APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources
- Basics of APA Formatting
- In Text Quick View
- Block Quotes
About Block Quotes
Block quote example.
- Books & eBooks
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- Any quotation containing 40 or more words should be formatted as a Block Quote
- Do not use quotation marks to enclose block quotations. Do use double quotation marks to enclose any quoted material within a block quotation
- Place period at the end of the quote rather than after the citation
- Block quotes should start on a new line and indent the block about ½ inch from the left margin
- If there are additional paragraphs within the block quote, indent the first line of each an additional half inch.
For further information and examples, consult pages 92 and 171 of the APA Manual.
Accord to Siegel and Hartzell (2004)
trauma and loss requires an understanding of the low road and its connection to patterns of experiences from the past. The passing of unresolved issues from generation to generation produces and perpetuates unnecessary emotional suffering. If our own issues remain unresolved, there is a strong possibility that the disorganization within our minds can createdisorganization in our children’s minds. (p. 183)
During gestation, the numerous genes in the nucleus of each cell become expressed and the genes determine what proteins become produced and when and how to shape the body’s structure. In utero brain development enables neurons to grow and move to their proper locations in the skull and begin to set up the interconnections that create the circuitry of this complex organ of the nervous system. (Siegel & Hartzell, 2004)
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How to Block Quote | Length, Format and Examples
Published on April 25, 2018 by Courtney Gahan . Revised on May 31, 2023.
A block quote is a long quotation, set on a new line and indented to create a separate block of text. No quotation marks are used. You have to use a block quote when quoting more than around 40 words from a source.
In APA and MLA styles, you indent block quotes 0.5 inches from the left, and add an in-text citation after the period. Some other citation styles have additional rules.
Catherine Earnshaw, may you not rest as long as I am living; you said I killed you – haunt me, then! The murdered DO haunt their murderers, I believe. I know that ghosts HAVE wandered on earth. Be with me always – take any form – drive me mad! only DO not leave me in this abyss, where I cannot find you! Oh, God! it is unutterable! I CANNOT live without my life! I CANNOT live without my soul! (Brontë, 1847, 268)
Table of contents
How long is a block quote, step 1: introduce the quote, step 2: format and cite the quote, step 3: comment on the quote, when to use block quotes, other interesting articles.
The minimum length of a block quote varies between citation styles . Some styles require block quote formatting based on the number of words, while others require it based on the number of lines.
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The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:
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Every time you quote a source , it’s essential to show the reader exactly what purpose the quote serves. A block quote must be introduced in your own words to show how it fits into your argument or analysis.
If the text preceding the block quote is a complete sentence, use a colon to introduce the quote . If the quote is a continuation of the sentence that precedes it, you don’t need to add any extra punctuation .
lawmakers and regulators need to stop pharmaceutical companies from marketing drugs like OxyContin and establish stronger guidelines about how and when doctors can prescribe them. These drugs are often the last resort for people with cancer and other terminal conditions who experience excruciating pain. But they pose a great risk when used to treat the kinds of pain for which there are numerous non-addictive therapies available. (The Editorial Board, 2018)
Block quotes are not enclosed in quotation marks . Instead, they must be formatted to stand out from the rest of the text, signalling to the reader that the words are taken directly from a source. Each citation style has specific formatting rules.
APA and MLA format both require an indent of 0.5 inches on the left side. Block quotes are double spaced, the same as the rest of the document. Some other citation styles also require indentation on the right side, different spacing, or a smaller font.
To format a block quote in Microsoft Word, follow these steps:
- Hit Enter at the beginning and end of the quote.
- Highlight the quote and select the Layout menu.
- On the Indent tab, change the left indent to 0.5″.
Block quotes of more than one paragraph
If you quote more than one paragraph, indent the first line of the new paragraph as you would in the main text.
Mr. and Mrs. Dursley, of number four, Privet Drive, were proud to say that they were perfectly normal, thank you very much. They were the last people you’d expect to be involved in anything strange or mysterious, because they just didn’t hold with such nonsense.
Mr. Dursley was the director of a firm called Grunnings, which made drills. He was a big, beefy man with hardly any neck, although he did have a very large mustache. Mrs. Dursley was thin and blonde and had nearly twice the usual amount of neck, which came in very useful as she spent so much of her time craning over garden fences, spying on the neighbors. The Dursleys had a small son called Dudley and in their opinion there was no finer boy anywhere. (Rowling 1)
Citing block quotes
All block quotes must end with a citation that directs the reader to the correct source. How the citation looks depends on the citation style. In most styles, including APA and MLA , the parenthetical citation comes after the period at the end of a block quote.
A paragraph should never end with a block quote. Directly after the quote, you need to comment on it in your own words. Depending on the purpose of the block quote, your comment might involve:
- Analyzing the language of the quoted text
- Explaining how the quote relates to your argument
- Giving further context
- Summarizing the overall point you want to make
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Block quotes should be used when the specific wording or style of the quoted text is essential to your point. How often you use them depends partly on your field of study.
- In the arts and humanities, block quotes are frequently used to conduct in-depth textual analysis .
- In social science research involving interviews or focus groups , block quotes are often necessary when analyzing participants’ responses.
- In scientific writing, block quotes are very rarely used.
Avoid relying on block quotes from academic sources to explain ideas or make your points for you. In general, quotes should be used as sparingly as possible, as your own voice should be dominant. When you use another author’s ideas or refer to previous research, it’s often better to integrate the source by paraphrasing .
If you want to know more about ChatGPT, AI tools , citation , and plagiarism , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.
- ChatGPT vs human editor
- ChatGPT citations
- Is ChatGPT trustworthy?
- Using ChatGPT for your studies
- What is ChatGPT?
- Chicago style
- Types of plagiarism
- Avoiding plagiarism
- Academic integrity
- Consequences of plagiarism
- Common knowledge
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APA Style Guide (7th Edition)
- APA Resources
- Formatting Your Essay
- Building an Article Reference Entry
- Building Specialized Reference Entries
- In-text Citations
Quotations: The basics
Short quotations: less than 40 words, long quotations: 40+ words, identifying the part: quotations without page numbers, citing class materials.
- The Annotated Bibliography in APA
Books for APA questions
We have print books that you can access at all of our campuses and eBooks that you can access anywhere!
This print copy of APA's official publication lays out every aspect of APA style formatting. We have copies at every campus!
We also have eBooks, like this online guide that can be accessed anywhere through our library!
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A quotation is when you use another person’s word-for-word narrative in your own writing. Citation rules for quotations are similar to the rules for paraphrased or summarized content from another source, but there are some extra things you need to do to give proper credit to the original author; how you treat the quote depends on whether you are including 40 or more words from the resource.
With a direct quote, proper citation includes the Author and Date , and MUST include a Page or Part designation that will help your reader locate the information within the original source. The standard parenthetical format is (Author, Date, Page/Part) though portions of the citation can still be placed in the narrative rather than the parentheses.
Page numbers are preceded by "p." for a single page and “pp.” for a span of multiple pages as shown in examples below; see the Identifying the Part section below for citing resources without page numbers and for citing non-text items that you are duplicating directly from another resource.
SHORT QUOTATIONS (less than 40 words)
Short quotations are placed into the standard sentence structure of your narrative and set apart from your words by quotation marks. In-text citations for direct quotations require the Author, Date (year) of publication, and Page number for the reference. If you introduce the Author’s name in the narrative, place the Date immediately after the Author. The Page number/s go immediately before the closing punctuation of the sentence.
- According to Smythe (2021), "students often found librarian assistance and library tutorials helpful when learning about citation styles" (p. 48).
- Smythe (2021) discovered that "students often found librarian assistance and library tutorials helpful when learning about citation styles " (pp. 48-49); what does this mean for course instructors?
If you do not include the Author’s name in the narrative, place the Author, Date (year), and the Page number/s in parentheses after the quotation itself.
- She stated, "Students often found librarian assistance and library tutorials helpful" (Smythe, 2021, para. 3).
- She said that "Students often found librarian assistance and library tutorials helpful" (Smythe, 2021, p. 48), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Long quotations are set apart from the narrative into what is called a block quote . A block quote is a double-spaced section of text that begins a new on a new line, is indented ½” from your narrative text at the left margin, and is cited by a parenthetical reference AFTER the closing punctuation mark; you do not use quotation marks for a block quote, nor do you add an extra blank line before or after the block quote. Here is an example of a block quote from Purdue’s OWL website (n.d., “Formatting example for block quotations in APA 7 style”):
Direct quotation or duplication of information from a source that does not contain original pages should not reference a Page number; the purpose of the Page number is to help your reader find the quote within the larger resource, so the source of the Page/Part identifier should be universal to the Referenced format or access method for that resource.
Instead, you may need to use another logical, universal identifying element: a heading, section number or name, paragraph number, a chapter number or name, a table number or name, etc. Religious texts can also incorporate special location identifiers like verse numbers; similarly, you can use verses or act/scene/line designations for literary works that are often reprinted such as plays or poetry.
In short: pick a substitute for Page numbers that makes sense for your source and that is universally the same for anyone else who may access that resource.
Parts of electronic resources
Many of the electronic resources that you will access through the library databases DO have Page numbers; you should use Page numbers when they are available! When you access the full text of a journal article online, the PDF format has the same Page numbers as the print version of the journal!
When there are absolutely no reasonable page numbers available in a resource from which you directly duplicate information, how do you cite:
- Use the name of the item, e.g. (Figure 3) or (Slide 7) or (Table 2).
- In the case of the image of the block quote used above, the title of the graphic on the original page was used as the Part identifier after the Date in the citation; the Author appears in the narrative.
- Use the section, heading, or chapter name, line or paragraph number, etc.
- (Smythe, 2021, para.14).
- (Jonas, lines 18-20)
- (International Organization of Smythe Families, 2021, About Us section)
- Use a time stamp from the original resource recording that corresponds with the beginning of your quote.
- He asks us "Is it possible to have institutions in our country, universities, where people from all backgrounds can come and learn, and learn to work together and learn to become leaders and to support each other in that experience?” (Hrabowski, 2013, 4:45).
Yes! You can use quotations from a lecture video that your professor provided or from a course discussion board, not to mention the course textbook, handouts, and your class notes! These are often excellent resources to use to tie your work into the assignment objectives, as the material was explicitly designed to directly support those objectives.
So how do you cite class materials?!
Your References are supposed to help others to find and access your sources. Readers who aren’t in your classes won’t have access to the course material that you have access to, and those who are within your class will need only minimal information to find which lecture or discussion you are citing. In these circumstances, best practice is to format the citation after one used for the category of Personal Communication.
Personal Communications, works that cannot be recovered by general readers, include unpublished interviews, emails, texts, some social media posts, live speeches, letters, etc.). Since readers cannot retrieve the information they contain, they are cited in-text but are NOT added to the References list. Personal communications are to be used sparingly and only when necessary; for example, if you quote your textbook, you should cite the book in your References list and if a lecture referred to an outside resource, it’s better to find and use that resource than to cite the lecture.
A personal communication citation should minimally include Author, "personal communication", and Date (Author, personal communication, Month day, year) ; elements of the citation can be used in the narrative rather than parenthetically, as with other citations. You may also include the format of the communication in the citation (Author, personal communication [ENG 101 lecture], Month day, year) .
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th edition).
Hrabowski, f. (2013, february). four pillars of college success in science. ted. https://www.ted.com/talks/freeman_hrabowski_4_pillars_of_college_success_in_science., purdue owl. (n.d.). in-text citations: the basics . purdue writing lab. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html..
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APA 7: In-Text Citations
- Introduction to APA Format (7th ed.)
- Formatting a Paper
- In-Text Citations
- References List
- Getting Research Help
Guidance from APA Style, Purdue OWL, & Excelsior OWL
In-text citation is covered in Chapter 8 of the APA Publication Manual
- In-Text Citations From APA Style.
- In-Text Citations: The Basics From Purdue OWL.
- APA In-Text Citations From Excelsior OWL.
Basic In-Text Citation Guidelines
In-text citation refers to the brief citations included within the text of your paper. They point your reader to the full citation at the end of your paper.
Parenthetical vs. narrative in-text citation
In APA, the in-text citation is generally placed in parenthesis at the end of your sentence with the author's last name and year.
The page number is also required if you are directly quoting from a source.
- Precede a single page number with p.
- Precede a range of pages with pp.
- If page numbers are unavailable, you will need to use the paragraph number preceded by para. or paras.
The period goes after/outside the parenthesis.
- (Alvarez, 2019, paras. 3-4).
- (Davis, 2020, p. 52).
You can also include the author's name in the text itself and simply place the year in parenthesis after the author's last name.
- According to Davis (2020), "....." (pp. 52-53).
Page/paragraph numbers are required for direct quotations . , shorter than 40 words.
- "...." (Davis, 2020, p. 23).
- Davis (2020) explains "..." (p. 23).
Longer that 40 Words
- Form quote into a block quotation.
- Don't use quotation marks.
- Period goes before the in-text citation.
Flores et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias when working with an intersectional community of transgender people of color:
Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311)
Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:
Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people’s everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)
Number of Authors
Number of authors to include in in-text citations.
2 Authors from Same Source
- (Bullock & Merritt, 2020, para. 5).
3 Authors or More from the Same Source
- (Merritt et al., 2013, p. 32).
Authors from More Than One Source
- (Garcia, 2020, pp. 18-20; Ryan, 2019, p. 302).
- (Merced College, 2021, paras. 4-5).
- (“Medical Science Today,” 2019).
- If the title is long, it should be shortened for the in-text citation.
- The main words of titles should be capitalized.
- If the title is italicized in the reference, then it should also be italicized within the in-text citation.
- If the title is not italicized within the reference, use quotation marks around the title.
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- Hamersly Library
APA Style Guide 7th Edition
- Block Quote
- About This Guide
- Direct Quote
- Indirect Quote
- Personal Communications
- Journal Article
- Social Media
- Conference Papers/Presentations
- Thesis and Dissertations
- Visual Works
- Student Paper Guidelines
- Professional Paper Guidelines
- Creating Original Tables, Graphs, and Images
- Additional Help
General Guidelines for Block Quotations
- Block quotes are used for direct quotations that are longer than 40 words.
- They should be offset from the main text and do not include quotation marks.
- Introduce the block quote on a new line and indent the entire quote .5 inch.
- If your block quote consists of two or more paragraphs, indent the additional paragraph and additional .5 inch.
- If your block quotation contains a citation from another source, include it in the quotation. However, you do not need to cite the quoted source in your reference page.
- The block quote should be double spaced.
- Block quotes can be cited in either a narrative or parenthetical form.
- The citation information at the end is not considered part of the sentence and comes after the period.
- Use p. for a single page number ( Example: p. 15) and pp. for multiple page numbers ( Example: pp. 125-126).
- If citing a source without page numbers, cite the paragraph number ( Example: para. 4) or other identifying information ( Example: Slide 7, Table 2, Results section).
- If you have two or more authors, use the word 'and' for narrative citations and the ampersand '&' for parenthetical citations
- If you have three or more authors, use 'et al.' after the first authors last name to indicated there are additional authors.
Narrative Block Quote With Page Numbers
Martikainen (2020) notes the difficulties of students making judgments on teachers using visual cues:
What makes the informative value of visual nonverbal features problematic is that, maybe more than words, their meanings and levels of intentionality are often ambiguous. Teachers’ visual features are hardly all meant as mediators of deliberate meanings, but they may become interpreted as such by students. (p. 584)
Parenthetical Block Quote With Page Numbers
Several difficulties arise when students make judgments on teachers using visual cues:
What makes the informative value of visual nonverbal features problematic is that, maybe more than words, their meanings and levels of intentionality are often ambiguous. Teachers’ visual features are hardly all meant as mediators of deliberate meanings, but they may become interpreted as such by students. (Martikainen, 2020, p. 584)
Narrative Block Quote Without Page Numbers
Koehler (2020) explains the complicated experience :
Conceptualized as a sense of wonder, amazement, or fascination, awe is a complex emotion associated with deep and personal change. The experience of this multifaceted sensation is atypical, powerful, and memorable. People who experience awe are intensely moved and often propelled toward a feeling of self-transcendence—becoming aware they are one minor part of a larger whole. (para. 2)
Parenthetical Block Quote Without Page Numbers
It is helpful to thing of this complicated experience in these terms:
Conceptualized as a sense of wonder, amazement, or fascination, awe is a complex emotion associated with deep and personal change. The experience of this multifaceted sensation is atypical, powerful, and memorable. People who experience awe are intensely moved and often propelled toward a feeling of self-transcendence—becoming aware they are one minor part of a larger whole. ( Koehler, 2020, para. 2)
Block Quotation Containing an Embedded Source
Yaden et al. (2019) provide context for this concept:
The contemporary psychological understanding of awe comes largely from a foundational article written by Keltner and Haidt (2003). According to the prototypical approach presented in this article, the following two cognitive appraisals are central to awe experiences: the perception of vastness and the need to mentally attempt to accommodate this vastness into existing mental schemas. (p. 474)
Note: Yaden et al. would be cited in your reference page but not Keltner and Haidt as that is the embedded source.
Block Quotation With Two Paragraphs
Hamedoglu (2019) point out:
Students can watch the subjects they do not understand on different channels on the Internet, teachers give homework to their students via various education sites or WhatsApp messages and demand their students to do their homework. Student grades, attendance, views about students are processed on e‐school system and parents can follow these data by using their own passwords. As seen, the proliferation of the information and computer technologies have affected classroom management activities and changed physical arrangements, environmental arrangement, communication, course materials, teaching lesson, and the relationship between environment and students’ parents. (p.147)
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- Last Updated: Jul 16, 2021 2:43 PM
- URL: https://research.wou.edu/APA7
- Ask a Librarian
Library Guide for Education Graduate Students
- Library Basics
- E-Books on Educational Research
- Find Journal Articles
- Find Dissertations & Theses
- Literature Search Strategies
- Purdue Online Writing Lab
- APA Style Guide
- Citation Managers
- Useful Library Guides
APA 7th Edition
Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Lab) provides instruction on how to use APA 7th. Below are a few topics covered by the OWL.
- APA Style Introduction APA 7th
- APA Overview and Workshop APA 7th
- General Formatting APA 7th
- In-Text Citation: Authors APA 7th
- Foot Notes and Appendices APA 7th
- Changes in the 7th Edition APA 7th
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- Last Edited: Feb 9, 2024 10:42 AM
- URL: https://guides.lib.purdue.edu/Education_GraduateStudents
OASIS: Writing Center
Citations: block quotations.
According to the APA manual, quotations that are 40 words or more are considered block quotations and are formatted differently than regular quotations.
The following is a list of the unique formatting that is needed for block quotations:
- Block quotations start on their own line.
- The entire block quotation is indented 0.5 inches, the same as the indentation for a new paragraph, and is double spaced.
- Block quotations are not surrounded by any quotation marks.
- The punctuation at the end of the block quotation goes before the citation.
- The ending citation is included on the last line of the block quotation.
- The text after the block quotation begins on its own line, with no indentation. You should not end a paragraph with a block quotation because any quotation you use as evidence in your writing should be followed by analysis in your own words as part of the same paragraph.
Note that block quotations should be used sparingly. Block quotations tend to take over the voice of the paper, often overshadowing the voice of the author with that source’s voice. Instead, if at all possible, try to quote smaller portions of the piece of text and incorporate these into your own voice. This practice will not only allow you to establish your voice as the author but also show the way you are engaging with the information, not just reporting it.
Block Quotation Examples
Today, digital cameras have practically taken over photography. As Johnson (2010) explained,
Digital cameras now make up 90% of all camera sales at the leading electronic stores. This increase in sales can be partially attributed to the widespread use of email and social networking, which has encouraged the sharing of digital photos. (p. 23)
Johnson further noted that, even more than with the shift to digital cameras, the increasing use of phones and iPods that have built-in cameras has replaced the use of film cameras.
Computer users often disagree about which operating system is best: Mac or PC. Oyler (2010) stated that one operating system is not better than the other, but that one may be better suited for different purposes than the other. She explained by saying that
Macs are often the best option for users who wish to work with video or picture manipulation. Macs are also very user friendly, which may benefit consumers who are new to computers. PCs, however, run Microsoft Office Suite the best. Therefore, students might find that a PC is their best option because it can run Microsoft Word and PowerPoint the smoothest. (Oyler, 2010, p. 48)
Conversely, Jones (2010) disagreed with the statement that Macs work with graphics such as video and pictures better than PCs, stating that PCs can be modified to work as well as Macs.
Knowledge Check: Block Quotations
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Apa block quotes: how to cite long quotes in apa 7, published by steve tippins on july 3, 2020 july 3, 2020.
Last Updated on: 2nd February 2024, 05:30 am
In APA, a block quote contains a direct quotation that consists of 40 or more words. When writing papers , keep in mind that you should use block quotations in moderation. A summary or paraphrase of the information from your sources is preferred. In this article, we’ll show you how to properly format APA block quotes.
Format for APA Block Quotes
- Introduce the quotation
- Indent five spaces from the left margin
- Do not enclose it in quotation marks
- If there is a quotation within the block quotation, put it in double quotation marks
Block Quotes from Print Sources
Most long quotes you’ll need to cite will be from print sources. Here’s how to cite APA block quotes according to the 7th edition of the manual.
(Author’s Last Name, Year, Page number)
(Borodulin, 2017, p. 52)
The following format is for a block quote with the in-text citation directly after it. The in-text citation goes after the period or any other punctuation mark at the end of the quote. If the source does not have page numbers, then provide a paragraph number (e.g., para. 2) or other section identifiers, such as a chapter number or section number.
There were two medical organizations that played a significant role in forming the first clinical elite:
The first specialized scientific organization was the surgical society in Moscow, which was established in 1873 and consisted of 22 surgeons, medical doctors from teaching hospitals and city hospitals. In 1881 the N. I. Pirogov Surgical Society was established in Saint Petersburg. National congresses on specialties within clinical practice were held beginning in the late 19th century. (Borodulin, 2017, p. 52)
The following is for a block quote with a narration citation. Provide an introductory signal phrase with the author’s last name and year of publication.
Borodulin (2017) reported that there were two medical organizations that played a significant role in forming the first clinical elite:
The first specialized scientific organization was the surgical society in Moscow, which was established in 1873 and consisted of 22 surgeons, medical doctors from teaching hospitals and city hospitals. In 1881 the N. I. Pirogov Surgical Society was established in Saint Petersburg. National congresses on specialties within clinical practice were held beginning in the late 19th century. (p, 52)
The following is for a quotation within a block quote:
The role of scientific schools in forming the elite derived from their function of preserving and passing on knowledge from one generation to the next. Separate links binding them together can be identified “by the creativity of particular personalities and the bonds by the interaction between them.” Therefore, students who have overcome the school establishment and have broken the mold in the development of science are evidence not of the collapse of the scientific school, but in fact of its triumph. (Borodulin, 2017, p. 52)
Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of article . Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy
When providing the URL from a source, you no longer have to write “Retrieved from” before it.
The DOI, or Digital Object Identifier at the end of the reference is used to identify a document and link to it on the web. In most articles, the DOI will be printed with the article.
Borodulin V.I. (2017). The scientific elite in the history of the nation’s internal medicine clinical practice. History of Medicine . 4 (1), 51–59. https://doi.org/10.17720/2409-5834.v4.1.2017.06f
Quote From an Audiovisual Source
When you have a block quote from a video or other audiovisual source, see if it provides a time stamp, (a timeline window that displays the hour, minute, and second). If it has a timeline window, provide the time the quote began in the in-text citation.
(Author’s or Speaker’s Last Name, Year, Hours: Minutes: Seconds)
(Wallace-Wells, 2019, 08:15)
There are several ways to ensure a positive future for the planet:
We would need a new kind of infrastructure, poured by a different kind of cement, because today, if cement were a country, it would be the world’s third biggest emitter. And China is pouring as much cement every three years as the US poured in the entire 20th century. We would need to build seawalls and levees to protect those people living on the coast, many of whom are too poor to build them today, which is why it must mean an end to a narrowly nationalistic geopolitics that allows us to define the suffering of those living elsewhere in the world as insignificant, when we even acknowledge it. (Wallace-Wells, 2019, 08:15)
Author’s Last Name, First Initial (Year, Month Day). Title of audiovisual . [Type of audiovisual]. Names of website. URL
Wallace-Wells, D. (2019, September 21). How we could change the planet’s climate future . [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/david_wallace_wells_how_we_could_change_the_planet_s_climate_future
APA Block Quote Citation Summary
Hopefully, this article showed you how to cite a long quote in APA. For more information about the guidelines for a block quotation, refer to Section 6.22 and pages 92 and 171 of the APA Manual 7 th edition.
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APA Style Guide
Introduction, in-text citations.
- Books & eBooks
- Websites & Webpages
- Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
- Audiovisual Media
- Social Media
- Personal Communications
- Classroom Resources
- Secondary Sources
Visit the help desk or schedule an appointment with a reference librarian to discuss your research. See our contact page for details.
This is a guide to citing sources commonly used in academic papers in APA Style (7th ed., 2020). For more information see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or the APA Citation Guide.
When you use another person's words, ideas, or images in your paper you must cite (i.e. credit) the source. This is true even when you paraphrase. Avoid plagiarism by citing all of your sources.
Additional reference examples can be found here : https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples
In-text citations are brief credits in the body of a paper. APA Style uses the author-date citation system.
In-text citations are made up of the name of the author and the date of publication of a source.
- Parenthetical Citation . A parenthetical citation includes both the author’s last name and year of publication, separated by a comma, in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
Research suggests that the Purdue OWL is a good resource for students (Atkins, 2018).
- Narrative Citation A narrative citation includes the author’s name directly in the sentence, with the year of publication directly following the author’s last name.
Narrative Example: Atkins (2018) suggests that the Purdue OWL is a good resource for students .
Page Numbers. Page numbers are required for quotations. Provide a heading or section name or a paragraph number for sources without page numbers.
(Smith, 2020, p. 5)
Group Authors. When an author is a group the name can be abbreviated. For the first in-text citation, provide the full name of the group followed by the abbreviation:
(American Psychological Association [APA], 2018)
Use the abbreviation for subsequent citations: (APA, 2018)
- Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase
- If using the parenthetical citation, include the author, date of publication, and page number at the end of the quotation.
As scientific knowledge advances, “the application of CRISPR technology to improve human health is being explored across public and private sectors”(Hong, 2018, p. 503).
- If using the narrative-style citation, include the author’s last name in the signal phrase, with the page number at the end of the quote.
Hong (2018) stated that “the application of CRISPR technology to improve human health is being explored across public and private sectors” (p. 503).
APA 8.26 pp. 270-27
Block Quotations - Longer than 40 words
- Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation.
- Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 in. from the left margin.
- Double-space the entire block quotation.
- Do not add extra space before or after it.
- If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each subsequent paragraph an additional 0.5 in. See an example in Section 8.27 of the Publication Manual.
- Either (a) cite the source in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation or (b) cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation.
- Do not add a period after the closing parenthesis in either case.
Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:
Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people’s everyday lives, and yet
it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies
and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural
underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)
Flores et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias when working with an intersectional community of transgender people of color:
Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the
research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the
research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311)
APA 8.27 pp. 272-273
References are full credits for all sources cited in a paper. References are listed at the end of the paper. All of the elements needed to identify and access an information source are included in a reference:
Author: The individual(s) or group(s) responsible for creating the source
- List authors by surname and use initials for given names: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.
- List up to 20 authors in a reference
- Write out the names of group authors in full
- If no author can be identified begin the reference with the title
Date: The date a source was published
- Put the date in parentheses: (2020)
- Dates may include the month, day, and/or season
- For online sources, use the date last updated, if given
- Use (n.d.) for “no date” if the date of publication is unknown
Title: The title of the work being cited
- Titles of journal articles, book chapters, and other works that are part of a greater whole are not italicized or put in quotation marks but are capitalized using sentence case:
Petting away pre‐exam stress: The effect of therapy dog sessions on student well‐being
- Capitalize the first word in a subtitle
- Titles of books, reports, and other works that stand alone are italicized and are capitalized using sentence case:
The handmaid's tale
Source: How access is provided to a cited work URL & DOI
- Include a DOI, if given, for works from library databases
- Begin a DOI with https://doi.org/ Do NOT include a URL for works from most library databases
- Include a URL for sources from a website
- Hyperlinks can be displayed as live links (blue font, underlined) or as plain text
- Next: Articles >>
- Last Updated: Nov 27, 2023 11:07 AM
- URL: https://library.selkirk.ca/APA_style
LibAnswers: MLA FAQs
What is a block quote and how do i format it.
According to the Purdue OWL MLA guide, a block quote is a long quote from your source that is "more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse". Start a block quote on a new line with no quotation marks, and indent it 1/2 inch from the left-margin, still double-spaced. The parenthetical citation goes after the end of the quote, after the punctuation mark. Keep the original line breaks when quoting verse("MLA Formatting Quotations").
Payne contextualizes the history and attitudes of America's mental institutionalization:
For more than half the nation's history, vast mental hospitals were prominent architectural features on the American landscape. Practically every state could claim to have at least one. The catalyst for their creation was the schoolteacher-turned-reformer Dorothea Dix (1802-1887), who, beginning in the early 1840s, traveled the country lobbying states to build hospitals for the proper care of the "indigent insane". Dix's humanitarian appeals were persuasive, and they were well-timed: expansionist America was eager to erect large civic institutions that would serve as models of an enlightened society. Public schools, universities, prisons, and insane asylums were all part of this agenda, though high-minded rhetoric was not always matched by the less-than-altruistic motives of politicians. (Payne 7)
For more information: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_formatting_quotations.html
"MLA Formatting Quotations." The Purdue OWL, The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2022, https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_formatting_quotations.html. Accessed 20 Mar. 2023.
Payne, Christopher. Asylum : Inside the Closed World of State Mental Hospitals , MIT Press, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central , http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/linfield/detail.action?docID=3339090.
- MLA Quotations
- Last Updated Mar 28, 2023
- Answered By Linfield Librarian
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Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words
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This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills.
Paraphrasing is one way to use a text in your own writing without directly quoting source material. Anytime you are taking information from a source that is not your own, you need to specify where you got that information.
A paraphrase is...
- Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form.
- One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source.
- A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.
Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...
- It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.
- It helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
- The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.
6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing
- Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
- Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
- Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.
- Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.
- Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.
- Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.
Some examples to compare
Note that the examples in this section use MLA style for in-text citation.
The original passage:
Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers . 2nd ed., 1976, pp. 46-47.
A legitimate paraphrase:
In research papers, students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).
An acceptable summary:
Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47).
A plagiarized version:
Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.
A note about plagiarism: This example has been classed as plagiarism, in part, because of its failure to deploy any citation. Plagiarism is a serious offense in the academic world. However, we acknowledge that plagiarism is a difficult term to define; that its definition may be contextually sensitive; and that not all instances of plagiarism are created equal—that is, there are varying “degrees of egregiousness” for different cases of plagiarism.