Science at work. Binoculars.
Aug 04, 2014
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Science at work. Binoculars. By Skye B roekate. A brief description of binoculars history. . What is a binocular? The first binocular telescope is two telescopes placed side by side. Who developed binoculars first?
- future changes
- things people
- higher transmission
- prism system
- brief description
Science at work. Binoculars. By Skye Broekate
A brief description of binoculars history. • What is a binocular? • The first binocular telescope is two telescopes placed side by side. • Who developed binoculars first? • Johann Lipperhey invented binoculars and is also the inventor of the ordinary Dutch telescope. • When was the first binocular telescope developed? • The binocular telescope was created in 1608. • How has binoculars changed? (got better) • Better coatings for higher transmission of light, better prisms, and wider angle eye lenses have made most of the improvements in the last fifty years. Almost all these ideas originated in Japan
Show diagrams of how the light bends through binoculars . • Use cut away views to show how light is bent: They use the prisms because binoculars are very small and they need to bend the light How does binoculars use lenses to bend light? Modern binoculars consist of two barrel chambers with an objective lens, eyepiece, and a pair of prisms inside. The prisms reflect and lengthen the light, while the objective lenses enhance and magnify images due to stereoscopic vision.
Show diagrams of how binoculars work and explain it. • Binoculars work on the same principles as telescopes. The process begins with a series of lenses. The lenses focus on an object and gather the light from it. As the light passes through a series of lenses, the image gets larger. Binoculars differ from a telescope in that they allow the image to be transmitted to both eyes at once. • Binocular lenses are curved pieces of glass. A binocular can have several lenses; in fact, the more lenses that the binocular has, the better the magnification. Unfortunately, each time the image passes into the next lens, light is lost, so binoculars include a prism that bends and reflects light into the lenses. The prism also flips the image. Without it, everything you see through the lenses would be upside down
Explain where binoculars are used is used. • Who uses binoculars and what do they use them for? • binoculars are used for viewing distant objects and to bring far-away Images up close. • Some of the things people use binoculars for is: • Galilean opera glasses, used in theatres, • for typical outdoor use e.g. Bird watching • Hunters and bird watchers rely on binoculars to bring their quarry into clear detail • sports fans often bring binoculars to the event so they don't miss one moment of action.
What future changes are expected to be made to binoculars in the future. • Binoculars continue to advance with new technology. Their ability to see further with better focusing techniques enables the consumer to use the product for a wider variety of tasks. Binoculars are now tending to use the same stabilizing method used in video cameras that automatically stabilizes the prism system so that the image remains steady to the viewer. Some binoculars are also coming equipped with night scope vision. This would enable the consumer to see objects that are far away even at night. Technological advancements are continually made on these specialty binoculars, which are primarily used by the military or for surveillance.
Bibliography • http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_invented_binoculars_and_when#ixzz1y7IA6V2N • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binoculars • http://www.life123.com/technology/home-electronics/binoculars/how-do-binoculars-work.shtml • http://www.madehow.com/Volume-7/Binocular.html#ixzz1yODVPoCx • http://www.madehow.com/Volume-7/Binocular.html
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12.2: The Binocular Projector
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- Page ID 31576
- Daniel E. Barth
- University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
This activity does the exact same thing as our pinhole camera – it allows us to examine the surface of the Sun safely by looking at a projected image. There are some important differences however! Unlike the pinhole camera, the binoculars do not dim the brightness of the solar image – instead they concentrate the light and brighten it substantially. The binocular projector is easier to use, there is no construction needed and it becomes very easy to draw or photograph the image which we have seen. The increased brightness makes it more difficult to make out subtle features like sunspots on the solar disk, the glare of the intense image tends to obscure them. For eclipse viewing however, this is an excellent method requiring almost no setup time.
Science and engineering practices.
- Developing and using models.
- Planning and carrying out investigations.
- Analyzing and interpreting data.
- Argument from evidence.
- Systems and system models.
- Structure and function.
Next Generation Science Standards
- Space systems (K-5, 6-8, 9-12).
- Engineering and design (K-5, 6-8, 9-12).
- Waves and electromagnetic radiation (6-8, 9-12).
- The Earth-Moon system (6-8, 9-12).
For the Educator
Facts you need to know.
- NEVER look at the Sun directly!
- Using only one pair of binoculars which remain in the teacher’s hands at all times, this activity is perfectly safe for all ages.
- We will use the binoculars to project an image of the Sun on paper.
- The projected solar image will be large enough and bright enough for an entire class to view it at once.
Teaching and Pedagogy
Once again, every science teacher teaches safety first! This activity makes safe observation virtually automatic. When you use the binoculars to project a solar image onto a piece of paper, students must stand with their backs to the Sun in order to view the projected image.
Using a pair of binoculars to project a solar image is simple in principle, but it requires practice to learn how to line up the binoculars, the Sun, and the paper. You will need to practice this activity several times before you do it in front of your students!
Take the binoculars and focus them for a distant object such as a tree or building at least 300 meters away. Remember to keep one side of the binocular covered, and start with the binoculars just a couple inches from the paper, then pull the binocular back until you get a large, sharp image of the Sun!
The Sun is different every day, sunspots and other features move slowly across the Sun. If you have a chance to try this activity during a lunar or solar eclipse, the effect is quite spectacular!
What will the student discover.
- A solar eclipse is a rare and wonderful event that is not to be missed. For many students, this will be a once-in-a-lifetime experience – do not allow them to miss it!
- The new Moon will at times be perfectly lined up to allow it to pass in front of the disk of the Sun, causing an eclipse.
- In order to see a total eclipse, you must be in exactly the right spot! The shadow of the Moon on the Earth’s surface is usually not more than 50 miles wide, and the shadow traces a path across the Earth called the path of totality . You must be inside this narrow path to see a total eclipse!
- Most people will not see a total eclipse, instead we get to see a partial eclipse because we are on one side or the other of the path of totality. This is still a wonderful event and worthy of our observation and study.
What will your students learn about science?
- People have been predicting solar eclipses for several thousand years. Scientists and mathematicians today predict these events with marvelous precision.
- Predictions are still just that – predictions made using a scientific model much as we have been doing throughout this book. Modern predictions of the timing and extent of a solar eclipse are not exact. This is a chance for students to see the precision – and the uncertainty – of modern science in one magnificent activity.
Conducting the Activity
- One pair of binoculars. Larger binocular work better for this, a pair of 7×50 binoculars work perfectly.
- A sheet of white paper on a notebook or clipboard.
Exploring the Binocular Projector
- Put one of the lens caps on the binoculars so light only passes through one side. If lens caps are missing, use a piece of aluminum foil to tightly cap one side of the binoculars.
- Point the large end of the binoculars toward the Sun and hold the paper underneath the eyepiece. The paper may be anywhere from 1-4 inches away to give you the best image, this varies with styles and models of binoculars, so you will have to adjust this until you have the best view.
- You should now be able to observe the solar disk, sunspots, even an eclipse just as you can with the pinhole camera. The advantage of this method is that working with a partner, your students can easily draw directly on the paper they are observing and copy down what they see!
- Answer We never look directly at the Sun – only at its image projected on paper.
- Answer: The Sun has no solid or permanent surface. The sunspots we sometimes see are magnetic storms on the solar surface, they appear and disappear as conditions change on the Sun’s surface, much as thunderstorms appear and disappear on Earth.
The binocular projector is also an excellent method to use when trying your hand at imaging the Moon. Take your binoculars out on a night when the Moon is at least half-full and try setting up to project the image on a piece of paper just as you did with the Sun. You will need a dark place to do this properly, yard lights and street lights will interfere with the image substantially. You will find that the projected image is substantially dimmer than the solar image, and this makes it much easier to pick up things such as dark maria and even some of the larger craters in addition to the shape of the lunar phase that night!
If you have a chance, try this activity with both a telescope and a binocular. You will find that the binocular projects an image just as you see it in the sky, while the telescope flips the image from side to side or even upside down! (This depends upon the type of telescope you use.) Optics are fun and mysterious – something your students will have the chance to explore further as they get older and enter higher grades in school!
Being an Astronomer
There are dedicated solar telescopes which allow you to look directly at the Sun and see many amazing features on the solar surface. Solar telescopes are specially built, single purpose machines, and quite expensive – even for telescopes!
Once again, it is time to contact your local astronomy club and ask for their help. Many clubs have a member with a special interest in the Sun who may own their very own solar telescope; some larger clubs purchase one of these specifically for the club to take out to schools and outreach events. If your local club has such an instrument, your students are in for a real treat!
Being a Scientist
If you are lucky enough to observe a solar eclipse through a binocular projector, you will find that the image is bright and well-focused enough to be easily photographed.
If you are able to take a photograph of the Sun every 5-10 minutes during an eclipse, the pictures can be combined into a GIF or time-lapse video to show how the Moon moves in front of the solar disk and put the Sun into eclipse!
There have been many famous eclipse events in history and literature. Columbus’ eclipse during his exploration of the New World and Mark Twain’s A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court both come to mind. How many others can you find?
Binoculars - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Amount of light transmitted through the binoculars in millimeters (mm) ... http://www.meade.com/manuals/binoc/ Binoculars. Questions or Comments? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation
- An Informative Insight to a Powerful Tool
- By Chris Robb
- Binoculars - An optical device designed for simultaneous use by both eyes
- Consists of two small telescopes joined with a single focusing device
- They are used to magnify a distant object
- Telescopes generally have inverted images
- Binoculars use prisms for image-erection
- Two Styles Roof and Porro
- Prisms overlap closely for straight alignment
- More costly due to need for precise alignment
- Objective lenses are offset from the eyepiece
- Greater 3-D view and image depth
- Power and Light 10X42
- Power 10X (Magnification)
- Light Collection 42mm Objective Diameter (OD)
- Exit Pupil OD/Power 4.2mm
- Amount of light transmitted through the binoculars in millimeters (mm)
- Pupil Diameter Noon 2-4mm Evening 7mm
- Larger exit pupil helps for twilight viewing
- Field of View (F.O.V)
- Side-to-side measurement of viewing field _at_ 1000 yards.
- Distance in millimeters (mm) a binocular can be held away from the eye _at_ full F.O.V.
- A large eye relief will reduce eyestrain and is ideal for a person that wears eyeglasses.
- Coated, Fully Coated, Multi-Coated, Fully Multi-Coated, and Phase Coated
- Fully Multi-coated will give better performance i.e. enhanced contrast light transmission
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- http//www.zeiss.de/C12567A80033F8E4/allBySubject/ 67AE641BBE77EB6BC12569EC00487C27
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Project: Make a Power point presentation about the construction and use of binoculars.
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Modern binoculars consist of two barrel chambers with an objective lens, eyepiece, and a pair of prisms inside. The prisms reflect and lengthen the light, while the objective lenses enhance and magnify images due to stereoscopic vision.
Man has been experimenting with glass since its advent sometime around 3500 B.C. These experiments soon became known for their ocular implications. The designs of early optical instruments, like the telescope, were not recorded. It is assumed that these instruments were studied and perfected by Galileo Galilei. Early binoculars were actually called binocular telescopes, and are thought to be based on Galileo's discoveries and designs of prisms.
Early telescopic lenses were full of bubbles and other imperfections. They were also slightly green due to the iron content in the glass. Polishing techniques were crude, and although lenses were of good quality in the center, the peripheral shape was poor resulting in a restricted aperture. As telescopes were improved, binoculars evolved. The first patent application for binocular telescopes was filed early in the seventeenth century by Jan Lippershey in present day Holland. Lippershey primarily used quartz crystal, which is hard to manipulate. The first hand-held binocular originated in 1702 with Johann Zahn's small binocular of two tubes with a lithe connection.
A patent application submitted in 1854 by Ignatio Porro began the use of the modern prism binocular called the Porro prism erecting system. This optical system consisted of an objective lens and ocular lens (eyepiece) with two facing, right angle prisms arranged to invert and correct the orientation of the image. The two most commonly used prism systems are the porro prism and the roof prism design. The roof system uses prisms positioned one over the other resulting in a more compact design.
An other major breakthrough occurred in 1894 when Carl Zeiss, a German optical specialist, developed binoculars with convex lenses and delta prisms to correct the inverted image. In a porro design, the light is bent in a "Z" shape before reaching the eye, allowing the distance between the eyepiece and the objective lens to be compacted. This enables the size and weight of binoculars to be reduced.
Reductions in the weight of the binoculars occurred with the use of aluminum or polycarbonate housings instead of the heavier metal alloys used in pre-civil war binoculars. Performance of smaller and larger binoculars has improved with the introduction of coatings to render the lenses non-reflective and reduce the amount of scattered light. The quality of prisms has also improved over the years, resulting in a reduction of the bubbling effect of optical glass. In the early 1970s, nitrogen filled, waterproof binoculars were developed. A decade later the arrival of infrared transmitters capable of seeing in the dark further transformed binocular technology. Variable magnification models were also developed allowing the user to adjust the level of magnification.
Modern-day binocular tubes are primarily made out of aluminum coated with silicon or a leather-like material called gutta-percha. The lenses and prisms are made from glass and coated with an anti-reflective coating.
With the exception of the optical glass and some rubber seals, the majority of binocular component parts can be manufactured using a Computer Assisted Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system that downloads the designs to a variety of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) devices (multi-axis mill turn and milling machines as well as vertical and horizontal machining centers, lathes, etc.). Using CAD software provides both drawing, dimensioning, and visualization capabilities. These lead to improvements in the binoculars final design.
The Manufacturing Process
- The lens material is poured into a lens mold, which has a spherical curved bottom. This results in a lens that is about 4 in (10.2 cm) in diameter and 1-1.5 in (2.4-3.8 cm) thick.
- The lenses are then removed from the molds and cut into specific pieces using a diamond saw to create the optical lenses.
- The lenses are placed into the grinding machine and polished.
- After they have been carefully machined, the lenses are anodized to reduce reflections in vacuum tanks. The more coatings applied, the less light absorbed.
- The ocular lenses (nearest the eyes) are also molded and carefully polished by auto-polish machines after which they are centered on diamond turning machines and finally cleaned by running through several different solvents in automated machinery.
- The objective lenses, those furthest from the eyes, are molded and then polished with polishing machines.
- These components are then manually assembled into a die cast body, which is often made from aluminum.
- Using a technique called physical vapor deposition, the optics are placed into a "plasma machine" and coated with dielectric coatings. The coatings are essential for high performance.
- The optics are then inspected and tested for clarity and defects using lasers in specially designed particulate free rooms.
- Next, the rod shaped prisms are cut by lasers into three-sided shapes depending on the type of prism being manufactured (i.e., roof prisms or porro prisms).
- The prisms are coated with dielectric materials (metal oxides) by physical vapor deposition inside a vacuum chamber.
- When all these components are assembled on a belt assembly line, the final assembly station collimates the binocular by hand, making the left side exactly parallel to the right, so only one image will be seen at a time.
- The binocular housing is then covered with a substance called gutta-percha, which looks like leather but is more durable and flexible. This covering is applied by hand using an adhesive and may be coated with a protective rubber covering.
- On the assembly line bare metal housing covers are covered with plastic or rubber.
- The prisms are placed by hand inside the binocular casing and manually screwed in place.
- The objective lenses are held in place by a metal or plastic ring and the eyepiece is fitted with a rubber eyecap.
- The focusing lenses are placed in the housing with screws mounted by hand.
- Waterproof binoculars must have orings at every orifice, be purged with nitrogen (injected through a seal), and sealed. The final step would be the packing of binoculars in cases with neck straps, most cases today being of a canvas-like material.
Binoculars that have been hermetically sealed (waterproof) and nitrogen charged (fogproof) are tested underwater. Most binoculars will withstand water immersion at 16.4(5 m) for five minutes. Both barrels of a binocular need to be optically parallel for the image to merge into one perfect circle and are carefully checked for alignment.
Lenses and prisms that have defects such as scratches or cracks are either discarded and melted down to be molded again, or they are recycled. If the casing is damaged during production, it is also either remolded or recycled.
Binoculars continue to advance with new technology. Their ability to see further with better focusing techniques enables the consumer to use the product for a wider variety of tasks. Binoculars are now tending to use the same stabilizing method used in video cameras that automatically stabilizes the prism system so that the image remains steady to the viewer. Some binoculars are also coming equipped with night scope vision. This would enable the consumer to see objects that are far away even at night. Technological advancements are continually made on these specialty binoculars, which are primarily used by the military or for surveillance.
Where to Learn More
Bell, Louis. The Telescope. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1922.
Von Rohr, Moritz. Die Binokularen Instrumente. Berlin: Springer, 1920.
The United States Patent Office Web Page. November 2001. < http://www.uspto.gov/patft >.
Van Helden, Albert. The Telescope. 1995. November 2001. < http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/GalileoiThings/telescope.html >.
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Home Blog Business How To Create a Project Presentation: A Guide for Impactful Content
How To Create a Project Presentation: A Guide for Impactful Content
Corporate, academic, and business meetings share one common factor: successfully delivering project presentations. This is one skill professionals should harness in terms of articulating ideas, presenting plans, and sharing outcomes through an effective project presentation.
In this fast-paced reality where new tools and frameworks make us question the human factor value, we believe there’s much to be said about how working towards building presentation skills can make a difference, especially for making a project stand out from the crowd and have a lasting impact on stakeholders. We can no longer talk about simply disclosing information, the manner in which the narrative is built, how data is introduced, and several other factors that speak of your expertise in the subject.
This article will explore the art of project presentation, giving insights to presenters to deliver a memorable project plan presentation. Whether you are new to this experience or a seasoned presenter, this article promises to give you valuable information on how to build and present a project presentation that resonates with your target audience and will convert into your expected results for the project. Let’s get started.
Table of Contents
- Who is the audience of a project presentation?
Project overview, the project process model, the project scope, the project resources, the project roadmap, the project activities plan, the project risks, quality control, project execution and monitoring.
- The Project Team
What Is a Project Presentation?
A project presentation is a business activity that brings together stakeholders and team members to oversee a project from execution to completion. During a project presentation, one or two people present a document or slide deck with an overview of all the project’s details.
During a project presentation, the project manager highlights key data about the project initiation and planning activities, like the project scope, requirements gathering, a deliverable list, timelines, and milestones.
The first instance of a project presentation is right before the execution of the project itself. Then, during the project process life cycle, you present it again with timely updates and news about the progress.
Who is the audience of a project presentation?
A project-related audience is made up of stakeholders – all individuals and entities that affect or are affected by the project’s existence.
Discuss the project presentation with team members that’ll work on the project so they know what’s at stake and what’s expected of them. They’ll need information like requirements, the roadmap, the work breakdown structure, and deliverables.
Present your project to the stakeholders that can authorize resources and expenditures. Show them how the project will offer the solutions they want under the conditions they impose in a set amount of time.
Stakeholders want to know details like project scope, budget breakdowns, timing calculations, risk assessments, and how you plan to confront these risks and be ready for changes.
The Structure of a Project Presentation
Project presentations follow a standard structure covering all critical elements. Follow this guideline to ensure that you cover everything with the slides, the speech, and the discussion.
In the next section, we describe a project presentation structure you can build with SlideModel templates. As you will see, most sections in the structure are summaries or overviews of project management practices completed during initiation and planning.
At the start of your presentation, add an executive summary . This section is meant to welcome the viewer to the presentation and give an idea of what’s to come. To differentiate your executive summary from the project overview that comes right after it, use the opportunity to place the project into context.
In the executive summary, show how this particular project fits into the overall strategy for the company or the section it belongs to. If, for example, your project is about TikTok Marketing, offer information as to how it fits in the overall marketing strategy.
Continue the presentation with a project overview to show the audience what to expect. This section covers one slide or a combination of slides depending on the layout. The project overview slide serves as the introduction to a project presentation and what’s inside.
Include these items:
- An Introduction with a brief background about the project.
- A short explanation of the project’s objectives and completion goals.
- A quick overview of the timeline with start and end dates.
The project life cycle is the series of phases that a project goes through from its inception to its completion. The project process model is the group of knowledge areas, processes, and their relationships that will guide the activities along the project lifecycle. The next slide should display the chosen project process model and explain how it’ll be carried out along the different lifecycle phases. Project process models examples include Waterfall, Scrum, and V Model for software development, and Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) and Swimlane for general business-related projects.
Process models are important for the team to understand execution processes. Stakeholders need to see the process model to understand the systematic process of activities and how long they will take.
Use one slide for the model, show only high-level components, and offer details during the presentation if the audience asks for them.
The scope is a crucial element of any project and needs its own section in the presentation. The scoping process begins with requirements gathering and includes the creation of a work breakdown structure , an analysis of what’s in and out of scope, plus validation and scope management plans.
One or two slides are enough to highlight key scope details in a dashboard-style layout mirroring the information on your project scope statement. Preferably, place the scope slides towards the start of the project presentation close to the process model and project resources.
Every project needs resources, and that assessment must be included in the project presentation as well. In a general sense, all resources are what make up the overall budget for the project. In turn, you’ll need to show a budget breakdown that shows high-level resources.
Like many aspects of a project presentation, what you include depends on the industry you’re working for. Construction projects use constructors, materials, machinery, etc. Software projects use programmers, designers, software licenses, computers, etc.
Time is the main resource of any project. During project planning, the project management team estimates the required effort needed to complete the defined scope. Using the Project Process Model, Scope, and Resources, a plan is built. Present a roadmap to highlight the expected time for project completion and where each milestone falls along that line.
Roadmaps can be constructed with an infinite variety of visual layouts, from highly creative and illustrative to structured formats resembling spreadsheets and tables with color-coded roadmaps across the cells. Use one slide to show the roadmap highlighting time estimates, constraints, and projections. For updated project presentations, mark where the project is on the roadmap at that particular moment in time.
Every phase of the roadmap is broken down into action plans . Action plans list activities, their duration, allocated resources (human, material, and financial), and the relationship between activities.
Present your project activities plan with a Gantt Chart and a Costs Report. The Gantt Chart will show the activities to execute, how long they will take, and who (person or team) will be responsible for them. The costs reports will show how much the execution of activities will cost.
During the presentation, you’ll spend the most time on this section, as this is when and where your entire plan is outlined. To show more detail than the roadmap overview, use a few slides to show specific sections of the main Gantt chart and show key activities per phase or milestone.
All projects present risks, and to control them, they must be identified, assessed, evaluated, and mitigated . Visualize your risk assessment with a risk matrix and include it in the project presentation.
Use this slide to explain to stakeholders how you plan to mitigate the identified risks. Share with team members what’s expected of them in order to keep the risks under control. Risk management is a critical component of project management and something stakeholders will always be looking at.
Controlling the quality of project deliverables is critical for positive project outcomes and continued success with the deliverable. This process is called quality control or quality assurance.
The project process model includes which quality control techniques the team will use and when. Some quality assurance (QA) techniques include statistical process control (SPC), Six Sigma, ISO 9000, and Total Quality Management (TQM). Use one slide to visualize the process and your plan to execute it.
Once the project starts, the project plan is a living entity and evolves over time. This section will need to be regularly updated with progress reports, performance KPIs, and status updates.
Across these slides, explain how activities will be monitored and deliverable outcomes measured. Show exactly how you will determine if the project is on course or has deviations. Visualize all execution activities with a Gantt chart to show the current progress. Use big numbers and data points to highlight performance metrics. Use a comparison slide to visualize the completeness percentage vs. planned progress and budget consumption vs. planned budget.
Explain all monitoring activities for the execution phase using a calendar or schedule that shows on what days activities will take place and who is involved.
The Project Team
When presenting a project, include a stakeholder map to describe the management team, the sponsors, the main stakeholders, and the implementation team or teams. Depending on the size of the project, this will be an org chart or multiple org charts across a few slides.
Why is it important to present the project team to the stakeholders and vice versa? So that everyone involved knows the other parties and their responsibilities.
Another use for the team slide or slides is to present the next person who will speak during the project presentation. This gives the audience some background on that person’s role in the project.
Case Study – Project Presentation Example
Using the structure we present above, we outlined a case study of a realistic project and how the project manager puts together the project presentation using SlideModel templates. The project presentation example is based on a complex project of building a bridge (Cline Avenue Bridge). For the educational purpose of this article, we are not delivering all the elements of the project presentation, as it is out of scope. Still, we illustrate the more representative slides of each section, show how to prepare a PowerPoint Presentation for a project and how simple it is to adapt the templates to the content that needs to be presented. As a disclaimer, all information we present is an adaptation and reinterpretation of the real project, modified by SlideModel to fit the use case learning goals. This information and presentation should not be considered a source of information related to the Cline Avenue Bridge Project.
In this slide, the presenter summarises the project highlights in a project charter style. The Project Manager can extend this introduction all over the project lifecycle, and the speech can jump from different knowledge areas without the need to change slides or get deeper into details. Specifically, in the Cline Bridge Project, the objective is narrated, the location is just mentioned and linked to a map for further details, and a set of important facts are presented (Building Information Modelling Process, Budget, Duration, Sponsor, and Constructor). Key Highlights of the final deliverable are listed (Segmental Bridge, Material Concrete, 1.7 miles of length and 46 feet of width)
The Process Model slide illustrates the framework for the project lifecycle, processes, planning, and execution. In this slide, the Project Manager will describe the model and how it is tailored to the specifics of the project. In this case, for the development and construction of the Cline Bridge, the builder has defined the use of BIM (Building Information Modelling) as the process model. During this slide, the presenter can describe the lifecycle phases (Design, Production, Construction, Operation, and Planning) and drill down one level over the knowledge practices involved. For example, the initial stage consists of “Design”, which has two main knowledge areas, Conceptual Design, and Detailed Design. The project manager is able to explain this definition without the need to outline detailed processes and activities within them.
The Scope section of the presentation generally involves several slides, as the content layout is a list of “requirements.” Based on this fact, a table layout is suggested to make good use of space. It is important to avoid abusing the “list” and present the group of requirements rather than specific requirements. Otherwise, the project manager ends up transcribing the requirements document.
In this project presentation example, we present 10 groups of requirements traversing different stages of the project lifecycle.
- Design Standards: Bridge design must comply with local, national, and international design standards, including relevant engineering and safety codes
- Load Capacity: The bridge must be designed to safely carry a specific maximum load, which would include the weight of the bridge itself, traffic, pedestrians, wind, and other factors.
- Seismic Design: The design must account for seismic loads.
- Aesthetic Design: The bridge must be designed to meet certain aesthetic criteria aligned with the artists and architects.
- Accessibility and Use Requirements: Requirements for pedestrian walkways, bike lanes, vehicle lanes, load restrictions for vehicles, clearance heights for boats if over a waterway, etc.
- Regulatory Approvals: The project must secure all necessary permits and approvals from relevant local and national regulatory bodies.
- Environmental Impact: The project must take steps to minimize its environmental impact during construction and the operation of the bridge, including implementing erosion and sediment controls.
- Materials Simulation: Materials should comply with regulations and usage expectations for current and future expected requirements.
- Site Preparation: The project must include preparation of the construction site, including any necessary land clearing or grading.
- Foundations Construction: Foundations will need to support materials weight and traffic expected for the next 30 years.
- Site Acquisition: Acquire site and terrain for building and logistics.
Building a bridge involves a high level of resource usage. In an executive meeting of a project presentation, the recommendation is to structure this section as a Financial table with only one level of detail. Further details are delegated to specific resources and cost analysis presentations.
The resources list presented is:
- Professional Services
- Construction Labour
- Quality Assurance
- Waste Disposal and Cleanup
In order to break the style of table after table during the project presentation, we suggest using visual elements as icons and colors metaphorically related to each of the elements listed.
As explained earlier in the article, the project roadmap serves to offer a comprehensive overview of the significant milestones that will happen over the course of time. Given the magnitude of a bridge construction project and its prolonged duration, it is advisable, particularly for such extensive endeavours, to present a roadmap that aligns milestones with corresponding lifecycle phases in a discernible manner. This approach enables the audience to mentally envision the sequential progression of the construction process.
Aligned with previous slides, in the example we created a roadmap with the following high level milestones, and sub componentes:
- Project Budgeting and Financing
- Land Purchase & Renting
- Conceptual Design
- Detailed Design
- Access Routes
- Waste Disposal
- Materials Tests
- Seismic Tests
- Preparation of Modular Pieces
- Build and Assembly
- Test under Acceptance Criteria
- Stress Test
- Operation and Maintenance
As you can see, the Project Manager decided over a sequential roadmap, presented with little detail in timings, with start and end dates to picture dimension over the diagram.
In the bridge construction project of the example, there will be plenty of activity plans. All along the project several of these slides will be created and updated. The most suitable option for presentation tasks, durations, precedence relationship and resource allocation is the Gantt Chart Template. We present the first Quarter of the project, over the Conceptual Design Activities.
As displayed in the PowerPoint Slide , the subtitle clarifies the number of slides that will be used for this purpose.
The activities presented are:
- Site Analysis
- Feasibility Analysis
- Design Concepts
- BIM Model Creation
- Model Revision
- Environmental Impact
- Present Design
Risk management is an iterative process all over the project life cycle. When presenting your projects, the risks will vary depending on the progress over the roadmap. For this specific example we decided to present the risks being discussed during the Ideation stage, where the developer is exchanging risks with contractors and the company that will build the bridge.
Our suggested layout for this kind of information is a simple table, where the risks are clearly readable and visible, while the description is a hint for discussion rather than an in depth explanation.
It is very important to classify the presented risks, at least with two dimensions; “Impact” and “Probability”. This will generate quality conversations around them.
Outlined Risks during the Initiation Phase:
- Design Errors
- Construction Delays
- Budget Overruns
- Regulatory Changes
- Site Conditions
- Equipment Failures
- Health and Safety Incidents
As the reader can spot, the risks outlined, are very high level, and each of them will trigger specific Risk Analysis Reports.
The quality control section of the project presentation may vary depending on the quality process adopted. For large scale companies with a uniform portfolio of projects , it is common to see a continuous improvement quality model, which iteratively builds quality over the different projects (for example software companies) For construction companies like the example, the situation is not different, and the quality control model is aligned with the specific building process model. In this specific case, the project manager is presenting the quality control process to be applied over the BIM model and the Quality Control process to be followed for the physical construction of the bridge:
Execution and Monitoring
During the project, several status meetings will be carried out. During the project presentation the manager can establish the pattern to be used along the project.
For this example, we set a basic progress dashboard where the project manager can present :
- The current timeline
- Top 5 issues
- Current Burndown
- Top 5 risks.
The art of project presentation goes beyond listing data in random slides. A project presentation is a powerful tool to align stakeholders and foster an environment of trust and collaboration over factual information.
With a structured approach, all members involved in the project design and execution can understand the direction that’s being taken and the importance behind certain decisions. We hope these insights can turn your project into a powerful presentation that inspires and deliver results.
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