## Operations Research

191. The large negative opportunity cost value in an unused cell in a transportation table is chosen to improve the current solution because

• It represents per unit cost reduction
• It represents per unit cost improvement
• It ensure no rim requirement violation
• None of the above

Correct answer: (A) It represents per unit cost reduction

192. The method of finding an initial solution based upon opportunity costs is called __________.

• the northwest corner rule
• Vogel's approximation
• Johanson's theorem
• Flood's technique
• Hungarian method

193. The net cost of shipping one unit on a route not used in the current transportation problem solution is called the __________.

• change index
• Improvement index

194. The objective function and constraints are functions of two types of variables, __________ variables and __________ variables.

• Positive and negative
• Controllable and uncontrollable
• Strong and weak

Correct answer: (B) Controllable and uncontrollable

195. The objective function for a minimization problem is given by z = 2 x1 - 5 x2 + 3 x3 The hyperplane for the objective function cuts a bounded feasible region in the space (x1,x2,x3). Find the direction vector d, where a finite optimal solution can be reached.

• d(-2,-5,-3)

196. The occurrence of degeneracy while solving a transportation problem means that

• Total supply equals total demand
• The solution so obtained is not feasible
• The few allocations become negative

Correct answer: (B) The solution so obtained is not feasible

197. The only restriction we place on the initial solution of a transportation problem is that: we must have nonzero quantities in a majority of the boxes.

• all constraints must be satisfied.
• demand must equal supply.
• we must have a number (equal to the number of rows plus the number of columns minus one) of boxes which contain nonzero quantities.

Correct answer: (A) all constraints must be satisfied.

198. The Operations research technique which helps in minimizing total waiting and service costs is

• Queuing Theory
• Decision Theory
• Both A and B

199. The procedure used to solve assignment problems wherein one reduces the original assignment costs to a table of opportunity costs is called __________.

• stepping-stone method
• matrix reduction
• MODI method
• northwest reduction
• simplex reduction

200. The purpose of a dummy source or dummy destination in a transportation problem is to

• prevent the solution from becoming degenerate.
• obtain a balance between total supply and total demand.
• make certain that the total cost does not exceed some specified figure.
• provide a means of representing a dummy problem.

Correct answer: (B) obtain a balance between total supply and total demand.

## Hungarian Method

The Hungarian method is a computational optimization technique that addresses the assignment problem in polynomial time and foreshadows following primal-dual alternatives. In 1955, Harold Kuhn used the term “Hungarian method” to honour two Hungarian mathematicians, Dénes Kőnig and Jenő Egerváry. Let’s go through the steps of the Hungarian method with the help of a solved example.

## Hungarian Method to Solve Assignment Problems

The Hungarian method is a simple way to solve assignment problems. Let us first discuss the assignment problems before moving on to learning the Hungarian method.

## What is an Assignment Problem?

A transportation problem is a type of assignment problem. The goal is to allocate an equal amount of resources to the same number of activities. As a result, the overall cost of allocation is minimised or the total profit is maximised.

Because available resources such as workers, machines, and other resources have varying degrees of efficiency for executing different activities, and hence the cost, profit, or loss of conducting such activities varies.

Assume we have ‘n’ jobs to do on ‘m’ machines (i.e., one job to one machine). Our goal is to assign jobs to machines for the least amount of money possible (or maximum profit). Based on the notion that each machine can accomplish each task, but at variable levels of efficiency.

## Hungarian Method Steps

Check to see if the number of rows and columns are equal; if they are, the assignment problem is considered to be balanced. Then go to step 1. If it is not balanced, it should be balanced before the algorithm is applied.

Step 1 – In the given cost matrix, subtract the least cost element of each row from all the entries in that row. Make sure that each row has at least one zero.

Step 2 – In the resultant cost matrix produced in step 1, subtract the least cost element in each column from all the components in that column, ensuring that each column contains at least one zero.

Step 3 – Assign zeros

• Analyse the rows one by one until you find a row with precisely one unmarked zero. Encircle this lonely unmarked zero and assign it a task. All other zeros in the column of this circular zero should be crossed out because they will not be used in any future assignments. Continue in this manner until you’ve gone through all of the rows.
• Examine the columns one by one until you find one with precisely one unmarked zero. Encircle this single unmarked zero and cross any other zero in its row to make an assignment to it. Continue until you’ve gone through all of the columns.

Step 4 – Perform the Optimal Test

• The present assignment is optimal if each row and column has exactly one encircled zero.
• The present assignment is not optimal if at least one row or column is missing an assignment (i.e., if at least one row or column is missing one encircled zero). Continue to step 5. Subtract the least cost element from all the entries in each column of the final cost matrix created in step 1 and ensure that each column has at least one zero.

Step 5 – Draw the least number of straight lines to cover all of the zeros as follows:

(a) Highlight the rows that aren’t assigned.

(b) Label the columns with zeros in marked rows (if they haven’t already been marked).

(c) Highlight the rows that have assignments in indicated columns (if they haven’t previously been marked).

(d) Continue with (b) and (c) until no further marking is needed.

(f) Simply draw the lines through all rows and columns that are not marked. If the number of these lines equals the order of the matrix, then the solution is optimal; otherwise, it is not.

Step 6 – Find the lowest cost factor that is not covered by the straight lines. Subtract this least-cost component from all the uncovered elements and add it to all the elements that are at the intersection of these straight lines, but leave the rest of the elements alone.

Step 7 – Continue with steps 1 – 6 until you’ve found the highest suitable assignment.

## Hungarian Method Example

Use the Hungarian method to solve the given assignment problem stated in the table. The entries in the matrix represent each man’s processing time in hours.

$$\begin{array}{l}\begin{bmatrix} & I & II & III & IV & V \\1 & 20 & 15 & 18 & 20 & 25 \\2 & 18 & 20 & 12 & 14 & 15 \\3 & 21 & 23 & 25 & 27 & 25 \\4 & 17 & 18 & 21 & 23 & 20 \\5 & 18 & 18 & 16 & 19 & 20 \\\end{bmatrix}\end{array}$$

With 5 jobs and 5 men, the stated problem is balanced.

$$\begin{array}{l}A = \begin{bmatrix}20 & 15 & 18 & 20 & 25 \\18 & 20 & 12 & 14 & 15 \\21 & 23 & 25 & 27 & 25 \\17 & 18 & 21 & 23 & 20 \\18 & 18 & 16 & 19 & 20 \\\end{bmatrix}\end{array}$$

Subtract the lowest cost element in each row from all of the elements in the given cost matrix’s row. Make sure that each row has at least one zero.

$$\begin{array}{l}A = \begin{bmatrix}5 & 0 & 3 & 5 & 10 \\6 & 8 & 0 & 2 & 3 \\0 & 2 & 4 & 6 & 4 \\0 & 1 & 4 & 6 & 3 \\2 & 2 & 0 & 3 & 4 \\\end{bmatrix}\end{array}$$

Subtract the least cost element in each Column from all of the components in the given cost matrix’s Column. Check to see if each column has at least one zero.

$$\begin{array}{l}A = \begin{bmatrix}5 & 0 & 3 & 3 & 7 \\6 & 8 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\0 & 2 & 4 & 4 & 1 \\0 & 1 & 4 & 4 & 0 \\2 & 2 & 0 & 1 & 1 \\\end{bmatrix}\end{array}$$

When the zeros are assigned, we get the following:

The present assignment is optimal because each row and column contain precisely one encircled zero.

Where 1 to II, 2 to IV, 3 to I, 4 to V, and 5 to III are the best assignments.

Hence, z = 15 + 14 + 21 + 20 + 16 = 86 hours is the optimal time.

## Practice Question on Hungarian Method

Use the Hungarian method to solve the following assignment problem shown in table. The matrix entries represent the time it takes for each job to be processed by each machine in hours.

$$\begin{array}{l}\begin{bmatrix}J/M & I & II & III & IV & V \\1 & 9 & 22 & 58 & 11 & 19 \\2 & 43 & 78 & 72 & 50 & 63 \\3 & 41 & 28 & 91 & 37 & 45 \\4 & 74 & 42 & 27 & 49 & 39 \\5 & 36 & 11 & 57 & 22 & 25 \\\end{bmatrix}\end{array}$$

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## Frequently Asked Questions on Hungarian Method

What is hungarian method.

The Hungarian method is defined as a combinatorial optimization technique that solves the assignment problems in polynomial time and foreshadowed subsequent primal–dual approaches.

## What are the steps involved in Hungarian method?

The following is a quick overview of the Hungarian method: Step 1: Subtract the row minima. Step 2: Subtract the column minimums. Step 3: Use a limited number of lines to cover all zeros. Step 4: Add some more zeros to the equation.

## What is the purpose of the Hungarian method?

When workers are assigned to certain activities based on cost, the Hungarian method is beneficial for identifying minimum costs.

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## How to Solve the Assignment Problem: A Complete Guide

Assignment problem is a special type of linear programming problem that deals with assigning a number of resources to an equal number of tasks in the most efficient way. The goal is to minimize the total cost of assignments while ensuring that each task is assigned to only one resource and each resource is assigned to only one task. In this blog, we will discuss the solution of the assignment problem using the Hungarian method, which is a popular algorithm for solving the problem.

## Understanding the Assignment Problem

Before we dive into the solution, it is important to understand the problem itself. In the assignment problem, we have a matrix of costs, where each row represents a resource and each column represents a task. The objective is to assign each resource to a task in such a way that the total cost of assignments is minimized. However, there are certain constraints that need to be satisfied – each resource can be assigned to only one task and each task can be assigned to only one resource.

## Solving the Assignment Problem

There are various methods for solving the assignment problem, including the Hungarian method, the brute force method, and the auction algorithm. Here, we will focus on the steps involved in solving the assignment problem using the Hungarian method, which is the most commonly used and efficient method.

## Step 1: Set up the cost matrix

The first step in solving the assignment problem is to set up the cost matrix, which represents the cost of assigning a task to an agent. The matrix should be square and have the same number of rows and columns as the number of tasks and agents, respectively.

## Step 2: Subtract the smallest element from each row and column

To simplify the calculations, we need to reduce the size of the cost matrix by subtracting the smallest element from each row and column. This step is called matrix reduction.

## Step 3: Cover all zeros with the minimum number of lines

The next step is to cover all zeros in the matrix with the minimum number of horizontal and vertical lines. This step is called matrix covering.

## Step 4: Test for optimality and adjust the matrix

To test for optimality, we need to calculate the minimum number of lines required to cover all zeros in the matrix. If the number of lines equals the number of rows or columns, the solution is optimal. If not, we need to adjust the matrix and repeat steps 3 and 4 until we get an optimal solution.

## Step 5: Assign the tasks to the agents

The final step is to assign the tasks to the agents based on the optimal solution obtained in step 4. This will give us the most cost-effective or profit-maximizing assignment.

## Solution of the Assignment Problem using the Hungarian Method

The Hungarian method is an algorithm that uses a step-by-step approach to find the optimal assignment. The algorithm consists of the following steps:

• Subtract the smallest entry in each row from all the entries of the row.
• Subtract the smallest entry in each column from all the entries of the column.
• Draw the minimum number of lines to cover all zeros in the matrix. If the number of lines drawn is equal to the number of rows, we have an optimal solution. If not, go to step 4.
• Determine the smallest entry not covered by any line. Subtract it from all uncovered entries and add it to all entries covered by two lines. Go to step 3.

The above steps are repeated until an optimal solution is obtained. The optimal solution will have all zeros covered by the minimum number of lines. The assignments can be made by selecting the rows and columns with a single zero in the final matrix.

## Applications of the Assignment Problem

The assignment problem has various applications in different fields, including computer science, economics, logistics, and management. In this section, we will provide some examples of how the assignment problem is used in real-life situations.

## Applications in Computer Science

The assignment problem can be used in computer science to allocate resources to different tasks, such as allocating memory to processes or assigning threads to processors.

## Applications in Economics

The assignment problem can be used in economics to allocate resources to different agents, such as allocating workers to jobs or assigning projects to contractors.

## Applications in Logistics

The assignment problem can be used in logistics to allocate resources to different activities, such as allocating vehicles to routes or assigning warehouses to customers.

## Applications in Management

The assignment problem can be used in management to allocate resources to different projects, such as allocating employees to tasks or assigning budgets to departments.

Let’s consider the following scenario: a manager needs to assign three employees to three different tasks. Each employee has different skills, and each task requires specific skills. The manager wants to minimize the total time it takes to complete all the tasks. The skills and the time required for each task are given in the table below:

Emp 1 5 7 6
Emp 2 6 4 5
Emp 3 8 5 3

The assignment problem is to determine which employee should be assigned to which task to minimize the total time required. To solve this problem, we can use the Hungarian method, which we discussed in the previous blog.

Using the Hungarian method, we first subtract the smallest entry in each row from all the entries of the row:

Emp 1 0 2 1
Emp 2 2 0 1
Emp 3 5 2 0

Next, we subtract the smallest entry in each column from all the entries of the column:

Emp 1 0 2 1
Emp 2 2 0 1
Emp 3 5 2 0
0 0 0

We draw the minimum number of lines to cover all the zeros in the matrix, which in this case is three:

Since the number of lines is equal to the number of rows, we have an optimal solution. The assignments can be made by selecting the rows and columns with a single zero in the final matrix. In this case, the optimal assignments are:

• Emp 1 to Task 3
• Emp 2 to Task 2
• Emp 3 to Task 1

This assignment results in a total time of 9 units.

I hope this example helps you better understand the assignment problem and how to solve it using the Hungarian method.

Solving the assignment problem may seem daunting, but with the right approach, it can be a straightforward process. By following the steps outlined in this guide, you can confidently tackle any assignment problem that comes your way.

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## Operations Research

1 Operations Research-An Overview

• History of O.R.
• Approach, Techniques and Tools
• Phases and Processes of O.R. Study
• Typical Applications of O.R
• Limitations of Operations Research
• Models in Operations Research
• O.R. in real world

2 Linear Programming: Formulation and Graphical Method

• General formulation of Linear Programming Problem
• Optimisation Models
• Basics of Graphic Method
• Important steps to draw graph
• Multiple, Unbounded Solution and Infeasible Problems
• Solving Linear Programming Graphically Using Computer
• Application of Linear Programming in Business and Industry

3 Linear Programming-Simplex Method

• Principle of Simplex Method
• Computational aspect of Simplex Method
• Simplex Method with several Decision Variables
• Two Phase and M-method
• Multiple Solution, Unbounded Solution and Infeasible Problem
• Sensitivity Analysis
• Dual Linear Programming Problem

4 Transportation Problem

• Basic Feasible Solution of a Transportation Problem
• Modified Distribution Method
• Stepping Stone Method
• Unbalanced Transportation Problem
• Degenerate Transportation Problem
• Transhipment Problem
• Maximisation in a Transportation Problem

5 Assignment Problem

• Solution of the Assignment Problem
• Unbalanced Assignment Problem
• Problem with some Infeasible Assignments
• Maximisation in an Assignment Problem
• Crew Assignment Problem

6 Application of Excel Solver to Solve LPP

• Building Excel model for solving LP: An Illustrative Example

7 Goal Programming

• Concepts of goal programming
• Goal programming model formulation
• Graphical method of goal programming
• The simplex method of goal programming
• Using Excel Solver to Solve Goal Programming Models
• Application areas of goal programming

8 Integer Programming

• Some Integer Programming Formulation Techniques
• Binary Representation of General Integer Variables
• Unimodularity
• Cutting Plane Method
• Branch and Bound Method
• Solver Solution

9 Dynamic Programming

• Dynamic Programming Methodology: An Example
• Definitions and Notations
• Dynamic Programming Applications

10 Non-Linear Programming

• Solution of a Non-linear Programming Problem
• Convex and Concave Functions
• Kuhn-Tucker Conditions for Constrained Optimisation
• Separable Programming
• NLP Models with Solver

11 Introduction to game theory and its Applications

• Important terms in Game Theory
• Mixed strategies: Games without saddle points
• 2 x n games
• Exploiting an opponent’s mistakes

12 Monte Carlo Simulation

• Reasons for using simulation
• Monte Carlo simulation
• Limitations of simulation
• Steps in the simulation process
• Some practical applications of simulation
• Two typical examples of hand-computed simulation
• Computer simulation

13 Queueing Models

• Characteristics of a queueing model
• Notations and Symbols
• Statistical methods in queueing
• The M/M/I System
• The M/M/C System
• The M/Ek/I System
• Decision problems in queueing

## Assignment Problem: Meaning, Methods and Variations | Operations Research

After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Assignment Problem 2. Definition of Assignment Problem 3. Mathematical Formulation 4. Hungarian Method 5. Variations.

## Meaning of Assignment Problem:

An assignment problem is a particular case of transportation problem where the objective is to assign a number of resources to an equal number of activities so as to minimise total cost or maximize total profit of allocation.

The problem of assignment arises because available resources such as men, machines etc. have varying degrees of efficiency for performing different activities, therefore, cost, profit or loss of performing the different activities is different.

Thus, the problem is “How should the assignments be made so as to optimize the given objective”. Some of the problem where the assignment technique may be useful are assignment of workers to machines, salesman to different sales areas.

## Definition of Assignment Problem:

Suppose there are n jobs to be performed and n persons are available for doing these jobs. Assume that each person can do each job at a term, though with varying degree of efficiency, let c ij be the cost if the i-th person is assigned to the j-th job. The problem is to find an assignment (which job should be assigned to which person one on-one basis) So that the total cost of performing all jobs is minimum, problem of this kind are known as assignment problem.

The assignment problem can be stated in the form of n x n cost matrix C real members as given in the following table:

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## Generalized Assignment Problem

• Reference work entry
• pp 1153–1162
• Cite this reference work entry

• O. Erhun Kundakcioglu 3 &
• Saed Alizamir 3

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## Article Outline

Introduction

Multiple-Resource Generalized Assignment Problem

Multilevel Generalized Assignment Problem

Dynamic Generalized Assignment Problem

Bottleneck Generalized Assignment Problem

Generalized Assignment Problem with Special Ordered Set

Stochastic Generalized Assignment Problem

Bi-Objective Generalized Assignment Problem

Generalized Multi-Assignment Problem

Exact Algorithms

Heuristics

Conclusions

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## Some results on an assignment problem variant

Combinatorial clustering: literature review, methods, examples.

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Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA

O. Erhun Kundakcioglu & Saed Alizamir

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544-5263, USA

Christodoulos A. Floudas

Center for Applied Optimization, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611-6595, USA

Panos M. Pardalos

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Kundakcioglu, O.E., Alizamir, S. (2008). Generalized Assignment Problem . In: Floudas, C., Pardalos, P. (eds) Encyclopedia of Optimization. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-74759-0_200

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-74759-0_200

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1. Solution of Assignment Problems

2. Solving Assignment Problem using Linear Programming in Python

3. (PDF) Ones assignment method for solving assignment problems

4. Flow chart of problem solving process

5. solve assignment problems

6. Assignment Problem Solution

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1. Operations Research Multiple choice Questions and Answers. Page 20

The procedure used to solve assignment problems wherein one reduces the original assignment costs to a table of opportunity costs is called _____. stepping-stone method; matrix reduction; MODI method; northwest reduction; simplex reduction; View answer. Correct answer: (B)

2. Hungarian Method

The Hungarian method is a computational optimization technique that addresses the assignment problem in polynomial time and foreshadows following primal-dual alternatives. In 1955, Harold Kuhn used the term "Hungarian method" to honour two Hungarian mathematicians, Dénes Kőnig and Jenő Egerváry. Let's go through the steps of the Hungarian method with the help of a solved example.

3. How to Solve the Assignment Problem: A Complete Guide

Here, we will focus on the steps involved in solving the assignment problem using the Hungarian method, which is the most commonly used and efficient method. Step 1: Set up the cost matrix. The first step in solving the assignment problem is to set up the cost matrix, which represents the cost of assigning a task to an agent.

4. Assignment problem

This is an unbalanced assignment problem. One way to solve it is to invent a fourth dummy task, perhaps called "sitting still doing nothing", with a cost of 0 for the taxi assigned to it. This reduces the problem to a balanced assignment problem, which can then be solved in the usual way and still give the best solution to the problem.

5. The Assignment Problem

The assignment problem is one of the fundamental combinatorial optimization problems in the branch of optimization or operations research in mathematics. In an assignment problem , we must find a maximum matching that has the minimum weight in a weighted bipartite graph .

6. Assignment Problem: Meaning, Methods and Variations

After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Assignment Problem 2. Definition of Assignment Problem 3. Mathematical Formulation 4. Hungarian Method 5. Variations. Meaning of Assignment Problem: An assignment problem is a particular case of transportation problem where the objective is to assign a number of resources to an equal number of activities so as to minimise total ...

7. Chapter 5: Assignment Problem

5.1 INTRODUCTION. The assignment problem is one of the special type of transportation problem for which more efficient (less-time consuming) solution method has been devised by KUHN (1956) and FLOOD (1956). The justification of the steps leading to the solution is based on theorems proved by Hungarian mathematicians KONEIG (1950) and EGERVARY ...

8. The assignment problem revisited

First, we give a detailed review of two algorithms that solve the minimization case of the assignment problem, the Bertsekas auction algorithm and the Goldberg & Kennedy algorithm. It was previously alluded that both algorithms are equivalent. We give a detailed proof that these algorithms are equivalent. Also, we perform experimental results comparing the performance of three algorithms for ...

9. ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM (OPERATIONS RESEARCH) USING PYTHON

The Assignment Problem is a special type of Linear Programming Problem based on the following assumptions: However, solving this task for increasing number of jobs and/or resources calls for…

10. PDF On Approximation Methods for the Assignment Problem*

Definition of Assignment Problem. The statement of the assignment problem is as follows: There are n men and n jobs, with a cost c, for assigning man i to job j. It is required to assign all men to jobs such that one and only one man is assigned to each job and the total cost of the assignments is minimal.

11. PDF OPERATIONS RESEARCH Multiple Choice Questions

50. The procedure used to solve assignment problems wherein one reduces the original assignment costs to a table of opportunity costs is called _____. A. stepping-stone method B. matrix reduction C. MODI method D. northwest reduction E. simplex reduction 51. The method of finding an initial solution based upon opportunity costs is called

12. PDF 7.13 Assignment Problem

At most one cell can depart an input at a time.! At most one cell can arrive at an output at a time.! Cell arrives at input x and must be routed to output y. x3 x2 x1 y1 y2 y3 inputs outputs 20 Iput-Queued Switching FIFO queueing. Each input x maintains one queue of cells to be routed. Head-of-line blocking (HOL).!

13. PDF Solving The Assignment Problems Directly Without Any Iterations

The assignment problem is a standard topic discussed in operations research textbooks [8] and [10]. It is an important subject, put forward immediately after the transportation problem, is the assignment problem. This is particularly important in the theory of decision making. The assignment problem is one of the earliest

14. PDF Optimal Solution for Assignment Problem by Average Total Opportunity

Step 2: Add a Dummy source or dummy destination, so that the cost table becomes a square matrix. The cost entries of dummy source / destinations are always zero Go to Step 3. Step 3: Obtain the Total Opportunity Cost Table (TOCT). Optimal Solution for Assignment Problem by Average Total Opportunity Cost Method 23.

15. An Alternative Approach for Solving Unbalanced Assignment Problems

modified to solve the assignment problem [3],[4],[5]. Also the signature method for the assignment problem was presented by Balinski [6]. Kore [7] proposed a new approach to solve an unbalanced assignment problem without balancing it. Basirzadeh [8] developed a Hungarian-like method,

16. (PDF) Ones assignment method for solving assignment problems

In this paper, a new and simple metho d was introduced for solving assignment. problem. This method can b e used for all kinds of assignment problems, whether maximize or minimize ob jective ...

17. A Comparative Analysis of Assignment Problem

Tables 2, 3, 4, and 5 present the steps required to determine the appropriate job assignment to the machine. Step 1 By taking the minimum element and subtracting it from all the other elements in each row, the new table will be: Table 2 represents the matrix after completing the 1st step. Table 1 Initial table of a.

18. Using the Hungarian Algorithm to Solve Assignment Problems

The selected zeros correspond to the ideal assignment in the original matrix. Once you get used to the process, the Hungarian Algorithm is a cinch, so keep practicing. To unlock this lesson you ...

19. the procedure used to solve assignment problems wherein one reduces the

The procedure used to solve assignment problems by reducing the original assignment costs to a table of opportunity costs is commonly referred to as the Hungarian method or the reduced cost method. The Hungarian method simplifies an assignment problem by converting all the potential costs into opportunity costs, thereby making it easier to ...

20. Applied Operation Research -MBA

Improvement index Q104 - The procedure used to solve assignment problems wherein one reduces the original assignment costs to a table of opportunity costs is called _____. stepping-stone method. matrix reduction. MODI method. northwest reduction Q105 - The method of finding an initial solution based upon opportunity costs is called_____.

21. Transportation and assignment problem

The procedure used to solve assignment problems wherein one reduces the original assignment costs to a table of opportunity costs is called _____. a. stepping-stone method b. matrix reduction c. MODI method d. northwest reduction e. simplex reduction correct answer B. The method of finding an initial solution based upon opportunity costs is ...

22. An Efficient Alternative Approach to Solve an Assignment Problem

(i.e., to find a route in the assignment problem table), thus the development of a cost-effective and realistic solution is highly desirable to solve the assignment problem in linear programming. In 1955, The Hungarian method was developed by H.W. Kuhn [6] combining the thoughts of two mathematicians: D. König [7] and J. Egerváry [8].

23. Generalized Assignment Problem

The generalized assignment problem (GAP) seeks the minimum cost assignment of n tasks to m agents such that each task is assigned to precisely one agent subject to capacity restrictions on the agents. The formulation of the problem is: where \ ( c_ {ij} \) is the cost of assigning task j to agent i , \ ( a_ {ij} \) is the capacity used when ...