name is inverted.

Gyatso, Tenzin, and Howard Cutler. The Art of Happiness: A Handbook for Living . Norwalk: Easton Press, 1998.

In-text citations list the last names of up to three authors, separated by commas (if there are more than two), and the word and before the final name. For four or more authors, use only the first author’s last name and the phrase et al .

(Gyatso and Cutler 1998)

(Gyatso et al. 1998)

Cite your sources with Grammarly

Do you want to make sure your citations are formatted correctly and that you haven’t mistakenly plagiarized information while writing your paper? Grammarly can help! Get well-formatted APA, MLA, and Chicago-style citations with Grammarly’s free citation generator built by writing experts. You can also check your work against billions of websites with our plagiarism checker so you always know when to cite your sources. Sign up for free to get academic writing support at your fingertips.

examples of citing a website in a research paper

  • Plagiarism and grammar
  • Citation guides

Cite a Website

Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper, citing a website in apa.

Once you’ve identified a credible website to use, create a citation and begin building your reference list. Citation Machine citing tools can help you create references for online news articles, government websites, blogs, and many other website! Keeping track of sources as you research and write can help you stay organized and ethical. If you end up not using a source, you can easily delete it from your bibliography. Ready to create a citation? Enter the website’s URL into the search box above. You’ll get a list of results, so you can identify and choose the correct source you want to cite. It’s that easy to begin!

If you’re wondering how to cite a website in APA, use the structure below.

Author Last Name, First initial. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of web page . Name of Website. URL

Example of an APA format website:

Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? FiveThirtyEight. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/

Keep in mind that not all information found on a website follows the structure above. Only use the Website format above if your online source does not fit another source category. For example, if you’re looking at a video on YouTube, refer to the ‘YouTube Video’ section. If you’re citing a newspaper article found online, refer to ‘Newspapers Found Online’ section. Again, an APA website citation is strictly for web pages that do not fit better with one of the other categories on this page.

Social media:

When adding the text of a post, keep the original capitalization, spelling, hashtags, emojis (if possible), and links within the text.

Facebook posts:

Structure: Facebook user’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Monday Day of Post). Up to the first 20 words of Facebook post [Source type if attached] [Post type]. Facebook. URL

Source type examples: [Video attached], [Image attached]

Post type examples: [Status update], [Video], [Image], [Infographic]

Gomez, S. (2020, February 4). Guys, I’ve been working on this special project for two years and can officially say Rare Beauty is launching in [Video]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/Selena/videos/1340031502835436/

Life at Chegg. (2020, February 7) It breaks our heart that 50% of college students right here in Silicon Valley are hungry. That’s why Chegg has [Images attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/LifeAtChegg/posts/1076718522691591

Twitter posts:

Structure: Account holder’s Last name, F. M. [Twitter Handle]. (Year, Month Day of Post). Up to the first 20 words of tweet [source type if attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

Source type examples: [Video attached], [Image attached], [Poll attached]

Example: Edelman, J. [Edelman11]. (2018, April 26). Nine years ago today my life changed forever. New England took a chance on a long shot and I’ve worked [Video attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/Edelman11/status/989652345922473985

Instagram posts:

APA citation format: Account holder’s Last name, F. M. [@Instagram handle]. (Year, Month Day). Up to the first 20 words of caption [Photograph(s) and/or Video(s)]. Instagram. URL

Example: Portman, N. [@natalieportman]. (2019, January 5). Many of my best experiences last year were getting to listen to and learn from so many incredible people through [Videos]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BsRD-FBB8HI/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link

If this guide hasn’t helped solve all of your referencing questions, or if you’re still feeling the need to type “how to cite a website APA” into Google, then check out our APA citation generator on CitationMachine.com, which can build your references for you!

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / How to Cite Sources

How to Cite Sources

Here is a complete list for how to cite sources. Most of these guides present citation guidance and examples in MLA, APA, and Chicago.

If you’re looking for general information on MLA or APA citations , the EasyBib Writing Center was designed for you! It has articles on what’s needed in an MLA in-text citation , how to format an APA paper, what an MLA annotated bibliography is, making an MLA works cited page, and much more!

MLA Format Citation Examples

The Modern Language Association created the MLA Style, currently in its 9th edition, to provide researchers with guidelines for writing and documenting scholarly borrowings.  Most often used in the humanities, MLA style (or MLA format ) has been adopted and used by numerous other disciplines, in multiple parts of the world.

MLA provides standard rules to follow so that most research papers are formatted in a similar manner. This makes it easier for readers to comprehend the information. The MLA in-text citation guidelines, MLA works cited standards, and MLA annotated bibliography instructions provide scholars with the information they need to properly cite sources in their research papers, articles, and assignments.

  • Book Chapter
  • Conference Paper
  • Documentary
  • Encyclopedia
  • Google Images
  • Kindle Book
  • Memorial Inscription
  • Museum Exhibit
  • Painting or Artwork
  • PowerPoint Presentation
  • Sheet Music
  • Thesis or Dissertation
  • YouTube Video

APA Format Citation Examples

The American Psychological Association created the APA citation style in 1929 as a way to help psychologists, anthropologists, and even business managers establish one common way to cite sources and present content.

APA is used when citing sources for academic articles such as journals, and is intended to help readers better comprehend content, and to avoid language bias wherever possible. The APA style (or APA format ) is now in its 7th edition, and provides citation style guides for virtually any type of resource.

Chicago Style Citation Examples

The Chicago/Turabian style of citing sources is generally used when citing sources for humanities papers, and is best known for its requirement that writers place bibliographic citations at the bottom of a page (in Chicago-format footnotes ) or at the end of a paper (endnotes).

The Turabian and Chicago citation styles are almost identical, but the Turabian style is geared towards student published papers such as theses and dissertations, while the Chicago style provides guidelines for all types of publications. This is why you’ll commonly see Chicago style and Turabian style presented together. The Chicago Manual of Style is currently in its 17th edition, and Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is in its 8th edition.

Citing Specific Sources or Events

  • Declaration of Independence
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  • Martin Luther King Jr. Speech
  • President Obama’s Farewell Address
  • President Trump’s Inauguration Speech
  • White House Press Briefing

Additional FAQs

  • Citing Archived Contributors
  • Citing a Blog
  • Citing a Book Chapter
  • Citing a Source in a Foreign Language
  • Citing an Image
  • Citing a Song
  • Citing Special Contributors
  • Citing a Translated Article
  • Citing a Tweet

6 Interesting Citation Facts

The world of citations may seem cut and dry, but there’s more to them than just specific capitalization rules, MLA in-text citations , and other formatting specifications. Citations have been helping researches document their sources for hundreds of years, and are a great way to learn more about a particular subject area.

Ever wonder what sets all the different styles apart, or how they came to be in the first place? Read on for some interesting facts about citations!

1. There are Over 7,000 Different Citation Styles

You may be familiar with MLA and APA citation styles, but there are actually thousands of citation styles used for all different academic disciplines all across the world. Deciding which one to use can be difficult, so be sure to ask you instructor which one you should be using for your next paper.

2. Some Citation Styles are Named After People

While a majority of citation styles are named for the specific organizations that publish them (i.e. APA is published by the American Psychological Association, and MLA format is named for the Modern Language Association), some are actually named after individuals. The most well-known example of this is perhaps Turabian style, named for Kate L. Turabian, an American educator and writer. She developed this style as a condensed version of the Chicago Manual of Style in order to present a more concise set of rules to students.

3. There are Some Really Specific and Uniquely Named Citation Styles

How specific can citation styles get? The answer is very. For example, the “Flavour and Fragrance Journal” style is based on a bimonthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1985 by John Wiley & Sons. It publishes original research articles, reviews and special reports on all aspects of flavor and fragrance. Another example is “Nordic Pulp and Paper Research,” a style used by an international scientific magazine covering science and technology for the areas of wood or bio-mass constituents.

4. More citations were created on  EasyBib.com  in the first quarter of 2018 than there are people in California.

The US Census Bureau estimates that approximately 39.5 million people live in the state of California. Meanwhile, about 43 million citations were made on EasyBib from January to March of 2018. That’s a lot of citations.

5. “Citations” is a Word With a Long History

The word “citations” can be traced back literally thousands of years to the Latin word “citare” meaning “to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite.” The word then took on its more modern meaning and relevance to writing papers in the 1600s, where it became known as the “act of citing or quoting a passage from a book, etc.”

6. Citation Styles are Always Changing

The concept of citations always stays the same. It is a means of preventing plagiarism and demonstrating where you relied on outside sources. The specific style rules, however, can and do change regularly. For example, in 2018 alone, 46 new citation styles were introduced , and 106 updates were made to exiting styles. At EasyBib, we are always on the lookout for ways to improve our styles and opportunities to add new ones to our list.

Why Citations Matter

Here are the ways accurate citations can help your students achieve academic success, and how you can answer the dreaded question, “why should I cite my sources?”

They Give Credit to the Right People

Citing their sources makes sure that the reader can differentiate the student’s original thoughts from those of other researchers. Not only does this make sure that the sources they use receive proper credit for their work, it ensures that the student receives deserved recognition for their unique contributions to the topic. Whether the student is citing in MLA format , APA format , or any other style, citations serve as a natural way to place a student’s work in the broader context of the subject area, and serve as an easy way to gauge their commitment to the project.

They Provide Hard Evidence of Ideas

Having many citations from a wide variety of sources related to their idea means that the student is working on a well-researched and respected subject. Citing sources that back up their claim creates room for fact-checking and further research . And, if they can cite a few sources that have the converse opinion or idea, and then demonstrate to the reader why they believe that that viewpoint is wrong by again citing credible sources, the student is well on their way to winning over the reader and cementing their point of view.

They Promote Originality and Prevent Plagiarism

The point of research projects is not to regurgitate information that can already be found elsewhere. We have Google for that! What the student’s project should aim to do is promote an original idea or a spin on an existing idea, and use reliable sources to promote that idea. Copying or directly referencing a source without proper citation can lead to not only a poor grade, but accusations of academic dishonesty. By citing their sources regularly and accurately, students can easily avoid the trap of plagiarism , and promote further research on their topic.

They Create Better Researchers

By researching sources to back up and promote their ideas, students are becoming better researchers without even knowing it! Each time a new source is read or researched, the student is becoming more engaged with the project and is developing a deeper understanding of the subject area. Proper citations demonstrate a breadth of the student’s reading and dedication to the project itself. By creating citations, students are compelled to make connections between their sources and discern research patterns. Each time they complete this process, they are helping themselves become better researchers and writers overall.

When is the Right Time to Start Making Citations?

Make in-text/parenthetical citations as you need them.

As you are writing your paper, be sure to include references within the text that correspond with references in a works cited or bibliography. These are usually called in-text citations or parenthetical citations in MLA and APA formats. The most effective time to complete these is directly after you have made your reference to another source. For instance, after writing the line from Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities : “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times…,” you would include a citation like this (depending on your chosen citation style):

(Dickens 11).

This signals to the reader that you have referenced an outside source. What’s great about this system is that the in-text citations serve as a natural list for all of the citations you have made in your paper, which will make completing the works cited page a whole lot easier. After you are done writing, all that will be left for you to do is scan your paper for these references, and then build a works cited page that includes a citation for each one.

Need help creating an MLA works cited page ? Try the MLA format generator on EasyBib.com! We also have a guide on how to format an APA reference page .

2. Understand the General Formatting Rules of Your Citation Style Before You Start Writing

While reading up on paper formatting may not sound exciting, being aware of how your paper should look early on in the paper writing process is super important. Citation styles can dictate more than just the appearance of the citations themselves, but rather can impact the layout of your paper as a whole, with specific guidelines concerning margin width, title treatment, and even font size and spacing. Knowing how to organize your paper before you start writing will ensure that you do not receive a low grade for something as trivial as forgetting a hanging indent.

Don’t know where to start? Here’s a formatting guide on APA format .

3. Double-check All of Your Outside Sources for Relevance and Trustworthiness First

Collecting outside sources that support your research and specific topic is a critical step in writing an effective paper. But before you run to the library and grab the first 20 books you can lay your hands on, keep in mind that selecting a source to include in your paper should not be taken lightly. Before you proceed with using it to backup your ideas, run a quick Internet search for it and see if other scholars in your field have written about it as well. Check to see if there are book reviews about it or peer accolades. If you spot something that seems off to you, you may want to consider leaving it out of your work. Doing this before your start making citations can save you a ton of time in the long run.

Finished with your paper? It may be time to run it through a grammar and plagiarism checker , like the one offered by EasyBib Plus. If you’re just looking to brush up on the basics, our grammar guides  are ready anytime you are.

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How to cite a website

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Important Components & Examples

Definition: citing a website.

Online Sources: internet sources are quotes, pictures, recordings , etc. taken from websites on the World Wide Web (cf. Franck & Stary 2009: 191). Besides this, articles from websites also count as online sources. When you cite a website, it is crucial to include these components:

Author Surname, Name. Date of publication. Title of the article. Domain. URL. Date of last access.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

  • 3 Important Components
  • 5 All Important Rules
  • 6 In a Nutshell

What is a citation?

A citation is a reference to a source of information that was used in the writing of a book, article, thesis or research paper. Citations give your readers clear guidelines on the sources of the information used in the completion of an academic writing text. Citations are usually written at the end of the report, usually in alphabetical order. This greatly helps the writer avoid plagiarism when writing especially long texts. Plus, it shows the readers where the writer obtained his information and they can also visit these sources to learn more about the research topic.

How do you cite a website?

Every source of information used while completing an academic writing project have to be cited. This includes sources referenced from websites, online articles, journals, etc.

The formatting used for referencing a website will depend on the referencing style that you’re using. However, website citations generally require the following information: The author(s) name(s) [in last name, first name format], ‘title of the source/ web page’, title of Website, publisher or website name, date published [in Day, Month, Year format] and finally, the website URL.

What are the different website citation styles?

As with every other writing project that requires citations, websites can also be cited in the three major citation styles as follows:

a. The APA style (American Psychological Association): This is an author-year system of citation. It is mostly used for Education, Psychology, and Science writings.

b. The MLA (Modern Language Association) Style: This is an author-page system of  citation. It is mostly used for writing in the Humanities field.

c. The Chicago Style: This is an extremely flexible style of citation that combines two referencing styles (footnotes and author-year system). It is used for writing in Business, History and Fine Arts.

How important is citing a website used in a writing project?

Website citation while writing an article, journal entry, dissertation or book has numerous important functions. Firstly, it helps the writer avoid plagiarizing other writers’ intellectual property which were utilized for the completion of the academic writing project. Secondly, it gives the writer a good way of keeping track of all information and sources referenced from websites that were used. Lastly, it also provides the readers details about where to find extra information about the research topic.

When should I do a website citation?

Website citations are required every time information is referenced from a website for an academic essay, research paper , dissertation, article or book. Regardless of how insignificant or minimal the information is that you sourced from the website, a citation has to be made to avoid plagiarism. As a writer, it is your imperative to appropriately reference your sources, in order to avoid being penalized for unlawfully using some else’s work.

If you want to cite a website, you have to provide a full citation in your reference list. This example shows how to cite a website using the APA citation style:

In your bachelor´s or master’s theses, as well as other pieces of academic writing, you must ensure to only cite websites with academic content! Not all articles and websites on the web are suitable for academic texts.

Recommended: How to cite an article

Properly Referencing a Website

Author name & article title: If you are citing a website, it is mandatory to name the author and the title of the cited article.

URL & DOI number: Moreover, the URL is part of the citation and the DOI number can also be included.

Date of last access & date of publication: The date of last access is another compulsory element when citing a website. For example: Retrieved March 5, 2019 . If you can find information on the publication date of the website article you want to cite, you should include this. Sometimes you might not be able to find a publication date. In that case, you can use the date that you last accessed the website in the short references (cf. Samac, Prenner, & Schwetz 2009: 95 ff., Szuchman 2005: 106).

Important Components

The table below gives an overview of the most important components of website citations, irrespective of the citation style chosen. The table also indicates which elements are mandatory for a full website and which are not, as well as including examples for each element. You will also find comments that explain the different components in more detail.

It is necessary to name the author of the website article. However, you may not always find information about the author of the website contents you are citing. In such cases, you should put in the name of the website or domain operator. If there is no information regarding the operator either, you can use “n.a.”, which means “no author”.

Recommended: How to cite a book

Below you will find examples on how to cite a website using two of the most common citation systems – APA citation and Harvard referencing .

Example: Citing Websites Using APA Style

Ghosh, P. (2019, April 10). First ever black hole image released. BBC News . Last accessed 21 th Apr 2019: https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-47873592 .

Rudlin, D. (2019, April 11). Why are we so bad at planning cities? The Guardian . Last accessed 12 th Apr 2019: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2019/apr/11/why-are-we-so-bad-at-planning-cities .

Citing a website: Short references in the text

(Ghosh, 2019)

(Rudlin, 2019)

Citing a Website Using Harvard Style

Although the term “Harvard Style” is frequently used, it does not refer to a manual of style such as “The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association” (short: APA) or “The Chicago Manual of Style”, which you can use for reference when checking how to cite a website in that particular style.

The term Harvard referencing is “another name for the author/date citation system, whereby the author and date is placed in parentheses, e.g. (Robbins 1987) to refer readers to the full bibliographic citations” (cf. Harvard Library 2018, Chernin 1988). Consequently, you can cite a website using APA citation style, which is an author/date system.

All Important Rules

Online sources and websites are increasingly used as your studies become more focused, e.g. in a cultural discourse. Therefore, it is crucial to know how to cite a website when you are using it as source for your thesis.

If you are citing a website, it has to be included in the reference list. This is not always easy, as in many cases internet sources do not have page numbers and cannot be assigned to an author or to their year of publication. If you are citing material from an institution´s website, e.g. a ministry, this institution is cited as the author (cf. Kruse 2010: 118).

What you have to bear in mind when citing a website is differentiatinge between “real” online sources and those that might also exist in print. Many academic journals for example are published online only; however, such journal articles are not regarded as website sources, as they could theoretically exist as print, too. Moreover, there is an issue number and the individual articles can be downloaded in PDF format. Only if the online version differs from the print version is advisable to include the URL and the date of last access (cf. Samac, Prenner & Schwetz 2009: 100).

You also have to be careful with using online sources as reference. They can function as a primary source but less as a secondary source.

It is recommended to make a copy of the website or take a screenshot (or even a printout, which can go into the appendix of the text) of the website you intend to cite. By doing so, you can ensure that you have cited the website correctly. This also means that your citation is accurate based on your last access of the website.

How-to-cite-a-website-author-info

Example from the website British Council: An article called “Can we learn a second language like we learned our first?” including information about the author and the date of publication.

how-to-cite-a-website-trust

Make sure to scroll down to the bottom of the page: This is where you will find the site´s copyright and legal information, which also helps you evaluate whether the website is a reliable source or not (terms of use, name of the operator, regular updates, etc.). If there is no author, this is where you can find the name of the operator.

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In a Nutshell

  • Citing a website entails an entry in the reference list ; it must be treated just as any other type of source.
  • Citing websites as secondary source should be the exception rather than the rule; it is recommended that you mainly quote sources in print.
  • When citing a website, it is mandatory to include the date when you last accessed the website, because contents on websites can easily be changed or deleted.
  • Make sure the information provided by the website you are citing is reliable , and only cite quotable websites in your bachelor’s or master’s thesis.
  • The main components of website citations are: Author, title, domain, URL, date of last access, and date of publication.
  • If there is no author, you can include the operator of the website and the name of the domain instead.

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Computer Science > Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Title: emo: emote portrait alive -- generating expressive portrait videos with audio2video diffusion model under weak conditions.

Abstract: In this work, we tackle the challenge of enhancing the realism and expressiveness in talking head video generation by focusing on the dynamic and nuanced relationship between audio cues and facial movements. We identify the limitations of traditional techniques that often fail to capture the full spectrum of human expressions and the uniqueness of individual facial styles. To address these issues, we propose EMO, a novel framework that utilizes a direct audio-to-video synthesis approach, bypassing the need for intermediate 3D models or facial landmarks. Our method ensures seamless frame transitions and consistent identity preservation throughout the video, resulting in highly expressive and lifelike animations. Experimental results demonsrate that EMO is able to produce not only convincing speaking videos but also singing videos in various styles, significantly outperforming existing state-of-the-art methodologies in terms of expressiveness and realism.

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This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Note: We have chosen to include the date of access for the online sources below. The latest MLA guidelines specify that this is optional, but strongly recommended for sources whose date of publication is unavailable.

Note also: The citation for  An Inconvenient Truth  below assumes the film has been cited by its title in the text. If it had been cited by the name of its director, the citation would need to begin with Guggenheim's surname. MLA guidelines specify that both styles are acceptable (see, e.g., this  "Ask the MLA" page ).

Works Cited

Dean, Cornelia. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet." The New York Times , 22 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/05/22/science/earth/22ander.html?_r=0. Accessed 29 May 2019.

Ebert, Roger. Review of  An Inconvenient Truth , directed by Davis Guggenheim.  Ebert Digital LLC , 1 June 2006, www.rogerebert.com/reviews/an-inconvenient-truth-2006. Accessed 15 June 2019.

Gowdy, John. "Avoiding Self-Organized Extinction: Toward a Co-Evolutionary Economics of Sustainability." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, vol. 14, no. 1, 2007, pp. 27-36.

Harris, Rob, and Andrew C. Revkin. “Clinton on Climate Change.”  The New York Times , 17 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/1194817109438/clinton-on-climate-change.html. Accessed 29 July 2016.

An Inconvenient Truth . Directed by Davis Guggenheim, Paramount, 2006.

Leroux, Marcel. Global Warming: Myth or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology . Springer, 2005.

Milken, Michael, et al. "On Global Warming and Financial Imbalances." New Perspectives Quarterly , vol. 23, no. 4, 2006, p. 63.

Nordhaus, William D. "After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming." American Economic Review , vol. 96, no. 2, 2006, pp. 31-34.

---. "Global Warming Economics." Science, vol. 294, no. 5545, 9 Nov. 2001, pp. 1283-84, DOI: 10.1126/science.1065007.

Regas, Diane. “Three Key Energy Policies That Can Help Us Turn the Corner on Climate.” Environmental Defense Fund , 1 June 2016, www.edf.org/blog/2016/06/01/3-key-energy-policies-can-help-us-turn-corner-climate. Accessed 19 July 2016.

Revkin, Andrew C. “Clinton on Climate Change.” The New York Times , 17 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/1194817109438/clinton-on-climate-change.html. Accessed 29 July 2016.

Shulte, Bret. "Putting a Price on Pollution." US News & World Report , vol. 142, no. 17, 14 May 2007, p. 37. Ebsco, Access no: 24984616.

Uzawa, Hirofumi. Economic Theory and Global Warming . Cambridge UP, 2003.

This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue:

Published on 8.3.2024 in Vol 26 (2024)

Willingness to Use Digital Health Screening and Tracking Tools for Public Health in Sexual Minority Populations in a National Probability Sample: Quantitative Intersectional Analysis

Authors of this article:

Author Orcid Image

Original Paper

  • Wilson Vincent, MPH, PhD  

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Corresponding Author:

Wilson Vincent, MPH, PhD

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Temple University

1701 N 13th St

Philadelphia, PA, 19122

United States

Phone: 1 404 200 0203

Email: [email protected]

Background: Little is known about sexual minority adults’ willingness to use digital health tools, such as pandemic-related tools for screening and tracking, outside of HIV prevention and intervention efforts for sexual minority men, specifically. Additionally, given the current cultural climate in the United States, heterosexual and sexual minority adults may differ in their willingness to use digital health tools, and there may be within-group differences among sexual minority adults.

Objective: This study compared sexual minority and heterosexual adults’ willingness to use COVID-19–related digital health tools for public health screening and tracking and tested whether sexual minority adults differed from each other by age group, gender, and race or ethnicity.

Methods: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional, national probability survey (n=2047) implemented from May 30 to June 8, 2020, in the United States during the height of the public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Using latent-variable modeling, heterosexual and sexual minority adults were tested for differences in their willingness to use digital health tools for public health screening and tracking. Among sexual minority adults, specifically, associations with age, gender, and race or ethnicity were assessed.

Results: On average, sexual minority adults showed greater willingness to use digital health tools for screening and tracking than heterosexual adults (latent factor mean difference 0.46, 95% CI 0.15-0.77). Among sexual minority adults, there were no differences by age group, gender, or race or ethnicity. However, African American ( b =0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.62), Hispanic or Latino ( b =0.36, 95% CI 0.18-0.55), and other racial or ethnic minority ( b =0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.77) heterosexual adults showed greater willingness to use digital health tools for screening and tracking than White heterosexual adults.

Conclusions: In the United States, sexual minority adults were more willing to use digital health tools for screening and tracking than heterosexual adults. Sexual minority adults did not differ from each other by age, gender, or race or ethnicity in terms of their willingness to use these digital health tools, so no sexual orientation-based or intersectional disparities were identified. Furthermore, White heterosexual adults were less willing to use these tools than racial or ethnic minority heterosexual adults. Findings support the use of digital health tools with sexual minority adults, which could be important for other public health-related concerns (eg, the recent example of mpox). Additional studies are needed regarding the decision-making process of White heterosexual adults regarding the use of digital health tools to address public health crises, including pandemics or outbreaks that disproportionately affect minoritized populations.

Introduction

Despite the economic, health, and mortality impacts of COVID-19 on the population as a whole, there has been great variability in the public’s willingness to participate in public health efforts to address the pandemic, including wearing masks and getting vaccinated [ 1 , 2 ]. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had an especially devastating impact on specific groups in the United States, with disproportionate mortality affecting older adults, men, and African American, and Hispanic American individuals [ 3 - 5 ]. Studies have examined the willingness to engage in preventive behaviors of American adults by age, gender, and race or ethnicity to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic, including the use of digital health tools for screening and tracking [ 6 - 11 ]. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on sexual minority populations (ie, people who identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or other nonheterosexual sexual orientation identities) [ 12 - 14 ], less is known about sexual minority populations’ preventive responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. In the current climate of increased medical mistrust, the corresponding unwillingness to follow public health recommendations often occurs along demographic lines [ 15 - 17 ].

Some public health efforts for screening and tracking COVID-19, such as mobile health (mHealth), which includes the use of smartphones and related digital technologies to assess or address health, and other digital health tools (eg, patient portals and web-based patient questionnaires), have previously proven effective, acceptable, and feasible for HIV prevention for sexual minority men [ 18 - 21 ]. Generally, research shows that digital technologies such as mHealth applications improve the feasibility of delivering health care to sexual minority patients [ 22 ]. Additionally, studies indicate that tracking mental and physical health-related information through mHealth applications was associated with better mental health status for sexual minority people to a greater extent during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the pandemic [ 23 ]. Despite the potential for significant benefits, research has yet to examine sexual minority populations’ willingness to use mHealth tools for COVID-19.

For COVID-19, mobile apps created specifically in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have been the most frequently used type of mHealth tool [ 24 ]. Such mHealth tools aid in the screening, monitoring, and treatment of COVID-19 [ 24 ]. These mHealth-based approaches have had the advantage of easing the burden of in-person activities on COVID-19 testing and public health infrastructure (eg, avoiding supply chain issues, limiting the possibility of viral exposure) [ 18 , 25 ]. Previous research is mixed on whether there are no demographic differences by age, gender, or race or ethnicity in willingness to use digital health tools for COVID-19 screening and tracking. Although some studies showed no differences [ 26 - 28 ], others found evidence of greater willingness or support among younger adults, women, and racial and ethnic minority people [ 29 - 31 ]. However, these studies did not examine sexual orientation diversity. Heterosexual and sexual minority adults in the United States may differ in their willingness to participate in pandemic-related mHealth approaches, and these differences may vary based on other demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and race or ethnicity.

In addition to potential differences between heterosexual and sexual orientation–diverse populations, there may be notable differences among sexual minority populations. For example, the intersectionality theory asserts that seemingly independent yet intersecting social identities along social hierarchies based on dimensions such as race or ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation jointly shape human experiences [ 32 - 35 ]. The intersectionality framework suggests that sexual minority people’s multiple intersecting identities must be considered simultaneously (eg, sexual minority people who are also African American), rather than treating each identity as a mutually exclusive category [ 36 , 37 ]. A recent review [ 38 ] and commentaries [ 39 , 40 ] have emphasized the urgent need to use intersectionality theory in the conceptualization and methodology of examining digital health disparities.

Although research has yet to explore sexual minority people’s willingness to use mHealth tools for COVID-19 based on their intersecting identities, such as age, gender, or race or ethnicity, the sexual minority health and HIV literatures illustrate how minoritized identities that intersect with sexual orientation–minoritized identities change the social position of individuals in ways that increase their risk of oppression and resulting adverse health outcomes. For example, Black sexual minority men experience both sexual orientation– and race-based stigma, and they experience more race- or ethnicity-based stigma in gay spaces than other groups [ 41 , 42 ]. Also, although both Black and White sexual minority men experience stereotypes about their sexual behaviors, assumptions may be more extreme for Black sexual minority men given the added layer of stereotypes about Black male sexuality [ 43 , 44 ]. The confluence of racism and antigay attitudes contributes to the increased risk of HIV for Black sexual minority men, including through social marginalization within communities of sexual minority men and late detection of HIV by medical and public health establishments, despite these men having no greater frequency or extent of sexual risk behavior to explain elevated HIV risk [ 42 , 45 , 46 ]. Additionally, Black sexual minority men may not benefit from or see the usefulness of mHealth tools for HIV prevention given that these tools may inadvertently stigmatize them through their “targeted” sexual health messages [ 47 ], or the tools may be viewed as a subpar offering in place of clinicians and public health professions “doing their jobs” [ 48 ]. Thus, although mHealth apps for HIV prevention have been found to be acceptable and feasible for implementation for sexual minority men in general [ 18 - 21 ], results may vary depending on intersecting racial, ethnic, or other identities.

This study examined the extent to which heterosexual adults and sexual minority adults differed in their willingness to participate in public health digital screening and tracking efforts to address the COVID-19 pandemic in a nationally representative sample of adults living in the United States. Also, for sexual minority participants, the author assessed differences within sexual minority populations in mean levels of willingness for COVID-19–related digital screening and tracking based on age group, gender, and race or ethnicity. Thus, the focus was on whether a sexual orientation–based disparity adversely affected sexual minority adults’ willingness to use digital health tools for screening and tracking and whether there were also intersectional disparities based on age, gender, and racial or ethnic categories.

This study was conducted and reported in accordance with the “Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology” (STROBE) guidelines [ 49 , 50 ]. Specific study methods are provided in subsequent sections.

The COVID Impact Survey (CIS) is a national probability survey of US households designed to provide estimates for preventative behaviors and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; the data are publicly available [ 51 ]. The author used data from the last of 3 waves of cross-sectional data collection in the CIS, which occurred from May 30 to June 8, 2020 (n=2047). All 3 waves occurred between April 20 and June 8, 2020. These data were collected using the AmeriSpeak Panel, a probability-based panel distributed by NORC (formerly the National Opinion Research Center) at the University of Chicago.

US households were sampled with a known, nonzero probability of selection based on the NORC National Sample Frame, which was extracted from the US Postal Service Delivery Sequence File. Households were contacted by US mail, email, telephone, and field interviewers. The data are representative of noninstitutionalized adults who reside in the United States when weighted using sampling weights provider by the CIS. The CIS was funded by the Data Foundation. The NORC Institutional Review Board approved the CIS protocol to protect human participants (FWA00000142).

Willingness for Public Health Digital Screening and Tracking for COVID-19

Participants responded to questions asking about their likelihood of COVID-19–related testing (ie, “Testing you for COVID-19 infection using a Q-tip to swab your cheek or nose” and “Testing you for immunity or resistance to COVID-19 by drawing a small amount of blood”) and digital screening and tracking (eg, “Installing an app on your phone that asks you questions about your own symptoms and provides recommendations about COVID-19” and “Installing an app on your phone that tracks your location and sends push notifications if you might have been exposed to COVID-19”). Response options ranged from (1) “extremely likely” to (5) “not at all likely.” Items were reverse-coded such that higher scores reflected a greater perceived likelihood for screening and tracking. Participants had the option to respond with (88) “Already done this,” and these cases were excluded using listwise deletion.

In a sample that included mostly heterosexual participants from Wave 2 of the CIS (manuscript under review), the measure showed construct validity in its positive correlations with participants having engaged in other protective behaviors to prevent COVID-19 infection (eg, “worn a face mask” and “avoided public or crowded places”). Additionally, participants who engaged in more frequent digital communications with friends and family before the public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States in March 2020 scored higher in willingness to use pandemic-related mHealth tools than participants who used digital communications with friends and family less frequently. The measure also showed measurement invariance across age groups, genders, and categories of race or ethnicity based on Wave 3. Based on Wave 1 of the CIS, the measure has demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach α=.90).

Demographic Characteristics

Participants self-reported their sexual orientation identity (ie, gay, lesbian, or bisexual, straight, something else, and I don’t know). Sexual orientation identity was dichotomized to reflect heterosexual status and nonheterosexual sexual-minority status, respectively. The following additional demographic characteristics were assessed for measurement invariance: age, gender, and race or ethnicity. Additionally, participants reported their current age, which the CIS categorized (ie, 18-24 years, 25-34 years, 45-54 years, 55-64 years, 65-74 years, and ≥75 years) to help anonymize the data set; gender (female coded 1, male coded 0); and self-identified race or ethnicity (eg, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, White, multiple other races and ethnicities, such as Asian, Indian, and Native Hawaiian). Transgender and nonbinary identities were not options on the CIS.

Data Analysis Plan

This study tested the extent to which heterosexual and sexual minority adults differed in their willingness to use digital health tools for public health screening and tracking, a latent variable, and whether sexual minority adults’ willingness to use these COVID-19–related digital health tools was associated with age, gender, and race or ethnicity. Measurement invariance (ie, whether the measure means and assesses the same thing across groups) was tested across heterosexual and sexual minority adults.

Descriptive statistics and Cronbach α were computed using Stata (version 16; StataCorp) [ 52 ], and coefficient ω and all analyses of associations and latent variables were conducted using M plus (version 8; Muthén & Muthén) [ 53 ]. Weighted least squares estimation with Delta parameterization was used to estimate model parameters [ 53 ]. This estimation method uses a diagonal weight matrix with SEs and mean- and variance-adjusted chi-square test statistics that rely on a full weight matrix (ie, ESTIMATOR=WLSMV in M plus ) [ 53 ]. It is particularly appropriate for ordinal and nominal data [ 53 ]. Model fit was assessed with several fit indices based on any 2 of the following 3 criteria: a root-mean-square standard error of approximation (RMSEA) value of 0.06, a comparative fit index (CFI) value of at least 0.95, and a standardized root-mean-square residual (SRMR) criterion of 0.08 or less [ 54 , 55 ].

The author tested the extent to which the 5-item measure was invariant across the 2 sexual orientation categories. The 3 levels of measurement invariance—configural, metric, and scalar—were tested to determine if the 5-item measure was invariant across sexual-orientation categories. For ordinal variables and weighted least squares estimation methods with Delta parameterization, configural invariance (ie, pattern invariance), the least strict form of invariance, shows that each group has the same indicators loading onto the same factors in the same direction (ie, positive versus negative). To model configural invariance: (1) factor loadings are free to vary across groups, (2) thresholds are free to vary across groups, (3) scale factors are fixed to 1 in all groups, (4) factor means are fixed to 0 for all groups, and (5) factor variances are free to vary across groups [ 53 ]. Metric invariance (ie, weak invariance) indicates the invariance of factor loadings across groups, wherein (1) factor loadings are constrained to be equal across groups, (2) the first threshold of each item is constrained to be equal across groups, (3) the second threshold of the item that sets the metric of the factor is constrained to be equal across groups, (4) scale factors are fixed to 1 in 1 group and free to vary in the other groups, (5) factor means a Muthén & Muthénre fixed to 0 in 1 group and free to vary in the other groups, and (6) factor variances remain free to vary across groups [ 53 ]. Scalar invariance (ie, strong invariance) indicates equivalence of item intercepts or thresholds, in the case of categorical or ordinal variables, across groups and is the minimum needed to proceed with using a measure to test for differences in latent factor means between groups [ 56 , 57 ]. Scalar invariance is the same as metric invariance, except that thresholds are constrained to be equal across groups [ 53 ].

To compare invariance models, the author used a difference in CFI (ΔCFI) equal to or greater than 0.01 to indicate noninvariance [ 56 ]. Thus, a lack of worsened model fit with increased constraints indicates measurement invariance. Although scaled chi-square difference tests scaled for the weighted least squares estimator were conducted, this test may detect small discrepancies in ways that are not practically or theoretically meaningful in sample sizes greater than 200 [ 56 - 58 ].

Upon determining measurement invariance, the latent factor mean difference between heterosexual adults and sexual minority adults in the underlying factor of willingness to use digital health tools for public health screening and tracking was tested. Specifically, the latent variable for willingness to use digital health tools was standardized such that its mean was fixed to 0 and SD set to 1. The factor mean remained 0 for the reference group, heterosexual individuals, but the factor mean was freely estimated for the comparison group, sexual minority individuals. Thus, the resulting mean for sexual minority individuals reflected the difference in the mean from the reference group on a standardized metric, or in SD units. To identify correlates of willingness to use digital health tools for public health screening and tracking among sexual minority populations, specifically, willingness to use digital health tools was regressed on sexual minority adults’ age group, gender, and race or ethnicity, respectively.

Within an intersectionality-informed analytic framework, as described by Jackson et al [ 59 ], we can use additive measures of interaction to test for joint, referent, or excess intersectional disparities. Using the present analyses as a guiding example, the outcome variable would be recoded such that higher scores reflect a more adverse or disparity-oriented outcome (ie, less willingness to use COVID-19 screening and tracking tools). The predictor, gender (women coded 1), and the moderator, sexual orientation identity (sexual minority identity coded 1), would be coded such that the reference category (coded 0) is the nonminoritized group in this instance (ie, men and heterosexual adults) and the active category (coded 1) is the minoritized group (ie, women and sexual minority adults). Thus, the code of 1 reflects an adverse social position. For gender and sexual orientation, the original equation in the primary analyses before recoding and not including other covariates would be:

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Given that the outcome should reflect a negative outcome to identify a disparity, the analyses would be repeated with the outcome variable recoded to reflect an unwillingness to use digital health tools rather than a willingness to use these tools. For gender and sexual orientation, the equation after recoding and not including other covariates would then be:

examples of citing a website in a research paper

The joint disparity compares outcomes from the cell or group at the intersection of 2 minoritized identities, in this case, sexual minority women, to the group at the intersection of the 2 corresponding nonminoritized identities, in this instance, heterosexual men. In our example, b 1 + b 2 + b 3 equals the joint disparity in unwillingness to use COVID-19 screening and tracking tools comparing sexual minority women to heterosexual men. Referent disparities are those that affect only 1 minoritized population or identity, in this case, women compared with men among heterosexual adults or heterosexual adults compared with sexual minority adults among men. It describes the disparity based on gender as a proxy for sexism or sexual minority identity as a proxy for heterosexism or homonegativity, but not both. Specifically, b 1 equals the referent gender disparity in unwillingness to use COVID-19 digital screening among heterosexual adults, and b 2 equals the referent sexual minority disparity among men. Finally, the excess intersectional disparity focuses on the intersection of minoritized identities and describes the extent to which the joint disparity exceeds the 2 individual referent disparities. Suppose it is greater than 0, or statistically significant. In that case, the strength of the association indicates the disparity at the intersection of minoritized gender and sexual orientation, that is, women who are also sexual minority adults, and b 3 equals this excess intersectional disparity. A more detailed explanation can be found in Jackson et al [ 59 ] and VanderWeele and Tchetgen Tchetgen [ 60 ].

Disparities are indicated if the regression coefficients are positive, reflecting direct associations (ie, disadvantages for the minoritized groups) as opposed to inverse associations (ie, advantages for the more minoritized group). An advantage on an outcome for a relatively disadvantaged group that otherwise disproportionately and systematically experiences worse health outcomes and greater health risks would not meet established definitions of a disparity [ 61 , 62 ].

Given the complex nature of these survey data, analyses were adjusted using a sampling weight based on the inverse of the probability of selection in the sample. These analyses also accounted for stratification using pseudostrata based on census tracts. The data producer, NORC, used pseudostrata to preserve confidentiality. Per NORC, they did not include cluster variables because there were negligible cluster effects, and excluding these variables better preserved confidentiality (personal communication; Jennifer Benz, May 14, 2021). Descriptive statistics for the present sample accounted for weighting and stratification to reflect the complex survey design and national representativeness of the sample along key raking variables (ie, age, gender, and race or ethnicity). Latent factor mean differences (ΔM) and regression coefficients ( b ) are presented with their 95% CIs. Missing data, which were up to 3.7% missing across analyses, were handled using listwise deletion.

Ethical Considerations

Temple University’s institutional review board determined that the present analyses, which used deidentified publicly available data, did not require institutional approval for human participants research (contact the corresponding author for documentation).

Sample Characteristics

Of the total sample of 1928 adults, 161 were sexual minority individuals. Other sample characteristics are listed in Tables 1 and 2 . The sample size was reduced from 2047 due to missing data on sexual orientation (6.2%).

a Not available.

Psychometric Properties of Measure of Willingness to Use Digital Health Tools for COVID-19–Related Screening and Tracking

The measure of willingness to use digital health tools for COVID-19–related screening and tracking showed internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach α=.89 and coefficient ω=0.93). Additionally, as shown in Table 3 , the measure was invariant by sexual orientation. Configural invariance was indicated by all factor loadings being significant and in the expected direction for each group. The configural model had no global fit statistics, as it was a fully saturated model. Next, the author tested a metric invariance model with factor loadings constrained to be equal across groups, and metric invariance was evident (ΔCFI<0.01; Δ χ 2 2 =2.30; P =.32). Thus, the metric model had an equivalent model fit with the configural invariance model; the nonsaturated metric model fit the data, per the RMSEA, CFI, and SRMR ( Table 3 ). Finally, the author tested a scalar invariance model, and scalar invariance was shown (ΔCFI<0.01; Δ χ 2 8 =6.44; P =.60).

a RMSEA: root-mean-square standard error of approximation.

b CFI: comparative fit index.

c SRMR: standardized root-mean-square residual.

Mean Difference by Sexual Orientation on Willingness to Use Digital Health Tools for COVID-19–Related Screening and Tracking

Given scalar invariance, factor means for willingness to use COVID-19–related digital screening and tracking tools differed between heterosexual and sexual minority adults. Specifically, willingness to use digital health tools was nearly half an SD greater for sexual minority adults than for heterosexual adults (ΔM=0.46, 95% CI 0.15-0.77).

Associations Between Demographic Characteristics and Willingness to Use Digital Health Tools for COVID-19–Related Screening and Tracking Among Sexual Minority Adults

Within the population of sexual minority adults, no differences were detected by age group, gender, or race or ethnicity in their willingness to use digital health tools for COVID-19–related screening and tracking. Specifically, as detailed in Table 4 , for each increase in age by group, there was no change in willingness to use digital health tools. Also, men and women did not differ in their willingness to use digital health tools. Finally, African American individuals, Hispanic or Latino individuals, and people of other races or ethnicities did not differ from White individuals (the reference group) in their willingness to use digital health tools.

a b =unstandardized regression coefficient.

b R 2 =coefficient of determination.

c RMSEA: root-mean-square standard error of approximation.

d CFI: comparative fit index.

e SRMR: standardized root-mean-square residual.

f Age group is an ordinal variable with levels as follows: (1) 18-24 years, (2) 25-34 years, (3) 35-44 years, (4) 45-54 years, (5) 55-64 years, (6) 65-74 years, and (7) ≥75 years.

Additional models were tested for interactions of sexual minority status as a moderator with the other demographic characteristics as respective predictors in their associations with willingness to use digital health tools for screening and tracking. None of the interaction terms reached statistical significance in the models ( Table 5 ). However, with the inclusion of the interaction terms, the main effects of being African American, Hispanic or Latino, and another racial or ethnic identity reached statistical significance. Specifically, among heterosexual adults, being Black or African American was associated with 41% of an SD greater willingness to use digital health screening and tracking tools ( b =0.41, CI 0.19-0.62), being Hispanic or Latino was associated with 36% of an SD greater willingness to use these tools ( b =0.36, CI 0.18-0.55), and being of another racial or ethnic minority group was associated with 54% of an SD greater willingness to use these tools ( b =0.54, CI 0.31-0.77).

The models were re-run with the outcome variable recoded to identify referent, excess intersectional, and joint disparities. Given the direction of the significant associations for each racial or ethnic minority group (Black or African American: b =–0.41, CI –0.62 to –0.19; Hispanic or Latino: b =–0.36, CI –0.55 to –0.18; and other racial or ethnic minority group: b =–0.54, CI –0.77 to –0.31), referent racial or ethnic or sexual orientation-based disparities were not detected. Also, no excess intersectional disparity was detected (Black or African American × sexual minority: b =–0.35, CI –0.35 to 1.05; Hispanic or Latino × sexual minority: b =0.21, CI –0.35 to 0.77; and other racial or ethnic minority group × sexual minority: b =–0.75, CI –0.07 to 1.57). Overall, no joint disparity was identified.

Studies rarely examine the willingness of sexual minority populations to use mHealth and related digital health tools in the context of pandemic-related or non-HIV prevention. However, such mHealth tools have been acceptable and effective when used to fight the HIV epidemic for sexual minority men, specifically [ 18 - 21 ]. This study examined the use of digital health tools for screening and tracking for the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on a broader, more diverse range of the sexual minority population in the United States. In particular, the study used the conceptual [ 32 , 33 ] and methodological [ 34 , 35 , 39 ] frameworks of intersectionality theory to determine the presence of disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority adults across various intersections of identity (ie, age, gender, and race or ethnicity) in their willingness to use digital health tools for screening and tracking.

Findings indicated that sexual minority adults were significantly more willing to use digital health tools for screening and tracking than heterosexual adults in the United States. The greater willingness to use digital health tools among sexual minority adults compared with heterosexual adults might be explained partly by the familiarity of many sexual minority individuals with the use of mHealth and other digital health methods for outreach and other public health efforts, particularly sexual minority men in the context of HIV prevention [ 18 - 21 ].

Despite the difference between heterosexual adults and sexual minority adults in this study, there were no within-group demographic differences among sexual minority adults in their willingness to use digital health tools for screening and tracking. These findings from the United States are consistent with findings from a large survey of registered National Health Service users in the United Kingdom, in which there were no differences by age or gender in terms of willingness to participate in contact tracing through a mobile phone app in the adult population as a whole [ 63 ]. Interestingly, although sexual minority men are often more likely to be the focus of mHealth interventions for HIV [ 20 , 21 ], they were no more likely than sexual minority women to express a willingness to use digital health tools for screening and tracking in this study.

Based on the established definitions of a disparity [ 61 , 62 ] and the analytic framework of intersectionality theory [ 32 , 33 , 59 ], this study detected no referent disparity based on sexual orientation and no joint or excess joint disparity at the intersection of sexual orientation identity and other demographic characteristics. A previous study that used the same publicly available data without testing for sexual minority status as a predictor or moderator found no significant associations that would indicate an age-related, gender, or racial or ethnic disparity [ 28 ]. In contrast to other studies, which showed mixed findings for race or ethnicity and other demographics as a predictor without considering sexual minority status [ 26 , 27 , 29 - 31 ], the significant main effects of race or ethnicity in this study occurred among heterosexual adults in the presence of interactions of race or ethnicity with sexual minority status.

The differences between racial or ethnic minority adults and White adults may be explained, in part, by political ideology affecting attitudes toward the public health establishment during COVID-19. For example, a study found that moderate- and conservative-leaning respondents showed less support for using COVID-19–related digital health tools than liberal-leaning respondents in the same model in which racial and ethnic minorities showed greater support for using COVID-19–related digital health tools than White Americans or non-Hispanic Americans [ 31 ]. Additionally, studies indicate that some White Americans may be increasingly voting conservative [ 64 - 66 ]. To the extent that these political ideologies are also tied to public health mistrust, there may be noteworthy consequences. For example, there is evidence of excess deaths for conservative-voting adults compared with less conservative-voting adults in Florida and Ohio during the COVID-19 pandemic [ 67 ]. The CIS did not include questions regarding political beliefs. As such, this study did not test whether demographic factors interacted with political ideology, which would have helped to determine whether political ideology mattered within each racial or ethnic category. Additional studies are needed to examine the decision-making process of White heterosexual adults regarding their use of digital health tools for screening and tracking during public health emergencies.

The present psychometric evaluation indicated that the COVID-19–related psychological distress measure was assessing the same construct in heterosexual participants and sexual minority participants. A previous study has already validated the psychometric properties of the present items (eg, construct validity and internal consistency) and demonstrated measurement invariance across age groups, genders, and races and ethnicities [ 28 ]. Other studies on willingness to use digital health tools have typically used a single item [ 63 ] or several items treated as separate measures [ 68 , 69 ] rather than a single, validated scale. In terms of scales that use any variation on willingness (eg, intentions and perceived usefulness), 1 study used a 15-item measure [ 70 ] and another study used 2 measures of 32 items each [ 71 ]; these are notably longer than the 3-item measure of this study. Some studies have used items with binary yes-or-no responses [ 63 , 68 , 69 ], which may not capture sufficient gradation in response if the goal is to understand the degree of willingness.

Strengths and Limitations

This study has multiple strengths. For example, the study used a national probability sample to represent the population of noninstitutionalized adults in the United States. Additionally, the study used innovative methods to conceptualize and quantitatively identify disparities within the framework of intersectionality theory. In addition, the study established measurement invariance between heterosexual and sexual orientation–diverse adults for a measure of willingness to use a digital health screening and tracking tool that was previously validated by age, gender, and race or ethnicity. The measure can be adapted for screening and tracking in response to future public health events.

Additionally, several limitations must be noted. Specifically, the cross-sectional study design precludes definitive causal conclusions. In addition, the author did not attempt to draw conclusions about the temporal associations among the variables. Moreover, the sample was imbalanced with respect to the proportion of sexual minority adults compared with heterosexual adults in the sample; the number of sexual minority adults was much smaller. Limitations also include a lack of questions measuring sexual and gender identity that follow best practice [ 72 ], including the lack of transgender-inclusive gender questions and the lack of sexual orientation measures that distinguish different sexual orientation groups beyond sexual minority status by gender (ie, sexual minority men, including gay and bisexual men, and women, including lesbians and bisexual women, which were accounted for in this study). As a result, the analyses were not more nuanced regarding gender and sexual orientation identity.

Implications

This study has several research and applied implications. For instance, additional research can oversample sexual minority adults to provide balanced samples for comparisons between heterosexual and sexual minority adults. Additionally, studies can examine sexual minority individuals’ willingness to use digital health tools for other non-COVID-19–related health issues beyond HIV, including specific mental health diagnoses (eg, depression and substance use) and chronic illnesses (eg, diabetes and hypertension). These studies should consider intersections of identities among sexual minority people, such as underrepresented racial and ethnic minority people among sexual minority populations. Recently, monkey pox has emerged among sexual minority men, in particular [ 73 ], and digital health approaches may be useful in such circumstances. Additionally, studies are needed to further examine the decision-making process of White heterosexual adults regarding their use of digital health tools in response to public health emergencies.

Regarding applied implications, public health professionals and clinicians should consider screening sexual minority adults for their willingness to use digital health tools as they continue to use telehealth during COVID-19 and post–COVID-19 times. Such screening is particularly needed for sexual minority adults who contend with intersecting systems of oppression and identities and, thus, have elevated levels of medical mistrust (eg, underrepresented ethnic and sexual minority people) [ 15 , 17 , 74 ]. Policy changes and other structural interventions are needed to provide access to digital health technologies in cases in which willingness to use these technologies does not appear to be the issue. In this study, racial and ethnic minority heterosexual adults seemed particularly willing to use these technologies.

Conclusions

This study is responsive to recent calls in the literature to address the pronounced dearth of intersectionality theory-informed research investigating disparities related to digital health [ 38 - 40 ]. As we strive to narrow the digital divide, or the disparities in technology and internet access and use [ 75 - 77 ], we must understand disparities in willingness to use digital technologies for health-related purposes even when these tools are available. This study detected no disparities based on sexual minority status or intersections of identity among sexual minority adults along age, gender, or race or ethnicity. As such, for sexual minority populations, including intersections that are at joint or compound risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes, the issue is not willingness to use digital health tools compared to heterosexual adults. Sexual minority populations require culturally responsive digital health approaches to address their needs, as opposed to motivational enhancement or other interventions to increase their willingness during public health events. The willingness of sexual minority adults across intersecting identities to use pandemic-related digital health tools, including mobile health apps, is noteworthy given the potential promise of digital health tools for other public health-related concerns, such as the recently ended mpox outbreak [ 78 , 79 ], which disproportionately affected sexual minority men [ 80 - 82 ], and obesity [ 83 , 84 ] and cardiovascular disease [ 85 , 86 ], which disproportionately affects sexual minority women [ 87 , 88 ]. Additionally, White heterosexual adults demonstrated a disproportionately low willingness to use digital health tools, and this may become an issue in the event that this population is adversely affected by a public health concern that can benefit from digital health technologies.

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank the NORC (formerly the National Opinion Research Center) at the University of Chicago. The data analyzed are freely available to the public through NORC at the University of Chicago. WV was supported by a National Institute of Mental Health grant (K23-MH111402).

Data Availability

The data sets analyzed during this study are available in the NORC at the University of Chicago repository [ 51 ].

Conflicts of Interest

None declared.

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Abbreviations

Edited by A Mavragani; submitted 20.03.23; peer-reviewed by A Asadzadeh, J Jabson Tree; comments to author 19.07.23; revised version received 29.11.23; accepted 20.12.23; published 08.03.24.

©Wilson Vincent. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (https://www.jmir.org), 08.03.2024.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on https://www.jmir.org/, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

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The Basics of In-Text Citation | APA & MLA Examples

Published on March 14, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on February 28, 2024.

An in-text citation is a short acknowledgement you include whenever you quote or take information from a source in academic writing. It points the reader to the source so they can see where you got your information.

In-text citations most commonly take the form of short parenthetical statements indicating the author and publication year of the source, as well as the page number if relevant.

We also offer a free citation generator and in-depth guides to the main citation styles.

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Table of contents

What are in-text citations for, when do you need an in-text citation, types of in-text citation, frequently asked questions about in-text citations.

The point of an in-text citation is to show your reader where your information comes from. Including citations:

  • Avoids plagiarism by acknowledging the original author’s contribution
  • Allows readers to verify your claims and do follow-up research
  • Shows you are engaging with the literature of your field

Academic writing is seen as an ongoing conversation among scholars, both within and between fields of study. Showing exactly how your own research draws on and interacts with existing sources is essential to keeping this conversation going.

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An in-text citation should be included whenever you quote or paraphrase a source in your text.

Quoting means including the original author’s words directly in your text, usually introduced by a signal phrase . Quotes should always be cited (and indicated with quotation marks), and you should include a page number indicating where in the source the quote can be found.

Paraphrasing means putting information from a source into your own words. In-text citations are just as important here as with quotes, to avoid the impression you’re taking credit for someone else’s ideas. Include page numbers where possible, to show where the information can be found.

However, to avoid over-citation, bear in mind that some information is considered common knowledge and doesn’t need to be cited. For example, you don’t need a citation to prove that Paris is the capital city of France, and including one would be distracting.

Different types of in-text citation are used in different citation styles . They always direct the reader to a reference list giving more complete information on each source.

Author-date citations (used in APA , Harvard , and Chicago author-date ) include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and a page number when available. Author-page citations (used in MLA ) are the same except that the year is not included.

Both types are divided into parenthetical and narrative citations. In a parenthetical citation , the author’s name appears in parentheses along with the rest of the information. In a narrative citation , the author’s name appears as part of your sentence, not in parentheses.

Note: Footnote citations like those used in Chicago notes and bibliography are sometimes also referred to as in-text citations, but the citation itself appears in a note separate from the text.

An in-text citation is an acknowledgement you include in your text whenever you quote or paraphrase a source. It usually gives the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number of the relevant text. In-text citations allow the reader to look up the full source information in your reference list and see your sources for themselves.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.

  • APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
  • MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
  • Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
  • Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.

Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.

The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.

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Caulfield, J. (2024, February 28). The Basics of In-Text Citation | APA & MLA Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 8, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/in-text-citation-styles/

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Cite a Website

    Citing a website in MLA Style. An MLA Works Cited entry for a webpage lists the author's name, the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the site (in italics), the date of publication, and the URL. The in-text citation usually just lists the author's name. For a long page, you may specify a (shortened) section heading to ...

  2. How to Cite a Website in APA Style

    Revised on January 17, 2024. APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date. If you are citing an online version of a ...

  3. How to Cite a Website in APA, MLA and Chicago in Any Paper

    When it comes to citing online articles in APA, you need more than the URL. Depending on the website type, the information you need to find includes: Author, if one is listed. Date. Title of article. Web name. URL. Most of this information is found on the top or bottom of the website.

  4. Citation Examples

    Research paper Academic writing Starting the research process ... Citation Examples | Books, Articles, Websites & More. Published on April 9, 2021 by Jack Caulfield. Revised on January 17, 2024. The most common citation styles are APA and MLA. To cite a source in these styles, you need a brief in-text citation and a full reference.

  5. How to Cite a Website in APA

    This guide explains all of the important steps to referencing a website/web page in your APA research papers. The guidance below follows APA style, 7th edition. ... Type it out in its entirety and add a period at the end. Check out the various APA citation of web page examples at the bottom of the page to see group authors in action!

  6. Webpage on a Website References

    Provide the name of the news website in the source element of the reference. Link to the comment itself if possible. Otherwise, link to the webpage on which the comment appears. Either a full URL or a short URL is acceptable. 3. Webpage on a website with a government agency group author.

  7. 4 Ways to Cite a Website

    3. Type the title of the web page in sentence case. Type a space after the period that follows the date, then type the title of the web page, which will usually appear as a header at the top of the page. Use sentence case, capitalizing only the first word and any proper nouns. Place a period at the end of the title.

  8. How to Cite a Website in APA Format, with Examples

    Simply use this formula: (Author's last name, Year of publication) Using the example above, the in-line citation would read: (Kramer, 2021) If you're using the author's name in your text when writing a research paper, you don't need to repeat it in the citation—the year alone in parenthesis is acceptable.

  9. Reference examples

    More than 100 reference examples and their corresponding in-text citations are presented in the seventh edition Publication Manual.Examples of the most common works that writers cite are provided on this page; additional examples are available in the Publication Manual.. To find the reference example you need, first select a category (e.g., periodicals) and then choose the appropriate type of ...

  10. Citing Sources: Sample Reference List Citations

    Charts and Graphs. Since the APA manual does not give direct information for citing every type of source, including charts or graphs, they instruct you to follow the example that is most like the source you are trying to cite. Be sure to provide enough information so your readers can locate the source on their own.

  11. APA Website Citation (7th Edition) Guide

    The in-text citation in APA for a website consists of the author's surname and publication year. Following is the basic APA citation format for a website: Author's surname, first & middle initials, publishing date, article title, website name, and URL. Here is an example of how to cite a website in APA: Cherry, K. (2023, March 11).

  12. Citation Examples for APA, MLA, and Chicago Style Guides

    Chicago citation examples: Book. Citing a book in Chicago uses the author's name, book title, place of publication, publisher, and year of publication. You also include the edition, but only if it's relevant. The author's name is inverted, and the title uses title capitalization. Last Name, First Name.

  13. Citing a Website in APA

    Citing a website in APA. Once you've identified a credible website to use, create a citation and begin building your reference list. Citation Machine citing tools can help you create references for online news articles, government websites, blogs, and many other website! Keeping track of sources as you research and write can help you stay ...

  14. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  15. How to Cite a Website in MLA

    Revised on January 17, 2024. An MLA website citation includes the author's name, the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the website (in italics), the publication date, and the URL (without "https://"). If the author is unknown, start with the title of the page instead. If the publication date is unknown, or if the content ...

  16. How to Cite Sources

    The Chicago/Turabian style of citing sources is generally used when citing sources for humanities papers, and is best known for its requirement that writers place bibliographic citations at the bottom of a page (in Chicago-format footnotes) or at the end of a paper (endnotes). The Turabian and Chicago citation styles are almost identical, but ...

  17. How to Cite a Website| Examples

    Website citations are required every time information is referenced from a website for an academic essay, research paper, dissertation, article or book. Regardless of how insignificant or minimal the information is that you sourced from the website, a citation has to be made to avoid plagiarism.

  18. How to Cite Research Paper

    Research paper: In-text citation: Use superscript numbers to cite sources in the text, e.g., "Previous research has shown that^1,2,3…". Reference list citation: Format: Author (s). Title of paper. In: Editor (s). Title of the conference proceedings. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Page range.

  19. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper Author/Authors Rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors that apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.)

  20. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

    MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

  21. How to Cite Sources

    Example: Note citation (Chicago) ... At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays, research papers, and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises). Add a citation whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or ...

  22. [2402.17485] EMO: Emote Portrait Alive -- Generating Expressive

    In this work, we tackle the challenge of enhancing the realism and expressiveness in talking head video generation by focusing on the dynamic and nuanced relationship between audio cues and facial movements. We identify the limitations of traditional techniques that often fail to capture the full spectrum of human expressions and the uniqueness of individual facial styles. To address these ...

  23. MLA Sample Works Cited Page

    MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

  24. Journal of Medical Internet Research

    Background: Little is known about sexual minority adults' willingness to use digital health tools, such as pandemic-related tools for screening and tracking, outside of HIV prevention and intervention efforts for sexual minority men, specifically. Additionally, given the current cultural climate in the United States, heterosexual and sexual minority adults may differ in their willingness to ...

  25. The Basics of In-Text Citation

    Revised on August 23, 2022. An in-text citation is a short acknowledgement you include whenever you quote or take information from a source in academic writing. It points the reader to the source so they can see where you got your information. In-text citations most commonly take the form of short parenthetical statements indicating the author ...