• Dictionaries home
  • American English
  • Collocations
  • German-English
  • Grammar home
  • Practical English Usage
  • Learn & Practise Grammar (Beta)
  • Word Lists home
  • My Word Lists
  • Recent additions
  • Resources home
  • Text Checker

Definition of annotate verb from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

  • The drawings were all clearly annotated.
  • The text was annotated with her own comments.

Take your English to the next level

The Oxford Learner’s Thesaurus explains the difference between groups of similar words. Try it for free as part of the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary app

define a annotate

Nearby words

  • More from M-W
  • To save this word, you'll need to log in. Log In

Definition of annotated

Examples of annotated in a sentence.

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'annotated.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

Word History

1786, in the meaning defined above

Dictionary Entries Near annotated

Cite this entry.

“Annotated.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/annotated. Accessed 21 Feb. 2024.

More from Merriam-Webster on annotated

Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for annotated

Nglish: Translation of annotated for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of annotated for Arabic Speakers

Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!

Play Quordle: Guess all four words in a limited number of tries.  Each of your guesses must be a real 5-letter word.

Can you solve 4 words at once?

Word of the day.

See Definitions and Examples »

Get Word of the Day daily email!

Popular in Grammar & Usage

8 grammar terms you used to know, but forgot, homophones, homographs, and homonyms, commonly misspelled words, a guide to em dashes, en dashes, and hyphens, absent letters that are heard anyway, popular in wordplay, 10 scrabble words without any vowels, 12 more bird names that sound like insults (and sometimes are), the words of the week - feb. 16, 9 superb owl words, 'gaslighting,' 'woke,' 'democracy,' and other top lookups, games & quizzes.

Play Blossom: Solve today's spelling word game by finding as many words as you can using just 7 letters. Longer words score more points.

  • Daily Crossword
  • Word Puzzle
  • Word Finder
  • Word of the Day
  • Synonym of the Day
  • Word of the Year
  • Language stories
  • All featured
  • Gender and sexuality
  • All pop culture
  • Grammar Coach ™
  • Writing hub
  • Grammar essentials
  • Commonly confused
  • All writing tips
  • Pop culture
  • Writing tips

a critical or explanatory note or body of notes added to a text.

the act of annotating .

note (def. 1) . Abbreviation : annot.

Origin of annotation

Other words from annotation.

  • re·an·no·ta·tion, noun

Words Nearby annotation

  • annona family
  • announcement
  • anno urbis conditae

Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2024

How to use annotation in a sentence

Announced in July, along with new Smart Shopping display ad formats and shipping annotations, the new customer acquisition goal allows marketers to set a separate conversion value on new customers to inform Google’s automated bidding.

They can now go from the simplified viewing and remote collaboration to this bigger file sharing and increased preview mode and annotations.

Ordinary website users do this annotation too, when they complete a reCAPTCHA.

A few early versions of what became the final design, with placeholder data and annotations.

Make an annotation in your analytics noting that organic search reporting should be ignored for that whole time period.

The term Abernaquis, is also a French mode of annotation for the same word, but is rather applied at this time to a specific band.

Modern editors of what they call the "Roman Elegies" bring abundant annotation , and often detail Goethe's own emendations.

Footnote tags that were missing in the original are underlined without further annotation .

In olden times the place was unknown, but can be doubtfully identified with A-nok-ta-shan in the annotation of Shui-ching.

Sippi, agreeably to the early French annotation of the word, signifies a river.

British Dictionary definitions for annotation

/ ( ˌænəʊˈteɪʃən , ˌænə- ) /

the act of annotating

a note added in explanation, etc, esp of some literary work

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

  • Words with Friends Cheat
  • Wordle Solver
  • Word Unscrambler
  • Scrabble Dictionary
  • Anagram Solver
  • Wordscapes Answers

Make Our Dictionary Yours

Sign up for our weekly newsletters and get:

  • Grammar and writing tips
  • Fun language articles
  • #WordOfTheDay and quizzes

By signing in, you agree to our Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy .

We'll see you in your inbox soon.

Annotate Definition

To add annotation.

Origin of Annotate

Latin annotāre annotāt- to note down ad- ad- notāre to write ( from nota note gnō- in Indo-European roots)

From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition

Annotate Sentence Examples

Having something on paper makes it easier to annotate .

It has attracted a dedicated coterie of regular readers who annotate his comments, often promoting lively debate.

The size of the characters used to annotate the axis and its title when Hershey fonts are selected.

Adobe Reader 7.0 is now faster and has a new feature that allows users to annotate E-mail documents created in Acrobat 7 Pro.

Related Articles

student writing an annotated bibliography

Annotate Is Also Mentioned In

  • anno Domini
  • year-of-our-lord
  • Christian era
  • time immemorial

Find Similar Words

Find similar words to annotate using the buttons below.

Words Starting With

Words ending with, unscrambles, words starting with a and ending with e, word length, words near annotate in the dictionary.

  • annona-squamosa
  • annonaceous
  • annotated-bibliography

Understanding & Interacting with a Text

Annotations, definition and purpose.

define a annotate

Annotating literally means taking notes within the text as you read.  As you annotate, you may combine a number of reading strategies—predicting, questioning, dealing with patterns and main ideas, analyzing information—as you physically respond to a text by recording your thoughts.  Annotating may occur on a first or second reading of the text, depending on the text’s difficulty or length. You may annotate in different formats, either in the margins of the text or in a separate notepad or document. The main thing to remember is that annotation is at the core of active reading. By reading carefully and pausing to reflect upon, mark up, and add notes to a text as you read, you can greatly improve your understanding of that text.

Think of annotating a text in terms of having a conversation with the author in real time. You wouldn’t sit passively while the author talked at you. You wouldn’t be able to get clarification or ask questions.  Your thought processes would probably close down and you would not engage in thinking about larger meanings related to the topic. Conversation works best when people are active participants. Annotation is a form of active involvement with a text.

Reasons to Annotate

There are a number of reasons to annotate a text:

  • Annotation ultimately saves reading time. While it may take more time up front as you read, annotating while you read can help you avoid having to re-read passages in order to get the meaning. That’s because…
  • Annotation improves understanding. By pausing to reflect as you read, annotating a text helps you figure out if you’re understanding what you’re reading. If not, you can immediately re-read or seek additional information to improve your understanding. This is called “monitoring comprehension.”
  • Annotation increases your odds of remembering what you’ve read, because you write those annotations in your own words, making the information your own. You also leave behind a set of notes that can help you find key information the next time you need to refer to that text.
  • Annotation provides a record of your deeper questions and thoughts as you read, insights related to analyzing, interpreting, and going beyond the text into related issues.  Annotations such as these will be useful when you’re asked to respond to a text through reacting, applying, analyzing, and synthesizing, since these types of annotations record your own thoughts.  Much academic work in college is intended to get you to offer your own, informed thoughts (as opposed to simple recall and regurgitation of information); annotating a text helps you capture key personal, analytical insights as you read.

The following video offers a brief, clear example of annotating a text.

What to Annotate

You’ll find that you’re annotating differently in different texts, depending on your background knowledge of the topic, your own ease with reading the text, and the type of text, among other variables.  There’s no single formula for annotating a text.  Instead, there are different types of annotations that you may make, depending on the particular text.

  • Mark the thesis or main idea sentence, if there is one in the text.  Or note the implied main idea.  In either case, phrase that main idea in your own words.
  • Mark places that seem important, interesting, and/or confusing.
  • Note your agreement or disagreement with an idea in the text.
  • Link a concept in the text to your own experience.
  • Write a reminder to look up something – an unknown word, a difficult concept, or a related idea that occurred to you.
  • Record questions you have about what you are reading. These questions generally fall into two different categories, to clarify meaning and to evaluate what you’ve read.
  • Note any biases unstated assumptions (your own included).
  • Paraphrase a difficult passage by putting it into your own words.
  • Summarize a lengthy section of a text to extract the main ideas–again in your own words.
  • Note important transition words that show a shift in thought; transitions show how the author is linking ideas.  This is especially important if you’re reading and annotating a text intended to persuade the reader to a particular point of view, as it allows you to clarify and evaluate the author’s line of reasoning.
  • Note repeated words or phrases; it’s likely that such emphasis relates to a key concept or main idea.
  • Note the writer’s tone—straightforward, sarcastic, sincere, witty—and how it influences the ideas presented.
  • Note idea linkages between this text and another text.
  • Note idea linkages between this text and key concepts or theories of a discipline. For example, does the author offer examples relating to theories of motivation that you’re studying in a psychology class?
  • And more…again, annotations vary according to the text and your background in the text’s topic.

View the following video, which reviews reading strategies for approximately the first three minutes and then moves into a comprehensive discussion of the types of things to annotate in non-fiction texts.

How to Annotate

Make sure to annotate through writing.  Do not – do not –  simply highlight or underline existing words in the text.  While your annotations may start with a few underlined words or sentences, you should always complete your thoughts through a written annotation that identifies why you underlined those words (e.g., key ideas, your own reaction to something, etc.). The pitfall of highlighting is that readers tend to do it too much, and then have to go back to the original text and re-read most of it.  By writing annotations in your own words, you’ve already moved to a higher level in your conversation with the text.

If you don’t want to write in a margin of a book or article, use sticky notes for your annotations.  If the text is in electronic form, then the format itself may have built-in annotation tools, or write in a Word document which allows you to paste sentences and passages that you want to annotate.

You may also want to create your own system of symbols to mark certain things such as main idea (*), linkage to ideas in another text (+), confusing information that needs to be researched further (!), or similar idea (=). The symbols and marks should make sense to you, and you should apply them consistently from text to text, so that they become an easy shorthand for annotation. However, annotations should not consist of symbols only; you need to include words to remember why you marked the text in that particular place.

Above all, be selective about what to mark; if you end up annotating most of a page or even most of a paragraph, nothing will stand out, and you will have defeated the purpose of annotating.

Here’s one brief example of annotation:

Sample Annotation

What follows is a sample annotation of the first few paragraphs of an article from CNN, “One quarter of giant panda habitat lost in Sichuan quake,” July 29, 2009. Sample annotations are in color. 

“The earthquake in Sichuan, southwestern China, last May left around 69,000 people dead and 15 million people displaced. Now ecologists have assessed the earthquake’s impact on biodiversity look this word up and the habitat for some of the last existing wild giant pandas.

According to the report published in “Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment,” 23 percent of the pandas’ habitat in the study area was destroyed, and fragmentation of the remaining habitat could hinder panda reproduction. How was this data gathered? Do we know that fragmentation will hinder panda reproduction?  

The Sichuan region is designated as a global hotspot for biodiversity, according to Conservation International. Home to more than 12,000 species of plants and 1.122 species of vertebrates, the area includes more than half of the habitat for the Earth’s wild giant panda population, said study author Weihua Xu of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing.” So can we assume that having so much of the pandas/ habitat destroyed will impact other species here?

Link to two additional examples of what and how to annotate

  • Invention: Annotating a Text from Hunter College, included as a link in Maricopa Community College’s Reading 100 open educational resource. There’s a very clearly-annotated sample text at the end of this handout.
  • Ethnic Varieties by Walt Wolfram, included as a link in Let’s Get Writing.

Summary: Annotation = Making Connections

The video below offers a review of reading concepts in the first part, focused on the concept of reading as connecting with a text.  From approximately mid-way to the end, the video offers a good extended example and discussion of annotating a text.

Note: if you want to try annotating an article and find the one in the video difficult to read, you may want to practice on a similar article about the same topic, “ Tinker V. Des Moines Independent Community School District: Kelly Shackelford on Symbolic Speech ” on the blog of the U.S. Supreme Court.

Read the paragraphs from “ Cultural Relativism ” that deal with the sociological perspective. Annotate the paragraphs with insights, questions, and thoughts that occur to you as you read.

  • Annotations, includes material adapted from Excelsior College Online Reading Lab, Let's Get Writing, UMRhetLab, Reading 100, and Basic Reading and Writing; attributions below. Authored by : Susan Oaks. License : CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
  • Annotating: Creating an Annotation System. Provided by : Excelsior College. Located at : https://owl.excelsior.edu/orc/what-to-do-while-reading/annotating/annotating-creating-an-annotation-system/ . Project : Excelsior College Online Reading lab. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Chapter 1 - Critical Reading. Authored by : Elizabeth Browning. Provided by : Virginia Western Community College. Located at : https://vwcceng111.pressbooks.com/chapter/chapter-1-critical-reading/#whileyouread . Project : Let's Get Writing. License : CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
  • Strategies for Active Reading. Authored by : Guy Krueger.. Provided by : University of Mississippi. Located at : https://courses.lumenlearning.com/olemiss-writing100/chapter/strategies-for-active-reading/ . Project : UMRhetLab. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Annotating a Text (from Hunter College). Provided by : Maricopa Community College. Located at : https://learn.maricopa.edu/courses/904536/files/32965647?module_item_id=7199522 . Project : Reading 100. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Summary Skills. Provided by : Lumen Learning. Located at : https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-basicreadingwriting/chapter/outcome-summary-skills/ . Project : Basic Reading and Writing. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • image of open book with colored tabs and colored pencils. Authored by : Luisella Planeta . Provided by : Pixabay. Located at : https://pixabay.com/photos/books-pencils-pens-map-dictionary-3826148/ . License : CC0: No Rights Reserved
  • video Textbook Reading Strategies - Annotate the Text. Authored by : DistanceLearningKCC. Provided by : Kirkwood Community College. Located at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bE1ot8KWJrk . License : Other . License Terms : YouTube video
  • video Annotating Non-Fiction Texts. Authored by : Arri Weeks. Located at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrvNIVF9EbI . License : Other . License Terms : YouTube video
  • video Making Connections During Reading. Provided by : WarnerJordanEducation. Located at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hF54mvmFkxg . License : Other . License Terms : YouTube video

Footer Logo Lumen Candela

Privacy Policy

Learning Center

Annotating Texts

What is annotation.

Annotation can be:

  • A systematic summary of the text that you create within the document
  • A key tool for close reading that helps you uncover patterns, notice important words, and identify main points
  • An active learning strategy that improves comprehension and retention of information

Why annotate?

  • Isolate and organize important material
  • Identify key concepts
  • Monitor your learning as you read
  • Make exam prep effective and streamlined
  • Can be more efficient than creating a separate set of reading notes

How do you annotate?

Summarize key points in your own words .

  • Use headers and words in bold to guide you
  • Look for main ideas, arguments, and points of evidence
  • Notice how the text organizes itself. Chronological order? Idea trees? Etc.

Circle key concepts and phrases

  • What words would it be helpful to look-up at the end?
  • What terms show up in lecture? When are different words used for similar concepts? Why?

Write brief comments and questions in the margins

  • Be as specific or broad as you would like—use these questions to activate your thinking about the content
  • See our handout on reading comprehension tips for some examples

Use abbreviations and symbols

  • Try ? when you have a question or something you need to explore further
  • Try ! When something is interesting, a connection, or otherwise worthy of note
  • Try * For anything that you might use as an example or evidence when you use this information.
  • Ask yourself what other system of symbols would make sense to you.


  • Highlight or underline, but mindfully. Check out our resource on strategic highlighting for tips on when and how to highlight.

Use comment and highlight features built into pdfs, online/digital textbooks, or other apps and browser add-ons

  • Are you using a pdf? Explore its highlight, edit, and comment functions to support your annotations
  • Some browsers have add-ons or extensions that allow you to annotate web pages or web-based documents
  • Does your digital or online textbook come with an annotation feature?
  • Can your digital text be imported into a note-taking tool like OneNote, EverNote, or Google Keep? If so, you might be able to annotate texts in those apps

What are the most important takeaways?

  • Annotation is about increasing your engagement with a text
  • Increased engagement, where you think about and process the material then expand on your learning, is how you achieve mastery in a subject
  • As you annotate a text, ask yourself: how would I explain this to a friend?
  • Put things in your own words and draw connections to what you know and wonder

The table below demonstrates this process using a geography textbook excerpt (Press 2004):

A chart featuring a passage from a text in the left column and then columns that illustrate annotations that include too much writing, not enough writing, and a good balance of writing.

A common concern about annotating texts: It takes time!

Yes, it can, but that time isn’t lost—it’s invested.

Spending the time to annotate on the front end does two important things:

  • It saves you time later when you’re studying. Your annotated notes will help speed up exam prep, because you can review critical concepts quickly and efficiently.
  • It increases the likelihood that you will retain the information after the course is completed. This is especially important when you are supplying the building blocks of your mind and future career.

One last tip: Try separating the reading and annotating processes! Quickly read through a section of the text first, then go back and annotate.

Works consulted:

Nist, S., & Holschuh, J. (2000). Active learning: strategies for college success. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 202-218.

Simpson, M., & Nist, S. (1990). Textbook annotation: An effective and efficient study strategy for college students. Journal of Reading, 34: 122-129.

Press, F. (2004). Understanding earth (4th ed). New York: W.H. Freeman. 208-210.

Creative Commons License

Make a Gift

define a annotate

How to Annotate Texts

Use the links below to jump directly to any section of this guide:

Annotation Fundamentals

How to start annotating , how to annotate digital texts, how to annotate a textbook, how to annotate a scholarly article or book, how to annotate literature, how to annotate images, videos, and performances, additional resources for teachers.

Writing in your books can make you smarter. Or, at least (according to education experts), annotation–an umbrella term for underlining, highlighting, circling, and, most importantly, leaving comments in the margins–helps students to remember and comprehend what they read. Annotation is like a conversation between reader and text. Proper annotation allows students to record their own opinions and reactions, which can serve as the inspiration for research questions and theses. So, whether you're reading a novel, poem, news article, or science textbook, taking notes along the way can give you an advantage in preparing for tests or writing essays. This guide contains resources that explain the benefits of annotating texts, provide annotation tools, and suggest approaches for diverse kinds of texts; the last section includes lesson plans and exercises for teachers.

Why annotate? As the resources below explain, annotation allows students to emphasize connections to material covered elsewhere in the text (or in other texts), material covered previously in the course, or material covered in lectures and discussion. In other words, proper annotation is an organizing tool and a time saver. The links in this section will introduce you to the theory, practice, and purpose of annotation. 

How to Mark a Book, by Mortimer Adler

This famous, charming essay lays out the case for marking up books, and provides practical suggestions at the end including underlining, highlighting, circling key words, using vertical lines to mark shifts in tone/subject, numbering points in an argument, and keeping track of questions that occur to you as you read. 

How Annotation Reshapes Student Thinking (TeacherHUB)

In this article, a high school teacher discusses the importance of annotation and how annotation encourages more effective critical thinking.

The Future of Annotation (Journal of Business and Technical Communication)

This scholarly article summarizes research on the benefits of annotation in the classroom and in business. It also discusses how technology and digital texts might affect the future of annotation. 

Annotating to Deepen Understanding (Texas Education Agency)

This website provides another introduction to annotation (designed for 11th graders). It includes a helpful section that teaches students how to annotate reading comprehension passages on tests.

Once you understand what annotation is, you're ready to begin. But what tools do you need? How do you prepare? The resources linked in this section list strategies and techniques you can use to start annotating. 

What is Annotating? (Charleston County School District)

This resource gives an overview of annotation styles, including useful shorthands and symbols. This is a good place for a student who has never annotated before to begin.

How to Annotate Text While Reading (YouTube)

This video tutorial (appropriate for grades 6–10) explains the basic ins and outs of annotation and gives examples of the type of information students should be looking for.

Annotation Practices: Reading a Play-text vs. Watching Film (U Calgary)

This blog post, written by a student, talks about how the goals and approaches of annotation might change depending on the type of text or performance being observed. 

Annotating Texts with Sticky Notes (Lyndhurst Schools)

Sometimes students are asked to annotate books they don't own or can't write in for other reasons. This resource provides some strategies for using sticky notes instead.

Teaching Students to Close Read...When You Can't Mark the Text (Performing in Education)

Here, a sixth grade teacher demonstrates the strategies she uses for getting her students to annotate with sticky notes. This resource includes a link to the teacher's free Annotation Bookmark (via Teachers Pay Teachers).

Digital texts can present a special challenge when it comes to annotation; emerging research suggests that many students struggle to critically read and retain information from digital texts. However, proper annotation can solve the problem. This section contains links to the most highly-utilized platforms for electronic annotation.

Evernote is one of the two big players in the "digital annotation apps" game. In addition to allowing users to annotate digital documents, the service (for a fee) allows users to group multiple formats (PDF, webpages, scanned hand-written notes) into separate notebooks, create voice recordings, and sync across all sorts of devices. 

OneNote is Evernote's main competitor. Reviews suggest that OneNote allows for more freedom for digital note-taking than Evernote, but that it is slightly more awkward to import and annotate a PDF, especially on certain platforms. However, OneNote's free version is slightly more feature-filled, and OneNote allows you to link your notes to time stamps on an audio recording.

Diigo is a basic browser extension that allows a user to annotate webpages. Diigo also offers a Screenshot app that allows for direct saving to Google Drive.

While the creators of Hypothesis like to focus on their app's social dimension, students are more likely to be interested in the private highlighting and annotating functions of this program.

Foxit PDF Reader

Foxit is one of the leading PDF readers. Though the full suite must be purchased, Foxit offers a number of annotation and highlighting tools for free.

Nitro PDF Reader

This is another well-reviewed, free PDF reader that includes annotation and highlighting. Annotation, text editing, and other tools are included in the free version.

Goodreader is a very popular Mac-only app that includes annotation and editing tools for PDFs, Word documents, Powerpoint, and other formats.

Although textbooks have vocabulary lists, summaries, and other features to emphasize important material, annotation can allow students to process information and discover their own connections. This section links to guides and video tutorials that introduce you to textbook annotation. 

Annotating Textbooks (Niagara University)

This PDF provides a basic introduction as well as strategies including focusing on main ideas, working by section or chapter, annotating in your own words, and turning section headings into questions.

A Simple Guide to Text Annotation (Catawba College)

The simple, practical strategies laid out in this step-by-step guide will help students learn how to break down chapters in their textbooks using main ideas, definitions, lists, summaries, and potential test questions.

Annotating (Mercer Community College)

This packet, an excerpt from a literature textbook, provides a short exercise and some examples of how to do textbook annotation, including using shorthand and symbols.

Reading Your Healthcare Textbook: Annotation (Saddleback College)

This powerpoint contains a number of helpful suggestions, especially for students who are new to annotation. It emphasizes limited highlighting, lots of student writing, and using key words to find the most important information in a textbook. Despite the title, it is useful to a student in any discipline.

Annotating a Textbook (Excelsior College OWL)

This video (with included transcript) discusses how to use textbook features like boxes and sidebars to help guide annotation. It's an extremely helpful, detailed discussion of how textbooks are organized.

Because scholarly articles and books have complex arguments and often depend on technical vocabulary, they present particular challenges for an annotating student. The resources in this section help students get to the heart of scholarly texts in order to annotate and, by extension, understand the reading.

Annotating a Text (Hunter College)

This resource is designed for college students and shows how to annotate a scholarly article using highlighting, paraphrase, a descriptive outline, and a two-margin approach. It ends with a sample passage marked up using the strategies provided. 

Guide to Annotating the Scholarly Article (ReadWriteThink.org)

This is an effective introduction to annotating scholarly articles across all disciplines. This resource encourages students to break down how the article uses primary and secondary sources and to annotate the types of arguments and persuasive strategies (synthesis, analysis, compare/contrast).

How to Highlight and Annotate Your Research Articles (CHHS Media Center)

This video, developed by a high school media specialist, provides an effective beginner-level introduction to annotating research articles. 

How to Read a Scholarly Book (AndrewJacobs.org)

In this essay, a college professor lets readers in on the secrets of scholarly monographs. Though he does not discuss annotation, he explains how to find a scholarly book's thesis, methodology, and often even a brief literature review in the introduction. This is a key place for students to focus when creating annotations. 

A 5-step Approach to Reading Scholarly Literature and Taking Notes (Heather Young Leslie)

This resource, written by a professor of anthropology, is an even more comprehensive and detailed guide to reading scholarly literature. Combining the annotation techniques above with the reading strategy here allows students to process scholarly book efficiently. 

Annotation is also an important part of close reading works of literature. Annotating helps students recognize symbolism, double meanings, and other literary devices. These resources provide additional guidelines on annotating literature.

AP English Language Annotation Guide (YouTube)

In this ~10 minute video, an AP Language teacher provides tips and suggestions for using annotations to point out rhetorical strategies and other important information.

Annotating Text Lesson (YouTube)

In this video tutorial, an English teacher shows how she uses the white board to guide students through annotation and close reading. This resource uses an in-depth example to model annotation step-by-step.

Close Reading a Text and Avoiding Pitfalls (Purdue OWL)

This resources demonstrates how annotation is a central part of a solid close reading strategy; it also lists common mistakes to avoid in the annotation process.

AP Literature Assignment: Annotating Literature (Mount Notre Dame H.S.)

This brief assignment sheet contains suggestions for what to annotate in a novel, including building connections between parts of the book, among multiple books you are reading/have read, and between the book and your own experience. It also includes samples of quality annotations.

AP Handout: Annotation Guide (Covington Catholic H.S.)

This annotation guide shows how to keep track of symbolism, figurative language, and other devices in a novel using a highlighter, a pencil, and every part of a book (including the front and back covers).

In addition to written resources, it's possible to annotate visual "texts" like theatrical performances, movies, sculptures, and paintings. Taking notes on visual texts allows students to recall details after viewing a resource which, unlike a book, can't be re-read or re-visited ( for example, a play that has finished its run, or an art exhibition that is far away). These resources draw attention to the special questions and techniques that students should use when dealing with visual texts.

How to Take Notes on Videos (U of Southern California)

This resource is a good place to start for a student who has never had to take notes on film before. It briefly outlines three general approaches to note-taking on a film. 

How to Analyze a Movie, Step-by-Step (San Diego Film Festival)

This detailed guide provides lots of tips for film criticism and analysis. It contains a list of specific questions to ask with respect to plot, character development, direction, musical score, cinematography, special effects, and more. 

How to "Read" a Film (UPenn)

This resource provides an academic perspective on the art of annotating and analyzing a film. Like other resources, it provides students a checklist of things to watch out for as they watch the film.

Art Annotation Guide (Gosford Hill School)

This resource focuses on how to annotate a piece of art with respect to its formal elements like line, tone, mood, and composition. It contains a number of helpful questions and relevant examples. 

Photography Annotation (Arts at Trinity)

This resource is designed specifically for photography students. Like some of the other resources on this list, it primarily focuses on formal elements, but also shows students how to integrate the specific technical vocabulary of modern photography. This resource also contains a number of helpful sample annotations.

How to Review a Play (U of Wisconsin)

This resource from the University of Wisconsin Writing Center is designed to help students write a review of a play. It contains suggested questions for students to keep in mind as they watch a given production. This resource helps students think about staging, props, script alterations, and many other key elements of a performance.

This section contains links to lessons plans and exercises suitable for high school and college instructors.

Beyond the Yellow Highlighter: Teaching Annotation Skills to Improve Reading Comprehension (English Journal)

In this journal article, a high school teacher talks about her approach to teaching annotation. This article makes a clear distinction between annotation and mere highlighting.

Lesson Plan for Teaching Annotation, Grades 9–12 (readwritethink.org)

This lesson plan, published by the National Council of Teachers of English, contains four complete lessons that help introduce high school students to annotation.

Teaching Theme Using Close Reading (Performing in Education)

This lesson plan was developed by a middle school teacher, and is aligned to Common Core. The teacher presents her strategies and resources in comprehensive fashion.

Analyzing a Speech Using Annotation (UNC-TV/PBS Learning Media)

This complete lesson plan, which includes a guide for the teacher and relevant handouts for students, will prepare students to analyze both the written and presentation components of a speech. This lesson plan is best for students in 6th–10th grade.

Writing to Learn History: Annotation and Mini-Writes (teachinghistory.org)

This teaching guide, developed for high school History classes, provides handouts and suggested exercises that can help students become more comfortable with annotating historical sources.

Writing About Art (The College Board)

This Prezi presentation is useful to any teacher introducing students to the basics of annotating art. The presentation covers annotating for both formal elements and historical/cultural significance.

Film Study Worksheets (TeachWithMovies.org)

This resource contains links to a general film study worksheet, as well as specific worksheets for novel adaptations, historical films, documentaries, and more. These resources are appropriate for advanced middle school students and some high school students. 

Annotation Practice Worksheet (La Guardia Community College)

This worksheet has a sample text and instructions for students to annotate it. It is a useful resource for teachers who want to give their students a chance to practice, but don't have the time to select an appropriate piece of text. 

  • PDFs for all 136 Lit Terms we cover
  • Downloads of 1868 LitCharts Lit Guides
  • Teacher Editions for every Lit Guide
  • Explanations and citation info for 39,263 quotes across 1868 books
  • Downloadable (PDF) line-by-line translations of every Shakespeare play

Need something? Request a new guide .

How can we improve? Share feedback .

LitCharts is hiring!

The LitCharts.com logo.

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • Citing sources
  • What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format

What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format

Published on March 9, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.

An annotated bibliography is a list of source references that includes a short descriptive text (an annotation) for each source. It may be assigned as part of the research process for a paper , or as an individual assignment to gather and read relevant sources on a topic.

Scribbr’s free Citation Generator allows you to easily create and manage your annotated bibliography in APA or MLA style. To generate a perfectly formatted annotated bibliography, select the source type, fill out the relevant fields, and add your annotation.

An example of an annotated source is shown below:

Annotated source example

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Upload your document to correct all your mistakes in minutes


Table of contents

Annotated bibliography format: apa, mla, chicago, how to write an annotated bibliography, descriptive annotation example, evaluative annotation example, reflective annotation example, finding sources for your annotated bibliography, frequently asked questions about annotated bibliographies.

Make sure your annotated bibliography is formatted according to the guidelines of the style guide you’re working with. Three common styles are covered below:

In APA Style , both the reference entry and the annotation should be double-spaced and left-aligned.

The reference entry itself should have a hanging indent . The annotation follows on the next line, and the whole annotation should be indented to match the hanging indent. The first line of any additional paragraphs should be indented an additional time.

APA annotated bibliography

In an MLA style annotated bibliography , the Works Cited entry and the annotation are both double-spaced and left-aligned.

The Works Cited entry has a hanging indent. The annotation itself is indented 1 inch (twice as far as the hanging indent). If there are two or more paragraphs in the annotation, the first line of each paragraph is indented an additional half-inch, but not if there is only one paragraph.

MLA annotated bibliography

Chicago style

In a  Chicago style annotated bibliography , the bibliography entry itself should be single-spaced and feature a hanging indent.

The annotation should be indented, double-spaced, and left-aligned. The first line of any additional paragraphs should be indented an additional time.

Chicago annotated bibliography

Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services

Discover proofreading & editing

For each source, start by writing (or generating ) a full reference entry that gives the author, title, date, and other information. The annotated bibliography format varies based on the citation style you’re using.

The annotations themselves are usually between 50 and 200 words in length, typically formatted as a single paragraph. This can vary depending on the word count of the assignment, the relative length and importance of different sources, and the number of sources you include.

Consider the instructions you’ve been given or consult your instructor to determine what kind of annotations they’re looking for:

  • Descriptive annotations : When the assignment is just about gathering and summarizing information, focus on the key arguments and methods of each source.
  • Evaluative annotations : When the assignment is about evaluating the sources , you should also assess the validity and effectiveness of these arguments and methods.
  • Reflective annotations : When the assignment is part of a larger research process, you need to consider the relevance and usefulness of the sources to your own research.

These specific terms won’t necessarily be used. The important thing is to understand the purpose of your assignment and pick the approach that matches it best. Interactive examples of the different styles of annotation are shown below.

A descriptive annotation summarizes the approach and arguments of a source in an objective way, without attempting to assess their validity.

In this way, it resembles an abstract , but you should never just copy text from a source’s abstract, as this would be considered plagiarism . You’ll naturally cover similar ground, but you should also consider whether the abstract omits any important points from the full text.

The interactive example shown below describes an article about the relationship between business regulations and CO 2 emissions.

Rieger, A. (2019). Doing business and increasing emissions? An exploratory analysis of the impact of business regulation on CO 2 emissions. Human Ecology Review , 25 (1), 69–86. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26964340

An evaluative annotation also describes the content of a source, but it goes on to evaluate elements like the validity of the source’s arguments and the appropriateness of its methods .

For example, the following annotation describes, and evaluates the effectiveness of, a book about the history of Western philosophy.

Kenny, A. (2010). A new history of Western philosophy: In four parts . Oxford University Press.

The only proofreading tool specialized in correcting academic writing - try for free!

The academic proofreading tool has been trained on 1000s of academic texts and by native English editors. Making it the most accurate and reliable proofreading tool for students.

define a annotate

Try for free

A reflective annotation is similar to an evaluative one, but it focuses on the source’s usefulness or relevance to your own research.

Reflective annotations are often required when the point is to gather sources for a future research project, or to assess how they were used in a project you already completed.

The annotation below assesses the usefulness of a particular article for the author’s own research in the field of media studies.

Manovich, Lev. (2009). The practice of everyday (media) life: From mass consumption to mass cultural production? Critical Inquiry , 35 (2), 319–331. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/596645

Manovich’s article assesses the shift from a consumption-based media culture (in which media content is produced by a small number of professionals and consumed by a mass audience) to a production-based media culture (in which this mass audience is just as active in producing content as in consuming it). He is skeptical of some of the claims made about this cultural shift; specifically, he argues that the shift towards user-made content must be regarded as more reliant upon commercial media production than it is typically acknowledged to be. However, he regards web 2.0 as an exciting ongoing development for art and media production, citing its innovation and unpredictability.

The article is outdated in certain ways (it dates from 2009, before the launch of Instagram, to give just one example). Nevertheless, its critical engagement with the possibilities opened up for media production by the growth of social media is valuable in a general sense, and its conceptualization of these changes frequently applies just as well to more current social media platforms as it does to Myspace. Conceptually, I intend to draw on this article in my own analysis of the social dynamics of Twitter and Instagram.

Before you can write your annotations, you’ll need to find sources . If the annotated bibliography is part of the research process for a paper, your sources will be those you consult and cite as you prepare the paper. Otherwise, your assignment and your choice of topic will guide you in what kind of sources to look for.

Make sure that you’ve clearly defined your topic , and then consider what keywords are relevant to it, including variants of the terms. Use these keywords to search databases (e.g., Google Scholar ), using Boolean operators to refine your search.

Sources can include journal articles, books, and other source types , depending on the scope of the assignment. Read the abstracts or blurbs of the sources you find to see whether they’re relevant, and try exploring their bibliographies to discover more. If a particular source keeps showing up, it’s probably important.

Once you’ve selected an appropriate range of sources, read through them, taking notes that you can use to build up your annotations. You may even prefer to write your annotations as you go, while each source is fresh in your mind.

An annotated bibliography is an assignment where you collect sources on a specific topic and write an annotation for each source. An annotation is a short text that describes and sometimes evaluates the source.

Any credible sources on your topic can be included in an annotated bibliography . The exact sources you cover will vary depending on the assignment, but you should usually focus on collecting journal articles and scholarly books . When in doubt, utilize the CRAAP test !

Each annotation in an annotated bibliography is usually between 50 and 200 words long. Longer annotations may be divided into paragraphs .

The content of the annotation varies according to your assignment. An annotation can be descriptive, meaning it just describes the source objectively; evaluative, meaning it assesses its usefulness; or reflective, meaning it explains how the source will be used in your own research .

A source annotation in an annotated bibliography fulfills a similar purpose to an abstract : they’re both intended to summarize the approach and key points of a source.

However, an annotation may also evaluate the source , discussing the validity and effectiveness of its arguments. Even if your annotation is purely descriptive , you may have a different perspective on the source from the author and highlight different key points.

You should never just copy text from the abstract for your annotation, as doing so constitutes plagiarism .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). What Is an Annotated Bibliography? | Examples & Format. Scribbr. Retrieved February 20, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/annotated-bibliography/

Is this article helpful?

Jack Caulfield

Jack Caulfield

Other students also liked, evaluating sources | methods & examples, how to find sources | scholarly articles, books, etc., hanging indent | word & google docs instructions, scribbr apa citation checker.

An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!

define a annotate

Go to the homepage

Definition of 'annotate'

IPA Pronunciation Guide

annotate in American English

Annotate in british english, examples of 'annotate' in a sentence annotate, related word partners annotate, trends of annotate.

View usage over: Since Exist Last 10 years Last 50 years Last 100 years Last 300 years

In other languages annotate

  • American English : annotate / ˈænoʊteɪt /
  • Brazilian Portuguese : fazer anotações
  • Chinese : 为…做注释
  • European Spanish : anotar
  • French : annoter
  • German : kommentieren
  • Italian : annotare
  • Japanese : 注釈をつける
  • Korean : 주석을 달다
  • European Portuguese : fazer anotações
  • Spanish : anotar

Browse alphabetically annotate

  • annonaceous
  • annotatable
  • annotate text
  • All ENGLISH words that begin with 'A'

Related terms of annotate

Quick word challenge

Quiz Review

Score: 0 / 5


Wordle Helper


Scrabble Tools



The Civil Fraud Ruling on Donald Trump, Annotated

By Kate Christobek

Former President Donald J. Trump was penalized $355 million , plus millions more in interest, and banned for three years from serving in any top roles at a New York company, including his own, in a ruling on Friday by Justice Arthur F. Engoron. The decision comes after the state's attorney general, Letitia James, sued Mr. Trump, members of his family and his company in 2022.

The ruling expands on Justice Engoron’s decision last fall , which found that Mr. Trump’s financial statements were filled with fraudulent claims. Mr. Trump will appeal the financial penalty and is likely to appeal other restrictions; he has already appealed last fall’s ruling.

The New York Times annotated the document.

Download the original PDF .

Page 1 of undefined PDF document.

New York Times Analysis

This ruling by Justice Arthur F. Engoron is a result of a 2022 lawsuit filed by New York’s attorney general, Letitia James , against Donald J. Trump and the Trump Organization; his adult sons, Donald Trump Jr. and Eric Trump; the company’s former chief financial officer Allen Weisselberg and former controller Jeffrey McConney; and several of their related entities. Mr. Trump’s daughter, Ivanka Trump, was also initially a defendant until an appeals court dismissed the case against her.

Page 2 of undefined PDF document.

The law under which Ms. James sued, known by its shorthand 63(12), requires the plaintiff to show a defendant’s conduct was deceptive . If that standard is met, a judge can impose severe punishment, including forfeiting the money obtained through fraud. Ms. James has also used this law against the oil company ExxonMobil, the tobacco brand Juul and the pharma executive Martin Shkreli.

Page 4 of undefined PDF document.

Justice Engoron is now providing a background of this case. This ruling comes after a three-year investigation by the attorney general’s office and the conclusion of a trial that ended last month. But this likely won’t be Mr. Trump’s last word on the matter — he will appeal the financial penalty and is likely to appeal other restrictions, as he has already appealed other rulings.

In late 2022, Justice Engoron assigned a former federal judge, Barbara Jones, to serve as a monitor at the Trump Organization and tasked her with keeping an eye on the company and its lending relationships. Last month, she issued a report citing inconsistencies in its financial reporting, which “may reflect a lack of adequate internal controls.”

Page 5 of undefined PDF document.

Here, Justice Engoron is laying out the laws he considered in his ruling beyond 63(12). The attorney general’s lawsuit included allegations of violations of falsifying business records, issuing false financial statements, insurance fraud and related conspiracy offenses.

Justice Engoron is explaining the decision, issued a week before the trial, in which he found that Mr. Trump’s financial statements were filled with fraud , fundamentally shaping the rest of the trial.

Page 6 of undefined PDF document.

For over 50 pages, Justice Engoron describes his conclusions about the testimony of all of the witnesses who spoke during the trial.

Page 8 of undefined PDF document.

Justice Engoron discusses Mr. McConney’s important role in preparing Mr. Trump’s financial statements. The judge points out that Mr. McConney prepared all the valuations on the statements in consultation with Mr. Weisselberg.

Page 24 of undefined PDF document.

In his discussion of Mr. Weisselberg, Justice Engoron calls his testimony in the trial “intentionally evasive.” Justice Engoron then brings up Mr. Weisselberg’s separation agreement from the Trump Organization, which prohibited him from voluntarily cooperating with any entities “adverse” to the organization. Justice Engoron says that this renders Mr. Weisselberg’s testimony highly unreliable.

Page 27 of undefined PDF document.

When Donald Trump Jr. testified in court, he disavowed responsibility for his father’s financial statements despite serving as a trustee of the Donald J. Trump Revocable Trust while his father was president. But Justice Engoron specifically cites here that Donald Trump Jr. certified that he was responsible for the financial statements, and testified that he intended for the banks to rely on them and that the statements were “materially accurate.”

Page 30 of undefined PDF document.

During his testimony, Eric Trump, the Trump Organization’s de facto chief executive, initially denied knowing about his father’s financial statements until this case. As Justice Engoron points out here, Eric Trump eventually conceded to knowing about them as early as 2013. As a result, Justice Engoron calls Eric Trump’s credibility “severely damaged.”

Page 33 of undefined PDF document.

Justice Engoron points to Mr. Trump’s testimony when he took the witness stand in November when Mr. Trump acknowledged that he helped put together his annual financial statements. Mr. Trump said he would see them and occasionally have suggestions.

Page 35 of undefined PDF document.

After four pages of describing Mr. Trump’s testimony, Justice Engoron says Mr. Trump rarely responded to the questions asked and frequently interjected long, irrelevant speeches, which all “severely compromised his credibility.”

Page 38 of undefined PDF document.

For several pages, Justice Engoron provides background on specific assets that Mr. Trump included in his annual financial statements.

Page 61 of undefined PDF document.

The judge is clarifying that Ms. James had to prove her claims by a “preponderance of the evidence,” meaning she had to demonstrate it was more likely than not that Mr. Trump and the co-defendants should be held liable. This is a lower standard than that of a criminal trial, which requires that evidence be proven “beyond a reasonable doubt.”

Page 76 of undefined PDF document.

During the trial, Mr. Trump and his legal team tried to shift the blame for any inaccuracies in his financial statements onto his outside accountants. But Justice Engoron criticizes that argument here.

Page 77 of undefined PDF document.

During the monthslong trial, Mr. Trump, his legal team and several witnesses stressed that real estate appraisals are an art, not a science. But here it’s clear Justice Engoron, while agreeing with that sentiment, also believes it’s deceptive when different appraisals rely on different assumptions.

Page 78 of undefined PDF document.

Justice Engoron is now going through the defendants one by one and articulating the evidence that shows each of their “intent to defraud,” which is required by the statute against falsifying business records. Notably, his first paragraph describing the former president’s intent provides examples including Mr. Trump’s awareness that his triplex apartment was not 30,000 square feet and his valuation of Mar-a-Lago as a single-family residence even though it was deeded as a social club.

Page 79 of undefined PDF document.

Among the defendants, Justice Engoron finds only Allen Weisselberg and Jeffrey McConney liable for insurance fraud. Here, he doesn’t provide an explanation for why the other defendants, including Mr. Trump and his adult sons, were not found liable, and he says that both Mr. Weisselberg and Mr. McConney made false representations to insurance companies about Mr. Trump’s financial statements.

While Mr. Trump and his adult sons were not found liable for insurance fraud, here Justice Engoron finds them liable for conspiracy to commit insurance fraud, explaining that they all “aided and abetted” the conspiracy to commit insurance fraud by falsifying business records.

Page 82 of undefined PDF document.

Justice Engoron here adopts the approximations of Michiel McCarty, the attorney general’s expert witness. Justice Engoron says Mr. McCarty testified “reliably and convincingly,” and finds that the defendants’ fraud saved them over $168 million in interest.

Page 83 of undefined PDF document.

In finding that the defendants were able to purchase the Old Post Office in Washington, D.C., through their use of the fraudulent financial statements, Justice Engoron rules that the defendants’ proceeds from the sale of the post office in 2022 should be considered “ill-gotten gains.” He penalizes Donald Trump and his companies over $126 million, and Donald Trump Jr. and Eric Trump $4 million each, for this one property.

Page 84 of undefined PDF document.

Justice Engoron blasts the defendants for failing to admit that they were wrong in their valuations — adding that “their complete lack of contrition and remorse borders on pathological.” He says that this inability to admit error makes him believe they will continue their fraudulent activities unless “judicially restrained.”

Page 88 of undefined PDF document.

The judge cites other examples of Mr. Trump’s “ongoing propensity to engage in fraud,” bringing up lawsuits against Trump University and the Donald J. Trump Foundation. He also notably raises two criminal cases brought by the Manhattan district attorney’s office: one against Mr. Weisselberg, who pleaded guilty to tax fraud and falsifying business records , and another against the Trump Organization, which was convicted of 17 criminal counts including tax fraud .

Justice Engoron states that Judge Barbara Jones, who has been serving as an independent monitor at the Trump Organization since 2022, will continue in that role for at least three years. He clarifies that going forward, her role will be enhanced and she will review Trump Organization financial disclosures before they are submitted to any third party, to ensure that there are no material misstatements.

Page 89 of undefined PDF document.

In addition to extending the monitor’s tenure and strengthening her powers, Justice Engoron also took the unusual step of ordering that an independent compliance director be installed inside The Trump organization, and that they report directly to the monitor.

— William K. Rashbaum

In his pre-trial order, Justice Engoron ordered the cancellation of some of Mr. Trump’s business licenses . But here, he pulls back on that decision and instead says that any “restructuring and potential dissolution” would be up to Ms. Jones, the independent monitor.

Page 90 of undefined PDF document.

Justice Engoron lays out his bans against the defendants, ruling that Mr. Trump, Mr. Weisselberg and Mr. McConney cannot serve as officers or directors of any corporation or legal entity in New York for the next three years, and bans his sons Donald Trump Jr. and Eric Trump for two years from the same. He also prohibits Mr. Trump from applying for any loans from any New York banks for the next three years. The ruling goes further in the cases of Mr. Weisselberg and Mr. McConney, permanently barring them from serving in the financial control function of any New York business.

Page 91 of undefined PDF document.

Justice Engoron also ordered that Mr. Trump and his sons pay the interest, pushing the penalty to $450 million, according to Ms. James.

Page 92 of undefined PDF document.

An earlier version of this article misstated how long the adult sons of former President Donald J. Trump — Donald Trump Jr. and Eric Trump — were barred by Justice Arthur F. Engoron from serving as officers or directors of any corporation or legal entity in New York. It was two years, not three. The article also misstated the number of pages in which Justice Engoron describes his conclusions about the testimony of all of the non-defendant witnesses. It was under 50 pages, not over 50 pages. The article also misstated the number of pages in the section in which Justice Engoron provides background on specific assets that Mr. Trump included in his annual financial statements. It was several pages, not more than a dozen pages.

  • Share full article

Cambridge Dictionary

  • Cambridge Dictionary +Plus

Meaning of annotated in English

Your browser doesn't support HTML5 audio

  • The book's annotated bibliography fills 45 pages .
  • You are allowed to bring annotated copies of the novel you have been studying into the exam .
  • Any attached documentation should be annotated with explanatory notes for clarification .
  • Students arrive at the lecture equipped with printed notes : all they have to do is to annotate these printouts .
  • He annotates and indexes a page in his notebook .
  • Typically I use this program to annotate a document with my own structured content .
  • Annotated data has facilitated recent advances in part of speech tagging , parsing , and other language processing issues .
  • dog whistle

You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics:

Related words


Word of the Day


a children's game in which a group of children hide in secret places and then one child has to go to look for them

Infinitive or -ing verb? Avoiding common mistakes with verb patterns (1)

Infinitive or -ing verb? Avoiding common mistakes with verb patterns (1)

define a annotate

Learn more with +Plus

  • Recent and Recommended {{#preferredDictionaries}} {{name}} {{/preferredDictionaries}}
  • Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English English Learner’s Dictionary Essential British English Essential American English
  • Grammar and thesaurus Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English Grammar Thesaurus
  • Pronunciation British and American pronunciations with audio English Pronunciation
  • English–Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Simplified)–English
  • English–Chinese (Traditional) Chinese (Traditional)–English
  • English–Dutch Dutch–English
  • English–French French–English
  • English–German German–English
  • English–Indonesian Indonesian–English
  • English–Italian Italian–English
  • English–Japanese Japanese–English
  • English–Norwegian Norwegian–English
  • English–Polish Polish–English
  • English–Portuguese Portuguese–English
  • English–Spanish Spanish–English
  • English–Swedish Swedish–English
  • Dictionary +Plus Word Lists
  • English    Verb
  • All translations

Add annotated to one of your lists below, or create a new one.


Something went wrong.

There was a problem sending your report.

share this!

February 21, 2024

This article has been reviewed according to Science X's editorial process and policies . Editors have highlighted the following attributes while ensuring the content's credibility:


peer-reviewed publication

trusted source

Learning how cells dispose of unwanted materials is key to potential new therapeutics, say scientists

by Erica Corliss, Keyonna Summers, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Study: Learning how cells dispose of unwanted materials is key to potential new therapeutics

Are you sick and tired of getting sick and tired? A UNLV-led research team is exploring whether the reason we sometimes feel ill in the first place is because our body's cells suffer from trash that accumulates within them.

Gary Kleiger, professor and chair of the department of chemistry and biochemistry at UNLV, along with Brenda Schulman, director of the Munich-based Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, and their teams are working on ways to help our bodies hunt down and destroy disease-causing proteins.

They're the authors of a groundbreaking new study, "Cullin-RING ligases target substrates with geometrically optimized catalytic partners" published in the journal Molecular Cell , that furthers our understanding of how enzymes called cullin-RING ligases (or CRLs) help cells get rid of proteins that are no longer needed. The results also point to a potential Achilles heel for proteins that make us ill.

"Cullin-RING-ligases (CRLs) are complex nanomachines that are crucial for the cell's intricate disposal and recycling systems," said Schulman. "CRLs tag defective, toxic, or superfluous proteins with a small protein called ubiquitin, and mutations or malfunctions impairing CRLs are often associated with diseases, like developmental disorders or cancers."

The research team argues that because CRLs have key functions in maintaining the well-being of our cells, it is of fundamental importance to define and understand their molecular mechanisms .

"This is extremely important work. For instance, during the COVID-19 lockdowns, some may recall that garbage piled up on the sidewalks of at least some cities, causing a health crisis," says Kleiger. "The same is true for our cells, and human disease may occur at least in part due to our disposal systems not working properly."

Knowing more about how cells are using these processes to shed unneeded or unwanted materials can potentially accelerate drug discovery studies.

"Researchers have already made amazing progress towards 'hijacking' CRLs to hunt down and destroy disease-causing proteins. Many believe this is the next major innovation in drug discovery" says Kleiger. "And by further uncovering how CRLs function in our cells, scientists can employ this knowledge to better understand human disease and to help this novel drug discovery platform."

CRLs function by labeling proteins targeted for destruction with a small protein called ubiquitin, and Kleiger's lab was the first to show that the rate of ubiquitin transfer approaches speeds that rival some of the fastest known reactions in biology. The results in the current work further show us how cells are able to be selective about what they get rid of, and proteins aren't trashed by accident.

Over the last 20 years, thousands of scientists have spent billions of dollars researching a therapeutic concept to treat human disease by marrying enzymes that participate in protein destruction to proteins that cause disease.

CRLs are the overwhelming choice of drug discovery specialists to promote the destruction of disease-causing proteins, and CRL-dependent drugs are already in the clinic and may achieve FDA approval within one to two years. The work by Kleiger, Schulman and their colleagues moves the needle on progressing toward tangible solutions.

The new study is only the latest by the Kleiger and Schulman labs to show snapshots of the CRLs during the process of labeling proteins for destruction. Earlier this month, Kleiger, Schulman and collaborators published a paper in the journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology that allowed scientists to visualize the precise labeling mechanism, catalyzed by the CRLs, for the first time.

Journal information: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology , Molecular Cell

Provided by University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Explore further

Feedback to editors

define a annotate

New approach to carbon-14 dating corrects the age of a prehistoric burial site

3 hours ago

define a annotate

Researchers develop molecules for a new class of antibiotics that can overcome drug resistant bacteria

define a annotate

Utah's Bonneville Salt Flats has long been in flux, new research finds

4 hours ago

define a annotate

High resolution techniques reveal clues in 3.5 billion-year-old biomass

define a annotate

Physicists discover a quantum state with a new type of emergent particles: Six-flux composite fermions

define a annotate

A new RNA editing tool could enhance cancer treatment

define a annotate

Research team develops nanoscale device for brain chemistry analysis

define a annotate

Study finds home heating fuel is direct source of sulfate in Fairbanks's winter air

define a annotate

Can't stand gossip? New research suggests that gabbing about others is 'not always a bad thing'

5 hours ago

define a annotate

Climate change could push bowhead whales to cross paths with shipping traffic

6 hours ago

Relevant PhysicsForums posts

Color recognition, mathematical process for protein folding.

7 hours ago

Long-Term Effects/Risks/Vulnerabilities of Having Had COVID

8 hours ago

Left Atrial Appendage (LAA) Closure for prophylactic A-fib treatment

Feb 17, 2024

PFAS and Power Lines Cause Cancer?

Feb 16, 2024

Makoy Samuel Yibi and the Guinea worm

Feb 10, 2024

More from Biology and Medical

Related Stories

define a annotate

Q&A: Research visualizes a precise mechanism for how cells sort their trash

Feb 7, 2024

define a annotate

New 'radar' detects active cellular destroyers

Sep 1, 2023

define a annotate

Researchers discover functional compensatory effects in Treg cells

Dec 22, 2023

define a annotate

Harnessing the power of proteins in our cells to combat disease

Feb 25, 2021

define a annotate

Ubiquitin research provides new insights into the cell's labeling machine

Feb 8, 2024

define a annotate

How cellular machinery labels proteins for degradation

Feb 13, 2020

Recommended for you

define a annotate

Universal antivenom for lethal snake toxins developed by researchers

define a annotate

The modeling and simulation of self-organized intracellular twisters in the Drosophila oocyte

14 hours ago

define a annotate

Cracking the code to a healthier potato chip

define a annotate

New technique developed for targeted protein degradation

10 hours ago

Let us know if there is a problem with our content

Use this form if you have come across a typo, inaccuracy or would like to send an edit request for the content on this page. For general inquiries, please use our contact form . For general feedback, use the public comments section below (please adhere to guidelines ).

Please select the most appropriate category to facilitate processing of your request

Thank you for taking time to provide your feedback to the editors.

Your feedback is important to us. However, we do not guarantee individual replies due to the high volume of messages.

E-mail the story

Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. Neither your address nor the recipient's address will be used for any other purpose. The information you enter will appear in your e-mail message and is not retained by Phys.org in any form.

Newsletter sign up

Get weekly and/or daily updates delivered to your inbox. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details to third parties.

More information Privacy policy

Donate and enjoy an ad-free experience

We keep our content available to everyone. Consider supporting Science X's mission by getting a premium account.

E-mail newsletter


  1. PPT

    define a annotate

  2. How To Annotate A Poem

    define a annotate

  3. Annotating a Prompt for Meaning

    define a annotate

  4. 6 Traits of Writing

    define a annotate


    define a annotate

  6. Annotating Literature

    define a annotate


  1. Annotate Definition & Meaning

    annotate: [verb] to make or furnish critical or explanatory notes or comment.


    ANNOTATE definition: 1. to add a short explanation or opinion to a text or image: 2. to add a description or piece of…. Learn more.

  3. ANNOTATE Definition & Usage Examples

    Annotate definition: to supply with critical or explanatory notes; comment upon in notes. See examples of ANNOTATE used in a sentence.


    ANNOTATE meaning: 1. to add a short explanation or opinion to a text or image: 2. to add a description or piece of…. Learn more.

  5. annotate verb

    annotate something to add notes to a book or text, giving explanations or comments. The drawings were all clearly annotated. The text was annotated with her own comments.

  6. Annotate

    annotate: 1 v add explanatory notes to or supply with critical comments "The scholar annotated the early edition of a famous novel" Synonyms: footnote Type of: compose , indite , pen , write produce a literary work v provide interlinear explanations for words or phrases "He annotated on what his teacher had written" Synonyms: comment , gloss ...

  7. Annotation Definition & Meaning

    annotation: [noun] a note added by way of comment or explanation.

  8. ANNOTATE definition and meaning

    To supply (a written work, such as an ancient text) with critical or explanatory notes.... Click for English pronunciations, examples sentences, video.


    ANNOTATION definition: 1. a short explanation or note added to a text or image, or the act of adding short explanations or…. Learn more.

  10. annotate

    annotate - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. All Free. WordReference.com | Online Language Dictionaries. ... 'annotate' also found in these entries (note: many are not synonyms or translations): annotated - annotation - comment - commentate - footnote - gloss - note.

  11. Annotated Definition & Meaning

    annotated: [adjective] provided with explanatory notes or comments.

  12. ANNOTATED Definition & Usage Examples

    Annotated definition: supplied with or containing explanatory notes, textual comments, etc.. See examples of ANNOTATED used in a sentence.

  13. ANNOTATION Definition & Usage Examples

    Annotation definition: . See examples of ANNOTATION used in a sentence.

  14. Annotate Definition & Meaning

    Annotate definition: To furnish (a literary work) with critical commentary or explanatory notes; gloss.

  15. Annotations

    Definition and Purpose. Annotating literally means taking notes within the text as you read. As you annotate, you may combine a number of reading strategies—predicting, questioning, dealing with patterns and main ideas, analyzing information—as you physically respond to a text by recording your thoughts. Annotating may occur on a first or ...


    ANNOTATED definition: 1. past simple and past participle of annotate 2. to add a short explanation or opinion to a text…. Learn more.

  17. Annotating Texts

    What is annotation? Annotation can be: A systematic summary of the text that you create within the document. A key tool for close reading that helps you uncover patterns, notice important words, and identify main points. An active learning strategy that improves comprehension and retention of information.

  18. How to Annotate Texts

    This is another well-reviewed, free PDF reader that includes annotation and highlighting. Annotation, text editing, and other tools are included in the free version. Goodreader. Goodreader is a very popular Mac-only app that includes annotation and editing tools for PDFs, Word documents, Powerpoint, and other formats. How to Annotate a Textbook

  19. Annotate

    Annotate Definition. To annotate is to make notes on or mark up a text with one's thoughts, questions, or realizations while reading. The term annotation refers to the actual notes one has written ...

  20. What Is an Annotated Bibliography?

    An annotated bibliography is a list of source references that includes a short descriptive text (an annotation) for each source. It may be assigned as part of the research process for a paper, or as an individual assignment to gather and read relevant sources on a topic. Scribbr's free Citation Generator allows you to easily create and manage ...

  21. ANNOTATE definition in American English

    annotate in American English. (ˈænəˌteit) (verb -tated, -tating) transitive verb. 1. to supply with critical or explanatory notes; comment upon in notes. to annotate the works of Shakespeare. intransitive verb. 2. to make annotations or notes.

  22. The Civil Fraud Ruling on Donald Trump, Annotated

    Former President Donald J. Trump was penalized $355 million plus interest and banned for three years from serving in any top roles at a New York company, including his own, in a ruling on Friday ...

  23. PDF Annotated Bibliography for AQUATOX

    Annotated Bibliography for AQUATOX December, 2013 6 varying combinations of algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish data. The use of biological indicators can be improved through modeling procedures that better define cause-and-effect relationships. AQUATOX is cited as a model having the potential to provide a


    ANNOTATED meaning: 1. past simple and past participle of annotate 2. to add a short explanation or opinion to a text…. Learn more.

  25. Learning how cells dispose of unwanted materials is key to potential

    The research team argues that because CRLs have key functions in maintaining the well-being of our cells, it is of fundamental importance to define and understand their molecular mechanisms. "This ...