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Chicago/Turabian Basics: Footnotes

This is your how-to guide for footnotes following the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition. It will help you understand footnotes vs endnotes, teach you how to create them, and show real examples you can learn from.

Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:

What is a footnote?

  • Footnotes vs. Endnotes

Why We Use Footnotes

  • Creating footnotes

Bibliography

A footnote is a note that provides additional information or references for the reader.

A footnote is indicated with a superscript numeral (like this 1 ) within the text that corresponds to the same numeral at the bottom of the page, which is followed by the reference or additional information. The footnote should be included directly following the text it pertains to, usually after any punctuation.

In Chicago style (notes-bibliography style), footnotes are used instead of in-text citations to cite sources and to reduce interruption to the flow of the writing. However, footnotes can also be used to provide an additional explanation that would be difficult or distracting to include in the body of the text, to point the reader to additional reading or background information, to clarify a term or editorial decision, or to provide any other information that cannot be included within the text itself.

People working in the humanities—literature, history, and the arts—are the primary users of the Chicago footnotes and bibliography system.

Footnotes vs Endnotes

The main difference between footnotes and endnotes is that footnotes are included at the bottom of each page, whereas endnotes are included at the end of a chapter, article, or book.

Whether to use footnotes or endnotes depends on personal preference as well as the number of footnotes/endnotes needed. For example, in a text that has a significant number of notes, it may be better to format them as endnotes since the footnotes would take up a lot of room at the bottom of each page, making the text harder to read. This guide on  footnotes, end notes, and parentheticals provides more information about the differences between these different types of notes and how to use them.

Here’s a quick overview of the two note styles:

Footnotes vs endnotes

Chicago footnotes provide a note each time a source is referenced and are often combined with a bibliography at the end. The footnote usually includes the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, and page number(s) if it is the first time the source is being used. For any additional usage, simply use the author’s last name, publication title, and date of publication.

Footnotes should match with a superscript number at the end of the sentence referencing the source. You should begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.

In the text:

Throughout the first half of the novel, Strether has grown increasingly open and at ease in Europe; this quotation demonstrates openness and ease. 1

In the footnote:

1. Henry James, The Ambassadors (Rockville: Serenity, 2009), 34-40.

When citing a source more than once, use a shortened version of the footnote.

2. James, The Ambassadors , 14.

Creating Footnotes

Chicago footnotes provide a note each time a source is referenced and are often combined with a bibliography at the end.

  • If you use a bibliography : You do not need to provide the full citation in the footnotes, but rather a shortened form of the citation. The reader can consult your bibliography to find the full reference.
  • If you only include footnotes and not a bibliography : You must include the full citation the first time you reference the work. The next time you use the same work, you can just use the shortened citation form.

Footnotes should:

  • Include the pages on which the cited information is found so that readers easily find the source.
  • Match with a superscript number (example: 1 ) at the end of the sentence referencing the source.
  • Begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.

Sometimes you may not be able to find all of the information generally included in a citation. This is common for online material and older sources. If this happens, just use the information you have to form the citation.

  • No author : Use the title in the author’s position.
  • No date of publication : “n.d.” (no date) can be used as a placeholder.
  • You may use “n.p.” to indicate no publisher, no place of publication , or no page.

Looking for extra help creating footnotes? Check out the Chicago footnotes generator that comes with a subscription to EasyBib Plus .

footnote and bibliography generator

Citing sources with more than 1 author

If there are two or three authors, include their full names in the order they appear on the source.

In the shortened form, list the last names of all authors of a work with two or three authors.

  • 1st Author First name Last name and 2nd Author First name Last name, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), page number(s).
  • 1st Author Last name and 2nd Author Last name, Shortened title , page number(s).
  • Alexander Aciman and Emmett Rensin , Twitterature: The World’s Greatest Books in Twenty Tweets or Less (New York: Penguin Books, 2009), 47-48.
  • Aciman and Rensin, Twitterature , 25.

Citing sources with 4 or more authors

If there are more than three authors, list only the first author followed by “et al.” List all the authors in the bibliography.

In the shortened form, if there are more than three authors, only give the last name of the first author followed by “et al.”

  • 1st Author First name Last name et al., Title (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), page number(s).
  • 1st Author Last name et al., Shortened title , page number(s).
  • Karen White et al. , The Forgotten Room (New York: Berkley, 2016), 33-38.
  • White, Forgotten , 52.

Get help with footnotes by using the EasyBib Plus Chicago footnotes generator.

Citing sources with other contributor information

You may want to include other contributor information in your footnotes such as editor, translator, or compiler. If there is more than one of any given contributor, include their full names in the order they appear on the source.

  • Harry Mulisch, The Assault , trans. Claire Nicolas White (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 14.
  • Mulisch, Assault , 29.If the contributor is taking place of the author, use their full name instead of the author’s and provide their contribution.

If the contributor is taking the place of the author, use their full name instead of the author’s and provide their contribution.

  • Theo Hermans, ed., A Literary History of the Low Countries (Rochester: Camden House, 2009), 372.
  • Hermans, Low Countries , 301.

If you have a corporate author, use that name in place of the author.

Citing sources with no author

It may not be possible to find the author/contributor information; some sources may not even have an author or contributor- for instance, when you cite some websites. Simply omit the unknown information and continue with the footnote as usual.

Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.

Citing a part of a work

When citing a specific part of a work in the Chicago footnotes format, for example, when citing an article in Chicago , provide the relevant page(s) or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, or volumes. If page numbers cannot be referenced, simply exclude them.

Article in a book:

  • Kristen Poole, “Dr. Faustus and Reformation Theology,” in Early Modern English Drama: A Critical Companion , ed. G.A. Sullivan et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 100.
  • Poole, “Dr. Faustus,” 102.

Chapter in a book:

  • Garrett P. Serviss, “A Trip of Terror,” in A Columbus of Space (New York: Appleton, 1911), 17-32.
  • Serviss, “Trip,” 20.

Introduction, afterword, foreword, or preface:

  • Scott R. Sanders, introduction to Touchstone Anthology of Contemporary Creative Nonfiction: Work from 1970 to Present , ed. Lex Williford and Michael Martone (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007), x-xii.
  • Sanders, “Introduction,” xi.

Article in a periodical:

  • William G. Jacoby, “Public Attitudes Toward Public Spending,” American Journal of Political Science 38, no. 2 (May 1994): 336-61.
  • Jacoby, “Public Attitudes,” 345.

Citing group or corporate authors

In your footnotes, cite a corporate author like you would a normal author. American Medical Association, Journal of the American Medical Association : 12-43.

Citing secondary sources

It is generally discouraged in Chicago style to cite material that you cannot examine in its original form. If this is absolutely necessary, you must cite both the original work and the secondary one in Chicago footnotes.

  • Letter, J.B. Rhine to Aldous Huxley, August 15, 1957, Parapsychology Laboratory Records (1983-1984), Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, quoted in Stacy Horn, Unbelievable: Investigations into Ghosts, Poltergeists, Telepathy, and Other Unseen Phenomena, from the Duke Parapsychology Laboratory , (New York: HarperCollins, 2009).

Citing the Bible

When you cite the Bible, include the abbreviated title of the book, the chapter(s), and the verse(s) referenced. You use a colon between chapter and verse. Also, include the version you are referencing. The version must be spelled out for a general audience, but it may be abbreviated for specialists.

  • Prov. 3:5-10 (AV).
  • Prov. 3:5-10 (Authorized King James Version).

Citing online sources

For online sources, Chicago footnotes generally follow the same principles as printed works.The URL, database name, or DOI need to be included so that the reader can easily find the work cited.

“Twitter Privacy Policy,” Privacy Policy, Twitter, last modified January 1, 2020, https://twitter.com/en/privacy.

News article: 

Eliot Brown, “In Silicon Valley, the Big Venture Funds Keep Getting Bigger,” Wall Street Journal , July 25, 2017, https://www.wsj.com/articles/in-silicon-valley-the-big-venture-funds-keep-getting-bigger-1501002000.

Cynthia J. Cyrus, The Scribes for Women’s Convents in Late Medieval Germany (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009), ProQuest Ebook Central.

Social media:

EasyBib (@EasyBib), “Writing a research paper?,” Twitter, January 21, 2020, 5:20 p.m., https://twitter.com/EasyBib/status/1219746511636049920.

Online video: 

Doritos, “The Cool Ranch Long Form feat. Lil Nas X and Sam Elliott,” YouTube video, 01:30, posted February 2, 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6qchztaw9g.

Electronic personal communication:

  • Jane Smith, email message to author, January 1, 2020.
  • John Smith, Facebook direct message to author, January 2, 2020.

The Chicago Manual of Style . 17ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2017.

Published June 28, 2012. Updated March 11, 2020.

Written by Janice Hansen . Janice has a doctorate in literature and a master’s degree in library science. She spends a lot of time with rare books and citations.

Chicago Formatting Guide

Chicago Formatting

  • Book Chapter
  • Conference Paper
  • Musical Recording

Citation Examples

  • Thesis or Dissertation
  • Encyclopedia
  • Sheet Music
  • YouTube Video

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The ultimate guide to citing anything in chicago style, everything you ever needed to know about citing sources from the chicago manual of style, the basics of citing in chicago style.

The Chicago Manual of Style, currently in its 16th edition, was created to help researchers properly cite their sources. There are two types of referencing styles in Chicago: 1) Notes and Bibliography and 2) Author-Date.

This guide displays the Notes and Bibliography style of referencing and is not associated with the official publishers of the style.

Need help with other styles? Our thorough MLA format and APA format guides are available for all of your writing and citing needs!

Creating a Bibliography in Chicago Style

The bibliography is a list of all the sources used in the paper. The list includes the important publication details of the sources. The bibliography must also follow this format:

  • The citation list or bibliography must be single spaced.
  • The last names of the authors must be arranged alphabetically.
  • The second line of the source must be indented.

Examples of Citing Different Sources in Chicago Style

Generally, Chicago citations require:

  • Title of book/article
  • Title of newspaper/journal
  • Publication year
  • Publication month and date
  • City of publication
  • Date of access
  • Page numbers
  • URL or Name of Database

How to Create Footnotes and Endnotes for Chicago Style

If you’re wondering how to format Chicago in-text citations, Notes and Bibliography formatting requires writers to use footnotes and endnotes. These footnotes and endnotes acknowledge the different sources used in the work.

When a source is used in a research paper, a roman numeral is placed at the end of the borrowed information as superscript (it is smaller than the normal line of text and raised). That number correlates with a footnote or endnote.

  • Footnotes are found at the bottom of the page
  • Endnotes are added at the end of the chapter or project
  • A footnote or endnote contains the complete citation information
  • The matching number in the footnote or endnote is normal sized and not raised
  • It is up to the discretion of the writer to either place the citation at the bottom of the page where the superscript is placed (a footnote) or to place all citations together at the end of the work (endnotes)
One would wonder, "Would young Einstein be characterized as belonging somewhere on the autism spectrum? Would Erdos have been given a diagnosis of A.D.H.D.?" ¹

Chicago style footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page:

  • Silver, Nate. "Beautiful Minds." The New York Times. July 13, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/books/review/the-boy-who-loved-math-and-on-a-beam-of-light.html?ref=books&_r=0 .

If a source is used more than once in a research project, follow these guidelines:

  • When used again, instead of writing out the complete citation for a second time in the footnote, only include: the author’s last name, the title or a phrase for the title (if it’s more than four words), and the page number(s) that were used. This will reduce the bulk of citation information in the paper.
  • Cohen, Micah, "Rubio is Losing Support Among Republican Voters." FiveThirtyEight. July 09, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/rubio-is-losing-support-among-republican-voters/
  • Wolf, Leon H. "Marco Rubio's Campaign Must Adapt or Die." RedState. August 04, 2015. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.redstate.com/2015/08/04/marco-rubios-campaign-must-adapt-die/ .
  • Cohen, "Rubio Losing Support"

If a source is used consecutively, follow these guidelines for shortened citation and ibid :

If you are citing the same source continually throughout your text, use a shortened version of the full citation in your footnotes.

Previous versions of the style used the abbreviation “ibid,” short for “ibidem.” Ibidem is a Latin word that means “in the same place.” It was used when referring to a source that was just cited within a document (without other sources in between). Writers would use ibid instead of writing out the source information again. This was meant to save space since it’s fewer characters than citing the source again.

In the current version of Chicago, the 17th version, ibid is accepted but not preferred. This is because ibid requires readers to go back and search for the previous source cited, an inconvenience which outweighs the benefits of shortening the citation. Also, shortened citations are compact, so using ibid doesn’t always save line space.

Shortened citations

The first mention of a source should include all relevant information (e.g., full author name(s), full title, publisher, date published, etc.).

Subsequent mentions should be a shortened version using this formula:

Last Name, Title of the Work , page number(s).

Mentions after the shortened form can use the abbreviated formula:

Last Name, page number(s).

If there are two or three authors, list their full names in the order they appear in the source. If there are more than three authors, list the first author’s name followed by “et al.”

Examples of using shortened citations (preferred format in the 17th Edition):

  • Philip R. Cateora et al., International Marketing (New York: McGraw Hill, 2020), 292-294.
  • Cateora et al., International Marketing , 28-29.
  • Cateora et al., 28-29.
  • Cateora et al., 377.

Long titles that are more than four words are usually shortened. Focus on keeping key words from the title and omitting any beginning “a” or “the.” Examples:

  • And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street = Mulberry Street
  • Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe = Fried Green Tomatoes

If you are using the discontinued ibid notation, here are a few guidelines:

  • When the same source is used consecutively, instead of typing in the citation information again, use the abbreviation “ibid.” Add the page numbers immediately following.
  • If the same source AND same page number are used consecutively, simply write “Ibid.”

Same example above, but using ibid:

  • Philip R. Cateora et al, International Marketing (New York: McGraw Hill, 2020), 292-294.

Another example with two sources that were mentioned earlier in the text:

  • Anthony Doerr, All the Light We Cannot See (New York: Scribner, 2014), 82-84.
  • Tatiana de Rosnay, Sarah's Key (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2007), 24-27.
  • Ibid., 133-134.
  • Doerr, All the Light We Cannot See , 397-401.
  • Ibid., 405.
  • Ibid., 411.

For further clarification on the Chicago in-text citation style of footnotes and endnotes, consult the Chicago Manual of Style's website . This site is full of helpful pages, so if you’re tempted to head to Google to type in, “in-text citations Chicago,” take a peek at the official site first.

Creating Your Citations in Chicago Style

As mentioned, when you're following The Chicago Manual of Style, you'll be required to create a list of all sources used in your paper. Even though full bibliographic information can be found in the footnotes and endnotes, it is still acceptable, and often required by instructors, to create a bibliography. The bibliography is placed at the end of an assignment.

How to Cite a Print Book in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes:

First name Last name, Title of Book (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range.

In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of book . Publication Place: Publisher, Year.

Example of Chicago Style for Books with One Author

Sam Staggs, Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009), 84.

Staggs, Sam. Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.

Example of Chicago Citation for Books with Multiple Authors

Ella Shohat and Robert Stam, Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media (London: Routledge,1994) 24-28.

Shohat, Ella, and Robert Stam. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media . London: Routledge, 1994.

How to Cite Chapters or Articles from a Book in Chicago Style

First name, Last name of Chapter Author, “Chapter or Article Title,” in Book Title , ed. First Name Last Name of Editor (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range.

Last name, First name. "Chapter Title." In Book Title , edited by First Name Last Name, page range. Publication Place: Publisher, Year.

Looking for a simple and easy-to-use Chicago citation maker? Head to our homepage and start building your Chicago format references with ease!

Example of Chicago Citation for Chapters in a Book

Laura Aymerich-Franch and Maddalena Fedele, "Student's Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education," in Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, ed. Vledlena Benson and Stephanie Morgan (Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2014), 35-36.

Aymerich-Franch, Laura, and Maddalena Fedele. "Student's Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education." In Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, edited by Vledlena Benson and Stephanie Morgan, 35-36. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2014.

How to Cite Online E-books in Chicago Style

When citing e-books, include the URL or the name of the database. The URL or database name should be the last part of the citation.

First name Last name, Title of e-book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page range, URL, Database Name.

Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. URL, Name of Database.

Example of Chicago Citation for E-Books

Michael J. Baker, The Marketing Book (Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002), 89, https://htbiblio.yolasite.com/resources/Marketing%20Book.pdf .

Baker, Michael J. The Marketing Book. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. https://htbiblio.yolasite.com/resources/Marketing%20Book.pdf .

If you understand how to structure your references easily, thanks to this thorough guide, and are looking for help with the written portion of your paper, look no further! There are tons of Citation Machine grammar guides to help you write with ease. Here’s just one of our many useful pages: Positive & Negative Adjectives .

How to Cite E-books in Chicago Style E-books from a Kindle or E-book Reader

If there aren’t any clearly labeled page numbers, use chapter numbers or titles, section numbers or titles, or any other established numbering system in the text. It’s also acceptable to omit page information from Chicago style citations if there aren’t clearly labeled page numbers.

First name Last name, Title of the Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page range, Type of E-reader

Last name, First name. Title of book . Publication Place: Publisher, Year. Type of e-reader.

Example of Chicago Citation for Kindle or E-book Reader

Corina Bomann, The Moonlight Garden (Washington: AmazonCrossing, 2016), chap. 8, Kindle.

Bomann, Corina. The Moonlight Garden . Washington: AmazonCrossing, 2016. Kindle.

How to Cite Print Journals in Chicago Style

First name Last name, "Title of Article," Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.

Chicago style citation in the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Title of Article," Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.

Example of Chicago Citation for Print Journals

Damien O'Brien and Brian Fitzgerald, "Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World," Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.

O'Brien, Damien, and Brian Fitzgerald, "Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World." Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.

If you’re come this far and you’re still searching for in-text citation Chicago information, remember, this style uses footnotes and endnotes! Scroll up to find out more!

How to Cite Online or Database Journals in Chicago Style

First name Last name, "Article Title," Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No.(Year): Page range. URL or Name of Database.

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No. (Year): Page range. URL or Name of Database.

Example of Chicago Citation for Online or Database Journals

Trine Schreiber, "Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory," Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 (2014): 346-363. https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002 .

Schreiber, Trine. "Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory." Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 (2014): 346-363. https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002 .

Our Citation Machine Chicago citation generator helps you create your references in just a few clicks. Give it a whirl and watch the magic unfold!

How to Cite Print Magazines in Chicago Style

First name Last name, "Article Title," Magazine Title, Full Date, page range.

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Magazine Title, Full Date.

Example of Chicago Citation for Print Magazines

George J. Church, "Sunny Mood at Midsummer: Americans Take a Brighter View of Reagan," _Time, July 18, 1983, 56-59.

Church, George J. "Sunny Mood at Midsummer: Americans Take a Brighter View of Reagan" Time, July 18, 1983.

How to Cite Online Magazines in Chicago Style

First name, Last name, "Article Title," Title of Magazine, Full Date, URL.

Chicago style bibliography structure:

Last name, First name. "Article Title" Magazine Title, Full Date, URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Online Magazines

Bill Donahue. “King of the Mountains,” Backpacker, September/October 2019, 76-82, http://backpacker.eoncontent.ebscohost.com/2226647#&pageSet=39

Donahue, Bill. “King of the Mountains.” Backpacker, September/October 2019. http://backpacker.eoncontent.ebscohost.com/2226647#&pageSet=39

How to Cite a Web Page in Chicago Style

Creating a footnote, endnote, or bibliographic information for web content isn’t always necessary. It’s acceptable to simply mention the source in the written portion of the paper. For example, “The Marco Polo page on History’s website, last updated on March 6, 2019, describes his travels along the Silk Road while....” Include formal Chicago citation style references if you or your professor prefers to do so.

A bit more:

  • If the website page is missing a date of publication, include the date the source was last modified or accessed in the footnote and endnote.
  • If the website page is missing the name of the author, begin the footnote with the “Title of the Article or Page.”
First name Last name of Author, "Title of Article or Page," Title of Website, Date published or last modified or accessed, URL.

Last name, First name or Organization Name. "Title of Article or Page." Title of Website. Date published or last modified or accessed. URL.

Figuring out how to style web references can be tricky, but thanks to our Chicago citation machine, we’ve made the whole process much easier for you. Try it out!

Example of Chicago Citation for a Web Page

Sujan Patel, "15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015," Entrepreneur, January 12, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570 .

Patel, Sujan. “15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015.” Entrepreneur. January 12, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570 .

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for websites quickly and accurately.

How to Cite The Bible or Religious Texts in Chicago Style

Bible references are often displayed in the text of a paper (similar to web content) or in footnotes and endnotes. Formal bible references in bibliographies are not necessary.

Abbreviated Title of Book, Chapter:Verse (Edition).

Example of Chicago Citation for Bible

2 Cor. 11:7 (New Standard Version).

If you’re looking for other resources to help you with the written portion of your paper, we have quite a few handy grammar guides. Two of our favorites? Adjectives starting with X and List of verbs .

How to Cite Blogs in Chicago Style

*According to the 17th edition of the manual, blogs are not typically cited in bibliographies. They are generally cited in the footnotes/endnotes section. Of course, if the writer or professor prefers a full bibliographic reference, one can be created.

Style notes and bibliographic references the same way as you would an online newspaper, but include (blog) in parentheses immediately following the title of the blog.

First name Last name, "Title of Blog Post," Title of Blog (blog), Title of Larger Blog, if part of a larger one, Month Day Year of post, URL.

Last Name, First Name. "Title of the Blog." Name of Blog Site (blog). Title of Larger Blog, if part of a larger one, Month Day Year of post. URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Blogs

Shannon Miller, "Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet," The Library Voice (blog), January 20, 2016, http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com/2016/01/valentine-ideas-using-digital-tools.html .

Miller, Shannon. "Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet." The Library Voice, January 20, 2016. http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com/2016/01/valentine-ideas-using-digital-tools.html .

Chicago style bibliographies aren’t as complicated as they seem, especially when you have a generator to do the work for you. Head to our homepage and try ours out!

How to Cite TV Broadcasts in Chicago Style

Title of Series , episode number, “Title of Episode,” directed by First Name Last Name, written by First Name Last Name, featuring First Names Last Names of actors, aired Month Day, Year, on Station Name, URL.

Last Name, First Name, dir. Title of Series . Season Number, episode number, “Title of Episode.” Aired Month Day, Year, on Station Name. URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Broadcasts

Riverdale , episode 15, “American Dreams,” directed by Gabriel Correra, written by Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa, featuring KJ Apa, Lili Reinhart, and Cole Sprouse, aired March 13, 2019, on CW.

Bibliography Chicago style:

Correra, Gabriel, dir. Riverdale . Season 3, episode 15, “American Dreams.” Aired March 13, 2019, on CW.

How to Cite a Case Study in Chicago Style

First name Last name. Title of Case Study. (Publication Place: Publisher, Year).

Last name, First name. Title of Case Study.

Example of Chicago Citation for Case Study

Peter Finn. Disulfiram.

Finn, Peter. Disulfiram.

How to Cite Conference Proceedings in Chicago Style

First Name Last Name, “Title of Conference Paper” (format, Title of Conference, Location, Full Date).

Last name, First name. “Title of Conference Paper.” Format presented at Title of Conference, Location, Date. URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Conference Paper

Craig Myerson, “Historical Markings in New Castle, Delaware” (Power-Point presentation, The University of Delaware, Newark, DE, June 18, 2019.

Myerson, Craig. “Historical Markings in New Castle, Delaware.” Power-point presentation presented at The University of Delaware, Newark, DE, June 18, 2019.

How to Cite Court or Legal Cases in Chicago Style

The 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style recommends referring to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation , or the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation to learn how to create court or legal references. Both guides are widely used by those in legal fields and have become the standard for referencing legal cases.

The examples below reflect the format found in The Bluebook .

Legal cases are rarely documented in bibliographies, usually only in notes.

Plaintiff v. Defendant, Court Case Number (Abbreviated Name of the Court. Year).

Example of Chicago Citation for Legal Cases

Michael Clum v. Jackson National Life Insurance Co., 10-000126-CL (Ingham Cty. 2011).

How to Cite Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries in Chicago Style

According to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, well-known reference books, including major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies. Lesser known reference books can be cited in the bibliography.

The abbreviation "s.v." means sub verbo , which is Latin for "under the word."

Chicago style formatting in the footnotes and endnotes:

Name of dictionary or encyclopedia , Numbered ed. (Year), s.v. “term.”

If found online:

Name of dictionary or encyclopedia , s.v. "term," accessed Month Day Year, url.

Last name, First name of Author. Title of Dictionary or Encyclopedia . Numbered ed. Location of Publisher: Publisher, Year.

Example of Chicago Citation for Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries

Encyclopedia Britannica , s.v. “pressure,” accessed September 15, 2019, https://www.britannica.com/science/pressure .

Gover, Emily. Encyclopedia of Birds . 4th ed. New York: Chegg, 2016.

How to Cite Dissertations in Chicago Style

First name Last name, "Title of Dissertation" (type of paper, school, year), url.

Last name, First name. "Title of Dissertation." Type of Paper, School, Year. URL or Database(Identification Number).

Example of Chicago Citation for Dissertations

Michele Kirschenbaum, "Young Students' Online Searching Capabilities" (master's thesis, Drexel University, 2009).

Kirschenbaum, Michele. "Young Students' Online Searching Capabilities." Master's thesis, Drexel University, 2009.

How to Cite DVDs, Video, and Film in Chicago Style

Title , directed by First Name Last name (Year; City, State Abbrev: Producer), Format.

Last Name, First Name, dir. Title . Year; City, State Abbrev: Producer, Year. Format.

Example of Chicago Citation for Film, DVDs, or Videos

_Home Lone , directed by Chris Columbus (1990; Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox), DVD.

Columbus, Chris, dir. Home Alone . 1990; Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox. DVD.

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for films quickly and accurately.

How to Cite Facebook Pages in Chicago Style

Title of Facebook Page, “Text of Post,” Facebook, Month Day, Year, URL.

Title of Facebook Page. “Text of Post.” Facebook, Month Day, Year. URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Facebook Post

Awakenings, “Maceo Plex gave us goosebumps during Awakenings Festival! We can't wait to hear what he has in store during Maceo Plex x Lone Romantic | Awakenings ADE Elementenstraat on October 19:awak.enin.gs/2KMxDCH,” Facebook, September 12, 2019, https://www.facebook.com/pg/awakenings/posts/?ref=page_internal .

Awakenings. “Maceo Plex gave us goosebumps during Awakenings Festival! We can't wait to hear what he has in store during Maceo Plex x Lone Romantic | Awakenings ADE Elementenstraat on October 19:awak.enin.gs/2KMxDCH.” Facebook, September 12, 2019. https://www.facebook.com/pg/awakenings/posts/?ref=page_internal .

How to Cite Government Publications in Chicago Style

Title of Publication , prepared by Organization (City, State Abbrev, Year).

Firm/Department. Title of Publication . City, State Abbrev, Year.

Example of Chicago Citation for Government Publication

Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014 , prepared by The Department of Justice (Washington, DC, 2014).

Department of Justice. Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014 . Washington, DC, 2014.

How to Cite Interviews in Chicago Style

Published Interviews are treated in Chicago format style like an article in a magazine or a newspaper. Use one of those formats to cite your interview.

How to Cite an E-mail in Chicago Style

According to The Chicago Manual of Style , 17th edition, personal communications, such as letters, e-mails, text messages, and phone calls are usually referenced in the footnotes and endnotes or explained in the text of the paper. They are rarely listed in the Chicago style bibliography. In addition, an e-mail address belonging to an individual should be omitted, unless given permission by its owner.

Individual's First name Last name, type of communication, Month Day Year of correspondence.

Example of Chicago Citation for E-mail

Michele Kirschenbaum, e-mail message to author, January 18, 2016.

How to Cite Musical Recordings in Chicago Style

"Title of Song," Year of recording date, Platform, track number on Artist’s Name, Album Title, Producer, Year.

Last name, First name of performer. Title of Album. Recorded Year. Producer.

Example of Chicago Citation for Recordings

"Sucker,” Spotify, track 1, on Jonas Brothers, Happiness Begins , Republic Records, 2019.

Jonas Brothers. Happiness Begins . 2019. Republic Records.

Still wondering how to style a Chicago in-text citation? Remember, this style uses footnotes and endnotes! Head to the top of this page to learn more!

How to Cite Online Videos in Chicago Style

First name Last name of individual who posted the video, “Title of Video,” Producer, published on Month Day, Year, Site video, Length, URL.

Last name, First name. "Title of Video." Producer. Published on Month Day, Year. Site video, Length. URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Online Videos

“Habitats Work in Texas After Hurricane Harvey,” Habitat for Habitat for Humanity, published on September 11, 2019, YouTube video, 01:35, https://youtu.be/EPPALfWYGRo .

“Habitats Works in Texas After Hurricane Harvey.” Habitat for Humanity. Published on September 11, 2019. YouTube video, 01:35. https://youtu.be/EPPALfWYGRo .

How to Cite Images in Chicago Style

First name Last name, Title of Image , Year, format, Location, State, URL.

Last Name, First Name. Title of Image . Date. Format. Location, State, URL.

Example of Chicago Citation for Photographs and Images

Jerome Liebling, May Day , New York, 1948, photograph, The Jewish Museum, New York.
Liebling, Chris. May Day , New York. 1948. Photograph. The Jewish Museum, New York.

How to Cite Live Performances in Chicago Style

Since most live performances are not retrievable by the reader, simply refer to them in the text of the paper or in the notes, and omit it from the bibliography. If it’s a recorded performance, follow the Chicago style format for musical recordings.

Title of Play , music and lyrics by First Name Last Name, dir. First Name Last name, chor. Name of Theatre, City, State Abbrev, Date of Live Performance.

Example of Chicago Citation for Live Performances

The Lion King , Julie Taymor, dir. Garth Fagan, chor. Minskoff Theatre, New York, NY, August 8, 2019.

How to Cite Podcasts in Chicago Style

When citing podcasts in Chicago Style, treat it as an article in a periodical or a chapter in a book. If found online, include the url.

How to Cite Poems in Chicago Style

When citing poems in Chicago Style, cite it as you would a chapter in a book.

How to Cite Presentations and Lectures in Chicago Style

Follow the same guidelines as in the “Conference Papers” section above.

How to Cite Sheet Music in Chicago Style

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, cite sheet music the same way as you cite books.

Once you’ve styled each and every reference, take a minute to run your paper through our plagiarism checker . It’s the perfect go-to resource when you’re in need of another set of eyes to scan your paper!

Updated January 8, 2020

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since 2006 and is an expert in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a master’s degree in library and information science and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012.

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MLA Footnotes & Endnotes | Format & Examples

Published on August 23, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on June 16, 2022 by Jack Caulfield.

MLA style requires you to cite sources using MLA in-text citations , not notes. However, you can still use footnotes or endnotes in MLA style for other purposes:

Citing a lot of sources at once

  • Providing any extra explanation needed about your citation or translation practice
  • Elaborating on ideas
  • Providing additional examples that don’t fit into the main text

Footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes appear at the end of the paper, just before the Works Cited list. MLA allows the use of either type, but stick to one or the other.

Any sources you cite in your footnotes or endnotes must also be included in your Works Cited list , just like sources in the main text.

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Table of contents

Formatting footnotes and endnotes in mla, explaining citation or translation practice, using notes to elaborate on ideas, providing more examples in notes, frequently asked questions about mla notes.

Both footnotes and endnotes are indicated by superscript numbers. The number usually appears at the end of a sentence, after the period.

If you need to use a note in the middle of a sentence to avoid ambiguity, place the number directly after a punctuation mark (with the exception of the dash , where the number comes before).

Four main factors have been determined as possible characteristics of any successful fictional work: 6 popularity, enduring fame, commercial success and scholarly appeal. Each of the case studies must possess at least one of these. 7

The note itself begins with the corresponding number, again in superscript, followed by a space, and then the content of the note. Notes should be in the same font as the rest of your document, but a smaller font size; the first line of each note is slightly indented.

Your word processing program should allow you to automatically insert footnotes .

Formatting the endnotes page

If you are using endnotes, list them on a separate page directly before the Works Cited list. The title (“Notes” or “Endnotes”) appears centered at the top of the page. Like the rest of an MLA format paper , the endnotes should be double-spaced.

MLA endnotes page

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When you have a lot of sources to cite at once, you can save space in your text by placing them in a note instead. These can be sources for a statement you made in the text, or sources providing supplementary information relevant to the discussion.

Note that you don’t need to use parentheses around the page numbers when the note just consists of a list of sources.

When there’s any important information that might not be immediately obvious from your citations, you can explain it in a note at the first point where it comes up.

For example, you might use your own translations for some texts but not others, or you might cite different editions of a text in different ways. These details can be clarified in notes where relevant.

When you mention something in passing but think more information may be useful to the reader, you can add the extra information, as well as related sources if relevant, in a note.

Bear in mind that long notes with superfluous information can be distracting for readers. Use notes of this kind sparingly, and keep them brief. If a piece of information is essential to your point, you should usually include it in the main text.

Sometimes you have more examples than you can smoothly fit into your text. In those cases, it can be worth placing further examples in a note, if you think they add something to your point. You might also provide a counterexample to acknowledge the limitations of your argument.

No, you should use parenthetical MLA in-text citations to cite sources. Footnotes or endnotes can be used to add extra information that doesn’t fit into your main text, but they’re not needed for citations.

If you need to cite a lot of sources at the same point in the text, though, placing these citations in a note can be a good way to avoid cluttering your text.

In MLA style , footnotes or endnotes can be used to provide additional information that would interrupt the flow of your text.

This can be further examples or developments of ideas you only briefly discuss in the text. You can also use notes to provide additional sources or explain your citation practice.

You don’t have to use any notes at all; only use them to provide relevant information that complements your arguments or helps the reader to understand them.

Footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page.  Endnotes appear in a list at the end of the text, just before the reference list or bibliography. Don’t mix footnotes and endnotes in the same document: choose one or the other and use them consistently.

In Chicago notes and bibliography style , you can use either footnotes or endnotes, and citations follow the same format in either case.

In APA and MLA style , footnotes or endnotes are not used for citations, but they can be used to provide additional information.

Some source types, such as books and journal articles , may contain footnotes (or endnotes) with additional information. The following rules apply when citing information from a note in an MLA in-text citation :

  • To cite information from a single numbered note, write “n” after the page number, and then write the note number, e.g. (Smith 105n2)
  • To cite information from multiple numbered notes, write “nn” and include a range, e.g. (Smith 77nn1–2)
  • To cite information from an unnumbered note, write “un” after the page number, with a space in between, e.g. (Jones 250 un)

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2022, June 16). MLA Footnotes & Endnotes | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 19, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/mla/footnotes-and-endnotes/

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Generate accurate Turabian citations quickly and easily, with MyBib!

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🤔 What is a Turabian Citation Generator?

A Turabian citation generator is a software tool that can automatically create academic citations in the Turabian citation style.

It will usually request key details about a source -- like the authors, title, and publish date -- and will output these details with the correct punctuation and layout required by the official Turabian style guide.

Formatted Turabian citations created by a generator can be used to give credit to others' work that you reference in your own.

🤓 What is the Turabian citation style?

The Turabian citation style is largely based on the Chicago style, but aims to be simpler for students who are not writing for publication. It was created by Kate Turabian, and the rules are published in the Manual for Writers .

The Manual for Writers specifies how to research and compose an academic paper, and includes guidelines to:

  • Design a strong research question
  • Construct an evidence-based argument
  • Structure academic papers in a logical way
  • Cite sources (this is the part we can help with!)

Like Chicago, there are two ways to cite sources in Turabian style: 'notes and bibliography', and 'author-date'--your instructor will usually tell you which one to use. More information about the differences between the two can be found in the official Citation Quick Guide .

👩‍🎓 Who uses a Turabian Citation Generator?

Turabian is mostly used by students studying the humanities, literature, history, arts, and also across the sciences. Students in these areas looking to manage and correctly cite their sources will use a Turabian Citation Generator to aid them.

🙌 Why should I use an Turabian Citation Generator?

Every academic field will recommend using a tool to record the sources cited in your writing. A citation generator like MyBib can store this data, and can also automatically create an accurate Turabian style bibliography or reference list from it (including the necessary in-text citations too), which should be appended to your document.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's Turabian Citation Generator?

MyBib's Turabian citation generator was designed to be fast and easy to use. Follow these steps:

  • Search for the article, website, or document you want to cite using the search box at the top of the page.
  • Look through the list of results found and choose the one that you referenced in your work.
  • Make sure the details are correct, and fix any that are not. Then click Generate!

The generator will produce a formatted Turabian citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall bibliography or reference list (which can be downloaded fully later!).

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

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COMMENTS

  1. Footnotes

    Search Footnotes provide additional information for a term, phrase, or sentence mentioned in the text. The information added in the footnote should not be a continuation of the text being discussed in the text. Such information should be included in the text and not as a footnote.

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    As you're writing, you can quickly generate parenthetical citations or footnotes /endnotes to paste into your document without typing names or dates by hand. Export When you're done, you can copy a formatted bibliography to the clipboard and paste it into your document.

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    🙅 100% free. No ads, privacy trackers, time limits, or restrictions ⚡ Super fast! Be done with citing in minutes, not hours What is MyBib? MyBib is a free bibliography and citation generator that makes accurate citations for you to copy straight into your academic assignments and papers.

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    Automatic works cited and bibliography formatting for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian citation styles. Now supports MLA 9. EasyBib®: Free Bibliography Generator - MLA, APA, Chicago citation styles

  7. Free APA Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    To generate a formatted reference list or bibliography just follow these steps: Start by searching for the source you want to cite in the search box at the top of the page. MyBib will automatically locate all the required information. If any is missing you can add it yourself.

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    Using a citation generator helps students to integrate referencing into their research and writing routine; turning a time-consuming ordeal into a simple task. ... Likewise, if the citation generator is set to a footnote style then it will create a fully-formatted reference for your reference page and bibliography, as well as a corresponding ...

  9. Citation Machine®: Format & Generate

    Stay up to date! Get research tips and citation information or just enjoy some fun posts from our student blog. Citation Machine® helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free.

  10. Free APA Citation Generator

    How to create APA citations. APA Style is widely used by students, researchers, and professionals in the social and behavioral sciences. Scribbr's free citation generator automatically generates accurate references and in-text citations.. This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020).

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    Scribbr's Citation Generator supports the two most commonly used Chicago styles: notes and bibliography and author-date (as well as APA, MLA and Harvard ). Export to Bib (La)TeX Easily export in BibTeX format and continue working in your favorite LaTeX editor. Export to Word Bibliography finished?

  12. Chicago Citation Format: Footnotes and how to make them

    Footnotes should: Include the pages on which the cited information is found so that readers easily find the source. Match with a superscript number (example: 1 ) at the end of the sentence referencing the source. Begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.

  13. Citation Machine®: CHICAGO Format & CHICAGO Citation Generator

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  14. Chicago Style Footnotes

    Chicago Reference Generator Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text Be assured that you'll submit flawless writing. Upload your document to correct all your mistakes. Table of contents Full notes and short notes Placement of footnotes Content of Chicago footnotes Footnote examples for different source types Footnotes vs endnotes

  15. Free MLA Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    Scroll back up to the generator at the top of the page and select the type of source you're citing. Books, journal articles, and webpages are all examples of the types of sources our generator can cite automatically. Then either search for the source, or enter the details manually in the citation form. The generator will produce a formatted MLA ...

  16. Free Chicago Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

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    Whether you are using the notes and bibliography system or the author-date style in your work, the Cite This For Me citing tool will help to generate your citations in seconds. Simply log in to your account, or create one for free, and select the note-bib or author-date version of this style. Popular Chicago Citation Examples Archive material

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  21. MLA Footnotes & Endnotes

    Revised on June 16, 2022 by Jack Caulfield. MLA style requires you to cite sources using MLA in-text citations, not notes. However, you can still use footnotes or endnotes in MLA style for other purposes: Citing a lot of sources at once Providing any extra explanation needed about your citation or translation practice Elaborating on ideas

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