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Springer is a participant of CrossCheck, a multi-publisher plagiarism detection initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. CrossCheck consists of two products: a database of scholarly publications (CrossCheck) and a web-based tool (iThenticate) to check an authored work against that database.

Various Springer journals use the service to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. Results returned by the software may be used as a criterion for the analysis of the manuscript by the editorial board and may eventually result in a rejection due to plagiarism, duplicate and/or redundant publication.

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Copyright Clearance Center's RightsLink® service makes it faster and easier to secure permission for the reuse of Springer Nature content.

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Public domain works are not protected by copyright and may be reproduced without permission, subject to proper acknowledgement. This includes works for which copyright has expired (for example, any US work published prior to 1923), works that are not copyrightable by law (for example, works prepared by US government employees as part of their official duties), and works expressly released into the public domain by their creators. (Permission would however be required to re-use the final formatted, edited, published version of a public domain journal article, for example, as this version is owned by the publisher.)

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From whom do I need permission?

Permission must be obtained from the rightsholder of the material. In most cases this will mean contacting the publisher of the material. The publisher typically has the exclusive right to grant the permission whether or not copyright is owned by the publisher. If the rightsholder requires that the credit line be in a specific format, this must be followed exactly, e.g.,:

Suitable acknowledgement to the source must be made, either as a footnote or in a reference list at the end of your publication, as follows:

"Reprinted from Publication title, Vol /edition number, Author(s), Title of article / title of chapter, Pages No., Copyright (Year), with permission from Elsevier [OR APPLICABLE SOCIETY COPYRIGHT OWNER]."

How do I obtain permission to use photographs or illustrations?

Photographs or illustrations of fine art objects (sculptures, paintings, etc.) are frequently subject to copyright, and permission may need to be obtained from the holder of the reproduction rights in the photograph (usually the photographer, the publisher, or the museum that owns the object). Permission may need to be obtained from both the rightsholder of the art object itself (if still protected by copyright) as well as the photographer of the art object.

The Artists Rights Society in the US and its sister societies outside the US, including DACS in the UK and VG Bild-Kunst in Germany, represent the intellectual property rights of many well-known artists such as Pablo Picasso, Georgia O’Keeffe, and Andy Warhol. For more information, please visit the website or the website of their umbrella organization,  CISAC opens in new tab/window .

Do I need to obtain permission to use material posted on a website such as Blogs/Google images/e-commerce websites?

Probably. Most material on the Internet is protected by copyright whether a copyright notice is displayed or not. Some material posted on websites may not be original to the website itself and permission will therefore need to be requested from the rightsholder of the original source, once the rightsholder can be identified. If the material is original to the website, permission should be obtained directly from the website which will own copyright to the content on their site, unless this in public domain.

What rights does Elsevier require when requesting permission?

When requesting permission to re-use material in your forthcoming Elsevier journal article or book chapter, you may be able to use our permission request form which asks that the rightsholder grant to Elsevier the following rights: this and all subsequent editions, revisions, versions, derivative works, translations, ancillaries, adaptations, supplementary materials, and custom editions; all languages; all formats and media now known or hereafter developed; worldwide distribution in perpetuity.

We often cannot include material where these rights have been restricted. In these cases you will need to obtain alternate material. Please use original, unpublished figures, tables, and other content, or at minimum content that is original to Elsevier and its imprints, whenever possible

View a list of Elsevier imprints opens in new tab/window .

How do I obtain permission from another publisher?

Permission to reproduce material form another publisher in an Elsevier product can typically be obtained via RightsLink automated permission-granting service, which can be located on the individual journal article or book chapter page on the publisher's website.

Where RightsLink or other Copyright Clearance Center services are not available, we provide a permission request form opens in new tab/window for Elsevier authors to use. Refer to this example for further instructions on how to complete the permission request form opens in new tab/window .

For more information on how to apply permission to another publisher, please see the below guided publisher reference videos.

Wiley opens in new tab/window

Royal Society of Chemistry opens in new tab/window

Springer opens in new tab/window

Oxford University Press opens in new tab/window

AIP publishing opens in new tab/window

American Chemical Society opens in new tab/window

American Physiological Society opens in new tab/window

Taylor & Francis opens in new tab/window

IEEE opens in new tab/window

IOP opens in new tab/window

What is RightsLink/CCC?

RightsLink is the Copyright Clearance Center's automated permission-granting service. It can often be the most convenient and efficient way to request permissions. Discover more information about using RightsLink opens in new tab/window .

For any further clarification, you can submit your query via our online form opens in new tab/window

What should I do if I am not able to locate the copyright owner?

If a rightsholder does not respond after multiple attempts to contact them or if the RH details are unavailable, it would be best to remove their material and replace it with alternate material to avoid further risk or delay in publications. However, you should keep records of all correspondence as proof of your attempts to obtain permission. It can never be assumed that a non-response authorizes you to use the material.

Can I obtain permission from a Reproduction Rights Organization (RRO)?

An RRO is a national organization licensed to handle certain types of permissions on behalf of publishers or other rights owners. RROs can provide you with permission in the form of a license to make copies of material in several formats such as printing, photocopying, scanning, digital copying, and electronic storage. Learn more about The International Federation of Reproduction Rights Organisations (IFRRO) opens in new tab/window .

If you want to make multiple photocopies of articles or chapters please contact the  Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) opens in new tab/window  or the  Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) opens in new tab/window  for a license subscription. RightsLink can also provide a license on an individual basis.

Is Elsevier an STM signatory publisher?

Yes, Elsevier is a signatory to the STM (Int’l Assoc. of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers) Permissions Guidelines opens in new tab/window . The Guidelines encourage the granting of permission by one STM signatory publisher to another to re-use limited amounts of material from published works in subsequent publications. Permission will be granted by one signatory publisher to another free of charge to:

Use up to three figures (including tables) from a journal article or book chapter, but: not more than five figures from a whole book or journal issue/edition; not more than six figures from an annual journal volume; not more than three figures from works published by a single publisher for an article; not more than three figures from works published by a single publisher for a book chapter; and in total not more than thirty figures from a single publisher for republication in a book, including a multi-volume book. Single text extracts of less than 400 words from a journal article or book chapter, but: not more than a total of 800 words from a whole book or journal issue/edition.

Permission automatically includes re-use for electronic versions of the work as well as for subsequent editions and translations, except as outlined on the STM website. When granting permissions, STM publishers will not request a complimentary copy of the new work except in limited circumstances. View the complete list of STM signatory publishers opens in new tab/window .

For any further clarifications, submit your query via our  online form opens in new tab/window

Do I need to request permission to re-use work from another STM publisher?

It depends. STM signatory publishers fall under 2 categories: STM Opt-Out (Notification Not Required) and STM Not Opt-Out (Notification Required). A formal permission is not required for the publishers who fall under STM Opt-Out category and a formal permission is required for the publishers who fall under STM Not Opt-Out category.

However, we need to track carefully how much total material we are re‐using from the borrowed‐from STM publisher (inclusive of both STM Opt-Out and Not Opt-Out publishers) to ensure that we do not exceed the STM limits—most notably, “no more than three figures from works published by a single publisher for a book chapter” and “in total not more than thirty figures from a single publisher for republication in a book.”

For more information on the STM gratis limit and guidelines, please refer:  https://www.stm-assoc.org/2022_01_27_STM_Permission_Guidelines_2022.pdf opens in new tab/window

For publishers who are under STM, please refer to the link:  https://www.stm-assoc.org/intellectual-property/permissions/permissions-guidelines/ opens in new tab/window

Do I need to request permission to text mine Elsevier content?

Academic researchers at subscribing institutions can text mine subscribed content on ScienceDirect for non-commercial purposes, via the ScienceDirect APIs. For more information, please see our  text and data mining policy .

Can I include/use my article in my thesis/dissertation?

Yes. Authors can include their articles in full or in part in a thesis or dissertation for non-commercial purposes.

Which uses of a work does Elsevier view as a form of 'prior publication'?

An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Elsevier does not view the following uses of a work as prior publication: publication in the form of an abstract; publication as an academic thesis; publication as an electronic preprint. Please note that Cell Press, The Lancet and some society-owned titles have different policies on prior publication. For further information go to:  Policies and Ethics for Journal Authors (Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication) .

How do I obtain permission to use Elsevier Journal material such as figures, tables or text excerpts, if the request falls within the STM permissions guidelines?

If the amount of material you are using falls with the limits set out in the  STM permissions guidelines opens in new tab/window  permission is automatically granted and you are not required to request permission in writing. Please ensure you acknowledge the original source of the Elsevier material.

How do I obtain permission to use Elsevier Journal material such as figures, tables or text excerpts, if the amount of material I wish to use does not fall within the free limits set out in the STM permissions guidelines?

Permission to reuse material from Elsevier journals can be obtained directly via RightsLink opens in new tab/window on a per-article basis.

If the article is available in ScienceDirect, RightsLink links are available on each article page by clicking on the title of the relevant article and following the “Get rights and content” link

If the article is not available on ScienceDirect, you can submit your request via  our online form .

How do I obtain permission to use Elsevier Book material such as figures, tables or text excerpts?

If the amount of material you are using falls within the limits set out in the STM permissions guidelines, permission is automatically granted, and you are not required to request permission in writing. Please ensure you acknowledge the original source of the Elsevier material.

If the material is available on ScienceDirect, permission to reuse Elsevier book content can be obtained directly via RightsLink per-chapter basis as outlines here. RightsLink links are available on each article page by clicking on the title of the relevant article.

How do I obtain permission to use Elsevier material that is NOT on ScienceDirect or Clinical Key?

If the amount of material you will be reusing falls within the limits set out in the 

STM permissions guidelines opens in new tab/window , permission is automatically granted. Please ensure you acknowledge the original source of the Elsevier material.

If the request does NOT fall within limits set out in the STM permissions guidelines, please submit the  permission request form reserved for requesting permission to use Elsevier material that is not available on Science Direct.

Can I use material from my Elsevier journal article within my thesis/dissertation?

As an Elsevier journal author, you have the right to Include the article in a thesis or dissertation (provided that this is not to be published commercially) whether in full or in part, subject to proper acknowledgment; see  the Copyright page  for more information. No written permission from Elsevier is necessary.

This right extends to the posting of your thesis to your university’s repository provided that if you include the published journal article, it is embedded in your thesis and not separately downloadable.

Can I modify a figure when I have received permission to use it?

Figures and illustrations taken from Elsevier publications, may be altered/adapted minimally to serve your work. Any other abbreviations, additions, deletions and/or any other alterations shall be made only with prior written authorization of Elsevier. ( Please visit the Permissions Support Center opens in new tab/window ). No modifications can be made to any Lancet figures/tables which must be reproduced in full. For figures taken from publications other than Elsevier's, please refer the publisher terms and agreements on modification of the images.

For any further clarifications, you can submit your query via our online form

Can I modify Lancet material?

No modifications should be made to Lancet material which must be reproduced in its original form as published in the Lancet journal.

How do I obtain copies of a book in a format suitable for a person with a disability?

Please complete our  Disability Form available here opens in new tab/window .

What is the National Institute of Health's (NIH) policy for depositing articles to PubMed Central?

NIH-funded authors and NIH employees are required to deposit to PubMed Central (PMC), or have submitted on their behalf, their Accepted Manuscript, to appear on PMC no later than 12 months after final publication.

As a service to our authors, where the author has identified themselves as being NIH funded or an NIH employee, Elsevier will deposit the accepted manuscript to PMC on behalf of the author, to be made publicly available after 12 months.

Read more about Elsevier and NIH

To confirm that deposit of your manuscript to PMC is in process, please  contact Elsevier Researcher Support opens in new tab/window .

How should I acknowledge Elsevier material?

Our preferred acknowledgement wording will be included in your permissions license:

Example: “This article/chapter was published in Publication title, Vol number, Author(s), Title of article, Page Nos, Copyright Elsevier (or appropriate Society name) (Year).”

How do I set up a RightsLink account?

Please create an individual account to request permissions. If you are facing issues with creation of account, please write to Copyrights Clearance Center [email protected] opens in new tab/window  for assistance.

Please find further information about RightsLink opens in new tab/window .

As an Elsevier book author can I post my chapter on a website?

Elsevier book authors and contributors have the right to post a summary of their contribution on their personal or institutional website.

How do I request permission to use NETTER images?

Netter image requests opens in new tab/window are handled by our Licensing group.

Can I post my Elsevier article to my Institutional Repository?

Under our sharing policy, Elsevier journal authors may post the preprint or accepted manuscript version of their article, but not the final published journal article, to their institutional repository. The article won’t be made public until after the embargo period.

You may include a link to the article as it appears on Elsevier’s ScienceDirect website via the DOI.

For more information on the various ways in which Elsevier journal authors may share their research, please  visit our Sharing policy page .

How can I share my Elsevier article (Scholarly Sharing)?

Under our  sharing policy , Elsevier journal authors retain the right to post the preprint  of their article anywhere at any time.

Authors can post the  accepted manuscript version  of their article to their personal website immediately, to their institutional repository and other non-commercial hosting platforms subject to the journal-specific embargo date. Please find a complete list of Elsevier journals and their embargo dates opens in new tab/window .

Authors retain the right to distribute copies (including through e-mail) to known research colleagues for their personal use (but not for Commercial Use).

Authors of newly-published articles will also receive a Share Link upon publication of their articles which provides free full-text access for 50 days and can be shared via email and social networks. Please find more information about Share Link .

Can I post my article on ArXiv?

Yes, you can post your preprint, which is your onw write up of your results and analysis, anywhere at any time.

If you have poster you preprint on ArXiv, which is a non-commercial preprint server, you can also immediately update this version with your accepted manuscript. In all cases, posted manuscripts should link back to the final published article on ScienceDirect and should have a non-commercial, non-derivative user license attached (CC BY-NC-ND).

Can I post my article on ResearchGate without violating copyright?

You are always able to share the preprint version, abstract or a link to your article. For authors who have published their article open access under commercial license (CC BY) you can also post your final article. We recognize the importance of sharing research and have a wider range of ways you can share your article throughout the research publishing process, including posting to your institutional repository. You can find our sharing guidelines here .

We suggest researchers check the list of organizations who endorser the STM "Voluntary principles for article sharing on scholarly collaboration networks" to check what publishers, commercial platforms and other organizations are working to facilitate sharing.

What is Elsevier's policy on using patient photographs?

Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where we wish to include case details or other personal information or images of patients or any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier upon request and only upon request. Please find the patient consent form opens in new tab/window .

Particular care should be taken where children are concerned (in particular where a child has special needs or learning disabilities), where an individual's head or face appears, or where reference is made to an individual's name or other personal details. For more information please review  Elsevier's policy on the use of images or personal information of patients or other individuals .

Where can I find Elsevier's permission request form to use when requesting permission from another copyright holder?

Please find the permission request form .

Do I need permission to reuse my own prior Elsevier journal figures/tables/excerpts in my Elsevier book chapter?

Elsevier journal authors retain the right to use or re-use portions or excerpts in other works , subject to proper acknowledgement. As this is a retained right, no written permission is necessary for Elsevier journal authors to reuse figures/tables/excerpts from their prior articles in their forthcoming book chapter, provided that the material is not credited to any third party and that the original source is properly acknowledged.

Elsevier book  authors  retain the right to use excerpts* or a summary in a single chapter in a book (*Excerpts should not exceed ten percent (10%) of the work),  provided that the material in question is not credited to any third party and that the original source is properly acknowledged. No written permission is therefore necessary for Elsevier book  authors  to reuse up to 10% of their prior contributions in their forthcoming book chapters; however, this policy does not apply to Elsevier book  contributors , who will need to obtain permission even within the 10% limit (unless covered by the STM Permissions Guidelines; see above). Please find the Elsevier permission request form .

I obtained permission to reuse figures/tables/excerpts from the author of previously published work. Do I need permission from the publisher?

Most likely yes, as it is usually the publisher who owns the copyright to the work. You would also need permission from the publisher to reuse material from Open Access articles which are © The Authors, but where the authors have licensed exclusive rights to the publisher.

Do I need permission to reuse figures/tables/excerpts from the previous edition of this Elsevier book publication?

If the material was original to the book, no permission is necessary. If the material was credited to a third party, it depends on whether permissions license that you obtained from the third-part rightsholder covered all future editions or to the current edition only (for the latter case you would need to reobtain permission for the new subsequent editions).

Do I need permission to redraw a figure? How should I credit the figure?

It depends. If your redrawn figure is substantially similar as that of the original figure, you should obtain permission. For example, a simple color change or change of labels on an X and Y axis is never sufficient. Alternately, if your redrawn figure can be considered significantly different than the original figure, you can merely acknowledge the original source (e.g., “Based on”/ “After”/ “Redrawn from”/ “Adapted from”/ “Data from”) without formal permission. This is often a judgment call. Best practice is to obtain permission where there is any similarity between the original and redrawn figures.

Do I need permission to use figures/tables/excerpts from the previous edition of this book?

If the material was original to the book, no permission is necessary. If the material was credited to a third party, it depends on whether the permissions license that you obtained from the third-party rightsholder covered all futured editions or only that edition (in which latter case you would need to reobtain permission for the new edition).

Do I need permission to reuse Open Access material in my chapter?

It depends. “Open Access” refers to material (typically journal articles) that is freely available online, but it is not necessarily freely reusable.

For Creative Commons-licensed material, it depends on the  license type opens in new tab/window . Licenses such as CC BY, CC BY 3.0, CC BY 4.0 are examples of licenses that permit such use. If you are reusing figures or tables published under these licenses, you will not require permission although it is important to acknowledge the source as specified in the publisher’s terms.

On the other hand, material available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license would require permission to include in your Elsevier book chapter, since Elsevier is a commercial publisher.

Please find more information on the Creative Commons licenses opens in new tab/window .

Do I need to complete the permission log? I didn't add any figures/tables that weren't in the prior edition.

Yes, the permission log should be a complete record of all figures /tables appearing in your chapter, whether or not permission is required. The completed log will then be uploaded in our permissions database, where rights and permissions information for every figure/table included in the book will be logged.

How do I complete the permission log?

The permission log is a complete record of all figures/tables appearing in your chapter/book, whether permission is required or not. Please fill in the mandatory columns (highlighted in yellow), i.e., Permission Status, Item ID, Source and Permission Required. Attached is the sample permission log opens in new tab/window .

Permission status: Resolved/Pending

Item ID: Figure/table numbers

Source: Original source of the figure/table

Permission required: Yes/No

Please find instructions on completing the permission log opens in new tab/window .

Can I include stock images in my chapter? What permissions do I need?

Yes, you can include images from websites such as Shutterstock, Fotolia, Getty Images, iStock photo and Thinkstock provided you obtain the necessary license and pay any licensing fees where applicable.

Do I need to obtain permission for figures/tables taken from the Internet?

Typically yes, unless the figures/tables are explicitly available under an Open Access license without commercial reuse restrictions (see above) or are explicitly in the public domain (for example, original material found on a US federal government website).

Note: Material from the government websites of other countries, as well as US state and local government websites, is often copyrighted and will require permission.

Do I need permission to cite articles?

No permission is necessary merely to cite (reference) an article.Permission is only necessary if you will be reusing figures/tables/verbatim text excerpts from the article in your chapter.

What if the rightsholder never responds to my request?

If a rightsholder does not respond after multiple attempts to contact them or if the rightsholder details are unavailable, it would be best to remove their material and replace it with author's original or other material to avoid further risk or delay in publications. Below listed are the suggestions for alternate figures/tables:

From Wikipedia, https://www.pexels.com/ opens in new tab/window , https://pixabay.com/ opens in new tab/window , which are usually free to use even commercially

From other Elsevier publications (if material is not credited to any other third-party sources), so that permissions can be resolved easily

As Elsevier is a STM signatory publisher, permission can be obtained at free of cost up to three figures/tables from a single article/chapter of another STM publisher under STM gratis limit — p lease find more information about STM signatory publishers opens in new tab/window

How should I obtain permission for a previously unpublished image (for example, an image used “Courtesy of” a colleague or a university)?

Written permission should be obtained from the colleague or the University in the form of an email or a signed physical letter.

Who should obtain permission and why?

As an Elsevier book author, you are required contractually to represent and warrant that your work is original and previously unpublished, except for third-party material like images, figures, tables and/or substantial text excerpts appearing in your [chapter/book] for which you must obtain appropriate permission and provide permission copies. You are also responsible for completing the permission log.

How lengthy is the permission seeking process?

As the permission-seeking process can be lengthy, please allow a minimum of six to eight weeks, if not longer, to obtain permission for all items.

If a rightsholder does not respond even after multiple attempts of contact, it would be best to remove their material or replace it with author's original material to avoid further risk or delay.

What rights do I need to obtain?

Our permission request form generally requests for non-exclusive rights to reproduce (and if necessary, to redraw or modify) the material in the current edition and all subsequent editions, revisions, versions, derivative works, translations, ancillaries, adaptations, supplementary materials, custom editions, and in advertising and promotion thereof, in all languages, in all formats and media now known or hereafter developed, throughout the world and in perpetuity. However, many rightsholders will not grant all or most of these rights or will respond with their own permissions license terms. The minimum rights that we require for most Elsevier books are reuse in all formats, including websites and eBooks, for worldwide distribution, not subject to any time limits (e.g., “for one year only”) or “non-commercial use” restrictions (since Elsevier is a commercial publisher).

What is the expected publication data of this book?

Regarding publication date of your publication, we suggest you check with the Editorial Project Manager.

How to obtain complimentary copies of my publication?

Please check with the Editorial Project Manager for your publication regarding complimentary copies of your publication.

Are there any royalties for the authors of the book?

Please check with the Editorial Project Manager for your publication regarding royalties of the book.

How do I obtain high resolution images from other publishers?

In general, we suggest that once you have sought permission for a figure/table/box copyrighted to publishers (other than Elsevier), to reuse the same in our publication, please write directly to the respective publisher to obtain high resolution images as we do not deal with high resolution image requests of other publishers.

How to obtain permission from an individual who is not alive?

In cases when your request for reuse of an image belongs to a deceased individual, please seek written permission approval by contacting his/her legal heir. If you are unsuccessful in contacting the legal heir, then we would suggest that it would be appropriate to get the image removed or replaced to avoid production delays of your publication with us.

Do I need permission to reuse a firm/organization/company/factory/industry image?

Yes, permission is required. Please seek the written approval from the respective firm/organization/company/factory/industry image.

Do I need permission to reuse images credited to artists or designers?

Yes, permission is required. Please seek the written approval from the corresponding artist or designer (who created the image) to reuse the image in our publication.

Do I need permission for images from a laboratory or a commercial brand/product image?

Permission is required from the manufacturer/rightsholder if the brand or the Lab name is recognized in the image. Also, if the product name is mentioned in the figure legend, we will need their written permission along with the acknowledgement, to use them in the book publication.

Do I need permission to reuse an image created by students or doctoral fellows of the author?

When an image is created by a postdoctoral fellow or a student or an employee that works for you/author, please seek their written approval to reuse his/her image in our publication ensuring that you credit them as the source of the image.

Do I need permission to reuse an image of an individual, for example: family, relatives, friends, colleagues/lab assistants/students?

Please seek written permission approval from any individual (other than your original) before reusing his/her image in our publication and credit them as the source of the image.

Do I need permission for an image gifted to me?

Yes, permission is required even if the image is gifted to you. Please seek a written consent or approval from the copyright owner of the image before you reuse the same in our publication and credit them as the source of the image.

As an author, can I submit my previously published article content in its entirety in my Elsevier publication? Whom do I need to ask for permission regarding this?

Please check with the Editorial Project Manager for the submission of your manuscript and check with publisher of the article for reuse request.

How do I obtain online access of my Elsevier publication for other commercial/non-commercial purposes?

Please check with the Editorial Project Manager for online access.

Is verbal communication from the rightsholders suffice to resolve permissions?

Absolutely not. We will need written permission approval from the respective rightsholders, for proof of legal records.

Permissions were resolved for the previous edition of the book. Do I still need to secure permission again for the current edition of the book or will the permissions cover for the current edition as well?

Please check the permission license obtained for the previous edition to see if permission was granted for one-time use only or one edition only. If yes, permission will need to be reobtained for using the item in the current book edition. If permission copies are not available for the third-party item from the previous edition, permission will need to be obtained for reuse in this current edition.

Where and how do I submit my chapter? How should the chapter be formatted regarding font style, color, size, number of words, reference format and so on?

Please check with the Editorial Project Manager on chapter submissions, formatting and production queries.

Is permission required for the material from the organization that I am working?

You can use the material of your organization only when you hold the copyright. Please note, if the material is published or owned by your organization, then formal written permission is required from them to avoid legal implications.

Is permission required for the material from conference proceedings papers?

Yes, permission is required from the rightsholder if the paper is published.

Is permission required for figures/tables that are acknowledged to another source in a published material?

Yes, if any part of the material to be used has appeared in any publication with credit or acknowledgement to another source, permission must also be sought from that source.

How do I consider a material to be under Fair Use?

Terms and conditions pertaining to Fair Use differs among the publishers. It is recommended to check with the publishers on the usage, to be legally safe.

Is permission required for product images?

Permission is required from the manufacturer if the brand could be recognized from the product’s image. Also, if the product's name is mentioned in the figure legend, we need their written permission to use them in our publication, along with the acknowledgement (if any) as suggested by the manufacturer.

Do I need to complete the permission log? I didn’t add any figures/tables that weren’t in the prior edition nor in the current edition of the book.

In this case, permission log is not required. However, we will need proof of confirmation from the author, for the permission records.

Do I need to provide the complete permission log if the figure/table used in my chapter/book does not require any permission?

Yes, the permission log should be a complete record of all figures/tables appearing in your chapter, whether permission is required or not. The completed log will then be uploaded in our permissions database, where rights and permissions information for every figure/table included in the book will be logged.

Do I need to provide the complete permission log if the figure/table used in my chapter/book are original to my publication?

When do i consider a figure/table is significantly adapted/modified/redrawn from the original.

ADAPTED/MODIFIED/REDRAWN refers to creating figures/tables such that the new figure/table doesn’t resemble like the original and the degree of adaptation followed is more than 75%. In this case, permission is not required.

If a modified/redrawn/adapted figure/table is substantially like that of the original figure, permission from the original source is required. A simple color change or change of labels on an X and Y axis is never sufficient. Even in the rare circumstances where a figure/table has been modified/redrawn/adapted enough so as not to require permission, the original source of the figure should nonetheless be acknowledged.

If you are uncertain whether it is substantially modified or redrawn from its original, then we recommend seeking permission to be legally safe.

Is permission not necessary as only data is taken from the source?

Permission is not required if a figure/table is created using data and not taken the table/figure as such from any third party or published sources. For example, using data (i.e., in numbers) such as Statistical data, any data that is collected from Census, population etc.

Is permission not necessary as the source is in public domain?

Yes, permission is not required if the source in public domain, without any commercial restrictions.

Is permission required if the figures/tables are based on/constructed from more than two references/sources?

Permission is not required if a table is created using two (2) or more sources/references. Likewise, permission is not required if a figure is created using three (3) or more sources/references. Please note that  permissions are required  for images if they are just collated and presented as a single image or as part images.

Can I modify an Elsevier figure when I have received permission to use it?

Any abbreviations, additions, deletions and/or any other alterations shall be made only with prior written authorization of Elsevier. No modifications can be made to any Lancet figures/tables which must be reproduced in full.

How do I obtain high resolution images from Elsevier book?

Once the permission license is obtained, you need to reach out to Archive team at  [email protected] opens in new tab/window  with license copy, invoice paid receipt, and original figure numbers to obtain high resolution images

. For any further clarifications, you can submit your query via our  online form opens in new tab/window

Which publishers fall under STM?

Please see this link for the list of participating STM Publishers and identification of excluded titles and content of those Publishers:  https://www.stm-assoc.org/intellectual-property/permissions/permissions-guidelines/ opens in new tab/window

For more information on STM guidelines please refer:  https://www.stm-assoc.org/2022_01_27_STM_Permission_Guidelines_2022.pdf opens in new tab/window

What is the STM Guideline?

STM Publishers support an approach to research based on common decency, respect, fairness, and mutual trust. These are the principles that the STM Permissions Guidelines are built upon to allow Signatory STM Publishers to use limited amounts of material in other original published works without charge, and with a minimum of effort needed for permissions clearance.

The STM Permissions Guidelines offer voluntary and reciprocal guidelines amongst Signatory STM Publishers to reuse limited amounts of material from published works in all languages in other print and electronic and audio publications, including subsequent editions and editions in other languages by the same publisher. Not all STM Publishers are Signatories of the STM Permissions Guidelines, and not all content published by a Signatory STM Publisher is included in this agreement.

View the list of participating STM Publishers and identification of excluded titles and content opens in new tab/window of those Publishers.

For quantity limits for gratis permissions and more, including what is not covered, please view the permission guidelines opens in new tab/window .

What if a STM publisher falls under "Notification Not Required"/"STM Opt-Out" category?

Some STM signatory publishers (including Elsevier) do not require notification for reuse of material that falls within these limits by other STM signatory publishers, which means that permission is automatically granted subject to the borrowing publisher’s proper acknowledgement of the original source of the material; no written permission is necessary.

If Elsevier is the borrowing publisher, we need to track extremely carefully how much total material we are reusing from the borrowed‐from publisher (for example SAGE) to ensure that we do not exceed the STM limits—most notably, “no more than three figures from works published by a single publisher for a book chapter” and “in total not more than thirty figures from a single publisher for republication in a book.” Often, especially where the other publisher’s material is available via Rightslink®, it may be preferable to obtain written permission anyway, simply to retain a record of the permission (which will be granted free of charge) for our records.

For publisher under STM Opt-Out (No notification required) category, please refer:  https://www.stm-assoc.org/intellectual-property/permissions/permissions-guidelines/ opens in new tab/window

What if a STM publisher falls under "Notification Required" category?

Some STM signatory publishers (including Elsevier) do require notification for reuse of material that falls within these limits by other STM signatory publishers, which means written permission is required subject to the borrowing publisher’s proper acknowledgement of the original source of the material.

If Elsevier is the borrowing publisher, we need to track extremely carefully how much total material we are reusing from the borrowed‐from publisher (for example Wolters Kluwer, Wiley, Springer etc.) to ensure that we do not exceed the STM limits — most notably, “no more than three figures from works published by a single publisher for a book chapter” and “in total not more than thirty figures from a single publisher for republication in a book.” Often, STM publisher’s material is available via Rightslink®.

For publisher under STM Not Opt-Out (Notification required) category, please refer:  https://www.stm-assoc.org/intellectual-property/permissions/permissions-guidelines/ opens in new tab/window

How do I identify an imprint of a STM Publisher?

The complete list of imprints of Publisher Members of STM can be found here:  https://www.stm-assoc.org/2016_03_23_STM_Imprint_list.pdf opens in new tab/window

How to obtain permission to use content on ScienceDirect?

Please refer to detailed instructions on  obtaining permission opens in new tab/window to use content on ScienceDirect.

How to obtain permission to use content on ClinicalKey?

Please find detailed instructions on obtaining permission to use content on ClinicalKey opens in new tab/window .

What is the permission process?

The permissions process involves three steps:

Step 1:  We ask that you submit both the completed permission log and copies of all permission licenses for any third-party images, figures, tables, boxes used in your [chapter/book]. Please ensure to update the yellow highlighted columns in the permission log (mandatory fields). View a sample permission log opens in new tab/window .

> Watch the video on how to fill a permission log opens in new tab/window

Step 2:  Obtain any necessary permissions licenses or other approvals in writing from the rightsholders of the materials — this is usually but not always the publisher for any published works. Please also be aware that some publishers may have a longer turnaround time and some permissions may also be subject to fees.

Step 3:  Please return the completed permissions log and copies of any permissions licenses to the assigned Copyright Coordinator. If your chapter/book exclusively contains only figures/tables created by you or your co-author and therefore requires no permissions, please confirm this with the assigned Copyright Coordinator. In this case, a permission log is not required, however we will require your confirmation via an email.

Please note that it is a legal requirement for us to have proof of permission to reuse any figures/tables/substantial text excerpts not original to your [chapter/book], as without this documentation Elsevier may be unable to publish the material in question.

How do I apply for permissions?

Permissions can be applied through three modes: Email, Contact/Online form or via Rightslink/CCC (an automated permission granting service). Rightslink can often be the most convenient and efficient way to request permissions. Please find more information about using Rightslink opens in new tab/window .

Please find a video with more information on how to apply permissions opens in new tab/window .

How do I apply permission through RightsLink/Copyright Clearance Center (CCC)?

For applying permissions via RightsLink/CCC in general, please refer to this video  here opens in new tab/window .

To know more about applying permissions through Rightslink/CCC to another publisher, please see the below guided publisher reference videos.

What are the options to be selected while obtaining license via RightsLink/Copyright Clearance Center?

Please use the below options from the dropdown menu for the fields in RightsLink and CCC:

Reuse in a –  Book/Textbook

Requestor type/ Who will republish the content/ I am a… –  please select if "Publisher, STM Signatory" option is available. If you are an author of the original content, please select “Author of the requested content”. If these are not applicable, please choose “Publisher” or “publisher, for profit" or “Commercial”.

Format –  Print and Electronic (Always choose both these formats)

Distribution –  Worldwide

Language –  English/original language of publication

Rights for –  Main product

Duration of use –  Life of current edition

For more information,  please see the below guided publisher reference videos.

How do I apply for permission through Email?

Please watch this video for applying permissions via Email opens in new tab/window .

How do I apply for permission through the Online Contact Form?

Please watch this video for applying permissions via Contact Form opens in new tab/window .

Obtaining permission to use content on ScienceDirect

If the content you wish to re-use is on  ScienceDirect opens in new tab/window , you may request permission using the Copyright Clearance Center's RightsLink® service. Simply follow the steps below:

1. Locate your desired content on ScienceDirect . Subscribers will be able to view all content and guest users can view open access content and abstracts for free simply by clicking on the article or chapter title.

2. Determine if the content is open access or subscription access . If you are reading an Elsevier published article online, you need to look out for the "Open Access" orange label located under the article's title and author information. You will also be able to identify any relevant open access articles in your search results by looking for the same label. To find out how you can reuse an open access article, look underneath the title and click on the license hyperlink for exact details on the user license selected by the author. If your reuse is not covered by the user license, please proceed to the next step.

3. Click on the 'Get rights and content' button located under the author details , adjacent to the DOI.

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4. The following page will then be launched.

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5. Select the way you would like to reuse the content .

6. Create an account if you have not done so already.

7. Accept the terms and conditions .

Please find more information about RightsLink® opens in new tab/window .

For questions about using the RightsLink service, please contact Customer Support via phone 877-622-5543 (toll free) or 978-777-9929, or email [email protected] opens in new tab/window .

Please note:  When you create an account with RightsLink you will be asked to provide either your credit card information or an invoicing address. This does not necessarily mean that your request will be subject to a permissions fee; it is part of the registration process only. You can determine whether your request is subject to a fee by clicking on the "quick price" button after you have made your selection on how you wish to use the material.

Obtaining permission to use content on ClinicalKey (Book Search)

If the content you wish to re-use is available on Clinicalkey opens in new tab/window , you may request permission using the Copyright Clearance Center's RightsLink® service. Simply follow the steps below:

1. Locate your desired content on ClinicalKey. Click on the Books tab which is beneath the Search and Browse options and this will take you to a new window in which you need to enable all content by moving the toggle from Subscribed Content.

2. Enter the book name in the box that reads ‘Filter List by Title’.

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3. Click on the title displayed to view the Table of Contents (TOC) . Please select the required chapter from the TOC and click on  “Get rights and content” .

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5. Select the way you would like to reuse the content.

7. Accept the terms and conditions.

Permissions — tutorial videos

How to apply for permissions opens in new tab/window to use illustrations, figures, tables, photos and text boxes taken from other published materials

How to fill in the Copyright permission log opens in new tab/window using the manuscript

How to apply for permissions from:

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Help & Support

For questions about obtaining permission, please visit the Permissions Helpdesk opens in new tab/window

For further details about how authors can use their book content, please see our books authors home

For details on self-archiving and posting, please refer to our sharing guidelines and copyright policy

Springer Science+Business Media (SSBM)

Springer Science+Business Media (SSBM) has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's RightsLink service to offer a variety of options for reusing SSBM content from its journals. SSBM is the copyright holder of the content being licensed, and RightsLink is the service by which you procure a license. All billing is managed by Copyright Clearance Center.

Listed below are highlights of the SSBM RightsLink offering.

Contact SSBM for additional questions regarding a license.

Contact RightsLink/CCC for additional questions regarding the RightsLink service, or read the remaining help pages. Welcome to RightsLink . Contact RightsLink .

Once in RightsLink, the easy Quick Price process will clarify when permission is required. It is your responsibility to ensure that the material is original to SSBM and that the material was not reprinted with permission from a non-SSBM source. Please begin by indicating for whom this is order is intended and clicking continue.

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Classroom Materials / Academic Coursepack

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Movie screening, presentation / slide kit, promotional materials, thesis/dissertation, training materials, translation, purchase the article, springer-owned imprint.

Please contact Springer Science+Business Media (SSBM) Rights and Permissions directly with any permissions or rights questions.

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If you want permission to reuse an article from Springer Science+Business Media in your own printed material, you can streamline the process by placing your request online through RightsLink. Once licensed, you can reuse the material legally, according to the terms of your license. Listed below are general publisher business rules. For the complete terms and conditions of reuse rights, please reference publisher terms and conditions.

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No Content Delivery : The RightsLink service provides permission for reuse only. RightsLink does not deliver content. Once licensed, you may use the content according to the terms of your license. Back to top

Alterations : Figures and illustrations may be altered minimally to serve your work. Any other abbreviations, additions, deletions and/or any other alterations shall be made only with prior written authorization of the author(s) and/or Springer Science + Business Media. Edits to text are not permitted. (Please contact Springer at [email protected] ) Back to top

Derivative Works : If you would like your license to cover subsequent editions, revisions, and derivative works including ancillaries, custom editions, and multimedia forms, please contact Springer directly. Although reuse licenses may be exercised anywhere in the world and include use in an electronic form , provided its password protected, on intranet, or CD-Rom/E-book, other derivative works must be requested. Back to top

Copyright : You must include the original copyright and permission notice (indicated at the opening page of this article) in connection with any reproduction of the licensed material:

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Details of Use : Details of use define where or how you intend to reuse the content. Details of use vary by the type of use, Some of the details of use include: Advertising, Banner, Brochure or flyer, Catalogue, CME, Web site, Repository, Slides/Slide Set, Staff training, or Workshop. Some details of use are geographic: National (in the country associated with your account set up), Internal (within your organization), or Global (worldwide). Back to top

Embargo : Older content is priced slightly lower than newer content. Depending on the publication date of the content being requested for licensing, you may notice fluctuations in pricing. Back to top

Format : Licenses are granted according to the format you have chosen in your request.   Back to top

Gratis : Reuse requests which display $0, though free of charge, are required to obtain a license through RightsLink and comply with the license terms and conditions. You will not be charged though will be required to establish a RightsLink account. Permissions for Springer content are not offered without a license through the system. Back to top

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Notification to Author : Although Springer holds copyright to the material licensed through RightsLink and is entitled to negotiate on rights, it is courtesy to also inform the primary author (address is given with the article/chapter) and provided it concerns original material which does not carry references to other sources (if material in question appears with credit to another source, authorization from that source is required as well). See Author . Back to top

Open access: Springer has established certain content as open access.  Open access content used for non-commercial purposes does not require a license through RightsLInk, and no charge is applied for the reuse.   Some open access content used for commercial purposes requires a license and fee payment.  RightsLink will display either messaging or an order flow for open access content, as established by Springer. Back to top

If the Requestor Type you select is

considered commercial by Springer, RightsLink will display a price and require that you place an order.

considered non-commercial by Springer, RightsLink will display a message regarding free reuse.

not permitted for the type of use you select, RightsLink will display a message denying reuse rights.

Portions : Portions describe which elements of the Springer Science+Business Media publication you wish to reuse. Portions offered in the drop-down menu during ordering may include: Back to top

Full Text : The complete article, not including figures.

Figure/tables/illustrations: A figure/table/illustration used to illustrate textual material, usually accompanied by a quantity field.

Excerpt : The portion of the content to be reused, usually in increments of 500 words. Small excerpts, less than 500 words, are free to reuse.

Abstract : The portion of the content displayed on the Springer site.

Photograph : The majority of the images used in Springer Journals are not Springer copyright, and are therefore not offered for licensing.

Note: Springer Science+Business Media warrants that it has, to the best of its knowledge, the rights to license material available for reuse through RightsLink. However, you should ensure that the material is original to Springer Science+Business Media and does not carry the copyright of another entity (as credited in the published version). If the credit line indicates that the material was reprinted or adapted by Springer Science+Business Media with permission from another source, then you should also seek permission to reuse the material from that source.   Back to top

Price : Price quoted is an estimate based on this request for this title and the selected type of use only. Final price will depend on the total amount of requested Springer material. Back to top

Print Run : Print run is the estimated number of users/ copies/ attendees of the Springer content you expect to make. In some cases you may not know the exact print run until the work is published. If the print run changes by a figure greater than or equal to 2,000, please contact Springer customer service. Your license may be credited and a new license issued. Back to top

Requestor Type : Select the requestor type that best identifies the person, corporation, or institution that will be distributing the licensed Springer Science+Business Media content. Please select requestor type accurately to ensure a valid license. Back to top

Authors Springer Science+Business Media implements rules through RightsLink addressing reuses by authors as well as reuses by others, not authors of the content being licensed. Authors are prompted for two designations by Springer Science+Business Media to drive its business rules regarding the granting of licenses. Back to top

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Who will be distributing/selling your new work? : Select the requestor type that best identifies the person, corporation, or institution that will be using the licensed Springer Science+Business Media content.   Back to top

Translations : Licensing rights granted through RightsLink include worldwide rights, as stated in Springer Reuse Terms. Contact Springer for specific translation requirements. Back to top

A type of use describes what you may wish to do with copyrighted content and what the publisher permits. Springer Science+Business Media offers the following types of use for its content reuses either directly through RightsLink or after approval by Springer Rights and Permissions:

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Book / Textbook : A book license permits you to reproduce the content in any book used for educational purposes. Permission covers paper copy and CD-ROM versions, provided the CD-ROM version is not accessible online or through any other means of multi-point distribution. Permission for books is limited to the edition specified during the order process. Books are measured in units printed. During the order process you will be prompted to identify whether you are the author of the article requested and/or whether you are the author of the new edited work. Springer requires that you provide this information as well as other information (such as portion, title of your book, publisher of your book, etc.) as part of the licensing process. Back to top

A classroom materials license permits a non-profit, academic institution to reproduce publisher's content for classroom use. Classroom use is measured in amount of students enrolled in the course. An academic coursepack license permits a non-profit, academic institution to reproduce publisher's content as part of a coursepack or e-coursepack.  Coursepacks are booklets, print or electronic, of related content prepared as supplemental materials for a course of study at a school or university.  E-coursepacks are online coursepacks. Coursepacks are measured in units printed. E-coursepacks are measured in amount of students enrolled in the course. Back to top

During the order process you will be prompted to identify whether you are the author of the article requested and/or whether you an instructor in the class. Springer requires that you provide this information as well as other information (such as portion, number of attendees, name of conference, etc.) as part of the licensing process. Back to top

A conference license permits you to reproduce publisher's content in for-profit or non-profit conference materials, according to the license granted through RightsLink. Conference materials include presentation, poster, flyer, or pack. All other conference materials require contacting Springer directly for licensing or selection of a different type of use. Back to top

A journal license permits you to reproduce publisher's content in a printed and/or online journal. A journal is a publication that presents articles on a particular subject. Journal permission covers journals that are published and distributed no more frequently than weekly and can be distributed free of charge or for a fee to subscribers or retailers. Back to top

A magazine license permits you to reproduce publisher's content in a printed magazine. A magazine is a publication that presents articles on a variety of subjects.  Magazine permission covers magazines that are published and distributed no more frequently than weekly and can be distributed free of charge or for a fee to subscribers or retailers. Back to top

Journal and magazine permissions can include use online, provided reuse is in a password-protected environment, or CD-ROM/DVD format. (See also Derivative Works.) During the order process you will be prompted to identify whether you are the author of the article requested and/or whether you are the author of the new edited work. Springer requires that you provide this information as well as other information (such title of your article, title of the journal/magazine, publisher of the journal/magazine) as part of the licensing process. Back to top

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A television license permits you to reproduce publisher's content for a two-time broadcasting of 30 seconds on one network. Using a Springer journal cover as a television prop is provided free of charge. Back to top

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A training materials license permits you to reproduce publisher's content in for-profit or non-profit training materials, including CME (Continuing Medical Education), staff training, and workshops. Training materials may include slides, slide sets, and DVD/CD/VHS, according to the license granted. (See also Derivative Works.) During the order process you will be prompted to identify whether you are the author of the article requested and/or whether you are the author of the training materials. Springer requires that you provide this information as well as other information (such as portion, number of attendees, name of training materials, etc.) as part of the licensing process. Back to top

Licensing rights granted through RightsLink include worldwide rights, as stated in Springer Reuse Terms. Contact Springer for specific translation requirements. Back to top  

A Web site license permits you to reproduce publisher's content on the Web site of a for-profit company or a not-for-profit company dependent on the number of active employees, according to the license details. Posting of one to three abstracts is available for free provided a link to the original Springer content is made available with the posting. During the order process you will be prompted to identify whether you are the author of the article requested. Springer requires that you provide this information as well as other information (such as portion, number of active employees, URL of your Web site, etc.) as part of the licensing process. Back to top

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Distributing your own papers in your thesis

I published three papers during my PhD, I'm now writing my thesis.

I have written three chapters, each based around each paper, but re-written so as not to fall foul of self-plagiarism rules. However, I've still used ALL of the figures from the publication in the chapters.

My concern is not really with this aspect of my thesis, though please tell me if I've misunderstood.

Finally, in the appendix, as reference, I have included the PDF files of my published papers, exactly as they are from the journal website.

Am I allowed to do this?

If not, am I allowed to use my own copies of the paper (e.g. the versions submitted on the arXiv )?

Glorfindel's user avatar

  • 1 Even if the copyright agreements and university policies you are subject to allow you to reuse verbatim content and figures in your thesis, you should realize that the journal made an original contribution to those PDFs -- the final layout and typesetting and general prettiness. This is one difference between the arXiv version and the final version that's worth reflecting on. –  user4512 Feb 20, 2015 at 4:24
  • 1 Note, importantly, that rephrasing your old own work does not absolve you of charges of self plagiarism, nor is it actually required to avoid those charges. But it is the citing of the old work that makes it acceptable. You seem to have done that here, though in an odd way. Talk to your advisor. And make sure you know that you have enough rights retained after giving copyright to your publisher. –  Buffy Aug 24, 2019 at 20:06

7 Answers 7

I don't understand why you are repeating the same material twice in your thesis. Each of your three papers is re-cast in a separate chapter in your thesis, and then verbatim in an appendix.

You most likely have assigned your original copyright in your papers to the journal that published them.

I think adding the papers as an appendix is unnecessary, and may fall foul of the journal's copyright. The interested reader should be pointed to the journal article relating to each of the three chapters.

If you reproduce substantially the same figures as that which appears in the journal -- to whom you've presumably assigned the copyright in the figures -- then you will need to ask for a license to reproduce those figures.

Nicholas's user avatar

  • 4 It really depends on the journal. For all the ones I've worked with, the author is allowed to reuse images and text unchanged for presentations and in a thesis. But it's always very clearly stated by the journal so check closely! –  tpg2114 Feb 20, 2015 at 1:07

Refer to the publisher's copyright agreement. It should detail exactly what types of reuse are allowed for authors.

Reproducing your published articles in your thesis is generally permitted and indeed some universities require it as part of the thesis. The only way to be sure is to directly check with the publisher(s) of your papers.

Here is an example from OUP Journals ( source , emphasis mine):

Rights retained by ALL Oxford Journal authors ... The right to include the article in full or in part in a thesis or dissertation, provided that this is not published commercially; For the uses specified here, please note that there is no need for you to apply for written permission from Oxford University Press in advance. Please go ahead with the use ensuring that a full acknowledgment is made to the original source of the material including the journal name, volume, issue, page numbers, year of publication, title of article and to Oxford University Press and/or the learned society.

Here it is very clear that you are allowed to reproduce your papers published by OUP in your thesis and are not required to ask for permission.

Check with the publishers of your papers. It is very likely they have something along these lines in their copyright agreements.

buzjwa's user avatar

  • For most publishers that do not provide such a general statement (some major commercial ones do not), you can still request a material reuse. (Surprisingly, there is a link for this in much more cases than a blanko statement.) You'd need to fill in some details, in most cases you'd get a permission for free. –  Oleg Lobachev Sep 8, 2019 at 0:15
  • I wrote then something among the lines of either "XXXXX has been licensed to Association for Computing Machinery, but the author retained his copyright and is allowed to re-use it in his publications." or "YYYYY is Copyright © 2017 Springer~Nature. It has been reproduced with a kind permission of Springer~Nature." My reasoning is that with a permission and such a phase somewhere in the front matter you are quite airtight in the copyright department. –  Oleg Lobachev Sep 8, 2019 at 0:15

First of all, this is a topic you HAVE TO discuss with your supervisor, no matter what we will tell you here. The answer for me is clear: Use your papers in your thesis and use reference every time you are stating something important. It is important,before the abstract, use one page where you list your accepted papers (full description, including the publication), state your contribution (in case of multiple authors), and explain in a high level in which chapters you have used it. For the Figures, just use references.

" but re-written so as not to fall foul of self-plagiarism rules"....Try to realize the role of a conference paper, a journal paper and a chapter and it's really easy to avoid the self-plagiarism rules. Once you realize their differences, you will do many changes, especially to the first two and the last two sections. Believe me.

No need to add as an appendix your accepted papers. You just need to declare them in your references.

Giannos Antoniou's user avatar

Plagiarism is passing other people's work as your own. Self plagiarism is reusing your own work, while passing it for new. From an ethical point of view, there is no problem in reusing the figures, provided you indicate it as reproduced from the paper.

The copyright issue is trickier. Technically, in most cases, the journal owns the copyright, and you are not allowed to distribute it or reuse your figures without their permission. But, as many institutions follow a sandwich thesis (that is, the body of the thesis are the papers verbatim), the copyright transfer agreement explicitly permits this reproduction. You should look at what you signed and see if it applies. Otherwise, you should ask the journal.

Davidmh's user avatar

  • It's not about need. I would like to have my full papers included in my appendix. –  ATTMK2 Feb 19, 2015 at 21:48
  • You are able to incorporate your published papers directly into your chapters if they are based on your thesis so long as you do not then attempt to publish your thesis as a book/ebook. See answer by me for further details. –  awsoci Feb 19, 2015 at 23:05
  • You should ask the journal, that's true. However, rumours say that many people attach papers to their theses without the publishers' consent. –  yo' Feb 20, 2015 at 0:21

The below response may or may not be helpful depending on the copyright laws of your university/country etc (this is based on Australia):

I just completed my PhD so I can enlighten you a bit, having published papers during the course of my PhD that was then used in the body of my thesis.

I published an article based on a chapter I had written, and then reincorporated that article back into my chapter (effectively 'updating' the chapter).

I didn't have to worry about any copyright issues regarding tables/figures/material nor did I have to cite the information.I was able to really just copy and paste it in. All I had to do was write in my acknowledgements:

Parts of ___ have been previously published as (insert citation here).

I was able to do this, because I chose to NOT publish my thesis as an ebook through the university (nor did I choose to publish it as a book). Your thesis is not considered a publication unless it is published as an academic book, or as an ebook (online copies through the library are not considered ebooks). This also meant that any pictures (of which I had plenty) only required citation information/source information, but I did not have to seek permission to use those images. If I wanted to publish the images in a paper or book, I would have to seek permission.

If you are planning to publish your thesis as an ebook or academic book, that is when you will run into self-plagiarism issues.

My advice? Do not opt to publish your thesis as an ebook/academic book. You've already published three papers (which is fantastic!) from your data, continue to go that route.

This means you can use as much as you want from your publications into your thesis.

Of course, this is the practice where I studied, as others have suggested, get in touch with your supervisor about these issues as well as the copyright experts (usually associated with the library).

Generally though, you don't have to worry about copyright regarding reincorporating your journal articles back into your thesis UNLESS you then decide to publish said thesis. You don't even need to cite the information you've used from your journal articles if they were formed from the data of your doctorate.

This is of course, based on the idea that your journal articles were based on your thesis chapters and are not too different/not relevant to your thesis.

awsoci's user avatar

  • In many places this is not an option. And I wouldn't advise it (except if there is sensitive data and other issues), if you took the time to write everything down, why not share it instead of burying in a drawer? –  Davidmh Feb 19, 2015 at 23:11
  • 2 @Davidmh because for my particular thesis, it's better to publish the chapters in reputable journals, as opposed to as an ebook that no one is going to read. Publishing your thesis straight as an ebook is not a good route to go, it's not considered a reputable academic book by a quality press. When I say ebook, I mean that the library has a process in which it will 'publish' as is, but this isn't going to count as a quality publication. You are better to either, draft journal articles from chapters OR turn your thesis into a proper, academic book in which rewriting would undoubtedly occur. –  awsoci Feb 19, 2015 at 23:13
  • 1 In the places I am familiar with, the university publishes the thesis, no matter what (in Sweden one physical copy is sent to every public library in the country even). Besides, the core of the content is published as articles elsewhere. To allow it, when publishing, you always add that exception clause in the copyright transfer. –  Davidmh Feb 19, 2015 at 23:20
  • 1 In Australia, your thesis is not considered a 'publication' unless you actually sign a document that allows for it to be so, and this is usually as an ebook. Your physical copies are sent to the library and school library, but they are not considered publications nor are counted as such for ERA requirements. So, students who do publish journal articles during the course of their PhD are encouraged to reincorporate that material into their thesis (if it's relevant/based on the thesis). But this is the practice here, which of course as you have suggested, may not be the same elsewhere. –  awsoci Feb 19, 2015 at 23:25

An update on what I ended up doing: it turns out that most publishers will allow you to publish your own papers in your PhD thesis in full without any issue - I included all my papers, in their full published format and also in edited form in the Chapters, and this was covered by the copyright usage on the publisher websites.

The purpose of a thesis/dissertation: showcase the work you have done. It need not include substantial, new, unpublished work.

Organize your papers to tell the story of your graduate experience (one paper per chapter).

Add appropriate transition material.

Write an Introduction & Conclusion chapter.

Talk to your advisor.

Consider the following chapter-opening paragraph:

The following text in this chapter is my first publication [1] (Journal of Computation) which describes the method I developed for ... Insert Title, Abstract, & Text of your 1st publication

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Moscow’s Khrushchevki in Flux: Reflections on the Imminent Demolition of Twentieth-Century Socialist Housing

  • First Online: 11 June 2024

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  • Ekaterina Mizrokhi 5  

Part of the book series: St Antony's Series ((STANTS))

Set in the soon-to-be-demolished neighbourhood in Moscow’s Northern Izmailovo district, the chapter explores the evolving relationship long-term khrushchevka residents have developed to their homes since the municipality announced its redevelopment project, known euphemistically as the Renovation. The Renovation, in actuality, involves the demolition of several thousand Soviet era, five-storey, standardised blocks ( khrushchevki ) that are set to be replaced with modern, colourful, and densified residential districts. The ethnographic data suggests that this relationship is amicably ambivalent, resisting both conventional critical analyses of standardised housing districts , along with the overwhelmingly successful opt-in rate to the demolition programme. This chapter investigates how a network of actors—including said residents, along with grassroots online activists, architects, memory agents, and local cultural leaders—generates unexpected and yet unexplored meanings and futures for Moscow’s khrushchevki. In this moment of stupor and suspension, this network of actors has, across varying scales, begun to renegotiate political possibilities along an ‘off-modern’ (Boym, 2008) temporal order: one where the khrushchevka is no longer obsolescent, anachronistic, and disavowed, but rather host to alternative and progressive urban futurities. The various actors’ reappraisals, reassessments, and re-appropriations of the city’s khrushchevki put into question how existing official, popular, and even critical discourses have come to relate to these landscapes of formerly socialist, standardised housing in such a limited manner. This chapter intervenes, in turn, by investigating the khrushchevka as a central venue in which the nascent reconceptualisation of socialist space has begun to take root.

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Throughout the chapter, pseudonyms are used unless stated otherwise.

M. Byrnes, (2017, March 8), ‘The Disappearing Mass Housing of the Soviet Union’. CityLab. shorturl.at/uvxB7 .

M. B. Smith ( 2010 )  Property of Communists: The Urban Housing Program from Stalin to Khrushchev (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press), 183.

L. Attwood ( 2012 ) ‘Privatisation of Housing in Post-Soviet Russia: A New Understanding of Home?’ Europe-Asia Studies 64:5, 903–928.

J. Zavisca, ( 2012 ) Housing the New Russia (Ithaca: Cornell University Press); O. Shevchenko ( 2009 ), Crisis and the Everyday in Postsocialist Moscow (Bloomington: Indiana University Press).

The ‘large-panel’ series, commonly categorised as the ‘snosimyye typologies, began to be demolished under Yuri Luzhkov (1992-2010) from the early 1990s onwards.

E. Mizrokhi ( 2021 ) ‘Living in Anachronistic Apace: Temporalities of Displacement in Moscow’s Soviet-era Standardised Housing’, Political Geography 91:1, 1-10.

Meduza. (2017, June 17). Meriya Moskvy opublikovala rezul’taty golosovaniya po renovatsii. Meduza . https://meduza.io/news/2017/06/17/meriya-moskvy-opublikovala-rezultaty-golosovaniya-po-renovatsii

B. Ruble, ( 1993 ) ‘From Khrushcheby to Korobki’ in W. Brumfield and B. Ruble (eds.), Russian Housing in the Modern Age: Design and Social History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press); See also: S. Reid ( 2019 ) ‘Palaces in our Hearts: Caring for Khrushchevki’, in T. Großmann, and P. Nielsen (eds) Architecture, Democracy and Emotions: The Politics of Feeling since 1945 (New York: Routledge), 143.

S. Boym ( 2008 ), Architecture of the Off-Modern (New York: Princeton Architectural Press).

E. Rubin ( 2016 ), Amnesiopolis: Modernity, Space, and Memory in East Germany (Oxford: Oxford University Press); C. Varga-Harris ( 2015 ) Stories of House and Home: Soviet Apartment Life during the Khrushchev Years (Ithaca: Cornell University Press); S. Harris ( 2013 ) Communism on Tomorrow Street: Mass Housing and Everyday Life after Stalin (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center); See also: Reid, ‘Palaces in our Hearts’, 158.

M. B. Aalbers ( 2011 ) ‘The Revanchist Renewal of Yesterday’s City of Tomorrow’,  Antipode , 43:5, 1696–1724.; E. Swyngedouw, F. Moulaert and A. Rodriguez ( 2002 ) ‘Neoliberal Urbanization in Europe: Large-Scale Urban Development Projects and the New Urban Policy’ in N. Brenner and N. Theodore (eds.), Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in North America and Western Europe (Oxford: Blackwell), 194–229.; L. Troy ( 2017 ) ‘The Politics of Urban Renewal in Sydney’s Residential Apartment Market’, Urban Studies , 55:6, 1329-1345.

D. Harvey ( 1989 ) ‘From Managerialism to Entrepreneurialism: The Transformation in Urban Governance in Late Capitalism’, Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography , 71:1, 3-17.

A. Ghertner ( 2015 ), Rule by Aesthetics: World-Class City Making in Delhi (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

D. Harvey, ( 2003 ) ‘The Right to the City’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research , 27:4, 939-941.

S. Cameron and J. O. N. Coaffee ( 2005 ), ‘Art, Gentrification and Regeneration – From Artist as Pioneer to Public Arts’, International Journal of Housing Policy , 5:1, 39–58.

M. Grubbauer and N. Čamprag ( 2018 ), Urban Megaprojects, Nation-state Politics and Regulatory Capitalism in Central and Eastern Europe: the Belgrade Waterfront Project’.  Urban Studies, 56:4, 649–671.

K. Stanilov (ed.), (2007), The Post-Socialist City: Urban Form and Space Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe After Socialism (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 11.

K. Fehérváry ( 2013 ) Politics in Color and Concrete (Bloomington: Indiana University Press).

I. Petrov (2017, April 29) ‘Arhitektor Yuri Ekhin:’ Novye Izvestiya. shorturl.at/wE145 .

S. Taranov (2017, April 14) ‘Arhitektor Krotov—o renovacii’: Novye Izvestiya. shorturl.at/kouy6.

Mizrokhi, ‘Living in Anachronistic Space’.

Ghertner, Rule by Aesthetics .

M. Murawski (2018) ) ‘Actually-Existing Success: Economics, Aesthetics, and the Specificity of (Still-) Socialist Urbanism’, Comparative Studies in Society and History 60:4, 907–937.

Harris, Communism on Tomorrow Street.

Reid, ‘Palaces in our Hearts’.

Murawski, ‘Actually-Existing Success’; see also: A. Yurchak (2005) Everything was Forever, until it was no more: The last Soviet generation (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press); O. Golubchikov (2016) ‘The Urbanization of Transition: Ideology and the Urban Experience’, Eurasian Geography and Economics 57 : 4-5, 607–623.

Murawski, ‘Actually-Existing Success’, 910.

Harris, Communism on Tomorrow Street ; S. Reid ( 2012 ) ‘Everyday Aesthetics in the Khrushchev-Era Standard Apartment’, Etnofoor , 24:2, 78–105; C. Varga-Harris ( 2015 ) Stories of House and Home: Soviet Apartment Life during the Khrushchev Years (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).

Smith, Property of Communists , 123.

Harris, Communism on Tomorrow Street .

J. Monclús and C. Díez Medina ( 2016 ) ‘Modernist Housing Estates in European Cities of the Western and Eastern Blocs’,  Planning Perspectives, 31:4, 548.

C. Kelly ( 2014 ). St. Petersburg: Shadows of the Past (New Haven, Yale University Press), 72.

Jencks, 1994, in Smith, Property of Communists , 181.

Ruble, ‘From Khrushcheby to Korobki’, 257-259.

C. Crawford ( 2018 ), ‘The Case to Save Socialist Space’ in E. Braae and H. Steiner (eds.),  Routledge Research Companion to Landscape Architecture  (London: Routledge), 260–273.

K. Snopek ( 2011 ) Belyaevo Forever: Preserving the Generic (Moscow: Strelka Press).

J. M. Jacobs, S. Cairns and I. Strebel (2012) ‘Doing Building Work: Methods at the Interface of Geography and Architecture’, Geographical Research , 50:2, 126–140.

M. F. Arrigoitia ( 2014 ) ‘ Un Making Public Housing Towers’, Home Cultures , 11:2, 167–196.

Reid, ‘Palaces in our Hearts’, 143.

Ghertner, Rule by Aesthetics , Chapter 5 , p, 2.

F. Ringel ( 2014 ) ‘Post-Industrial Times and the Unexpected: Endurance and Sustainability in Germany’s Fastest-Shrinking City’, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute , 68.

Reid, Palaces in our Hearts .

M. Berman ( 1988 ) All That is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity (London: Penguin Books), 15.

Anonymous (2019), Personal interview.

Said architect designed a reconstructed khrushchevka that he himself has lived in for several years. He and his colleague  attest that it is 30% cheaper to modernise an existing khrushchevka with four additional stories—without any demolition or resettlement of residents—than it would be to demolish the same building and construct a nine-storey apartment from scratch.

Anonymous (2019), Personal interview.

While projects that similarly retrofit and modernise industrialised housing have long been widely and successfully implemented, including many countries of the former Eastern Bloc, see S. Huuhka, T. Kaasalainen, J. H. Hakanen and J. Lahdensivu ( 2015 ) ‘Reusing Concrete Panels from Buildings for Building: Potential in Finnish 1970s Mass Housing’, Resources, Conservation and Recycling , 101, 105–121; S. Freedman ( 1995 ) Architectural Precast Concrete in T. Jester (ed.) Twentieth-Century Building Materials: History and Conservation (McGraw-Hill: New York); J. Muliuolyte ( 2013 ) ‘Rediscovering Large Scale Housing Estates in Post Socialist Cities’. Journal of Architecture and Urbanism , 37:1, 51–58; M. Popov, A. Dogariu, D. Grecea, V. Ungureanu and M. Georgescu ( 2016 ) ‘Steel Structure Apartment Extensions for existing Large Prefabricated Panel Collective Dwellings’. Procedia Engineering , 161, 1076–1083; M. Van Der Hoorn ( 2004 ) ‘Consuming the “Platte” in East Berlin: The New Popularity of Former GDR Architecture’, Home Cultures , 1:2, 89-126.

Anonymous (2019). Personal interview.

Anonymous (2019). Personal interview.

M. Murawski (2018b, May 29) ‘My Street: Moscow is Getting a Makeover, and the Rest of Russia is Next’. The Calvert Journal ; https://www.calvertjournal.com/features/show/10054/beyond-the-game-my-street-moscow-regeneration-urbanism

E. Mizrokhi ( 2023 ). ‘A Case for Alternative Architectural Periodicals: Informality, Virtuality, and Potentiality’. Scroope: The Cambridge Architecture Journal , 31, 172-215.

A. Petrova (2019). Personal interview.

Mizrokhi, ‘A Case for Alternative Architectural Periodicals’, 8.

The district of Belyaevo was the protagonist in architect Kuba Snopek's ( 2011 ) provocative and popular proposition for this district to be registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Anonymous (2019), Personal Interview.

Mizrokhi, ‘A Case for Alternative Architectural Periodicals’.

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This research was funded by the Cambridge Commonwealth, European, and International Trust along with Churchill College, and the Kettle’s Yard Travel Fund at the Department of Architecture at the University of Cambridge.

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Mizrokhi, E. (2024). Moscow’s Khrushchevki in Flux: Reflections on the Imminent Demolition of Twentieth-Century Socialist Housing. In: Colla, M., Betts, P. (eds) Rethinking Socialist Space in the Twentieth Century. St Antony's Series. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-54581-8_11

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