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what is a essay grade assessment

Assessing Student Learning: 6 Types of Assessment and How to Use Them

assessment with bulb

Assessing student learning is a critical component of effective teaching and plays a significant role in fostering academic success. We will explore six different types of assessment and evaluation strategies that can help K-12 educators, school administrators, and educational organizations enhance both student learning experiences and teacher well-being.

We will provide practical guidance on how to implement and utilize various assessment methods, such as formative and summative assessments, diagnostic assessments, performance-based assessments, self-assessments, and peer assessments.

Additionally, we will also discuss the importance of implementing standard-based assessments and offer tips for choosing the right assessment strategy for your specific needs.

Importance of Assessing Student Learning

Assessment plays a crucial role in education, as it allows educators to measure students’ understanding, track their progress, and identify areas where intervention may be necessary. Assessing student learning not only helps educators make informed decisions about instruction but also contributes to student success and teacher well-being.

Assessments provide insight into student knowledge, skills, and progress while also highlighting necessary adjustments in instruction. Effective assessment practices ultimately contribute to better educational outcomes and promote a culture of continuous improvement within schools and classrooms.

1. Formative assessment

teacher assessing the child

Formative assessment is a type of assessment that focuses on monitoring student learning during the instructional process. Its primary purpose is to provide ongoing feedback to both teachers and students, helping them identify areas of strength and areas in need of improvement. This type of assessment is typically low-stakes and does not contribute to a student’s final grade.

Some common examples of formative assessments include quizzes, class discussions, exit tickets, and think-pair-share activities. This type of assessment allows educators to track student understanding throughout the instructional period and identify gaps in learning and intervention opportunities.

To effectively use formative assessments in the classroom, teachers should implement them regularly and provide timely feedback to students.

This feedback should be specific and actionable, helping students understand what they need to do to improve their performance. Teachers should use the information gathered from formative assessments to refine their instructional strategies and address any misconceptions or gaps in understanding. Formative assessments play a crucial role in supporting student learning and helping educators make informed decisions about their instructional practices.

Check Out Our Online Course: Standards-Based Grading: How to Implement a Meaningful Grading System that Improves Student Success

2. summative assessment.

students taking summative assessment

Examples of summative assessments include final exams, end-of-unit tests, standardized tests, and research papers. To effectively use summative assessments in the classroom, it’s important to ensure that they are aligned with the learning objectives and content covered during instruction.

This will help to provide an accurate representation of a student’s understanding and mastery of the material. Providing students with clear expectations and guidelines for the assessment can help reduce anxiety and promote optimal performance.

Summative assessments should be used in conjunction with other assessment types, such as formative assessments, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of student learning and growth.

3. Diagnostic assessment

Diagnostic assessment, often used at the beginning of a new unit or term, helps educators identify students’ prior knowledge, skills, and understanding of a particular topic.

This type of assessment enables teachers to tailor their instruction to meet the specific needs and learning gaps of their students. Examples of diagnostic assessments include pre-tests, entry tickets, and concept maps.

To effectively use diagnostic assessments in the classroom, teachers should analyze the results to identify patterns and trends in student understanding.

This information can be used to create differentiated instruction plans and targeted interventions for students struggling with the upcoming material. Sharing the results with students can help them understand their strengths and areas for improvement, fostering a growth mindset and encouraging active engagement in their learning.

4. Performance-based assessment

Performance-based assessment is a type of evaluation that requires students to demonstrate their knowledge, skills, and abilities through the completion of real-world tasks or activities.

The main purpose of this assessment is to assess students’ ability to apply their learning in authentic, meaningful situations that closely resemble real-life challenges. Examples of performance-based assessments include projects, presentations, portfolios, and hands-on experiments.

These assessments allow students to showcase their understanding and application of concepts in a more active and engaging manner compared to traditional paper-and-pencil tests.

To effectively use performance-based assessments in the classroom, educators should clearly define the task requirements and assessment criteria, providing students with guidelines and expectations for their work. Teachers should also offer support and feedback throughout the process, allowing students to revise and improve their performance.

Incorporating opportunities for peer feedback and self-reflection can further enhance the learning process and help students develop essential skills such as collaboration, communication, and critical thinking.

5. Self-assessment

Self-assessment is a valuable tool for encouraging students to engage in reflection and take ownership of their learning. This type of assessment requires students to evaluate their own progress, skills, and understanding of the subject matter. By promoting self-awareness and critical thinking, self-assessment can contribute to the development of lifelong learning habits and foster a growth mindset.

Examples of self-assessment activities include reflective journaling, goal setting, self-rating scales, or checklists. These tools provide students with opportunities to assess their strengths, weaknesses, and areas for improvement. When implementing self-assessment in the classroom, it is important to create a supportive environment where students feel comfortable and encouraged to be honest about their performance.

Teachers can guide students by providing clear criteria and expectations for self-assessment, as well as offering constructive feedback to help them set realistic goals for future learning.

Incorporating self-assessment as part of a broader assessment strategy can reinforce learning objectives and empower students to take an active role in their education.

Reflecting on their performance and understanding the assessment criteria can help them recognize both short-term successes and long-term goals. This ongoing process of self-evaluation can help students develop a deeper understanding of the material, as well as cultivate valuable skills such as self-regulation, goal setting, and critical thinking.

6. Peer assessment

Peer assessment, also known as peer evaluation, is a strategy where students evaluate and provide feedback on their classmates’ work. This type of assessment allows students to gain a better understanding of their own work, as well as that of their peers.

Examples of peer assessment activities include group projects, presentations, written assignments, or online discussion boards.

In these settings, students can provide constructive feedback on their peers’ work, identify strengths and areas for improvement, and suggest specific strategies for enhancing performance.

Constructive peer feedback can help students gain a deeper understanding of the material and develop valuable skills such as working in groups, communicating effectively, and giving constructive criticism.

To successfully integrate peer assessment in the classroom, consider incorporating a variety of activities that allow students to practice evaluating their peers’ work, while also receiving feedback on their own performance.

Encourage students to focus on both strengths and areas for improvement, and emphasize the importance of respectful, constructive feedback. Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the feedback they receive and incorporate it into their learning process. Monitor the peer assessment process to ensure fairness, consistency, and alignment with learning objectives.

Implementing Standard-Based Assessments

kids having quizzes

Standard-based assessments are designed to measure students’ performance relative to established learning standards, such as those generated by the Common Core State Standards Initiative or individual state education guidelines.

By implementing these types of assessments, educators can ensure that students meet the necessary benchmarks for their grade level and subject area, providing a clearer picture of student progress and learning outcomes.

To successfully implement standard-based assessments, it is essential to align assessment tasks with the relevant learning standards.

This involves creating assessments that directly measure students’ knowledge and skills in relation to the standards rather than relying solely on traditional testing methods.

As a result, educators can obtain a more accurate understanding of student performance and identify areas that may require additional support or instruction. Grading formative and summative assessments within a standard-based framework requires a shift in focus from assigning letter grades or percentages to evaluating students’ mastery of specific learning objectives.

This approach encourages educators to provide targeted feedback that addresses individual student needs and promotes growth and improvement. By utilizing rubrics or other assessment tools, teachers can offer clear, objective criteria for evaluating student work, ensuring consistency and fairness in the grading process.

Tips For Choosing the Right Assessment Strategy

When selecting an assessment strategy, it’s crucial to consider its purpose. Ask yourself what you want to accomplish with the assessment and how it will contribute to student learning. This will help you determine the most appropriate assessment type for your specific situation.

Aligning assessments with learning objectives is another critical factor. Ensure that the assessment methods you choose accurately measure whether students have met the desired learning outcomes. This alignment will provide valuable feedback to both you and your students on their progress. Diversifying assessment methods is essential for a comprehensive evaluation of student learning.

By using a variety of assessment types, you can gain a more accurate understanding of students’ strengths and weaknesses. This approach also helps support different learning styles and reduces the risk of overemphasis on a single assessment method.

Incorporating multiple forms of assessment, such as formative, summative, diagnostic, performance-based, self-assessment, and peer assessment, can provide a well-rounded understanding of student learning. By doing so, educators can make informed decisions about instruction, support, and intervention strategies to enhance student success and overall classroom experience.

Challenges and Solutions in Assessment Implementation

Implementing various assessment strategies can present several challenges for educators. One common challenge is the limited time and resources available for creating and administering assessments. To address this issue, teachers can collaborate with colleagues to share resources, divide the workload, and discuss best practices.

Utilizing technology and online platforms can also streamline the assessment process and save time. Another challenge is ensuring that assessments are unbiased and inclusive.

To overcome this, educators should carefully review assessment materials for potential biases and design assessments that are accessible to all students, regardless of their cultural backgrounds or learning abilities.

Offering flexible assessment options for the varying needs of learners can create a more equitable and inclusive learning environment. It is essential to continually improve assessment practices and seek professional development opportunities.

Seeking support from colleagues, attending workshops and conferences related to assessment practices, or enrolling in online courses can help educators stay up-to-date on best practices while also providing opportunities for networking with other professionals.

Ultimately, these efforts will contribute to an improved understanding of the assessments used as well as their relevance in overall student learning.

Assessing student learning is a crucial component of effective teaching and should not be overlooked. By understanding and implementing the various types of assessments discussed in this article, you can create a more comprehensive and effective approach to evaluating student learning in your classroom.

Remember to consider the purpose of each assessment, align them with your learning objectives, and diversify your methods for a well-rounded evaluation of student progress.

If you’re looking to further enhance your assessment practices and overall professional development, Strobel Education offers workshops , courses , keynotes , and coaching  services tailored for K-12 educators. With a focus on fostering a positive school climate and enhancing student learning,  Strobel Education can support your journey toward improved assessment implementation and greater teacher well-being.

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Assessing student writing, what does it mean to assess writing.

  • Suggestions for Assessing Writing

Means of Responding

Rubrics: tools for response and assessment, constructing a rubric.

Assessment is the gathering of information about student learning. It can be used for formative purposes−−to adjust instruction−−or summative purposes: to render a judgment about the quality of student work. It is a key instructional activity, and teachers engage in it every day in a variety of informal and formal ways.

Assessment of student writing is a process. Assessment of student writing and performance in the class should occur at many different stages throughout the course and could come in many different forms. At various points in the assessment process, teachers usually take on different roles such as motivator, collaborator, critic, evaluator, etc., (see Brooke Horvath for more on these roles) and give different types of response.

One of the major purposes of writing assessment is to provide feedback to students. We know that feedback is crucial to writing development. The 2004 Harvard Study of Writing concluded, "Feedback emerged as the hero and the anti-hero of our study−powerful enough to convince students that they could or couldn't do the work in a given field, to push them toward or away from selecting their majors, and contributed, more than any other single factor, to students' sense of academic belonging or alienation" (

Source: Horvath, Brooke K. "The Components of Written Response: A Practical Synthesis of Current Views." Rhetoric Review 2 (January 1985): 136−56. Rpt. in C Corbett, Edward P. J., Nancy Myers, and Gary Tate. The Writing Teacher's Sourcebook . 4th ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000.

Suggestions for Assessing Student Writing

Be sure to know what you want students to be able to do and why. Good assessment practices start with a pedagogically sound assignment description and learning goals for the writing task at hand. The type of feedback given on any task should depend on the learning goals you have for students and the purpose of the assignment. Think early on about why you want students to complete a given writing project (see guide to writing strong assignments page). What do you want them to know? What do you want students to be able to do? Why? How will you know when they have reached these goals? What methods of assessment will allow you to see that students have accomplished these goals (portfolio assessment assigning multiple drafts, rubric, etc)? What will distinguish the strongest projects from the weakest?

Begin designing writing assignments with your learning goals and methods of assessment in mind.

Plan and implement activities that support students in meeting the learning goals. How will you support students in meeting these goals? What writing activities will you allow time for? How can you help students meet these learning goals?

Begin giving feedback early in the writing process. Give multiple types of feedback early in the writing process. For example, talking with students about ideas, write written responses on drafts, have students respond to their peers' drafts in process, etc. These are all ways for students to receive feedback while they are still in the process of revising.

Structure opportunities for feedback at various points in the writing process. Students should also have opportunities to receive feedback on their writing at various stages in the writing process. This does not mean that teachers need to respond to every draft of a writing project. Structuring time for peer response and group workshops can be a very effective way for students to receive feedback from other writers in the class and for them to begin to learn to revise and edit their own writing.

Be open with students about your expectations and the purposes of the assignments. Students respond better to writing projects when they understand why the project is important and what they can learn through the process of completing it. Be explicit about your goals for them as writers and why those goals are important to their learning. Additionally, talk with students about methods of assessment. Some teachers have students help collaboratively design rubrics for the grading of writing. Whatever methods of assessment you choose, be sure to let students in on how they will be evaluated.

 Do not burden students with excessive feedback. Our instinct as teachers, especially when we are really interested in students´ writing is to offer as many comments and suggestions as we can. However, providing too much feedback can leave students feeling daunted and uncertain where to start in terms of revision. Try to choose one or two things to focus on when responding to a draft. Offer students concrete possibilities or strategies for revision.

Allow students to maintain control over their paper. Instead of acting as an editor, suggest options or open-ended alternatives the student can choose for their revision path. Help students learn to assess their own writing and the advice they get about it.

Purposes of Responding We provide different kinds of response at different moments. But we might also fall into a kind of "default" mode, working to get through the papers without making a conscious choice about how and why we want to respond to a given assignment. So it might be helpful to identify the two major kinds of response we provide:

  • Formative Response: response that aims primarily to help students develop their writing. Might focus on confidence-building, on engaging the student in a conversation about her ideas or writing choices so as to help student to see herself as a successful and promising writer. Might focus on helping student develop a particular writing project, from one draft to next. Or, might suggest to student some general skills she could focus on developing over the course of a semester.
  • Evaluative Response: response that focuses on evaluation of how well a student has done. Might be related to a grade. Might be used primarily on a final product or portfolio. Tends to emphasize whether or not student has met the criteria operative for specific assignment and to explain that judgment.

We respond to many kinds of writing and at different stages in the process, from reading responses, to exercises, to generation or brainstorming, to drafts, to source critiques, to final drafts. It is also helpful to think of the various forms that response can take.

  • Conferencing: verbal, interactive response. This might happen in class or during scheduled sessions in offices. Conferencing can be more dynamic: we can ask students questions about their work, modeling a process of reflecting on and revising a piece of writing. Students can also ask us questions and receive immediate feedback. Conference is typically a formative response mechanism, but might also serve usefully to convey evaluative response.
  • Written Comments on Drafts
  • Local: when we focus on "local" moments in a piece of writing, we are calling attention to specifics in the paper. Perhaps certain patterns of grammar or moments where the essay takes a sudden, unexpected turn. We might also use local comments to emphasize a powerful turn of phrase, or a compelling and well-developed moment in a piece. Local commenting tends to happen in the margins, to call attention to specific moments in the piece by highlighting them and explaining their significance. We tend to use local commenting more often on drafts and when doing formative response.
  • Global: when we focus more on the overall piece of writing and less on the specific moments in and of themselves. Global comments tend to come at the end of a piece, in narrative-form response. We might use these to step back and tell the writer what we learned overall, or to comment on a pieces' general organizational structure or focus. We tend to use these for evaluative response and often, deliberately or not, as a means of justifying the grade we assigned.
  • Rubrics: charts or grids on which we identify the central requirements or goals of a specific project. Then, we evaluate whether or not, and how effectively, students met those criteria. These can be written with students as a means of helping them see and articulate the goals a given project.

Rubrics are tools teachers and students use to evaluate and classify writing, whether individual pieces or portfolios. They identify and articulate what is being evaluated in the writing, and offer "descriptors" to classify writing into certain categories (1-5, for instance, or A-F). Narrative rubrics and chart rubrics are the two most common forms. Here is an example of each, using the same classification descriptors:

Example: Narrative Rubric for Inquiring into Family & Community History

An "A" project clearly and compellingly demonstrates how the public event influenced the family/community. It shows strong audience awareness, engaging readers throughout. The form and structure are appropriate for the purpose(s) and audience(s) of the piece. The final product is virtually error-free. The piece seamlessly weaves in several other voices, drawn from appropriate archival, secondary, and primary research. Drafts - at least two beyond the initial draft - show extensive, effective revision. Writer's notes and final learning letter demonstrate thoughtful reflection and growing awareness of writer's strengths and challenges.

A "B" project clearly and compellingly demonstrates how the public event influenced the family/community. It shows strong audience awareness, and usually engages readers. The form and structure are appropriate for the audience(s) and purpose(s) of the piece, though the organization may not be tight in a couple places. The final product includes a few errors, but these do no interfere with readers' comprehension. The piece effectively, if not always seamlessly, weaves several other voices, drawn from appropriate archival, secondary, and primary research. One area of research may not be as strong as the other two. Drafts - at least two beyond the initial drafts - show extensive, effective revision. Writer's notes and final learning letter demonstrate thoughtful reflection and growing awareness of writer's strengths and challenges.

A "C" project demonstrates how the public event influenced the family/community. It shows audience awareness, sometimes engaging readers. The form and structure are appropriate for the audience(s) and purpose(s), but the organization breaks down at times. The piece includes several, apparent errors, which at times compromises the clarity of the piece. The piece incorporates other voices, drawn from at least two kinds of research, but in a generally forced or awkward way. There is unevenness in the quality and appropriateness of the research. Drafts - at least one beyond the initial draft - show some evidence of revision. Writer's notes and final learning letter show some reflection and growth in awareness of writer's strengths and challenges.

A "D" project discusses a public event and a family/community, but the connections may not be clear. It shows little audience awareness. The form and structure is poorly chosen or poorly executed. The piece includes many errors, which regularly compromise the comprehensibility of the piece. There is an attempt to incorporate other voices, but this is done awkwardly or is drawn from incomplete or inappropriate research. There is little evidence of revision. Writer's notes and learning letter are missing or show little reflection or growth.

An "F" project is not responsive to the prompt. It shows little or no audience awareness. The purpose is unclear and the form and structure are poorly chosen and poorly executed. The piece includes many errors, compromising the clarity of the piece throughout. There is little or no evidence of research. There is little or no evidence of revision. Writer's notes and learning letter are missing or show no reflection or growth.

Chart Rubric for Community/Family History Inquiry Project

All good rubrics begin (and end) with solid criteria. We always start working on rubrics by generating a list - by ourselves or with students - of what we value for a particular project or portfolio. We generally list far more items than we could use in a single rubric. Then, we narrow this list down to the most important items - between 5 and 7, ideally. We do not usually rank these items in importance, but it is certainly possible to create a hierarchy of criteria on a rubric (usually by listing the most important criteria at the top of the chart or at the beginning of the narrative description).

Once we have our final list of criteria, we begin to imagine how writing would fit into a certain classification category (1-5, A-F, etc.). How would an "A" essay differ from a "B" essay in Organization? How would a "B" story differ from a "C" story in Character Development? The key here is to identify useful descriptors - drawing the line at appropriate places. Sometimes, these gradations will be precise: the difference between handing in 80% and 90% of weekly writing, for instance. Other times, they will be vague: the difference between "effective revisions" and "mostly effective revisions", for instance. While it is important to be as precise as possible, it is also important to remember that rubric writing (especially in writing classrooms) is more art than science, and will never - and nor should it - stand in for algorithms. When we find ourselves getting caught up in minute gradations, we tend to be overlegislating students´- writing and losing sight of the purpose of the exercise: to support students' development as writers. At the moment when rubric-writing thwarts rather than supports students' writing, we should discontinue the practice. Until then, many students will find rubrics helpful -- and sometimes even motivating.

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Essay Exams

What this handout is about.

At some time in your undergraduate career, you’re going to have to write an essay exam. This thought can inspire a fair amount of fear: we struggle enough with essays when they aren’t timed events based on unknown questions. The goal of this handout is to give you some easy and effective strategies that will help you take control of the situation and do your best.

Why do instructors give essay exams?

Essay exams are a useful tool for finding out if you can sort through a large body of information, figure out what is important, and explain why it is important. Essay exams challenge you to come up with key course ideas and put them in your own words and to use the interpretive or analytical skills you’ve practiced in the course. Instructors want to see whether:

  • You understand concepts that provide the basis for the course
  • You can use those concepts to interpret specific materials
  • You can make connections, see relationships, draw comparisons and contrasts
  • You can synthesize diverse information in support of an original assertion
  • You can justify your own evaluations based on appropriate criteria
  • You can argue your own opinions with convincing evidence
  • You can think critically and analytically about a subject

What essay questions require

Exam questions can reach pretty far into the course materials, so you cannot hope to do well on them if you do not keep up with the readings and assignments from the beginning of the course. The most successful essay exam takers are prepared for anything reasonable, and they probably have some intelligent guesses about the content of the exam before they take it. How can you be a prepared exam taker? Try some of the following suggestions during the semester:

  • Do the reading as the syllabus dictates; keeping up with the reading while the related concepts are being discussed in class saves you double the effort later.
  • Go to lectures (and put away your phone, the newspaper, and that crossword puzzle!).
  • Take careful notes that you’ll understand months later. If this is not your strong suit or the conventions for a particular discipline are different from what you are used to, ask your TA or the Learning Center for advice.
  • Participate in your discussion sections; this will help you absorb the material better so you don’t have to study as hard.
  • Organize small study groups with classmates to explore and review course materials throughout the semester. Others will catch things you might miss even when paying attention. This is not cheating. As long as what you write on the essay is your own work, formulating ideas and sharing notes is okay. In fact, it is a big part of the learning process.
  • As an exam approaches, find out what you can about the form it will take. This will help you forecast the questions that will be on the exam, and prepare for them.

These suggestions will save you lots of time and misery later. Remember that you can’t cram weeks of information into a single day or night of study. So why put yourself in that position?

Now let’s focus on studying for the exam. You’ll notice the following suggestions are all based on organizing your study materials into manageable chunks of related material. If you have a plan of attack, you’ll feel more confident and your answers will be more clear. Here are some tips: 

  • Don’t just memorize aimlessly; clarify the important issues of the course and use these issues to focus your understanding of specific facts and particular readings.
  • Try to organize and prioritize the information into a thematic pattern. Look at what you’ve studied and find a way to put things into related groups. Find the fundamental ideas that have been emphasized throughout the course and organize your notes into broad categories. Think about how different categories relate to each other.
  • Find out what you don’t know, but need to know, by making up test questions and trying to answer them. Studying in groups helps as well.

Taking the exam

Read the exam carefully.

  • If you are given the entire exam at once and can determine your approach on your own, read the entire exam before you get started.
  • Look at how many points each part earns you, and find hints for how long your answers should be.
  • Figure out how much time you have and how best to use it. Write down the actual clock time that you expect to take in each section, and stick to it. This will help you avoid spending all your time on only one section. One strategy is to divide the available time according to percentage worth of the question. You don’t want to spend half of your time on something that is only worth one tenth of the total points.
  • As you read, make tentative choices of the questions you will answer (if you have a choice). Don’t just answer the first essay question you encounter. Instead, read through all of the options. Jot down really brief ideas for each question before deciding.
  • Remember that the easiest-looking question is not always as easy as it looks. Focus your attention on questions for which you can explain your answer most thoroughly, rather than settle on questions where you know the answer but can’t say why.

Analyze the questions

  • Decide what you are being asked to do. If you skim the question to find the main “topic” and then rush to grasp any related ideas you can recall, you may become flustered, lose concentration, and even go blank. Try looking closely at what the question is directing you to do, and try to understand the sort of writing that will be required.
  • Focus on what you do know about the question, not on what you don’t.
  • Look at the active verbs in the assignment—they tell you what you should be doing. We’ve included some of these below, with some suggestions on what they might mean. (For help with this sort of detective work, see the Writing Center handout titled Reading Assignments.)

Information words, such as who, what, when, where, how, and why ask you to demonstrate what you know about the subject. Information words may include:

  • define—give the subject’s meaning (according to someone or something). Sometimes you have to give more than one view on the subject’s meaning.
  • explain why/how—give reasons why or examples of how something happened.
  • illustrate—give descriptive examples of the subject and show how each is connected with the subject.
  • summarize—briefly cover the important ideas you learned about the subject.
  • trace—outline how something has changed or developed from an earlier time to its current form.
  • research—gather material from outside sources about the subject, often with the implication or requirement that you will analyze what you’ve found.

Relation words ask you to demonstrate how things are connected. Relation words may include:

  • compare—show how two or more things are similar (and, sometimes, different).
  • contrast—show how two or more things are dissimilar.
  • apply—use details that you’ve been given to demonstrate how an idea, theory, or concept works in a particular situation.
  • cause—show how one event or series of events made something else happen.
  • relate—show or describe the connections between things.

Interpretation words ask you to defend ideas of your own about the subject. Don’t see these words as requesting opinion alone (unless the assignment specifically says so), but as requiring opinion that is supported by concrete evidence. Remember examples, principles, definitions, or concepts from class or research and use them in your interpretation. Interpretation words may include:

  • prove, justify—give reasons or examples to demonstrate how or why something is the truth.
  • evaluate, respond, assess—state your opinion of the subject as good, bad, or some combination of the two, with examples and reasons (you may want to compare your subject to something else).
  • support—give reasons or evidence for something you believe (be sure to state clearly what it is that you believe).
  • synthesize—put two or more things together that haven’t been put together before; don’t just summarize one and then the other, and say that they are similar or different—you must provide a reason for putting them together (as opposed to compare and contrast—see above).
  • analyze—look closely at the components of something to figure out how it works, what it might mean, or why it is important.
  • argue—take a side and defend it (with proof) against the other side.

Plan your answers

Think about your time again. How much planning time you should take depends on how much time you have for each question and how many points each question is worth. Here are some general guidelines: 

  • For short-answer definitions and identifications, just take a few seconds. Skip over any you don’t recognize fairly quickly, and come back to them when another question jogs your memory.
  • For answers that require a paragraph or two, jot down several important ideas or specific examples that help to focus your thoughts.
  • For longer answers, you will need to develop a much more definite strategy of organization. You only have time for one draft, so allow a reasonable amount of time—as much as a quarter of the time you’ve allotted for the question—for making notes, determining a thesis, and developing an outline.
  • For questions with several parts (different requests or directions, a sequence of questions), make a list of the parts so that you do not miss or minimize one part. One way to be sure you answer them all is to number them in the question and in your outline.
  • You may have to try two or three outlines or clusters before you hit on a workable plan. But be realistic—you want a plan you can develop within the limited time allotted for your answer. Your outline will have to be selective—not everything you know, but what you know that you can state clearly and keep to the point in the time available.

Again, focus on what you do know about the question, not on what you don’t.

Writing your answers

As with planning, your strategy for writing depends on the length of your answer:

  • For short identifications and definitions, it is usually best to start with a general identifying statement and then move on to describe specific applications or explanations. Two sentences will almost always suffice, but make sure they are complete sentences. Find out whether the instructor wants definition alone, or definition and significance. Why is the identification term or object important?
  • For longer answers, begin by stating your forecasting statement or thesis clearly and explicitly. Strive for focus, simplicity, and clarity. In stating your point and developing your answers, you may want to use important course vocabulary words from the question. For example, if the question is, “How does wisteria function as a representation of memory in Faulkner’s Absalom, Absalom?” you may want to use the words wisteria, representation, memory, and Faulkner) in your thesis statement and answer. Use these important words or concepts throughout the answer.
  • If you have devised a promising outline for your answer, then you will be able to forecast your overall plan and its subpoints in your opening sentence. Forecasting impresses readers and has the very practical advantage of making your answer easier to read. Also, if you don’t finish writing, it tells your reader what you would have said if you had finished (and may get you partial points).
  • You might want to use briefer paragraphs than you ordinarily do and signal clear relations between paragraphs with transition phrases or sentences.
  • As you move ahead with the writing, you may think of new subpoints or ideas to include in the essay. Stop briefly to make a note of these on your original outline. If they are most appropriately inserted in a section you’ve already written, write them neatly in the margin, at the top of the page, or on the last page, with arrows or marks to alert the reader to where they fit in your answer. Be as neat and clear as possible.
  • Don’t pad your answer with irrelevancies and repetitions just to fill up space. Within the time available, write a comprehensive, specific answer.
  • Watch the clock carefully to ensure that you do not spend too much time on one answer. You must be realistic about the time constraints of an essay exam. If you write one dazzling answer on an exam with three equally-weighted required questions, you earn only 33 points—not enough to pass at most colleges. This may seem unfair, but keep in mind that instructors plan exams to be reasonably comprehensive. They want you to write about the course materials in two or three or more ways, not just one way. Hint: if you finish a half-hour essay in 10 minutes, you may need to develop some of your ideas more fully.
  • If you run out of time when you are writing an answer, jot down the remaining main ideas from your outline, just to show that you know the material and with more time could have continued your exposition.
  • Double-space to leave room for additions, and strike through errors or changes with one straight line (avoid erasing or scribbling over). Keep things as clean as possible. You never know what will earn you partial credit.
  • Write legibly and proofread. Remember that your instructor will likely be reading a large pile of exams. The more difficult they are to read, the more exasperated the instructor might become. Your instructor also cannot give you credit for what they cannot understand. A few minutes of careful proofreading can improve your grade.

Perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind in writing essay exams is that you have a limited amount of time and space in which to get across the knowledge you have acquired and your ability to use it. Essay exams are not the place to be subtle or vague. It’s okay to have an obvious structure, even the five-paragraph essay format you may have been taught in high school. Introduce your main idea, have several paragraphs of support—each with a single point defended by specific examples, and conclude with a restatement of your main point and its significance.

Some physiological tips

Just think—we expect athletes to practice constantly and use everything in their abilities and situations in order to achieve success. Yet, somehow many students are convinced that one day’s worth of studying, no sleep, and some well-placed compliments (“Gee, Dr. So-and-so, I really enjoyed your last lecture”) are good preparation for a test. Essay exams are like any other testing situation in life: you’ll do best if you are prepared for what is expected of you, have practiced doing it before, and have arrived in the best shape to do it. You may not want to believe this, but it’s true: a good night’s sleep and a relaxed mind and body can do as much or more for you as any last-minute cram session. Colleges abound with tales of woe about students who slept through exams because they stayed up all night, wrote an essay on the wrong topic, forgot everything they studied, or freaked out in the exam and hyperventilated. If you are rested, breathing normally, and have brought along some healthy, energy-boosting snacks that you can eat or drink quietly, you are in a much better position to do a good job on the test. You aren’t going to write a good essay on something you figured out at 4 a.m. that morning. If you prepare yourself well throughout the semester, you don’t risk your whole grade on an overloaded, undernourished brain.

If for some reason you get yourself into this situation, take a minute every once in a while during the test to breathe deeply, stretch, and clear your brain. You need to be especially aware of the likelihood of errors, so check your essays thoroughly before you hand them in to make sure they answer the right questions and don’t have big oversights or mistakes (like saying “Hitler” when you really mean “Churchill”).

If you tend to go blank during exams, try studying in the same classroom in which the test will be given. Some research suggests that people attach ideas to their surroundings, so it might jog your memory to see the same things you were looking at while you studied.

Try good luck charms. Bring in something you associate with success or the support of your loved ones, and use it as a psychological boost.

Take all of the time you’ve been allotted. Reread, rework, and rethink your answers if you have extra time at the end, rather than giving up and handing the exam in the minute you’ve written your last sentence. Use every advantage you are given.

Remember that instructors do not want to see you trip up—they want to see you do well. With this in mind, try to relax and just do the best you can. The more you panic, the more mistakes you are liable to make. Put the test in perspective: will you die from a poor performance? Will you lose all of your friends? Will your entire future be destroyed? Remember: it’s just a test.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Axelrod, Rise B., and Charles R. Cooper. 2016. The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing , 11th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Fowler, Ramsay H., and Jane E. Aaron. 2016. The Little, Brown Handbook , 13th ed. Boston: Pearson.

Gefvert, Constance J. 1988. The Confident Writer: A Norton Handbook , 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.

Kirszner, Laurie G. 1988. Writing: A College Rhetoric , 2nd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Woodman, Leonara, and Thomas P. Adler. 1988. The Writer’s Choices , 2nd ed. Northbrook, Illinois: Scott Foresman.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Center for Teaching

Student assessment in teaching and learning.

what is a essay grade assessment

Much scholarship has focused on the importance of student assessment in teaching and learning in higher education. Student assessment is a critical aspect of the teaching and learning process. Whether teaching at the undergraduate or graduate level, it is important for instructors to strategically evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching by measuring the extent to which students in the classroom are learning the course material.

This teaching guide addresses the following: 1) defines student assessment and why it is important, 2) identifies the forms and purposes of student assessment in the teaching and learning process, 3) discusses methods in student assessment, and 4) makes an important distinction between assessment and grading., what is student assessment and why is it important.

In their handbook for course-based review and assessment, Martha L. A. Stassen et al. define assessment as “the systematic collection and analysis of information to improve student learning.” (Stassen et al., 2001, pg. 5) This definition captures the essential task of student assessment in the teaching and learning process. Student assessment enables instructors to measure the effectiveness of their teaching by linking student performance to specific learning objectives. As a result, teachers are able to institutionalize effective teaching choices and revise ineffective ones in their pedagogy.

The measurement of student learning through assessment is important because it provides useful feedback to both instructors and students about the extent to which students are successfully meeting course learning objectives. In their book Understanding by Design , Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe offer a framework for classroom instruction—what they call “Backward Design”—that emphasizes the critical role of assessment. For Wiggens and McTighe, assessment enables instructors to determine the metrics of measurement for student understanding of and proficiency in course learning objectives. They argue that assessment provides the evidence needed to document and validate that meaningful learning has occurred in the classroom. Assessment is so vital in their pedagogical design that their approach “encourages teachers and curriculum planners to first ‘think like an assessor’ before designing specific units and lessons, and thus to consider up front how they will determine if students have attained the desired understandings.” (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005, pg. 18)

For more on Wiggins and McTighe’s “Backward Design” model, see our Understanding by Design teaching guide.

Student assessment also buttresses critical reflective teaching. Stephen Brookfield, in Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher, contends that critical reflection on one’s teaching is an essential part of developing as an educator and enhancing the learning experience of students. Critical reflection on one’s teaching has a multitude of benefits for instructors, including the development of rationale for teaching practices. According to Brookfield, “A critically reflective teacher is much better placed to communicate to colleagues and students (as well as to herself) the rationale behind her practice. She works from a position of informed commitment.” (Brookfield, 1995, pg. 17) Student assessment, then, not only enables teachers to measure the effectiveness of their teaching, but is also useful in developing the rationale for pedagogical choices in the classroom.

Forms and Purposes of Student Assessment

There are generally two forms of student assessment that are most frequently discussed in the scholarship of teaching and learning. The first, summative assessment , is assessment that is implemented at the end of the course of study. Its primary purpose is to produce a measure that “sums up” student learning. Summative assessment is comprehensive in nature and is fundamentally concerned with learning outcomes. While summative assessment is often useful to provide information about patterns of student achievement, it does so without providing the opportunity for students to reflect on and demonstrate growth in identified areas for improvement and does not provide an avenue for the instructor to modify teaching strategy during the teaching and learning process. (Maki, 2002) Examples of summative assessment include comprehensive final exams or papers.

The second form, formative assessment , involves the evaluation of student learning over the course of time. Its fundamental purpose is to estimate students’ level of achievement in order to enhance student learning during the learning process. By interpreting students’ performance through formative assessment and sharing the results with them, instructors help students to “understand their strengths and weaknesses and to reflect on how they need to improve over the course of their remaining studies.” (Maki, 2002, pg. 11) Pat Hutchings refers to this form of assessment as assessment behind outcomes. She states, “the promise of assessment—mandated or otherwise—is improved student learning, and improvement requires attention not only to final results but also to how results occur. Assessment behind outcomes means looking more carefully at the process and conditions that lead to the learning we care about…” (Hutchings, 1992, pg. 6, original emphasis). Formative assessment includes course work—where students receive feedback that identifies strengths, weaknesses, and other things to keep in mind for future assignments—discussions between instructors and students, and end-of-unit examinations that provide an opportunity for students to identify important areas for necessary growth and development for themselves. (Brown and Knight, 1994)

It is important to recognize that both summative and formative assessment indicate the purpose of assessment, not the method . Different methods of assessment (discussed in the next section) can either be summative or formative in orientation depending on how the instructor implements them. Sally Brown and Peter Knight in their book, Assessing Learners in Higher Education, caution against a conflation of the purposes of assessment its method. “Often the mistake is made of assuming that it is the method which is summative or formative, and not the purpose. This, we suggest, is a serious mistake because it turns the assessor’s attention away from the crucial issue of feedback.” (Brown and Knight, 1994, pg. 17) If an instructor believes that a particular method is formative, he or she may fall into the trap of using the method without taking the requisite time to review the implications of the feedback with students. In such cases, the method in question effectively functions as a form of summative assessment despite the instructor’s intentions. (Brown and Knight, 1994) Indeed, feedback and discussion is the critical factor that distinguishes between formative and summative assessment.

Methods in Student Assessment

Below are a few common methods of assessment identified by Brown and Knight that can be implemented in the classroom. [1] It should be noted that these methods work best when learning objectives have been identified, shared, and clearly articulated to students.


The goal of implementing self-assessment in a course is to enable students to develop their own judgement. In self-assessment students are expected to assess both process and product of their learning. While the assessment of the product is often the task of the instructor, implementing student assessment in the classroom encourages students to evaluate their own work as well as the process that led them to the final outcome. Moreover, self-assessment facilitates a sense of ownership of one’s learning and can lead to greater investment by the student. It enables students to develop transferable skills in other areas of learning that involve group projects and teamwork, critical thinking and problem-solving, as well as leadership roles in the teaching and learning process.

Things to Keep in Mind about Self-Assessment

  • Self-assessment is different from self-grading. According to Brown and Knight, “Self-assessment involves the use of evaluative processes in which judgement is involved, where self-grading is the marking of one’s own work against a set of criteria and potential outcomes provided by a third person, usually the [instructor].” (Pg. 52)
  • Students may initially resist attempts to involve them in the assessment process. This is usually due to insecurities or lack of confidence in their ability to objectively evaluate their own work. Brown and Knight note, however, that when students are asked to evaluate their work, frequently student-determined outcomes are very similar to those of instructors, particularly when the criteria and expectations have been made explicit in advance.
  • Methods of self-assessment vary widely and can be as eclectic as the instructor. Common forms of self-assessment include the portfolio, reflection logs, instructor-student interviews, learner diaries and dialog journals, and the like.

Peer Assessment

Peer assessment is a type of collaborative learning technique where students evaluate the work of their peers and have their own evaluated by peers. This dimension of assessment is significantly grounded in theoretical approaches to active learning and adult learning . Like self-assessment, peer assessment gives learners ownership of learning and focuses on the process of learning as students are able to “share with one another the experiences that they have undertaken.” (Brown and Knight, 1994, pg. 52)

Things to Keep in Mind about Peer Assessment

  • Students can use peer assessment as a tactic of antagonism or conflict with other students by giving unmerited low evaluations. Conversely, students can also provide overly favorable evaluations of their friends.
  • Students can occasionally apply unsophisticated judgements to their peers. For example, students who are boisterous and loquacious may receive higher grades than those who are quieter, reserved, and shy.
  • Instructors should implement systems of evaluation in order to ensure valid peer assessment is based on evidence and identifiable criteria .  

According to Euan S. Henderson, essays make two important contributions to learning and assessment: the development of skills and the cultivation of a learning style. (Henderson, 1980) Essays are a common form of writing assignment in courses and can be either a summative or formative form of assessment depending on how the instructor utilizes them in the classroom.

Things to Keep in Mind about Essays

  • A common challenge of the essay is that students can use them simply to regurgitate rather than analyze and synthesize information to make arguments.
  • Instructors commonly assume that students know how to write essays and can encounter disappointment or frustration when they discover that this is not the case for some students. For this reason, it is important for instructors to make their expectations clear and be prepared to assist or expose students to resources that will enhance their writing skills.

Exams and time-constrained, individual assessment

Examinations have traditionally been viewed as a gold standard of assessment in education, particularly in university settings. Like essays they can be summative or formative forms of assessment.

Things to Keep in Mind about Exams

  • Exams can make significant demands on students’ factual knowledge and can have the side-effect of encouraging cramming and surface learning. On the other hand, they can also facilitate student demonstration of deep learning if essay questions or topics are appropriately selected. Different formats include in-class tests, open-book, take-home exams and the like.
  • In the process of designing an exam, instructors should consider the following questions. What are the learning objectives that the exam seeks to evaluate? Have students been adequately prepared to meet exam expectations? What are the skills and abilities that students need to do well? How will this exam be utilized to enhance the student learning process?

As Brown and Knight assert, utilizing multiple methods of assessment, including more than one assessor, improves the reliability of data. However, a primary challenge to the multiple methods approach is how to weigh the scores produced by multiple methods of assessment. When particular methods produce higher range of marks than others, instructors can potentially misinterpret their assessment of overall student performance. When multiple methods produce different messages about the same student, instructors should be mindful that the methods are likely assessing different forms of achievement. (Brown and Knight, 1994).

For additional methods of assessment not listed here, see “Assessment on the Page” and “Assessment Off the Page” in Assessing Learners in Higher Education .

In addition to the various methods of assessment listed above, classroom assessment techniques also provide a useful way to evaluate student understanding of course material in the teaching and learning process. For more on these, see our Classroom Assessment Techniques teaching guide.

Assessment is More than Grading

Instructors often conflate assessment with grading. This is a mistake. It must be understood that student assessment is more than just grading. Remember that assessment links student performance to specific learning objectives in order to provide useful information to instructors and students about student achievement. Traditional grading on the other hand, according to Stassen et al. does not provide the level of detailed and specific information essential to link student performance with improvement. “Because grades don’t tell you about student performance on individual (or specific) learning goals or outcomes, they provide little information on the overall success of your course in helping students to attain the specific and distinct learning objectives of interest.” (Stassen et al., 2001, pg. 6) Instructors, therefore, must always remember that grading is an aspect of student assessment but does not constitute its totality.

Teaching Guides Related to Student Assessment

Below is a list of other CFT teaching guides that supplement this one. They include:

  • Active Learning
  • An Introduction to Lecturing
  • Beyond the Essay: Making Student Thinking Visible in the Humanities
  • Bloom’s Taxonomy
  • How People Learn
  • Syllabus Construction

References and Additional Resources

This teaching guide draws upon a number of resources listed below. These sources should prove useful for instructors seeking to enhance their pedagogy and effectiveness as teachers.

Angelo, Thomas A., and K. Patricia Cross. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers . 2 nd edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993. Print.

Brookfield, Stephen D. Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995. Print.

Brown, Sally, and Peter Knight. Assessing Learners in Higher Education . 1 edition. London ; Philadelphia: Routledge, 1998. Print.

Cameron, Jeanne et al. “Assessment as Critical Praxis: A Community College Experience.” Teaching Sociology 30.4 (2002): 414–429. JSTOR . Web.

Gibbs, Graham and Claire Simpson. “Conditions under which Assessment Supports Student Learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education 1 (2004): 3-31.

Henderson, Euan S. “The Essay in Continuous Assessment.” Studies in Higher Education 5.2 (1980): 197–203. Taylor and Francis+NEJM . Web.

Maki, Peggy L. “Developing an Assessment Plan to Learn about Student Learning.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 28.1 (2002): 8–13. ScienceDirect . Web. The Journal of Academic Librarianship.

Sharkey, Stephen, and William S. Johnson. Assessing Undergraduate Learning in Sociology . ASA Teaching Resource Center, 1992. Print.

Wiggins, Grant, and Jay McTighe. Understanding By Design . 2nd Expanded edition. Alexandria, VA: Assn. for Supervision & Curriculum Development, 2005. Print.

[1] Brown and Night discuss the first two in their chapter entitled “Dimensions of Assessment.” However, because this chapter begins the second part of the book that outlines assessment methods, I have collapsed the two under the category of methods for the purposes of continuity.

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17.6: What are the benefits of essay tests?

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  • Jennfer Kidd, Jamie Kaufman, Peter Baker, Patrick O'Shea, Dwight Allen, & Old Dominion U students
  • Old Dominion University

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Learning Objectives

  • Understand the benefits of essay questions for both Students and Teachers
  • Identify when essays are useful


Essays, along with multiple choice, are a very common method of assessment. Essays offer a means completely different than that of multiple choice. When thinking of a means of assessment, the essay along with multiple choice are the two that most come to mind (Schouller).The essay lends itself to specific subjects; for example, a math test would not have an essay question. The essay is more common in the arts, humanities and the social sciences(Scouller). On occasion an essay can be used used in both physical and natural sciences as well(Scouller). As a future history teacher, I will find that essays will be an essential part of my teaching structure.

The Benefits for Students

By utilizing essays as a mean of assessments, teachers are able to better survey what the student has learned. Multiple choice questions, by their very design, can be worked around. The student can guess, and has decent chance of getting the question right, even if they did not know the answer. This blind guessing does not benefit the student at all. In addition, some multiple choices can deceive the student(Moore). Short answers, and their big brother the essay, work in an entirely different way. Essays remove this factor. in a addition, rather than simply recognize the subject matter, the student must recall the material covered. This challenges the student more, and by forcing the student to remember the information needed, causes the student to retain it better. This in turn reinforces understanding(Moore). Scouller adds to this observation, determining that essay assessment "encourages students' development of higher order intellectual skills and the employment of deeper learning approaches; and secondly, allows students to demonstrate their development."

"Essay questions provide more opportunity to communicate ideas. Whereas multiple choice limits the options, an essay allows the student express ideas that would otherwise not be communicated." (Moore)

The Benefits for Teachers

The matter of preparation must also be considered when comparing multiple choice and essays. For multiple choice questions, the instructor must choose several questions that cover the material covered. After doing so, then the teacher has to come up with multiple possible answers. This is much more difficult than one might assume. With the essay question, the teacher will still need to be creative. However, the teacher only has to come up with a topic, and what the student is expected to cover. This saves the teacher time. When grading, the teacher knows what he or she is looking for in the paper, so the time spent reading is not necessarily more. The teacher also benefits from a better understanding of what they are teaching. The process of selecting a good essay question requires some critical thought of its own, which reflects onto the teacher(Moore).

Multiple Choice. True or False. Short Answer. Essay. All are forms of assessment. All have their pros and cons. For some, they are better suited for particular subjects. Others, not so much. Some students may even find essays to be easier. It is vital to understand when it is best to utilize the essay. Obviously for teachers of younger students, essays are not as useful. However, as the age of the student increase, the importance of the essay follows suit. That essays are utilized in essential exams such as the SAT, SOLs and in our case the PRAXIS demonstrates how important essays are. However, what it ultimately comes down to is what the teacher feels what will best assess what has been covered.

Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

1)What Subject would most benefit from essays?

B: Mathematics for the Liberal Arts

C: Survey of American Literature

2)What is an advantage of essay assessment for the student?

A) They allow for better expression

B) There is little probability for randomness

C) The time taken is less overall

D) A & B

3)What is NOT a benefit of essay assessment for the teacher

A)They help the instructor better understand the subject

B)They remove some the work required for multiple choice

C)The time spent on preparation is less

D) There is no noticeable benefit.

4)Issac is a teacher making up a test. The test will have multiple sections: Short answer, multiple choice, and an essay. What subject does Issac MOST LIKELY teach?

References Cited

1)Moore, S.(2008) Interview with Scott Moore, Professor at Old Dominion University

2)Scouller, K. (1998). The influence of assessment method on students' learning approaches: multiple Choice question examination versus assignment essay. Higher Education 35(4), pp. 453–472

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  • Essay Exams

Essay exams provide opportunities to evaluate students’ reasoning skills such as the ability to compare and contrast concepts, justify a position on a topic, interpret cases from the perspective of different theories or models, evaluate a claim or assertion with evidence, design an experiment, and other higher level cognitive skills. They can reveal if students understand the theory behind course material or how different concepts and theories relate to each other. 

+ Advantages and Challenges of essay exams


  • Can be used to measure higher order cognitive skills
  • Takes relatively less time to write questions
  • Difficult for respondents to get correct answers by guessing


  • Can be time consuming to administer and to score
  • Can be challenging to identify measurable, reliable criteria for assessing student responses
  • Limited range of content can be sampled during any one testing period
  • Timed exams in general add stress unrelated to a student's mastery of the material

+ Creating an essay exam

  • Limit the use of essay questions to learning aims that require learners to share their thinking processes, connect and analyze information, and communicate their understanding for a specific purpose. 
  • Write each item so that students clearly understand the specific task and what deliverables are required for a complete answer (e.g. diagram, amount of evidence, number of examples).
  • Indicate the relative amount of time and effort students should spend on each essay item, for example “2 – 3 sentences should suffice for this question”.
  • Consider using several narrowly focused items rather than one broad item.
  • Consider offering students choice among essay questions, while ensuring that all learning aims are assessed.

When designing essay exams, consider the reasoning skills you want to assess in your students. The following table lists different skills to measure with example prompts to guide assessment questions. 

+ Preparing students for an essay exam

Adapted from Piontek, 2008

Prior to the essay exam

  • Administer a formative assessment that asks students to do a brief write on a question similar to one you will use on an exam and provide them with feedback on their responses.
  • Provide students with examples of essay responses that do and do not meet your criteria and standards. 
  • Provide students with the learning aims they will be responsible for mastering to help them focus their preparation appropriately.
  • Have students apply the scoring rubric to sample essay responses and provide them with feedback on their work.

Resource video : 2-minute video description of a formative assessment that helps prepare students for an essay exam. 

+ Administering an essay exam

  • Provide adequate time for students to take the assessment. A strategy some instructors use is to time themselves answering the exam questions completely and then multiply that time by 3-4.
  • Endeavor to create a distraction-free environment.
  • Review the suggestions for informal accommodations for multilingual learners , which may be helpful in setting up an essay exam for all learners.

+ Grading an essay exam

To ensure essays are graded fairly and without bias:

  • Outline what constitutes an acceptable answer (criteria for knowledge and skills).
  • Select an appropriate scoring method based on the criteria.
  • Clarify the role of writing mechanics and other factors independent of the learning aims being measured.
  • Share with students ahead of time.
  • Use a systematic process for scoring each essay item.  For instance, score all responses to a single question in one setting.
  • Anonymize student work (if possible) to ensure fairer and more objective feedback. For example students could use their student ID number in place of their name.

+ References & Resources

  • For more information on setting criteria, preparing students, and grading essay exams read:  Boye, A. (2019) Writing Better Essay Exams , IDEA paper #76.
  • For more detailed descriptions of how to develop and score essay exams read: Piontek, M.E. (2008). Best Practices for Designing and Grading Exams, CRLT Occasional Paper # 24.

Web resources

  • Designing Effective Writing Assignments  (Teaching with Writing Program - UMNTC ) 
  • Writing Assignment Checklist (Teaching with Writing Program - UMNTC)
  • Designing and Using Rubrics (Center for Writing - UMTC)
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A Guide to Standardized Writing Assessment

Overview of writing assessment, holistic scoring, evolving technology, applications in the classroom.

A Guide to Standardized Writing Assessment- thumbnail

In the United States, policymakers, advisory groups, and educators increasingly view writing as one of the best ways to foster critical thinking and learning across the curriculum. The nonprofit organization Achieve worked with five states to define essential English skills for high school graduates and concluded thatStrong writing skills have become an increasingly important commodity in the 21st century. . . . The discipline and skill required to create, reshape, and polish pieces of writing “on demand” prepares students for the real world, where they inevitably must be able to write quickly and clearly, whether in the workplace or in college classrooms. (2004, p. 26)
My daughters are not alone. Increasingly, students are being asked to write for tests that range from NCLB-mandated subject assessments in elementary school to the new College Board SAT, which will feature a writing section beginning in March 2005. Educators on the whole have encouraged this development. As one study argues,Since educators can use writing to stimulate students' higher-order thinking skills—such as the ability to make logical connections, to compare and contrast solutions to problems, and to adequately support arguments and conclusions—authentic assessment seems to offer excellent criteria for teaching and evaluating writing. (Chapman, 1990)

Achieve, Inc. (2004). Do graduation tests measure up? A closer look at state high school exit exams . Washington, DC: Author.

Boomer, G. (1985). The assessment of writing. In P. J. Evans (Ed.), Directions and misdirections in English evaluation (pp. 63–64). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Council of Teachers of English.

Chapman, C. (1990). Authentic writing assessment . Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 328 606)

Cooper, C. R., & Odell, L. (1977). Evaluating writing: Describing, measuring, judging . Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Duke, C. R., & Sanchez, R. (1994). Giving students control over writing assessment. English Journal, 83 (4), 47–53.

Fiderer, A. (1998). Rubrics and checklists to assess reading and writing: Time-saving reproducible forms for meaningful literacy assessment . Bergenfield, NJ: Scholastic.

Murphy, S., & Ruth, L. (1999). The field-testing of writing prompts reconsidered. In M. M. Williamson & B. A. Huot (Eds.), Validating holistic scoring for writing assessment: Theoretical and empirical foundations (pp. 266–302). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Ruth, L., & Murphy, S. (1988). Designing tasks for the assessment of writing . Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Skillings, M. J., & Ferrell, R. (2000). Student-generated rubrics: Bringing students into the assessment process. Reading Teacher, 53 (6), 452–455.

White, J. O. (1982). Students learn by doing holistic scoring. English Journal , 50–51.

• 1 For information on individual state assessments and rubrics, visit and follow the links to the state departments of education.

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Common-Core-Aligned Performance Assessments

These performance assessments were created by the Teachers College Reading and Writing Project for NYC Department of Education and some are owned by NYC Department of Education. The NYC Department of Education has agreed to allow Teachers College Reading and Writing Project to post the performance assessments online to support your students' academic progress. You must obtain permission from the NYC Department of Education for any other use of the assessments.

Performance Assessments engage students in authentic, high-level work that is aligned to curricular standards so that teachers can more carefully plan for instruction that meets students where they are and moves them forward. The performance assessments you will find here were designed to align to particular Common Core State Standards in reading and writing, and to anchor specific units of study in data collection and close observation of student work. We recommend viewing these as both pre- and post-assessments: you may (and we suggest doing so) conduct the assessment in whole or in part before teaching the relevant units, as a measure of what students are capable of prior to your instruction; you will then use the data from this assessment to tailor your units to students’ specific strengths and needs, and then conduct the same assessment again at the end of the unit, to determine students' growth and to reflect on your instruction.

The overarching goal of assessing students is to provide a clear sense of what students have internalized and what still needs support in regards to the standards-based skills at hand. You will find teacher instructions as well as student-facing instructions and supports; you will also find rubrics that clearly connect the task to the CCSS, and annotated and graded examples of student work. The texts for these tasks are included where we have obtained permissions; in some cases you will need to purchase the relevant texts.

In the case of the second grade assessment, children will study nonfiction reading and informational book writing as two separate but related units. The assessment you’ll find here is designed to help you determine students’ proficiency levels in reading nonfiction and summarizing the information therein and in writing an informational text based in part on information they have read themselves, heard read aloud, or viewed in video form.

In the fifth and eighth grade assessments, students will study nonfiction research methods in reading workshop and research-based argument essay writing in writing workshop. The assessments here are designed to gauge students' abilities to: 1. read nonfiction texts, determining their main ideas and supporting details, 2. plan, draft and revise an essay in which they take a stance on a complex issue and support that stance with information derived from readings of printed text and/or viewings of relevant video clips.

what is a essay grade assessment

Resource List

B.e.s.t. writing scoring samplers.

The Benchmarks for Excellent Student Thinking (B.E.S.T.) Writing Scoring Samplers can be used as a resource regarding the scoring of student responses on the Writing assessment. In each sampler, examples of student responses represent various combinations of the score points across the scoring domains. As a basis for developing a common understanding of the scoring criteria, an annotation follows the response to explain the prominent characteristics of the response described in the rubric. These responses are not intended to provide a full spectrum of examples for each score point in each domain. Moreover, they do not necessarily represent the highest or lowest example of each score point in each domain. The applicable rubric and corresponding prompt and text set are also included in each sampler.

2022 Grade 4 B.E.S.T. Writing Scoring Sampler

2022 grade 5 b.e.s.t. writing scoring sampler, 2022 grade 6 b.e.s.t. writing scoring sampler, 2022 grade 7 b.e.s.t. writing scoring sampler, 2022 grade 8 b.e.s.t. writing scoring sampler, 2022 grade 9 b.e.s.t. writing scoring sampler, 2022 grade 10 b.e.s.t. writing scoring sampler.

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Writing Assessments

what is a essay grade assessment

Writing Assessment

When you want students to understand how writing is graded, turn to our vast selection of assessment examples. You'll find elementary and middle school models in all of the major modes of writing, along with rubrics that assess each example as "Strong," "Good," "Okay," or "Poor." You can also download blank rubrics to use with your own students.

Discover more writing assessment tools for Grade 2 , Grade 3 , Grades 4-5 , Grades 6-8 , Grades 9-10 , and Grades 11-12 —including writing on tests and responding to prompts.

Jump to . . .

  • Grades 9-10
  • Grades 11-12

Persuasive Writing

  • Get a Dog Persuasive Paragraph Strong Please Be Kind Persuasive Paragraph Good Let Me stay up with Shane Persuasive Paragraph Okay We need Bedder Chips Persuasive Paragraph Poor

Narrative Writing

  • The Horrible Day Personal Narrative Strong Keeping the Dressing Personal Narrative Good Friday Personal Narrative Okay Dee Dees hose Personal Narrative Poor

Response to Literature

  • Julius the Baby of the World Book Review Strong One Great Book Book Review Good Dear Mr. Marc Brown Book Review Okay Snowflake Bentley Book Review Poor

Explanatory Writing

  • 4th of July Traditions Explanatory Essay Strong Happy Halloween Explanatory Essay Good Turkey Day Explanatory Essay Okay Forth of July Explanatory Essay Poor
  • Mildew Houses Description Strong Grandpa's Face Description Good A Cool Restrant Description Okay Hot Dogs Description Poor
  • How to Bake a Cake How-To Strong Make a Blow-Up Box How-To Good How to Feed a Dog How-To Okay A Kite How-To Poor
  • Recycling Jars and Cans How-To Strong Getting to the Park How-To Good Planting a Garden How-To Okay How to Pull a tooth How-To Poor
  • Zev's Deli Description Strong Our Horses Description Good My Favorit Lake Description Okay The Zoo Description Poor
  • Thunderstorm! Narrative Paragraph Strong My Trip to the Zoo Narrative Paragraph Good My Lost Puppy Narrative Paragraph Okay My Trip Narrative Paragraph Poor
  • The Sled Run Personal Narrative Strong The Funny Dance Personal Narrative Good Texas Personal Narrative Okay A Sad Day Personal Narrative Poor
  • No School Persuasive Paragraph Strong Dogs Stay Home! Persuasive Paragraph Good A New Pool Persuasive Paragraph Okay A Bigger Cafaterea Persuasive Paragraph Poor
  • New Sidewalks Persuasive Paragraph Strong Don't Burn Leaves Persuasive Paragraph Good The Ginkgo Trees Persuasive Paragraph Okay Turn Your Lights Off Persuasive Paragraph Poor
  • Talent Show and Tell Persuasive Essay Strong Art Every Day Persuasive Essay Good More Recess, Please Persuasive Essay Okay Let Us Eat Persuasive Essay Poor
  • Help Save Our Manatees Persuasive Essay Strong A Fictional Letter to President Lincoln Persuasive Essay Good Endangered Animals Persuasive Essay Okay Why Smog Is Bad Persuasive Essay Poor
  • Food from the Ocean Explanatory Essay Strong How to Make a S’More Explanatory Essay Good The Person I Want to Be Explanatory Essay Okay Sleepover Explanatory Essay Poor
  • Something You Can Sink Your Teeth Into Explanatory Essay Strong Bathing a Puppy Explanatory Essay Good Trading Places Explanatory Essay Okay Fluffy Explanatory Essay Poor
  • When I Got Burned on Dad’s Motorcycle Personal Narrative Strong My First Home Run Personal Narrative Good My Worst Scrape Personal Narrative Okay The Trip to the Woods Personal Narrative Poor
  • Soggy Roads Personal Narrative Strong The Broken Statue Personal Narrative Good Space Monster Personal Narrative Okay Las Vegas Personal Narrative Poor
  • A Shipwreck at the Bottom of the World Book Review Strong A Letter of Recommendation Book Review Good Falling Up Book Review Okay The Cat Ate My Gymsuit Book Review Poor
  • The Year Mom Won the Pennant Book Review Strong A Story of Survival Book Review Good Keep Reading! Book Review Okay Homecoming Book Review Poor

Research Writing

  • The Platypus Report Strong The Click Beetle Report Good Martin Luther King, Junior’s Dream Report Okay Crickets and Grasshoppers Report Poor
  • The Snow Leopard Report Strong The Great Pyramid of Giza Report Good Koalas Report Okay Ladybugs Report Poor
  • Departure Personal Narrative Strong A January Surprise Personal Narrative Good A Day I'll Never Forget Personal Narrative Okay My Summer in Jacksonville, Florida Personal Narrative Poor
  • Puppy Personal Narrative Strong A New Friend Personal Narrative Good My Summer in Michigan Personal Narrative Okay A Horrible Day Personal Narrative Poor
  • Dear Mr. Rhys Biography Strong Turning 13 Biography Good My Resident Edith Biography Okay Police Officer Biography Poor
  • Iron Summary (Strong) Summary Strong Iron Summary (Good) Summary Good Iron Summary (Okay) Summary Okay Iron Summary (Poor) Summary Poor
  • Paper Recycling Explanatory Essay Strong Letter to France Explanatory Essay Good I Have a Dream . . . Too Explanatory Essay Okay Fire Fighter Explanatory Essay Poor
  • Mount Rushmore’s Famous Faces Explanatory Essay Strong Youth Movements in Nazi Germany Explanatory Essay Good My Personal Values Explanatory Essay Okay The Influence of Gangs in Our Community Explanatory Essay Poor
  • Malcolm X and Eleanor Roosevelt Comparison-Contrast Strong How to Make Tabouli Comparison-Contrast Good Yo-Yo’s Flood Del Mar Hills School Comparison-Contrast Okay The Gail Woodpecker Comparison-Contrast Poor
  • Railroad to Freedom Book Review Strong If I Were Anne Frank Book Review Good To Kill a Mockingbird Book Review Okay Good Brother or Bad Brother? Book Review Poor
  • The Power of Water Book Review Strong Summary Review: Arranging a Marriage Book Review Good Freaky Friday Book Review Okay No Friend of Mine Book Review Poor
  • The Aloha State Research Report Strong Tornadoes Research Report Good Earthquakes Research Report Okay The Bombing of Peal Harbor Research Report Poor
  • Wilma Mankiller: Good Times and Bad Research Report Strong Green Anaconda Research Report Good The Great Pyramid Research Report Okay Poodles Research Report Poor

Business Writing

  • Using Hydrochloric Acid (Strong) Instructions Strong Using Hydrochloric Acid (Good) Instructions Good Using Hydrochloric Acid (Okay) Instructions Okay Using Hydrochloric Acid (Poor) Instructions Poor
  • Dear Dr. Larson (Strong) Persuasive Letter Strong Dear Dr. Larson (Good) Persuasive Letter Good Dear Dr. Larson (Okay) Persuasive Letter Okay Dear Dr. Larson (Poor) Persuasive Letter Poor
  • Smoking in Restaurants Persuasive Essay Strong Letter to the Editor (Arts) Persuasive Essay Good Toilet-to-Tap Water Persuasive Essay Okay The Unperminent Hair Dye Rule Persuasive Essay Poor
  • Capital Punishment Is Wrong! Persuasive Essay Strong Letter to the Editor (Cheating) Persuasive Essay Good Letter to the Editor (Immigration) Persuasive Essay Okay Judge Not Persuasive Essay Poor
  • Revisiting Seneca Falls Research Report Strong The Importance of Cinco de Mayo Research Report Good The Meaning of Juneteenth Research Report Okay Russian Missile Problem Research Report Poor
  • Dear Ms. Holloway Business Letter Strong Dear Mr. McNulty Business Letter Good Dear Mr. Underwood Business Letter Okay Dear Mrs. Jay Business Letter Poor
  • Scout Takes Another Look Literary Analysis Strong Rocket Boys: A Memoir Literary Analysis Good A Wrinkle in Time Literary Analysis Okay Being True to Yourself: The Call of the Wild Literary Analysis Poor
  • Evening the Odds Argument Essay Strong Lack of Respect a Growing Problem Argument Essay Good The Right to Dress Argument Essay Okay Grading Students on Effort Argument Essay Poor
  • Sinking the Unsinkable Explanatory Essay Strong The Best Preventive Medicine Explanatory Essay Good The Ozone Layer Explanatory Essay Okay Measurement Explanatory Essay Poor
  • Isn't It Romantic? Definition Strong Good and Angry Definition Good Unsung Heroes Definition Okay Love Definition Poor
  • People Power Personal Narrative Strong It's a Boy Personal Narrative Good A Senior Moment Personal Narrative Okay A Big Family Wedding Personal Narrative Poor
  • Understanding Hmong Americans MLA Research Paper Strong Hmong: From Allies to Neighbors MLA Research Paper Good Welcome the Hmong to America MLA Research Paper Okay Hmong People MLA Research Paper Poor

Narrative Writing, Creative Writing

  • Putin Meddles in U.S. Casseroles Satirical News Story Strong Cabinet Secretaries Now Cabinet Office Assistants Satirical News Story Good Area Man Teaches Ways to Check for B.O. Satirical News Story Okay Global Warming Is Weather-Dependent Satirical News Story Poor
  • Poverty and Race as Predictors in the 2016 Presidential Election Statistical Analysis Strong Poverty and Race in the 2016 Election Statistical Analysis Good AP Stats Project Statistical Analysis Okay Stats Analysis Statistical Analysis Poor
  • Renewable and Carbon-Neutral Problem-Solution Strong The Ethanol Revolution Problem-Solution Good Growing Energy Problem-Solution Okay Corn for the Future Problem-Solution Poor
  • Generations of America Speech Strong Inauguration Speech of the 49th U.S. President Speech Good The Greatest Inauguration Speech Speech Okay What I Will Do for This Country Speech Poor
  • True Leadership Personal Essay Strong A Thing of Beauty Personal Essay Good How I Will Contribute to College Personal Essay Okay What Education Means Personal Essay Poor
  • Setting in Crane and O'Connor Literary Analysis Strong The Scouring of the Shire Literary Analysis Good Setting in Calvin and Hobbes Literary Analysis Okay On Golden Pond Literary Analysis Poor
  • Jane Eyre and the Perils of Sacrifice Literary Analysis Strong Mrs. Reed as a Tragic Figure Literary Analysis Good A Lack of Love Literary Analysis Okay Bad Choices, Bad Results Literary Analysis Poor

Students in School: Importance of Assessment Essay

  • To find inspiration for your paper and overcome writer’s block
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  • As a template for you assignment

Are tests important for students? Why? How should learning be assessed? Essays like the one on this page aim to answer these questions.


Assessment of students is a vital exercise aimed at evaluating their knowledge, talents, thoughts, or beliefs (Harlen, 2007). It involves testing a part of the content taught in class to ascertain the students’ learning progress. Assessment should put into consideration students’ class work and outside class work. For younger kids, the teacher should focus on language development.

This will enhance the kids’ confidence when expressing their ideas whenever asked. As in organizations, checks on the performance of students’ progress should be undertaken regularly. Notably, organizations have a high probability of investing in futility because they lack opportunity for correction.

However, in schools there are more chances of correcting mistakes. Similarly, teachers and parents should have a basis of nurturing and correcting the students. This is only possible through assessment of students at certain intervals during their learning progress. Equally, parents or teachers can use tests as they teach as a means of offering quick solutions to challenges experienced by students while learning.

All trainers should work together with their students with the aim of achieving some goals. To evaluate if the goals are met, trainers use various assessment methods depending on the profession. This is exactly true when it comes to assessment in schools. Assessment should focus on the student learning progress.

It should be employed from the kindergarten to the highest levels of learning institutions such as the university. The most essential fact about assessment is that it has to be specific. This implies that each test should try to evaluate if a student is able to demonstrate the understanding of certain concepts taught in class. Contrary to what most examiners believe, assessment should never be used as a means of ranking students.

I this case the key aims of assessment will be lost. Ranking is not bad, but to some extent it might create a negative impression and demoralize the students who are not ranked at top in class. They feel that they are foolish, which is not the case. In general, assessment should be used for evaluation of results and thus creating and formulation of strategies for improving the students’ learning and performance.

Importance of assessment in school

Assessment forms an important part of learning that determines whether the objectives of education have been attained or not (Salvia, 2001). For important decision making concerning the student’s performance, assessment is inevitable. It is very crucial since it determines what course or career can the student partake depending on class performance.

This is not possible without an exam assessment. It engages instructors with a number of questions, which include whether they are teaching the students what they are supposed to be taught or not, and whether their teaching approach is suitable for students.

Students should be subjected to assessment beyond class work, because the world is changing and they are supposed to adapt to dynamics they encounter in their everyday lives. Assessment is important for parents, students, and teachers.

Teachers should be able to identify the students’ level of knowledge and their special needs. They should be able to identify skills, design lesson plans, and come up with the goals of learning. Similarly, instructors should be able to create new learning arrangements and select appropriate learning materials to meet individual student’s needs.

Teachers have to inform parents about the student’s progress in class. This is only possible with the assessment of the students through either exam or group assessment. The assessment will make teachers improve learning mechanisms to meet the needs and abilities of all students. It provides teachers with a way of informing the public about the student’s progress in school.

Whenever parents are informed about the results of their children, they have to contribute to decision making concerning the student’s education needs (Harlen, 2007). Parents are able to select and pay for the relevant curriculum for their students. They can hire personal tutors or pay tuition to promote the learning of the student.

Students should be able to evaluate their performance and learning in school with the use of assessment results. It forms the basis of self-motivation as through it students are able to put extra efforts in order improve their exam performance. Without results, a student might be tempted to assume that he or she has mastered everything taught in class.

Methods of assessment

Various mechanisms can be used to assess the students in school. These include both group assessment and various examinations issued during the learning session. The exam could be done on a weekly, monthly, or terminal basis. Through this, a student is required to submit a written paper or oral presentation. Assignments are normally given with a fixed date of submission.

The teacher determines the amount of time required depending on the complexity of the assignment. It can take a day, a week, or even a month and this ensures that the student does not only rely on class work. It promotes research work and instills the self-driven virtue to the student. In addition, short time exam gives a quick feedback to the teacher about the student performance.

Exam methods of assessment

Before looking at the various methods of exam assessment, it is important to understand the major role that the assessment plays in the learning of the student. Carrying out an assessment at regular intervals allows the teachers to know how their students are progressing over time with respect to their previous assessments (Harlen, 2007).

Actually, testing of students helps in their learning and creates motivation to learn more and improve their performance in the future examination. It also guides the teacher on ways of passing on the knowledge to the students. There are three purposes of assessment and these include assessment for learning, assessment to learning, and assessment of learning.

All these help the teacher in planning of his lessons and means of getting feedback from students. Moreover, these three factors of learning join the efforts of parents, student, and teachers in the process of learning. There are several repercussions realized when parents do not monitor closely the performance of their kids.

Education experts assert that parents who fail to monitor their children’s learning progress are like farmers who sow seeds during planting season and wait to reap during the harvesting season yet they did nothing about it. The success of the student is easily achieved when there is harmony among the parents, teachers, and the students.

Methods of assessment can be categorized into three steps: baseline, formative and summative (Stefanakis, 2010). The baseline is considered as the basic and marks the beginning of learning. The summative one carries the bigger weight than the formative in the overall performance of the student. It carries more marks and it is usually done at the end of the teaching period in the term paper.

The aim is to check for the overall understanding of the unit or topic by the student. As the formative assessment is a continuous process during the learning session in the classroom, the instructor should use the general feedback and observations while teaching. It can provide an immediate solution to the teacher because the area that troubles the student is easily identified and the teacher takes appropriate action.

Teachers should never ignore the formative or wait for the summative at the end of the learning term. Even if the teacher discovers weakness of the student, it might be less useful since there will be no room for improvement. Actually, it is more of a reactive measure rather than proactive summative assessment. Various mechanisms can be used to realize the formative assessment.

These include surveys, which involve collecting of students’ opinions, attitudes, and behaviors during class (Nitko, 2001). They help the instructor to interact with the student more closely, creating a supportive learning environment for the student. The teacher is able to clear any existing misconception from the students due to prior knowledge. It can also involve reflections of the student.

Here, the student is required to take some time and reflect on what was taught. It necessitates the student to ask several questions regarding what was taught, for instance, questions about the hottest topic, new concepts, or questions left unanswered. It also involves the teacher asking questions during a teaching session. This makes the teacher to point out the areas the students have not understood.

By doing so, the teacher is able to focus and put more effort on some topics as compared to others. The teacher can also decide to issue homework or assignments to students. This gives students an opportunity to build confidence on the knowledge acquired during class work (Stefanakis, 2010).

Most importantly, the teacher could include the objectives and expectations of each lesson and this can be in form of questions. These questions create awareness and curiosity of students about the topic.

For the above methods of assessment, various formats have been adopted. First is the baseline assessment, which aims at examining individual’s experience as well as the prior knowledge. There are pencil and paper easement method, which is a written test. It can be a short essay or multiple choice questions. It checks for the student’s understanding of certain concepts.

The third is the embedded assessment. It deals with testing the students in contextual learning and it is done in the formative stage. The fourth involves oral reports that aim at capturing the student’s communication and scientific skills. They are carried out in the formative stage. Interviews evaluate the group and individual performance during the formative stage.

There is also a performance task, which requires the student to work on an action related to the problem while explaining a scientific idea. Usually, it is assessed both in the summative and formative stages. All these formats ensure the objective of the assessment is achieved (Harlen, 2007). The above exam method promotes learning and acquiring of knowledge among the students.

Group methods of assessment

Assessment is a flexible activity as what is done to an individual during assessment can also be done in a group and still achieve the objectives of the assessment. Group work aims to ensure that students work together. The method is not as smooth as that of an individual’s assessment since awarding of grades is a bit tricky and not straightforward.

The instructors will not know which student has contributed a lot in the group work, unless the same grade is given to group members to create fairness in the process of assessment (Paquette, 2010). It is advisable to consider both the process and finished product when assessing group work.

By just looking at the final work of the group, no one can tell who did what and did not. Individual contributions are implicit in the final project. The teacher should employ some other measures to be able to distribute grades fairly.

The solutions of assessing group include consideration of the process and the final work. The instructor should assess the process involved in the development of the final work. The aspect of the project includes punctuality, cooperation and contribution of the individual student to the group work (Stefanakis, 2010). The participation of each student and teamwork should be assessed.

Fair grading requires looking at the achievement of the objectives of the project. In addition, the instructors can let the students assess and evaluate themselves through group participation. This enhances group teamwork and yields a fair distribution of grades. This is realized because the members of the group know how to research and present written analysis of their work.

Self-assessment aims at realizing respect, promptness, and listening to minority views within the group. Another effective way of ensuring that group work becomes successful is by holding group members accountable. This actually curbs the issue of joy riding among the group members. Individuals are allocated with a certain portion of the entire job.

This involves asking members to demonstrate what they have learned and how they have contributed into the group. In addition, the products and processes are assessed. Another interesting scenario is realized when the instructor gives students the opportunity to evaluate the work of other team members. The gauging of individuals involves the investigating of various aspects of the projects.

These include communication skills, efforts, cooperation, and participation of individual members. It is facilitated by the use of forms, which are completed by the students.

Group work aims at improving both accountability of individuals and vital information due to dynamics experienced in the group. To some extent, an instructor can involve the external feedbacks. These feedbacks are finally incorporated into the final score of the student’s group grade.

There are various mechanisms for assessing and grading the group. First, there is shared grading. Through this, the submitted work of the group is assessed and same grade to all members is awarded without considering the individual’s contribution. Secondly, there is averaging of the group grade. Through this, each member is required to submit the portion allocated.

After assessing the individual’s work, an average of all the members is evaluated and this grade is awarded to group members. This average group grade promotes members to focus on group and individual work. There is also individual grading, where the student’s allocated work is assessed and grades given to individuals.

This enhances efforts during working with all the members. In fact, this method is the fairest way of grading group work. There is also an individual report grading in which each member is required to write individual report. After submitting, assessment is done and a grade is given to the student.

Finally, there is an individual examination grading where questions are examined based on the project. This encourages students to participate fully during the project. It is hard to answer the questions if you have not participated in the group work.

How assessment prepares students for higher education/ workforce/ student character

It is a fact that in any institution exam is an inevitable criterion of assessing students. Whichever the system adopted by the governments of various countries worldwide, exam is an important event as teachers are able to allow those students who perform well to progress in their learning (Stefanakis, 2010). Those who have not met the minimum grading will require extra tuition before they are promoted.

This will involve the initiatives of parents to hire tutors for the student. Exam assessment prepares the student for higher levels of learning, because the higher institutions of learning have exam assessment too. Therefore, it is important for the students to get used to exam as well as research, which will boost the student understanding during lectures in the university or in college.

Similarly, at the end of a university degree course the students are required to carry out a project either as individual or group work. The knowledge and experience of teamwork gained during the lower study levels will play a great role in successful completion of tasks in the university.

Another important factor of assessment is that it helps a student to develop his or her character from childhood to adulthood. For the first time a student joins the school the test should be initiated.

From small things the student is asked by the teacher or by other colleagues, he or she learns how to associate with other students especially during the group work tasks. The student learns and embraces teamwork, cooperation, and accountability. These virtues are a foundation for character. In addition, the student acquires communication skills especially during the presentation of project work or during class sessions.

These small facts about life accumulate and contribute to life outside the school. The student is able to work in any environment. The exam credentials are vital requirements in the job market. All firms base their employment qualification on exams. More often, employers choose best workers based on their exam papers.

This approach has been vital since employers might not have time to assess ability to demonstrate their skills (Stefanakis, 2010). Therefore, the underlying basis is both exam and group assessment. Group assessment helps to build teamwork, which is a vital virtue in the workplace. Most projects in an organization are done in groups. Hence, teamwork aspects are very crucial during implementation.

The student utilizes the knowledge and experience of group work during school. The working environment is not so much different from socialization in school. In any organization, the success of a company is determined by the teamwork and unity of the workers. These vital virtues are learnt and developed in school and are enhanced by assessment.

Harlen, W. (2007). Assessment of learning . Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.

Nitko, A. J. (2001). Educational assessment of students (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.

Paquette, K. R. (2010). Striving for the perfect classroom instructional and assessment strategies to meet the needs of today’s diverse learners . New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Salvia, J. (2001). Assessment (8th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Stefanakis, E. H. (2010). Differentiated assessment how to assess the learning potential of every student . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  • The Essence of Summative
  • Summative Assessment Planning and Procedure
  • A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades
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Title: large language models as partners in student essay evaluation.

Abstract: As the importance of comprehensive evaluation in workshop courses increases, there is a growing demand for efficient and fair assessment methods that reduce the workload for faculty members. This paper presents an evaluation conducted with Large Language Models (LLMs) using actual student essays in three scenarios: 1) without providing guidance such as rubrics, 2) with pre-specified rubrics, and 3) through pairwise comparison of essays. Quantitative analysis of the results revealed a strong correlation between LLM and faculty member assessments in the pairwise comparison scenario with pre-specified rubrics, although concerns about the quality and stability of evaluations remained. Therefore, we conducted a qualitative analysis of LLM assessment comments, showing that: 1) LLMs can match the assessment capabilities of faculty members, 2) variations in LLM assessments should be interpreted as diversity rather than confusion, and 3) assessments by humans and LLMs can differ and complement each other. In conclusion, this paper suggests that LLMs should not be seen merely as assistants to faculty members but as partners in evaluation committees and outlines directions for further research.

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The Ethicist

Can i use a.i. to grade my students’ papers.

The magazine’s Ethicist columnist on artificial intelligence platforms, and whether it’s hypocritical for teachers to use these tools while forbidding students from doing the same.

An illustration of a junior-high-school English teacher standing in front of a table where six of her students are gathered working on essays. An avatar for the artificial intelligence tool she has considered using to help grade papers stands next to her.

By Kwame Anthony Appiah

I am a junior-high-school English teacher. In the past school year, there has been a significant increase in students’ cheating on writing assignments by using artificial intelligence. Our department feels that 13-year-old students will only become better writers if they practice and learn from the successes and challenges that come with that.

Recently our department tasked students with writing an argumentative essay, an assignment we supported by breaking down the process into multiple steps. The exercise took several days of class time and homework to complete. All of our students signed a contract agreeing not to use A.I. assistance, and parents promised to support the agreement by monitoring their children when they worked at home. Yet many students still used A.I.

Some of our staff members uploaded their grading rubric into an A.I.-assisted platform, and students uploaded their essays for assessment. The program admittedly has some strengths. Most notable, it gives students writing feedback and the opportunity to edit their work before final submission. The papers are graded within minutes, and the teachers are able to transfer the A.I. grade into their roll book.

I find this to be hypocritical. I spend many hours grading my students’ essays. It’s tedious work, but I feel that it’s my responsibility — if a student makes an effort to complete the task, they should have my undivided attention during the assessment process.

Here’s where I struggle: Should I embrace new technology and use A.I.-assisted grading to save time and my sanity even though I forbid my students from using it? Is it unethical for teachers to ask students not to use A.I. to assist their writing but then allow an A.I. platform to grade their work? — Name Withheld

From the Ethicist:

You have a sound rationale for discouraging your students from using A.I. to draft their essays. As with many other skills, writing well and thinking clearly will improve through practice. By contrast, you already know how to grade papers; you don’t need the practice.

What matters is whether an A.I.-assisted platform can reliably appraise and diagnose your students’ writing, providing the explanation and guidance these students need to improve. In theory, such tools — and I see that there are several on the market, including from major educational publishers — have certain advantages. The hope is that they can grade without inconsistency, without getting tired, without being affected by the expectations that surely affect those of us who hand-grade student work.

I notice you haven’t raised concerns about whether the platform provides reliable assessments; you’ll have to decide if it does. (If it isn’t quite up to snuff, it might become so in a year or two, so your question will persist.) Provided the platform does a decent job of assessment, though, I don’t see why you must do it all yourself. You should review the A.I.-annotated versions of your students’ writing, check that you agree with the output, and make notes of issues to bring up in class. But time saved in evaluating the papers might be better spent on other things — and by “better,” I mean better for the students. There are pedagogical functions, after all, that only you can perform.

In sum: It’s not hypocritical to use A.I. yourself in a way that serves your students well, even as you insist that they don’t use it in a way that serves them badly.

Readers Respond

The previous question was from a reader who asked about professional boundaries. He wrote: “I am a retired, married male psychiatrist. A divorced female former patient of mine contacted me recently, 45 years after her treatment ended. Would it be OK to correspond with her by email? Or is this a case of ‘once a patient, always a patient?’”

In his response, the Ethicist noted: “The relevant professional associations tend to have strictures that are specifically about sexual relationships with former patients. … In light of the potential for exploitation within the therapist-patient relationship, these rules are meant to maintain clear boundaries, protect patient welfare, uphold the integrity of the profession and eliminate any gray areas that could lead to ethical breaches. But though you do mention her marital status, and yours, you’re just asking about emailing her — about establishing friendly relations. The question for you is whether she might be harmed by this, whether whatever knowledge or trust gained from your professional relationship would shadow a personal one. Yes, almost half a century has elapsed since your professional relationship, but you still have to be confident that a correspondence with her clears this bar. If it does, you may email with a clear conscience.” ( Reread the full question and answer here. )

As always, I agree with the Ethicist. I would add that the letter writer’s former patient doesn’t realize that the therapist is actually two different people — the professional and the regular person underneath. Therapists portray their professional selves to their clients. The former client may be disappointed upon meeting the therapist outside of the professional context. Additionally, the feelings she has toward the therapist may be based on transference, and they would need to address that. — Annemarie

I am a clinical psychologist. While the Ethicist’s description of professional ethical boundaries is correct, there is more to the story, and I disagree with his conclusion. A very big question here is why this former patient contacted him after 45 years. That is a question that is best explored and answered within the context of a therapeutic relationship. He would be well- advised to respond in a kind and thoughtful way to convey the clear message that he is not available for ongoing communication, and he should suggest that she consult with another therapist if she feels that would be helpful. — Margaret

In my case, it was the therapist who reached out to me, seeking to establish a friendship several years after our sessions ended. I was surprised, but he shared that he had since experienced a similar personal tragedy to one I had explored with him in sessions. Since it had been several years since we saw each other professionally, I responded. There was never any hint of romantic or sexual interest. Still, as he continued to reach out to me, clearly desiring a friendship, it never felt right to me. It did feel unprofessional, as his knowledge of me was borne out of a relationship meant to be professional, never personal, as warmly as we might have felt during our sessions. I ended up being disappointed in him for seeking out my friendship. — Liam

I am a (semi)retired psychiatrist who has been practicing since 1974. In my opinion, “once a patient, always a patient” is correct. Establishing any type of personal relationship with a former patient could undo progress the patient may have made in treatment, and is a slippery slope toward blatantly unethical behavior. As psychiatrists, our responsibility is to work with patients in confronting and resolving issues that are preventing them from having a reality-based perception of their life. With such an outlook, they are more capable of establishing satisfying relationships with others. An ethical psychiatrist is not in the business of providing such satisfaction to his or her patients. — Roger

I think there is a difference between being friendly and being friends with a former client. As someone who used to attend therapy with a therapist I think dearly of, she made it clear to me that it was OK to send her emails with life updates after our therapeutic relationship ended. But beyond that, I think it would be inappropriate and uncomfortable to pursue a friendship with her, and vice versa, because of the patient-provider relationship that we previously had and the power dynamic that existed between us. The letter writer didn’t share the content of the email his former patient sent to him, but if it’s just a friendly life update, I think it’s fine to write back and thank her for sharing. Beyond that, I feel like it would be unprofessional to meet or pursue a deeper relationship. — Meghan

Kwame Anthony Appiah is The New York Times Magazine’s Ethicist columnist and teaches philosophy at N.Y.U. His books include “Cosmopolitanism,” “The Honor Code” and “The Lies That Bind: Rethinking Identity.” To submit a query: Send an email to [email protected]. More about Kwame Anthony Appiah


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How Zia Shtraikh's sixth-grade essay later inspired softball at Ann Richards

what is a essay grade assessment

All about Zia: Relieving stress with crocheting, snowboarding

Tell something about you that most people don't know.

I'm really big into crocheting. It's a way for me to relieve stress when softball or school gives me a big headache. It was one of my New Year's resolution.

What do you believe to be the world's greatest invention?

I'm going to say the wheel. A lot of things stem from that technology. Our world wouldn't be working the same way without that invention.

If you could be any superhero, who would you be?

I really like the movie "The Incredibles" and love the character Frozone. He's got ice-based powers. I love how he helps people because he does it in a fun way.

More: Cast a vote for the Austin area's girls high school athlete of the week in our online poll

What has been your favorite vacation?

I love when our family goes snowboarding in Colorado. It's a great time to spend with family because we don't really see each other all the time in our regular lives because of school and sports.

Sixth-grade essay leads to softball

I hear you actually founded softball at Ann Richards. How did that start?

Basically I helped start the program from scratch. When I was in sixth grade, I had to write an essay as an application process to get into school here. In that essay I wrote how I wanted to start a softball team during my time at Ann Richards. That was really the seed or the spark of it.

What happened next?

In ninth grade I went to our see our athletic director (Meg Brown). She's the main reason we have softball at this school. I was in her office practically every day, figuring out what we could do, how to get equipment, what fields can we use. I would get her to send emails to the district, asking how we could do this.

How did you get girls involved with softball?

At the end of my freshman year, we had four softball clinics to see if there was interest. We were teaching skills: how to hit the ball, how to field the ball. None of them had ever picked up a ball this season. This year we got a field, got a schedule, and it's happening. I'm so happy about it.

What has been your favorite memory this season?

It's really the people. A lot of softball teams have had drama because people think they're better than each other. It's not like that here. They know we're all in the same boat. It's so easy because they want to get better and they know they have to be friends with each other.

What's the hardest thing for you to do in softball?

For me, it's hitting. But it's also not getting down on myself. My mom likes to say that athletes need short-term memories so they don't remember their errors and grow from it. I've taken that to life. If I fail a test in school, I need to learn from it so I can do better next time.

Dream dinner: Reconnecting with her grandpa

If you could have dinner with any four people in the history of the world, who would they be?

My grandpa Drake, (former Texas softball player) Jenae Jefferson and Akbar the Great (a Mughal emperor of India from 1556 to 1605).

Why did you choose your grandpa?

I would actually like to have dinner with him before he got diagnosed with dementia when I was little. I'd always hear stories of the man he was before this. It's a little hard.

Faces off the field interviews

Other Central Texas softball players we've interviewed this season: Leander UT Catelyn Beckerley , Westlake P Eden Matt, Round Rock OF Meghan Merwick , Hyde Park UT Olivia Villanueva

what is a essay grade assessment

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  • School Education /

Essay on What Friendship Means To Me in English for Students

what is a essay grade assessment

  • Updated on  
  • May 29, 2024

Essay on What Friendship Means To Me

Essay on What Friendship Means To Me: Come International Friendship Day when we will tie friendship bands onto our best friends’ wrists and feel blessed to share a beautiful bond. They say, ‘Blood is thicker than water’ but friendship goes beyond blood relations. In the following essay, I explore the multifaceted nature of friendship, delving into its essence and its profound impact on our well-being and sense of belonging.

Table of Contents

  • 1 Essay on What Friendship Means To Me in 300 Words
  • 2 Quotes On Friendship
  • 3 Paragraph on What Friendship Means To Me

Essay on What Friendship Means To Me in 300 Words

Quotes on friendship.

  • “It’s not that diamonds are a girl’s best friend, but it’s your best friends who are your diamonds.” — Gina Barreca
  • “There is nothing on this earth more to be prized than true friendship.” — Thomas Aquinas
  • “To the world you may be just one person, but to one person, you may be the world.” — Dr. Suess
  • “Truly great friends are hard to find, difficult to leave, and impossible to forget.” — G. Randolf
  • “Friendship is the golden thread that ties the heart of all the world.” — John Evelyn
  • “The ornament of a house is the friends who frequent it.” — Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • “A friend is one of the best things you can be and the greatest things you can have.” — Sarah Valdez
  • “In the sweetness of friendship let there be laughter, for in the dew of little things the heart finds its morning and is refreshed.” — Khalil Gibran
  • “A good friend is like a four-leaf clover; hard to find and lucky to have.” — Irish Proverb
  • “Friends are those rare people who ask how we are and then wait to hear the answer.” — Ed Cunningham

Paragraph on What Friendship Means To Me

Ans: Friendship means sharing the good and the bad with people that I love; it means supporting them when they’re down and celebrating them when they’re happy, and it means having amazing people to go through life with.

Ans: A true friend cares about you and can have concern and respect for your thoughts and emotions even when they may not agree.

Ans: A good friend is the one who is: there for you, no matter what. doesn’t judge you. doesn’t put you down or deliberately hurt your feelings. kind and respectful to you. someone whose company you enjoy. loyal. trustworthy and willing to tell you the truth, even when it’s hard for you to hear. laughs with you.

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The Lemon Test: a Crucial Standard in U.S. Constitutional Law

This essay about the Lemon Test explains its significance in U.S. constitutional law for determining if a government action violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. Originating from the 1971 Supreme Court case Lemon v. Kurtzman, the Lemon Test comprises three prongs: the action must have a secular purpose, its primary effect must neither advance nor inhibit religion, and it must not result in excessive government entanglement with religion. The essay highlights the test’s application in various Supreme Court cases and addresses criticisms and calls for alternative approaches. Despite debates, the Lemon Test remains crucial for maintaining the separation of church and state and ensuring religious freedom and neutrality.

How it works

The Lemon Test serves as a pivotal benchmark in the jurisprudence of the United States to ascertain whether governmental actions transgress the Enclosure Stipulation of the Inceptive Edict. This clause prohibits any form of governmental legislation “pertaining to the formation of religious organizations.” The Lemon Test originated from the pivotal legal confrontation of 1971, Lemon vs. Kurtzman, which delved into the legality of state backing for theological educational institutions. Grasping the Evaluation of Acidic Fruits is indispensable for those delving into legal studies or the demarcation between ecclesiastical and state affairs in the U.

The Lemon Test comprises three prongs, each essential for deeming a governmental action constitutional under the Enclosure Stipulation. The primary prong mandates that the governmental action must possess a secular legislative intent. This necessitates that the chief motive behind the action should not lean towards the promotion or impediment of religious affairs. Instead, the intent should remain neutral, such as furthering educational, healthcare, or public safety objectives. Failure on this prong renders the action unconstitutional without further probe.

The secondary prong of the Evaluation of Acidic Fruits stipulates that the principal or primary outcome of the governmental action must neither promote nor hinder religious matters. This safeguard ensures that governmental actions do not exhibit favoritism towards one religious denomination over another, nor do they advocate for religion over non-religion, or vice versa. Assessing the outcome of an action can be intricate, involving an analysis of the context and repercussions of the action to ascertain its impact on religious liberty and impartiality.

The tertiary prong necessitates that the governmental action must refrain from excessive involvement with religious institutions. This prong addresses apprehensions regarding the extent of interaction between governmental bodies and religious establishments. Excessive involvement may arise if governmental entities are compelled to perpetually oversee or regulate religious activities, potentially leading to a blurred demarcation between ecclesiastical and state spheres. Factors such as the nature and objectives of the entities involved, the essence of the assistance rendered, and the ensuing relationship between the government and the religious hierarchy are taken into consideration.

The Lemon Test has played a pivotal role in myriad Supreme Court cases pertaining to the Enclosure Stipulation. For instance, in the adjudication of Agostini vs. Felton (1997), the Court utilized the Evaluation of Acidic Fruits to ascertain that public educators could provide remedial instruction to underprivileged pupils in theological educational institutions without contravening the Enclosure Stipulation. The Court deduced that this aid did not promote religion and circumvented excessive involvement. Conversely, in the legal deliberations of Edwards vs. Aguillard (1987), the Court invalidated a Louisiana statute mandating the teaching of creationism alongside evolution in public educational institutions, deeming it devoid of a clearly secular purpose and consequently failing the Evaluation of Acidic Fruits.

Despite its significance, the Evaluation of Acidic Fruits has encountered criticism and calls for revision or substitution. Critics contend that the evaluation is overly stringent and neglects the nuanced intricacies of governmental and religious interactions. Some jurists and legal scholars have advocated alternative approaches, such as scrutinizing whether governmental actions coerce individuals into partaking in religious activities or whether they endorse specific religious doctrines. Nevertheless, the Evaluation of Acidic Fruits remains an indispensable instrument for scrutinizing cases pertaining to the Enclosure Stipulation and continues to influence judicial deliberations.

The enduring significance of the Evaluation of Acidic Fruits lies in its role in preserving the delicate equilibrium between ecclesiastical and state affairs. By mandating governmental actions to possess a secular purpose, refrain from promoting or inhibiting religion, and eschew excessive involvement, the evaluation upholds the tenets of religious freedom and impartiality enshrined in the Inceptive Edict. It ensures that the government does not exhibit favoritism towards any religious sect, nor does it unduly meddle in religious affairs, thereby safeguarding the diverse fabric of American society.

In summation, the Evaluation of Acidic Fruits stands as a cornerstone of U.S. legal jurisprudence, furnishing a lucid framework for scrutinizing whether governmental actions transgress the Enclosure Stipulation. Its three prongs—secular purpose, primary outcome, and excessive involvement—serve as indispensable criteria for upholding the demarcation between ecclesiastical and state spheres. Despite facing criticism and challenges, its role in safeguarding religious freedom and impartiality remains paramount. Understanding the Evaluation of Acidic Fruits is imperative for those delving into the intricacies of legal studies and the ongoing endeavor to harmonize governmental authority with individual religious liberties.


Cite this page

The Lemon Test: A Crucial Standard in U.S. Constitutional Law. (2024, May 28). Retrieved from

"The Lemon Test: A Crucial Standard in U.S. Constitutional Law." , 28 May 2024, (2024). The Lemon Test: A Crucial Standard in U.S. Constitutional Law . [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 31 May. 2024]

"The Lemon Test: A Crucial Standard in U.S. Constitutional Law.", May 28, 2024. Accessed May 31, 2024.

"The Lemon Test: A Crucial Standard in U.S. Constitutional Law," , 28-May-2024. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 31-May-2024] (2024). The Lemon Test: A Crucial Standard in U.S. Constitutional Law . [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 31-May-2024]

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    centralized assessments that use mostly open-ended and essay questions and local assessments given by teachers which are factored into the final examination scores." ... grade-level learning goals, skills, and standards and how quickly he or she is progressing towards those targets. This information can be equally valuable for other key ...

  8. Student Assessment in Teaching and Learning

    By Michael R. Fisher, Jr. Much scholarship has focused on the importance of student assessment in teaching and learning in higher education. Student assessment is a critical aspect of the teaching and learning process. Whether teaching at the undergraduate or graduate level, it is important for instructors to strategically evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching...

  9. 17.6: What are the benefits of essay tests?

    Essays, along with multiple choice, are a very common method of assessment. Essays offer a means completely different than that of multiple choice. When thinking of a means of assessment, the essay along with multiple choice are the two that most come to mind (Schouller).The essay lends itself to specific subjects; for example, a math test ...

  10. Essay Exams

    Essay exams provide opportunities to evaluate students' reasoning skills such as the ability to compare and contrast concepts, justify a position on a topic, interpret cases from the perspective of different theories or models, evaluate a claim or assertion with evidence, design an experiment, and other higher level cognitive skills. They can reveal if students understand the theory behind ...

  11. Simple Ways to Assess the Writing Skills of Students with Learning

    Figure 6 is an assessment summary sheet that could be used to give a profile of a student's skills across a variety of writing purposes and genres. In an assessment portfolio the summary sheet would be accompanied by representative samples of a student's writing with both the student's and teacher's evaluations.

  12. A Guide to Standardized Writing Assessment

    Writing assessment in the first part of the 20th century favored lengthy essay examinations, but the need for efficient mass testing in the 1940s led to the development of multiple-choice tests. Multiple-choice writing questions set test takers such tasks as identifying errors in usage and grammar in a writing extract.

  13. PDF Writing Assessment and Evaluation Rubrics

    Holistic scoring is a quick method of evaluating a composition based on the reader's general impression of the overall quality of the writing—you can generally read a student's composition and assign a score to it in two or three minutes. Holistic scoring is usually based on a scale of 0-4, 0-5, or 0-6.

  14. Assessment in Education

    Upon grading the exam, Mrs. Brown realized the average class grade was a 68%, far below the cutoff line for passing. Mrs. ... Examples of interim assessment include chapter tests or an essay.

  15. Reading and Writing Performance Assessments

    In the fifth and eighth grade assessments, students will study nonfiction research methods in reading workshop and research-based argument essay writing in writing workshop. The assessments here are designed to gauge students' abilities to: 1. read nonfiction texts, determining their main ideas and supporting details, 2. plan, draft and revise ...

  16. B.E.S.T. Writing Scoring Samplers

    The Benchmarks for Excellent Student Thinking (B.E.S.T.) Writing Scoring Samplers can be used as a resource regarding the scoring of student responses on the Writing assessment. In each sampler, examples of student responses represent various combinations of the score points across the scoring domains. As a basis for developing a common ...

  17. Writing Assessments

    Discover more writing assessment tools for Grade 2, Grade 3, Grades 4-5, Grades 6-8, Grades 9-10, and Grades 11-12—including writing on tests and responding to prompts. Jump to . . . Grade 2; ... Mount Rushmore's Famous Faces Explanatory Essay Strong. Youth Movements in Nazi Germany Explanatory Essay Good. My Personal Values Explanatory ...

  18. Writing Assessments

    Writing Assessments. Beginning with the 2022-23 school year, Florida's statewide, standardized assessments in Reading, Writing, and Mathematics will be aligned with the Benchmarks for Excellent Student Thinking (B.E.S.T.). Writing was administered in spring 2023 as a standalone field test administered to a representative sample of Florida ...

  19. Free Essay and Paper Checker

    In the test for the best grammar checker, Scribbr found 19 out of 20 errors. ... You'll be 100% confident that your writing won't affect your grade. Correcting your grammar ... Our Essay Checker can detect most grammar, spelling, and punctuation mistakes. That said, we can't guarantee 100% accuracy.

  20. Free Online Paper and Essay Checker

    PaperRater's online essay checker is built for easy access and straightforward use. Get quick results and reports to turn in assignments and essays on time. 2. Advanced Checks. Experience in-depth analysis and detect even the most subtle errors with PaperRater's comprehensive essay checker and grader. 3.

  21. Essay on Assessment

    Introduction. Assessment of students is a vital exercise aimed at evaluating their knowledge, talents, thoughts, or beliefs (Harlen, 2007). It involves testing a part of the content taught in class to ascertain the students' learning progress. Assessment should put into consideration students' class work and outside class work.

  22. AI Essay Grader

    ClassX's AI Essay Grader is a revolutionary tool designed to significantly alleviate the burden on teachers, offering a seamless and efficient solution to evaluate students' essays. Traditionally, assessing essays has been a time-consuming process, requiring educators to meticulously read through each piece of writing, analyze its content ...

  23. Large Language Models as Partners in Student Essay Evaluation

    View PDF Abstract: As the importance of comprehensive evaluation in workshop courses increases, there is a growing demand for efficient and fair assessment methods that reduce the workload for faculty members. This paper presents an evaluation conducted with Large Language Models (LLMs) using actual student essays in three scenarios: 1) without providing guidance such as rubrics, 2) with pre ...

  24. The Victims of U.S. Nuclear Testing Deserve More Than This

    The explosive yield of the Trinity test was 21 kilotons — almost 1.5 times as large as the Hiroshima bomb — sending a mushroom cloud more than 35,000 feet into the sky. Witnesses said ash ...

  25. Can I Use A.I. to Grade My Students' Papers?

    Yet many students still used A.I. Some of our staff members uploaded their grading rubric into an A.I.-assisted platform, and students uploaded their essays for assessment. The program admittedly ...

  26. Instant Essay Grader for College & Uni Students

    At the end of the rating your essay, it will be graded. For instance: "Grade 81 B" or "Grade 97 A". It is proved: students, regularly using the smart checker of paper rater or an essay grader, show the better results in their education. University students ought to possess certain skills to get grades they need in their classes.

  27. Rethinking the 5-Paragraph Essay in the ChatGPT Era

    Joanna Andreasson/DALL-E4. Will AI kill the five-paragraph essay? To find out, I asked my ninth grade English teacher. The five-paragraph essay is a mainstay of high school writing instruction ...

  28. Faces off the field: Ann Richards sophomore catcher Zia Shtraikh

    It all began with an essay she wrote in the sixth grade. Zia Shtraikh is credited with helping start the Ann Richards softball program. Your inbox approves Best MLB parks ranked 🏈's best, via ...

  29. Essay on What Friendship Means To Me in English for Students

    Essay on What Friendship Means To Me: Come International Friendship Day when we will tie friendship bands onto our best friends' wrists and feel blessed to share a beautiful bond.They say, 'Blood is thicker than water' but friendship goes beyond blood relations. In the following essay, I explore the multifaceted nature of friendship, delving into its essence and its profound impact on ...

  30. The Lemon Test: a Crucial Standard in U.S. Constitutional Law

    The essay highlights the test's application in various Supreme Court cases and addresses criticisms and calls for alternative approaches. Despite debates, the Lemon Test remains crucial for maintaining the separation of church and state and ensuring religious freedom and neutrality.