What is photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is the process plants, algae and some bacteria use to turn sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen.

Sunlit leaves, photosynthesis

  • Photosynthetic processes
  • Photosynthesis equation
  • The carbon exchange
  • How do plants absorb sunlight?
  • Location of photosynthesis

Light-dependent reactions

  • The Calvin cycle

Types of photosynthesis

Additional resources.

Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, algae and some bacteria to turn sunlight into energy. The process chemically converts carbon dioxide (CO2) and water into food (sugars) and oxygen . The chemical reaction often relies on a pigment called chlorophyll, which gives plants their green color.  Photosynthesis is also the reason our planet is blanketed in an oxygen-rich atmosphere.

Types of photosynthetic processes

There are two types of photosynthesis: oxygenic and anoxygenic. They both follow very similar principles, but the former is the most common and is seen in plants, algae and cyanobacteria. 

During oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy transfers electrons from water (H2O) taken up by plant roots to CO2 to produce carbohydrates . In this transfer, the CO2 is "reduced," or receives electrons, and the water is "oxidized," or loses electrons. Oxygen is produced along with carbohydrates.

This process creates a balance on Earth, in which the carbon dioxide produced by breathing organisms as they consume oxygen in respiration is converted back into oxygen by plants, algae and bacteria.

Anoxygenic photosynthesis, meanwhile, uses electron donors that are not water and the process does not generate oxygen, according to "Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria" by LibreTexts . The process typically occurs in bacteria such as green sulfur bacteria and phototrophic purple bacteria. 

The Photosynthesis equation

Though both types of photosynthesis are complex, multistep affairs, the overall process can be neatly summarized as a chemical equation.

The oxygenic photosynthesis equation is: 

6CO2 + 12H2O + Light Energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

Here, six molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2) combine with 12 molecules of water (H2O) using light energy. The end result is the formation of a single carbohydrate molecule (C6H12O6, or glucose) along with six molecules each of oxygen and water.

Similarly, the various anoxygenic photosynthesis reactions can be represented as a single generalized formula:

CO2 + 2H2A + Light Energy → [CH2O] + 2A + H2O

The letter A in the equation is a variable, and H2A represents the potential electron donor. For example, "A" may represent sulfur in the electron donor hydrogen sulfide (H2S), according to medical and life sciences news site News Medical Life Sciences . 

How is carbon dioxide and oxygen exchanged?

stomata are the gatekeepers of the leaf, allowing gas exchange between the leaf and surrounding air.

Plants absorb CO2 from the surrounding air and release water and oxygen via microscopic pores on their leaves called stomata. 

When stomata open, they let in CO2; however, while open, the stomata release oxygen and let water vapor escape. Stomata close to prevent water loss, but that means the plant can no longer gain CO2 for photosynthesis. This tradeoff between CO2 gain and water loss is a particular problem for plants growing in hot, dry environments. 

How do plants absorb sunlight for photosynthesis?

Plants contain special pigments that absorb the light energy needed for photosynthesis.

Chlorophyll is the primary pigment used for photosynthesis and gives plants their green color, according to science education site Nature Education . Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light. Chlorophyll is a large molecule and takes a lot of resources to make; as such, it breaks down towards the end of the leaf's life, and most of the pigment's nitrogen (one of the building blocks of chlorophyll) is resorbed back into the plant,  When leaves lose their chlorophyll in the fall, other leaf pigments such as carotenoids and anthocyanins begin to show. While carotenoids primarily absorb blue light and reflect yellow, anthocyanins absorb blue-green light and reflect red light, according to Harvard University's The Harvard Forest .

Pigment molecules are associated with proteins, which allow them the flexibility to move toward light and toward one another. A large collection of 100 to 5,000 pigment molecules constitutes an "antenna," according to an article by Wim Vermaas , a professor at Arizona State University. These structures effectively capture light energy from the sun, in the form of photons.

The situation is a little different for bacteria. While cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll, other bacteria, for example, purple bacteria and green sulfur bacteria, contain bacteriochlorophyll to absorb light for anoxygenic photosynthesis, according to " Microbiology for Dummies " (For Dummies, 2019). 

Related: What if humans had photosynthetic skin?

Where in the plant does photosynthesis take place?

Plants need energy from sunlight for photosynthesis to occur.

Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, a type of plastid (an organelle with a membrane) that contains chlorophyll and is primarily found in plant leaves. 

Chloroplasts are similar to mitochondria , the energy powerhouses of cells, in that they have their own genome, or collection of genes, contained within circular DNA. These genes encode proteins that are essential to the organelle and to photosynthesis.

Inside chloroplasts are plate-shaped structures called thylakoids that are responsible for harvesting photons of light for photosynthesis, according to the biology terminology website Biology Online . The thylakoids are stacked on top of each other in columns known as grana. In between the grana is the stroma — a fluid containing enzymes, molecules and ions, where sugar formation takes place. 

Ultimately, light energy must be transferred to a pigment-protein complex that can convert it to chemical energy, in the form of electrons. In plants, light energy is transferred to chlorophyll pigments. The conversion to chemical energy is accomplished when a chlorophyll pigment expels an electron, which can then move on to an appropriate recipient. 

The pigments and proteins that convert light energy to chemical energy and begin the process of electron transfer are known as reaction centers.

When a photon of light hits the reaction center, a pigment molecule such as chlorophyll releases an electron.

The released electron escapes  through a series of protein complexes linked together, known as an electron transport chain. As it moves through the chain, it generates the energy to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate, a source of chemical energy for cells) and NADPH — both of which are required in the next stage of photosynthesis in the Calvin cycle. The "electron hole" in the original chlorophyll pigment is filled by taking an electron from water. This splitting of water molecules releases oxygen into the atmosphere.

Light-independent reactions: The Calvin cycle

Photosynthesis involves a process called the Calvin cycle to use energy stored from the light-dependent reactions to fix CO2 into sugars needed for plant growth.

The Calvin cycle is the three-step process that generates sugars for the plant, and is named after Melvin Calvin , the Nobel Prize -winning scientist who discovered it decades ago. The Calvin cycle uses the ATP and NADPH produced in chlorophyll to generate carbohydrates. It takes plate in the plant stroma, the inner space in chloroplasts.

In the first step of this cycle, called carbon fixation, an enzyme called RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase, also known as rubiso, helps incorporate CO2 into an organic molecule called 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3-PGA). In the process, it breaks off a phosphate group on six ATP molecules to convert them to ADP, releasing energy in the process, according to LibreTexts.

In the second step, 3-PGA is reduced, meaning it takes electrons from six NADPH molecules and produces two glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) molecules.

One of these G3P molecules leaves the Calvin cycle to do other things in the plant. The remaining G3P molecules go into the third step, which is regenerating rubisco. In between these steps, the plant produces glucose, or sugar.

Three CO2 molecules are needed to produce six G3P molecules, and it takes six turns around the Calvin cycle to make one molecule of carbohydrate, according to educational website Khan Academy.

There are three main types of photosynthetic pathways: C3, C4 and CAM. They all produce sugars from CO2 using the Calvin cycle, but each pathway is slightly different.

The three main types of photosynthetic pathways are C3, C4 and CAM.

C3 photosynthesis

Most plants use C3 photosynthesis, according to the photosynthesis research project Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency (RIPE) . C3 plants include cereals (wheat and rice), cotton, potatoes and soybeans. This process is named for the three-carbon compound 3-PGA that it uses during the Calvin cycle. 

C4 photosynthesis

Plants such as maize and sugarcane use C4 photosynthesis. This process uses a four-carbon compound intermediate (called oxaloacetate) which is converted to malate , according to Biology Online. Malate is then transported into the bundle sheath where it breaks down and releases CO2, which is then fixed by rubisco and made into sugars in the Calvin cycle (just like C3 photosynthesis). C4 plants are better adapted to hot, dry environments and can continue to fix carbon even when their stomata are closed (as they have a clever storage solution), according to Biology Online. 

CAM photosynthesis

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is found in plants adapted to very hot and dry environments, such as cacti and pineapples, according to the Khan Academy. When stomata open to take in CO2, they risk losing water to the external environment. Because of this, plants in very arid and hot environments have adapted. One adaptation is CAM, whereby plants open stomata at night (when temperatures are lower and water loss is less of a risk). According to the Khan Academy, CO2 enters the plants via the stomata and is fixed into oxaloacetate and converted into malate or another organic acid (like in the C4 pathway). The CO2 is then available for light-dependent reactions in the daytime, and stomata close, reducing the risk of water loss. 

Discover more facts about photosynthesis with the educational science website sciencing.com . Explore how leaf structure affects photosynthesis with The University of Arizona . Learn about the different ways photosynthesis can be measured with the educational science website Science & Plants for Schools .  

This article was updated by Live Science managing editor Tia Ghose on Nov. 3, 2022.

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Daisy Dobrijevic

Daisy Dobrijevic joined  Space.com  in February 2022 as a reference writer having previously worked for our sister publication  All About Space  magazine as a staff writer. Before joining us, Daisy completed an editorial internship with the BBC Sky at Night Magazine and worked at the  National Space Centre  in Leicester, U.K., where she enjoyed communicating space science to the public. In 2021, Daisy completed a PhD in plant physiology and also holds a Master's in Environmental Science, she is currently based in Nottingham, U.K.

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what is the end result in photosynthesis

5.1 Overview of Photosynthesis

Learning objectives.

  • Summarize the process of photosynthesis
  • Explain the relevance of photosynthesis to other living things
  • Identify the reactants and products of photosynthesis
  • Describe the main structures involved in photosynthesis

All living organisms on earth consist of one or more cells. Each cell runs on the chemical energy found mainly in carbohydrate molecules (food), and the majority of these molecules are produced by one process: photosynthesis. Through photosynthesis, certain organisms convert solar energy (sunlight) into chemical energy, which is then used to build carbohydrate molecules. The energy used to hold these molecules together is released when an organism breaks down food. Cells then use this energy to perform work, such as cellular respiration.

The energy that is harnessed from photosynthesis enters the ecosystems of our planet continuously and is transferred from one organism to another. Therefore, directly or indirectly, the process of photosynthesis provides most of the energy required by living things on earth.

Photosynthesis also results in the release of oxygen into the atmosphere. In short, to eat and breathe, humans depend almost entirely on the organisms that carry out photosynthesis.

Link to Learning

Click the following link to learn more about photosynthesis.

Solar Dependence and Food Production

Some organisms can carry out photosynthesis, whereas others cannot. An autotroph is an organism that can produce its own food. The Greek roots of the word autotroph mean “self” ( auto ) “feeder” ( troph ). Plants are the best-known autotrophs, but others exist, including certain types of bacteria and algae ( Figure 5.2 ). Oceanic algae contribute enormous quantities of food and oxygen to global food chains. Plants are also photoautotrophs , a type of autotroph that uses sunlight and carbon from carbon dioxide to synthesize chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates. All organisms carrying out photosynthesis require sunlight.

Heterotrophs are organisms incapable of photosynthesis that must therefore obtain energy and carbon from food by consuming other organisms. The Greek roots of the word heterotroph mean “other” ( hetero ) “feeder” ( troph ), meaning that their food comes from other organisms. Even if the food organism is another animal, this food traces its origins back to autotrophs and the process of photosynthesis. Humans are heterotrophs, as are all animals. Heterotrophs depend on autotrophs, either directly or indirectly. Deer and wolves are heterotrophs. A deer obtains energy by eating plants. A wolf eating a deer obtains energy that originally came from the plants eaten by that deer. The energy in the plant came from photosynthesis, and therefore it is the only autotroph in this example ( Figure 5.3 ). Using this reasoning, all food eaten by humans also links back to autotrophs that carry out photosynthesis.

Everyday Connection

Photosynthesis at the grocery store.

Major grocery stores in the United States are organized into departments, such as dairy, meats, produce, bread, cereals, and so forth. Each aisle contains hundreds, if not thousands, of different products for customers to buy and consume ( Figure 5.4 ).

Although there is a large variety, each item links back to photosynthesis. Meats and dairy products link to photosynthesis because the animals were fed plant-based foods. The breads, cereals, and pastas come largely from grains, which are the seeds of photosynthetic plants. What about desserts and drinks? All of these products contain sugar—the basic carbohydrate molecule produced directly from photosynthesis. The photosynthesis connection applies to every meal and every food a person consumes.

Main Structures and Summary of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis requires sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water as starting reactants ( Figure 5.5 ). After the process is complete, photosynthesis releases oxygen and produces carbohydrate molecules, most commonly glucose. These sugar molecules contain the energy that living things need to survive.

The complex reactions of photosynthesis can be summarized by the chemical equation shown in Figure 5.6 .

Although the equation looks simple, the many steps that take place during photosynthesis are actually quite complex, as in the way that the reaction summarizing cellular respiration represented many individual reactions. Before learning the details of how photoautotrophs turn sunlight into food, it is important to become familiar with the physical structures involved.

In plants, photosynthesis takes place primarily in leaves, which consist of many layers of cells and have differentiated top and bottom sides. The process of photosynthesis occurs not on the surface layers of the leaf, but rather in a middle layer called the mesophyll ( Figure 5.7 ). The gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen occurs through small, regulated openings called stomata .

In all autotrophic eukaryotes, photosynthesis takes place inside an organelle called a chloroplast . In plants, chloroplast-containing cells exist in the mesophyll. Chloroplasts have a double (inner and outer) membrane. Within the chloroplast is a third membrane that forms stacked, disc-shaped structures called thylakoids . Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are molecules of chlorophyll , a pigment (a molecule that absorbs light) through which the entire process of photosynthesis begins. Chlorophyll is responsible for the green color of plants. The thylakoid membrane encloses an internal space called the thylakoid space. Other types of pigments are also involved in photosynthesis, but chlorophyll is by far the most important. As shown in Figure 5.7 , a stack of thylakoids is called a granum , and the space surrounding the granum is called stroma (not to be confused with stomata, the openings on the leaves).

Visual Connection

On a hot, dry day, plants close their stomata to conserve water. What impact will this have on photosynthesis?

The Two Parts of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: the light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle. In the light-dependent reactions , which take place at the thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight and then converts it into chemical energy with the use of water. The light-dependent reactions release oxygen from the hydrolysis of water as a byproduct. In the Calvin cycle, which takes place in the stroma, the chemical energy derived from the light-dependent reactions drives both the capture of carbon in carbon dioxide molecules and the subsequent assembly of sugar molecules. The two reactions use carrier molecules to transport the energy from one to the other. The carriers that move energy from the light-dependent reactions to the Calvin cycle reactions can be thought of as “full” because they bring energy. After the energy is released, the “empty” energy carriers return to the light-dependent reactions to obtain more energy. The two-stage, two-location photosynthesis process was discovered by Joan Mary Anderson, whose continuing work over the subsequent decades provided much of our understanding of the process, the membranes, and the chemicals involved.

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What Are the Products of Photosynthesis?

Products of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a set of chemical reactions that plants and other organisms use to make chemical energy in the form of sugar. Like any chemical reaction, photosynthesis has reactants and products . Overall, the reactants of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water, while the products of photosynthesis are oxygen and glucose (a sugar).

Here’s a closer look at the products of photosynthesis and the balanced equation for the reaction.

The reactants for photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water, while the products are the sugar glucose and oxygen.

Balanced Chemical Equation for Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis actually involves many chemical reactions, but the net balanced equation is that six moles of carbon dioxide react with six moles of water to produce one mole of glucose and six moles of oxygen. Light from the Sun provides the activation energy for the reaction. Sometimes light is listed in the balanced equation as a reactant, but it’s usually omitted.

6 CO 2  + 6 H 2 O → C 6 H 12 O 6  + 6 O 2

Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light → Glucose + Oxygen

Closer Look at the Products of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis occurs in a series of steps that are classified as light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions. Adding up the reactants and products of these reactions gives the overall equation for photosynthesis, but it’s good to know the inputs and outputs for each stage.

Light-Dependent Reactions

Photosynthesis Overview

The light-dependent reactions or light reactions absorb certain wavelengths of light to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The light reactions occur in the chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The overall balanced equation for the light-dependent reactions is:

2 H 2 O + 2 NADP +  + 3 ADP + 3 P i  + light → 2 NADPH + 2 H +  + 3 ATP + O 2

Light-Independent Reactions

While the light reactions use water, the light-independent reactions use carbon dioxide. The light-independent reactions are also called the dark reactions. These reactions do not require darkness, but they don’t depend on light to proceed. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, the dark reactions are called the Calvin cycle. Bacteria use different reactions, including the reverse Krebs cycle.

The overall balanced equation for the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle) in plants is:

3 CO 2  + 9 ATP + 6 NADPH + 6 H +  → C 3 H 6 O 3 -phosphate + 9 ADP + 8 P i  + 6 NADP +  + 3 H 2 O

Finally, the three-carbon product from the Calvin cycle becomes glucose during the process of carbon fixation.

Other Products of Photosynthesis

Glucose is the direct product of photosynthesis, but plants turn most of the sugar into other compounds. These are indirect products. Linking glucose units forms starch and cellulose. Cellulose is a structural material. Plants store starch or link it to fructose (another sugar) to form sucrose (table sugar).

What Is Not a Product of Photosynthesis?

On an exam, you may need to identify which chemical is not a product of photosynthesis. For the overall process, choose any answer except “glucose” or “oxygen.” It’s good to know the overall reactants and products of the light reactions and dark reactions, in case you’re asked about them. The products of the light reactions are ATP , NADPH, protons, and oxygen. The products of the dark reactions are C 3 H 6 O 3 -phosphate, ADP, inorganic phosphate, NADP + , and water.

Where Does Photosynthesis Occur?

In addition to knowing the reactants and products of photosynthesis, you may need to know where photosynthesis occurs in different organisms.

  • In plants, photosynthesis occurs in organelles called chloroplasts. Photosynthetic protists also contain chloroplasts. Leaves contain the highest concentration of chloroplasts in plants. Plants obtain carbon dioxide via diffusion through leaf stomata. Water comes from the roots and travels to the leaves via the xylem . Chlorophyll in chloroplasts absorbs solar energy. Oxygen from photosynthesis exits the plant via leaf stomata.
  • Photosynthesis occurs in photosynthetic bacteria in the plasma membrane. Chlorophyll or related pigments are embedded in this membrane.
  • Bidlack, J.E.; Stern, K.R.; Jansky, S. (2003).  Introductory Plant Biology . New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-290941-8.
  • Blankenship, R.E. (2014).  Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis  (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-8975-0.
  • Reece J.B., et al. (2013).  Campbell Biology . Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 978-0-321-77565-8.

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Biology LibreTexts

8.2: The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis

  • Last updated
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  • Page ID 1865

Skills to Develop

  • Explain how plants absorb energy from sunlight
  • Describe short and long wavelengths of light
  • Describe how and where photosynthesis takes place within a plant

How can light be used to make food? When a person turns on a lamp, electrical energy becomes light energy. Like all other forms of kinetic energy, light can travel, change form, and be harnessed to do work. In the case of photosynthesis, light energy is converted into chemical energy, which photoautotrophs use to build carbohydrate molecules (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)). However, autotrophs only use a few specific components of sunlight.

A photo shows the silhouette of a grassy plant against the sun at sunset.

What Is Light Energy?

The sun emits an enormous amount of electromagnetic radiation (solar energy). Humans can see only a fraction of this energy, which portion is therefore referred to as “visible light.” The manner in which solar energy travels is described as waves. Scientists can determine the amount of energy of a wave by measuring its wavelength , the distance between consecutive points of a wave. A single wave is measured from two consecutive points, such as from crest to crest or from trough to trough (Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\)).

The illustration shows two waves. The distance between the crests (or troughs) is the wavelength.

Visible light constitutes only one of many types of electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun and other stars. Scientists differentiate the various types of radiant energy from the sun within the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of radiation (Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\)). The difference between wavelengths relates to the amount of energy carried by them.

The illustration lists the types of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing wavelength. These include gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and radio. Gamma rays have a very short wavelength, on the order of one thousandth of a nanometer. Radio waves have a very long wavelength, on the order of one kilometer. Visible light ranges from 380 nanometers at the violet end of the spectrum, to 750 nanometers at the red end of the spectrum.

Each type of electromagnetic radiation travels at a particular wavelength. The longer the wavelength (or the more stretched out it appears in the diagram), the less energy is carried. Short, tight waves carry the most energy. This may seem illogical, but think of it in terms of a piece of moving a heavy rope. It takes little effort by a person to move a rope in long, wide waves. To make a rope move in short, tight waves, a person would need to apply significantly more energy.

The electromagnetic spectrum (Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\)) shows several types of electromagnetic radiation originating from the sun, including X-rays and ultraviolet (UV) rays. The higher-energy waves can penetrate tissues and damage cells and DNA, explaining why both X-rays and UV rays can be harmful to living organisms.

Absorption of Light

Light energy initiates the process of photosynthesis when pigments absorb the light. Organic pigments, whether in the human retina or the chloroplast thylakoid, have a narrow range of energy levels that they can absorb. Energy levels lower than those represented by red light are insufficient to raise an orbital electron to a populatable, excited (quantum) state. Energy levels higher than those in blue light will physically tear the molecules apart, called bleaching. So retinal pigments can only “see” (absorb) 700 nm to 400 nm light, which is therefore called visible light. For the same reasons, plants pigment molecules absorb only light in the wavelength range of 700 nm to 400 nm; plant physiologists refer to this range for plants as photosynthetically active radiation.

The visible light seen by humans as white light actually exists in a rainbow of colors. Certain objects, such as a prism or a drop of water, disperse white light to reveal the colors to the human eye. The visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum shows the rainbow of colors, with violet and blue having shorter wavelengths, and therefore higher energy. At the other end of the spectrum toward red, the wavelengths are longer and have lower energy (Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\)).

The illustration shows the colors of visible light. In order of decreasing wavelength, from 700 nanometers to 400 nanometers, these are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. 500 nanometers is about the thickness of a soap bubble membrane. Infrared has longer wavelengths than red light, and uv and X-rays have shorter wavelengths than violet light.

Understanding Pigments

Different kinds of pigments exist, and each has evolved to absorb only certain wavelengths (colors) of visible light. Pigments reflect or transmit the wavelengths they cannot absorb, making them appear in the corresponding color.

Chlorophylls and carotenoids are the two major classes of photosynthetic pigments found in plants and algae; each class has multiple types of pigment molecules. There are five major chlorophylls: a , b , c and d and a related molecule found in prokaryotes called bacteriochlorophyll. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b are found in higher plant chloroplasts and will be the focus of the following discussion.

With dozens of different forms, carotenoids are a much larger group of pigments. The carotenoids found in fruit—such as the red of tomato (lycopene), the yellow of corn seeds (zeaxanthin), or the orange of an orange peel (β-carotene)—are used as advertisements to attract seed dispersers. In photosynthesis, carotenoids function as photosynthetic pigments that are very efficient molecules for the disposal of excess energy. When a leaf is exposed to full sun, the light-dependent reactions are required to process an enormous amount of energy; if that energy is not handled properly, it can do significant damage. Therefore, many carotenoids reside in the thylakoid membrane, absorb excess energy, and safely dissipate that energy as heat.

Each type of pigment can be identified by the specific pattern of wavelengths it absorbs from visible light, which is the absorption spectrum . The graph in Figure \(\PageIndex{5}\) shows the absorption spectra for chlorophyll a , chlorophyll b , and a type of carotenoid pigment called β-carotene (which absorbs blue and green light). Notice how each pigment has a distinct set of peaks and troughs, revealing a highly specific pattern of absorption. Chlorophyll a absorbs wavelengths from either end of the visible spectrum (blue and red), but not green. Because green is reflected or transmitted, chlorophyll appears green. Carotenoids absorb in the short-wavelength blue region, and reflect the longer yellow, red, and orange wavelengths.

Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b are made up of a long hydrocarbon chain attached to a large, complex ring made up of nitrogen and carbon. Magnesium is associated with the center of the ring. Chlorophyll b differs from chlorophyll a in that it has a CHO group instead of a CH3 group associated with one part of the ring. Beta-carotene is a branched hydrocarbon with a six-membered carbon ring at each end. Each chart shows the absorbance spectra for chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and β-carotene. The three pigments absorb blue-green and orange-red wavelengths of light but have slightly different spectra.

Many photosynthetic organisms have a mixture of pigments; using them, the organism can absorb energy from a wider range of wavelengths. Not all photosynthetic organisms have full access to sunlight. Some organisms grow underwater where light intensity and quality decrease and change with depth. Other organisms grow in competition for light. Plants on the rainforest floor must be able to absorb any bit of light that comes through, because the taller trees absorb most of the sunlight and scatter the remaining solar radiation (Figure \(\PageIndex{6}\)).

The photo shows undergrowth in a forest.

When studying a photosynthetic organism, scientists can determine the types of pigments present by generating absorption spectra. An instrument called a spectrophotometer can differentiate which wavelengths of light a substance can absorb. Spectrophotometers measure transmitted light and compute from it the absorption. By extracting pigments from leaves and placing these samples into a spectrophotometer, scientists can identify which wavelengths of light an organism can absorb. Additional methods for the identification of plant pigments include various types of chromatography that separate the pigments by their relative affinities to solid and mobile phases.

How Light-Dependent Reactions Work

The overall function of light-dependent reactions is to convert solar energy into chemical energy in the form of NADPH and ATP. This chemical energy supports the light-independent reactions and fuels the assembly of sugar molecules. The light-dependent reactions are depicted in Figure \(\PageIndex{7}\). Protein complexes and pigment molecules work together to produce NADPH and ATP.

 Illustration a shows the structure of PSII, which is embedded in the thylakoid membrane. At the core of PSII is the reaction center. The reaction center is surrounded by the light-harvesting complex, which contains antenna pigment molecules that shunt light energy toward a pair of chlorophyll a molecules in the reaction center. As a result, an electron is excited and transferred to the primary electron acceptor. A water molecule is split, releasing two electrons which are used to replace excited electrons. Illustration b shows the structure of PSI, which is similar in structure to PSII. However, PSII uses an electron from the chloroplast electron transport chain also embedded in the thylakoid membrane to replace the excited electron.

The actual step that converts light energy into chemical energy takes place in a multiprotein complex called a photosystem , two types of which are found embedded in the thylakoid membrane, photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) (Figure \(\PageIndex{7}\)). The two complexes differ on the basis of what they oxidize (that is, the source of the low-energy electron supply) and what they reduce (the place to which they deliver their energized electrons).

Both photosystems have the same basic structure; a number of antenna proteins to which the chlorophyll molecules are bound surround the reaction center where the photochemistry takes place. Each photosystem is serviced by the light-harvesting complex , which passes energy from sunlight to the reaction center; it consists of multiple antenna proteins that contain a mixture of 300–400 chlorophyll a and b molecules as well as other pigments like carotenoids. The absorption of a single photon or distinct quantity or “packet” of light by any of the chlorophylls pushes that molecule into an excited state. In short, the light energy has now been captured by biological molecules but is not stored in any useful form yet. The energy is transferred from chlorophyll to chlorophyll until eventually (after about a millionth of a second), it is delivered to the reaction center. Up to this point, only energy has been transferred between molecules, not electrons.

Art Connection

This illustration shows the components involved in the light reactions, which are all embedded in the thylakoid membrane. Photosystem II uses light energy to strip electrons from water, producing half an oxygen molecule and two protons in the process. The excited electron is then passed through the chloroplast electron transport chain to photosystem I. Photosystem I passes the electron to NADP+ reductase, which uses it to convert NADP+ and a proton to NADPH. As the electron transport chain moves electrons, it pumps protons into the thylakoid lumen. The splitting of water also adds electrons to the lumen, and the reduction of NADPH removes protons from the stroma. The net result is a low pH inside the thylakoid lumen, and a high pH outside, in the stroma. ATP synthase embedded the thylakoid  membrane moves protons down their electrochemical gradient, from the lumen to the stroma, and uses the energy from this gradient to make ATP.

What is the initial source of electrons for the chloroplast electron transport chain?

  • carbon dioxide

The reaction center contains a pair of chlorophyll a molecules with a special property. Those two chlorophylls can undergo oxidation upon excitation; they can actually give up an electron in a process called a photoact . It is at this step in the reaction center, this step in photosynthesis, that light energy is converted into an excited electron. All of the subsequent steps involve getting that electron onto the energy carrier NADPH for delivery to the Calvin cycle where the electron is deposited onto carbon for long-term storage in the form of a carbohydrate.PSII and PSI are two major components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain , which also includes the cytochrome complex . The cytochrome complex, an enzyme composed of two protein complexes, transfers the electrons from the carrier molecule plastoquinone (Pq) to the protein plastocyanin (Pc), thus enabling both the transfer of protons across the thylakoid membrane and the transfer of electrons from PSII to PSI.

The reaction center of PSII (called P680 ) delivers its high-energy electrons, one at the time, to the primary electron acceptor , and through the electron transport chain (Pq to cytochrome complex to plastocyanine) to PSI. P680’s missing electron is replaced by extracting a low-energy electron from water; thus, water is split and PSII is re-reduced after every photoact. Splitting one H 2 O molecule releases two electrons, two hydrogen atoms, and one atom of oxygen. Splitting two molecules is required to form one molecule of diatomic O 2 gas. About 10 percent of the oxygen is used by mitochondria in the leaf to support oxidative phosphorylation. The remainder escapes to the atmosphere where it is used by aerobic organisms to support respiration.

As electrons move through the proteins that reside between PSII and PSI, they lose energy. That energy is used to move hydrogen atoms from the stromal side of the membrane to the thylakoid lumen. Those hydrogen atoms, plus the ones produced by splitting water, accumulate in the thylakoid lumen and will be used synthesize ATP in a later step. Because the electrons have lost energy prior to their arrival at PSI, they must be re-energized by PSI, hence, another photon is absorbed by the PSI antenna. That energy is relayed to the PSI reaction center (called P700 ). P700 is oxidized and sends a high-energy electron to NADP + to form NADPH. Thus, PSII captures the energy to create proton gradients to make ATP, and PSI captures the energy to reduce NADP + into NADPH. The two photosystems work in concert, in part, to guarantee that the production of NADPH will roughly equal the production of ATP. Other mechanisms exist to fine tune that ratio to exactly match the chloroplast’s constantly changing energy needs.

Generating an Energy Carrier: ATP

As in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria during cellular respiration, the buildup of hydrogen ions inside the thylakoid lumen creates a concentration gradient. The passive diffusion of hydrogen ions from high concentration (in the thylakoid lumen) to low concentration (in the stroma) is harnessed to create ATP, just as in the electron transport chain of cellular respiration. The ions build up energy because of diffusion and because they all have the same electrical charge, repelling each other.

To release this energy, hydrogen ions will rush through any opening, similar to water jetting through a hole in a dam. In the thylakoid, that opening is a passage through a specialized protein channel called the ATP synthase. The energy released by the hydrogen ion stream allows ATP synthase to attach a third phosphate group to ADP, which forms a molecule of ATP (Figure \(\PageIndex{8}\)). The flow of hydrogen ions through ATP synthase is called chemiosmosis because the ions move from an area of high to an area of low concentration through a semi-permeable structure.

Link to Learning

Visit this site to view the process of photosynthesis within a leaf.

The pigments of the first part of photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions, absorb energy from sunlight. A photon strikes the antenna pigments of photosystem II to initiate photosynthesis. The energy travels to the reaction center that contains chlorophyll a to the electron transport chain, which pumps hydrogen ions into the thylakoid interior. This action builds up a high concentration of ions. The ions flow through ATP synthase via chemiosmosis to form molecules of ATP, which are used for the formation of sugar molecules in the second stage of photosynthesis. Photosystem I absorbs a second photon, which results in the formation of an NADPH molecule, another energy and reducing power carrier for the light-independent reactions.

Art Connections

Figure \(\PageIndex{8}\): What is the source of electrons for the chloroplast electron transport chain?

  • Carbon dioxide

ENCYCLOPEDIC ENTRY

Photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to create oxygen and energy in the form of sugar.

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Most life on Earth depends on photosynthesis .The process is carried out by plants, algae, and some types of bacteria, which capture energy from sunlight to produce oxygen (O 2 ) and chemical energy stored in glucose (a sugar). Herbivores then obtain this energy by eating plants, and carnivores obtain it by eating herbivores.

The process

During photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O) from the air and soil. Within the plant cell, the water is oxidized, meaning it loses electrons, while the carbon dioxide is reduced, meaning it gains electrons. This transforms the water into oxygen and the carbon dioxide into glucose. The plant then releases the oxygen back into the air, and stores energy within the glucose molecules.

Chlorophyll

Inside the plant cell are small organelles called chloroplasts , which store the energy of sunlight. Within the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast is a light-absorbing pigment called chlorophyll , which is responsible for giving the plant its green color. During photosynthesis , chlorophyll absorbs energy from blue- and red-light waves, and reflects green-light waves, making the plant appear green.

Light-dependent Reactions vs. Light-independent Reactions

While there are many steps behind the process of photosynthesis, it can be broken down into two major stages: light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions. The light-dependent reaction takes place within the thylakoid membrane and requires a steady stream of sunlight, hence the name light- dependent reaction. The chlorophyll absorbs energy from the light waves, which is converted into chemical energy in the form of the molecules ATP and NADPH . The light-independent stage, also known as the Calvin cycle , takes place in the stroma , the space between the thylakoid membranes and the chloroplast membranes, and does not require light, hence the name light- independent reaction. During this stage, energy from the ATP and NADPH molecules is used to assemble carbohydrate molecules, like glucose, from carbon dioxide.

C3 and C4 Photosynthesis

Not all forms of photosynthesis are created equal, however. There are different types of photosynthesis, including C3 photosynthesis and C4 photosynthesis. C3 photosynthesis is used by the majority of plants. It involves producing a three-carbon compound called 3-phosphoglyceric acid during the Calvin Cycle, which goes on to become glucose. C4 photosynthesis, on the other hand, produces a four-carbon intermediate compound, which splits into carbon dioxide and a three-carbon compound during the Calvin Cycle. A benefit of C4 photosynthesis is that by producing higher levels of carbon, it allows plants to thrive in environments without much light or water. The National Geographic Society is making this content available under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA license . The License excludes the National Geographic Logo (meaning the words National Geographic + the Yellow Border Logo) and any images that are included as part of each content piece. For clarity the Logo and images may not be removed, altered, or changed in any way.

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Photosynthesis

what is the end result in photosynthesis

1. Photosynthesis is the process plants use to make their own food.

Like all living things, plants need energy to carry out the processes that keep them alive. They get this energy from food. Humans and most other animals are heterotrophs, meaning we have to consume other organisms—plants, other animals, or some combination of the two—for food. However, plants are autotrophs, meaning they create their own food.

Plants use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen in a process called photosynthesis . In biology, this information is often expressed using a chemical equation .

Chemical equations typically show the molecules that enter the reaction (the reactants ) to the left and the molecules that result from the reaction (the products ) to the right, separated by an arrow that indicates a reaction taking place.

[Reactants] → [Products]

You can think of the reactants as the ingredients for preparing a meal and the products as the different dishes in that meal.

With that in mind, let’s take a look at the chemical equation for photosynthesis:

Sunlight + 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 CO 2 = carbon dioxide H 2 O = water C 6 H 12 O 6 = glucose O 2 = oxygen * Sometimes, you’ll see sunlight, or a symbol indicating the sun, over the arrow in the equation.

Therefore, to produce one molecule of glucose (and 6 molecules of oxygen gas), a plant needs 6 molecules of carbon dioxide and 6 molecules of water.

2. The reactants of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water.

We’ve established that plants need carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O) to produce their food, but where do these reactants come from and how do they get where they need to go inside the plant?

Plants take in carbon dioxide from the air through small openings in their leaves called stomata. Some plants (most monocots) have stomata on both sides of their leaves, and others (dicots and a few monocots) only have stomata on the underside, or lower epidermis.

Plants take in carbon dioxide from the air through small openings in their leaves called stomata.

Plants get water from the soil surrounding their roots, and water gets to the leaves by traveling through the xylem, part of the plant’s vascular system. In leaves, the xylem and phloem are contained in the vascular bundle.

Once inside the leaf, the carbon dioxide and water molecules move into the cells of the mesophyll, the layer of ground tissue between the upper and lower epidermis. Within these cells, organelles called chloroplasts use the carbon dioxide and water to carry out photosynthesis.

3. Light energy from the sun initiates photosynthesis in the chloroplasts of plant cells.

Plant cells have special organelles called chloroplasts, which serve as the sites for the reactions that make up photosynthesis. Their thylakoid membranes contain a pigment called chlorophyll, which absorbs photons (light energy) from the sun, initiating the light-dependent reactions that take place within the thylakoids.

Chloroplasts are organelles within plant cells that serve as the sites for the reactions that make up photosynthesis.

During these reactions, water molecules (H 2 O) are broken down. NADPH and ATP—high energy molecules that power the production of glucose—are produced during the light-dependent reactions, as well. Electrons and hydrogen ions from the water are used to build NADPH. Hydrogen ions also power the conversion of ADP to ATP.

4. The products of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen.

Did you know that oxygen is actually a waste product of photosynthesis? Although the hydrogen atoms from the water molecules are used in the photosynthesis reactions, the oxygen molecules are released as oxygen gas (O 2 ). (This is good news for organisms like humans and plants that use oxygen to carry out cellular respiration!) Oxygen passes out of the leaves through the stomata.

The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis—also known as the Calvin cycle—use enzymes in the stroma, along with the energy-carrying molecules (ATP and NADPH) from the light-dependent reactions, to break down carbon dioxide molecules (CO 2 ) into a form that is used to build glucose.The mitochondria in the plant’s cells use cellular respiration to break glucose down into a usable form of energy (ATP), which fuels all the plant’s activities.

After the light-independent reactions, glucose is often made into larger sugars like sucrose or carbohydrates like starch or cellulose. Sugars leave the leaf through the phloem and can travel to the roots for storage or to other parts of the plant, where they’re used as energy to fuel the plant’s activities.

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What Are the Products of Photosynthesis?

Result of Photosynthesis in Plants

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Photosynthesis is the name given to the set of chemical reactions performed by plants to convert energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of sugar. Specifically, plants use energy from sunlight to react carbon dioxide and water to produce sugar ( glucose ) and oxygen . Many reactions occur, but the overall chemical reaction for photosynthesis is:

  • 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + light → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2
  • Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light yields Glucose + Oxygen

In a plant, the carbon dioxide enters via leaf stomates by diffusion . Water is absorbed through the roots and is transported to leaves through the xylem. Solar energy is absorbed by chlorophyll in the leaves. The reactions of photosynthesis occur in the chloroplasts of plants. In photosynthetic bacteria, the process takes place where chlorophyll or a related pigment is embedded in the plasma membrane. The oxygen and water produced in photosynthesis exit through the stomata.

Key Takeaways

  • In photosynthesis, energy from light is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen.
  • For 6 carbon dioxide and 6 water molecules, 1 glucose molecule and 6 oxygen molecules are produced.

Actually, plants reserve very little of the glucose for immediate use. Glucose molecules are combined by dehydration synthesis to form cellulose, which is used as a structural material. Dehydration synthesis is also used to convert glucose to starch, which plants use to store energy.

Intermediate Products of Photosynthesis

The overall chemical equation is a summary of a series of chemical reactions. These reactions occur in two stages. The light reactions require light (as you might imagine), while the dark reactions are controlled by enzymes. They don't require darkness to occur -- they simply don't depend on light.

The light reactions absorb light and harness the energy to power electron transfers. Most photosynthetic organisms capture visible light, although there are some that use infrared light. Products of these reactions are adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). In plant cells, the light-dependent reactions occur in the chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The overall reaction for the light-dependent reactions is:

  • 2 H 2 O + 2 NADP +  + 3 ADP + 3 P i  + light → 2 NADPH + 2 H +  + 3 ATP + O 2

In the dark stage, ATP and NADPH ultimately reduce carbon dioxide and other molecules. Carbon dioxide from the air is "fixed" into a biologically usable form, glucose. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, the dark reactions are termed the Calvin cycle. Bacteria may use different reactions, including a reverse Krebs cycle . The overall reaction for the light-independent reaction of a plant (Calvin cycle) is:

  • 3 CO 2  + 9 ATP + 6 NADPH + 6 H +  → C 3 H 6 O 3 -phosphate + 9 ADP + 8 P i  + 6 NADP +  + 3 H 2 O

During carbon fixation, the three-carbon product of the Calvin cycle is converted into the final carbohydrate product.

Factors That Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis

Like any chemical reaction, the availability of the reactants determines the amount of products that can be made. Limiting the availability of carbon dioxide or water slows the production of glucose and oxygen. Also, the rate of the reactions is affected by temperature and the availability of minerals that may be needed in the intermediate reactions.

The overall health of the plant (or other photosynthetic organism) also plays a role. The rate of metabolic reactions is determined in part by the maturity of the organism and whether it's flowering or bearing fruit.

What Is Not a Product of Photosynthesis?

If you're asked about photosynthesis on a test, you may be asked to identify the products of the reaction. That's pretty easy, right? Another form of the question is to ask what is not a product of photosynthesis. Unfortunately, this won't be an open-ended question, which you could easily answer with "iron" or "a car" or "your mom." Usually this is a multiple choice question, listing molecules which are reactants or products of photosynthesis. The answer is any choice except glucose or oxygen. The question may also be phrased to answer what is not a product of the light reactions or the dark reactions. So, it's a good idea to know the overall reactants and products for the photosynthesis general equation, the light reactions, and the dark reactions.

  • Bidlack, J.E.; Stern, K.R.; Jansky, S. (2003). Introductory Plant Biology . New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-290941-8.
  • Blankenship, R.E. (2014). Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-8975-0.
  • Reece J.B., et al. (2013). Campbell Biology . Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 978-0-321-77565-8.
  • Photosynthesis Basics - Study Guide
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  • The Photosynthesis Formula: Turning Sunlight into Energy
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  • 10 Fascinating Photosynthesis Facts
  • Chloroplast Function in Photosynthesis
  • Chlorophyll Definition and Role in Photosynthesis
  • What Is the Primary Function of the Calvin Cycle?
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  • Biology Article

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process by which phototrophs convert light energy into chemical energy, which is later used to fuel cellular activities. The chemical energy is stored in the form of sugars, which are created from water and carbon dioxide.

what is the end result in photosynthesis

Table of Contents

  • What is Photosynthesis?
  • Site of photosynthesis

Photosynthesis definition states that the process exclusively takes place in the chloroplasts through photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotene and xanthophyll. All green plants and a few other autotrophic organisms utilize photosynthesis to synthesize nutrients by using carbon dioxide, water and sunlight. The by-product of the photosynthesis process is oxygen.Let us have a detailed look at the process, reaction and importance of photosynthesis.

What Is Photosynthesis in Biology?

The word “ photosynthesis ” is derived from the Greek words  phōs  (pronounced: “fos”) and σύνθεσις (pronounced: “synthesis “) Phōs means “light” and σύνθεσις   means, “combining together.” This means “ combining together with the help of light .”

Photosynthesis also applies to other organisms besides green plants. These include several prokaryotes such as cyanobacteria, purple bacteria and green sulfur bacteria. These organisms exhibit photosynthesis just like green plants.The glucose produced during photosynthesis is then used to fuel various cellular activities. The by-product of this physio-chemical process is oxygen.

Photosynthesis Reaction

A visual representation of the photosynthesis reaction

  • Photosynthesis is also used by algae to convert solar energy into chemical energy. Oxygen is liberated as a by-product and light is considered as a major factor to complete the process of photosynthesis.
  • Photosynthesis occurs when plants use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Leaves contain microscopic cellular organelles known as chloroplasts.
  • Each chloroplast contains a green-coloured pigment called chlorophyll. Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules whereas carbon dioxide and oxygen enter through the tiny pores of stomata located in the epidermis of leaves.
  • Another by-product of photosynthesis is sugars such as glucose and fructose.
  • These sugars are then sent to the roots, stems, leaves, fruits, flowers and seeds. In other words, these sugars are used by the plants as an energy source, which helps them to grow. These sugar molecules then combine with each other to form more complex carbohydrates like cellulose and starch. The cellulose is considered as the structural material that is used in plant cell walls.

Where Does This Process Occur?

Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis in plants and blue-green algae.  All green parts of a plant, including the green stems, green leaves,  and sepals – floral parts comprise of chloroplasts – green colour plastids. These cell organelles are present only in plant cells and are located within the mesophyll cells of leaves.

Also Read:  Photosynthesis Early Experiments

Photosynthesis Equation

Photosynthesis reaction involves two reactants, carbon dioxide and water. These two reactants yield two products, namely, oxygen and glucose. Hence, the photosynthesis reaction is considered to be an endothermic reaction. Following is the photosynthesis formula:

Unlike plants, certain bacteria that perform photosynthesis do not produce oxygen as the by-product of photosynthesis. Such bacteria are called anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. The bacteria that do produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis are called oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria.

Structure Of Chlorophyll

Structure of chlorophyll

The structure of Chlorophyll consists of 4 nitrogen atoms that surround a magnesium atom. A hydrocarbon tail is also present. Pictured above is chlorophyll- f,  which is more effective in near-infrared light than chlorophyll- a

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of the  plant cell   and in the mesosomes of cyanobacteria. This green colour pigment plays a vital role in the process of photosynthesis by permitting plants to absorb energy from sunlight. Chlorophyll is a mixture of chlorophyll- a  and chlorophyll- b .Besides green plants, other organisms that perform photosynthesis contain various other forms of chlorophyll such as chlorophyll- c1 ,  chlorophyll- c2 ,  chlorophyll- d and chlorophyll- f .

Also Read:   Biological Pigments

Process Of Photosynthesis

At the cellular level,  the photosynthesis process takes place in cell organelles called chloroplasts. These organelles contain a green-coloured pigment called chlorophyll, which is responsible for the characteristic green colouration of the leaves.

As already stated, photosynthesis occurs in the leaves and the specialized cell organelles responsible for this process is called the chloroplast. Structurally, a leaf comprises a petiole, epidermis and a lamina. The lamina is used for absorption of sunlight and carbon dioxide during photosynthesis.

Structure of Chloroplast

Structure of Chloroplast. Note the presence of the thylakoid

“Photosynthesis Steps:”

  • During the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide enters through the stomata, water is absorbed by the root hairs from the soil and is carried to the leaves through the xylem vessels. Chlorophyll absorbs the light energy from the sun to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.
  • The hydrogen from water molecules and carbon dioxide absorbed from the air are used in the production of glucose. Furthermore, oxygen is liberated out into the atmosphere through the leaves as a waste product.
  • Glucose is a source of food for plants that provide energy for  growth and development , while the rest is stored in the roots, leaves and fruits, for their later use.
  • Pigments are other fundamental cellular components of photosynthesis. They are the molecules that impart colour and they absorb light at some specific wavelength and reflect back the unabsorbed light. All green plants mainly contain chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids which are present in the thylakoids of chloroplasts. It is primarily used to capture light energy. Chlorophyll-a is the main pigment.

The process of photosynthesis occurs in two stages:

  • Light-dependent reaction or light reaction
  • Light independent reaction or dark reaction

Stages of Photosynthesis

Stages of Photosynthesis in Plants depicting the two phases – Light reaction and Dark reaction

Light Reaction of Photosynthesis (or) Light-dependent Reaction

  • Photosynthesis begins with the light reaction which is carried out only during the day in the presence of sunlight. In plants, the light-dependent reaction takes place in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts.
  • The Grana, membrane-bound sacs like structures present inside the thylakoid functions by gathering light and is called photosystems.
  • These photosystems have large complexes of pigment and proteins molecules present within the plant cells, which play the primary role during the process of light reactions of photosynthesis.
  • There are two types of photosystems: photosystem I and photosystem II.
  • Under the light-dependent reactions, the light energy is converted to ATP and NADPH, which are used in the second phase of photosynthesis.
  • During the light reactions, ATP and NADPH are generated by two electron-transport chains, water is used and oxygen is produced.

The chemical equation in the light reaction of photosynthesis can be reduced to:

2H 2 O + 2NADP+ + 3ADP + 3Pi → O 2 + 2NADPH + 3ATP

Dark Reaction of Photosynthesis (or) Light-independent Reaction

  • Dark reaction is also called carbon-fixing reaction.
  • It is a light-independent process in which sugar molecules are formed from the water and carbon dioxide molecules.
  • The dark reaction occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast where they utilize the NADPH and ATP products of the light reaction.
  • Plants capture the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through stomata and proceed to the Calvin photosynthesis cycle.
  • In the Calvin cycle , the ATP and NADPH formed during light reaction drive the reaction and convert 6 molecules of carbon dioxide into one sugar molecule or glucose.

The chemical equation for the dark reaction can be reduced to:

3CO 2 + 6 NADPH + 5H 2 O + 9ATP → G3P + 2H+ + 6 NADP+ + 9 ADP + 8 Pi

* G3P – glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

Calvin cycle

Calvin photosynthesis Cycle (Dark Reaction)

Also Read:  Cyclic And Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation

Importance of Photosynthesis

  • Photosynthesis is essential for the existence of all life on earth. It serves a crucial role in the food chain – the plants create their food using this process, thereby, forming the primary producers.
  • Photosynthesis is also responsible for the production of oxygen – which is needed by most organisms for their survival.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. what is photosynthesis explain the process of photosynthesis., 2. what is the significance of photosynthesis, 3. list out the factors influencing photosynthesis., 4. what are the different stages of photosynthesis, 5. what is the calvin cycle, 6. write down the photosynthesis equation..

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Please What Is Meant By 300-400 PPM

PPM stands for Parts-Per-Million. It corresponds to saying that 300 PPM of carbon dioxide indicates that if one million gas molecules are counted, 300 out of them would be carbon dioxide. The remaining nine hundred ninety-nine thousand seven hundred are other gas molecules.

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What Is Produced As a Result of Photosynthesis?

what is the end result in photosynthesis

10 Facts on Photosynthesis

All living things consume energy in order to survive. Animals get their energy from the food they eat, but plants must absorb energy in a different way. Though plants use their roots to pull water and some nutrients from soil, the majority of plants' energy comes from the sun. Plants are able to convert sunlight into usable energy, in the form of glucose, due to the structure of their cells and a process called photosynthesis.

TL;DR (Too Long; Didn't Read)

Plants get most of the energy they need to survive via a two-stage process called photosynthesis. In the first stage, called the light-dependent reaction, sunlight is converted into two molecules. In the second stage, called the light-independent reaction, these molecules work together to form and synthesize glucose. Glucose is a sugar that plants use for energy.

How Photosynthesis Works

The cells of plants and animals differ slightly, in structure. For example, certain plant cells contain organelles called plastids, which help the cells store energy. Chloroplasts are plastids that contain the green pigment chlorophyll. This pigment is responsible for absorbing sunlight during the process of photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis is a two-stage process. The first stage of photosynthesis is called the light-dependent reaction because sunlight must be present in order for the reaction to occur. During this stage, chloroplasts absorb and trap sunlight, converting it into chemical energy. Specifically, the light is converted into two molecules to be used during the second stage of photosynthesis. These two molecules are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The second stage of photosynthesis is called the light-independent reaction because sunlight is not necessary for it to occur. In this stage, the two molecules formed during the light-dependent reaction work together to produce glucose. Hydrogen atoms from NADPH help to form the glucose, while ATP provides the energy necessary to synthesize it.

The Importance of Glucose

Glucose is a sugar that many plants, animals and fungi use for energy. In plants, glucose is produced as a result of photosynthesis. Plants need the energy glucose provides in order to grow and reproduce. Glucose is also required for the process of cellular respiration, in which plants convert carbon dioxide from the air into oxygen.

Because plants rely on sunlight to make glucose, inadequate sunlight can be a problem for plants that live in shady or cloudy areas. To deal with this problem, most plants store glucose inside their bodies to use when sunlight is scarce. Plants usually store glucose as starch. Starch granules can be found inside plant cells, in organelles called amyloplasts.

Without glucose, plants would not have the energy necessary to grow, reproduce or carry out cellular respiration. This means that without glucose, plant life could not exist on Earth.

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  • University of Illinois: Photosynthesis
  • UCSB ScienceLine: How Are Respiration and Photosynthesis Related?

About the Author

Maria Cook is a freelance and fiction writer from Indianapolis, Indiana. She holds an MFA in Creative Writing from Butler University in Indianapolis. She has written about science as it relates to eco-friendly practices, conservation and the environment for Green Matters.

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What’s the End Result of Photosynthesis?

Table of Contents:

Know the Products of Photosynthesis . Find out what the products of photosynthesis are and view the overall chemical reaction and equation.

Actually, plants reserve very little of the glucose for immediate use. Glucose molecules are combined by dehydration synthesis to form cellulose, which is used as a structural material. Dehydration synthesis is also used to convert glucose to starch, which plants use to store energy.

Video advice: Is water end product of photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis Answer • Is water end product of photosynthesis?

What's the End Result of Photosynthesis?

In a plant, the carbon dioxide enters via leaf stomates by diffusion. Water is absorbed through the roots and is transported to leaves through the xylem. Solar energy is absorbed by chlorophyll in the leaves. The reactions of photosynthesis occur in the chloroplasts of plants. In photosynthetic bacteria, the process takes place where chlorophyll or a related pigment is embedded in the plasma membrane. The oxygen and water produced in photosynthesis exit through the stomata.

Oxygen is the end product in photosynthesis, whereas … is the end product in respiration – Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ Oxygen is the end product in photosynthesis, whereas … is the end product in respiration.

Question ACarbon dioxideBNitrogenCOxygenDWaterMediumOpen in AppSolutionVerified by TopprCorrect option is A) Carbon dioxide is the end product of respiration along with some water vapor and release of energy, here glucose is oxidised to release energy. So, the correct answer is ‘Carbon dioxide’Was this answer helpful? 00.

What is the end product of photosynthesis?

what are the end products of photosynthesis?

(This is good news for organisms like humans and plants that use oxygen to carry out cellular respiration!) Oxygen passes out of the leaves through the stomata.

Let’s consider the products of photosynthesis! Along the way of photosynthesis plants falter the reactants of co2 and water and recombine these to produce oxygen (O2) and a kind of sugar known as glucose (C6H12O6). … The oxygen leaves the guarana plant with the stomata and enter Earth’s atmosphere.

Contents1 What Are The End Products Of Photosynthesis?? 2 What are three end products of photosynthesis? 3 What are the end products of photosynthesis Class 10? 4 What are the 4 products of photosynthesis? 5 What are the 3 end products of photosynthesis and how they use them? 6 What are end products of photosynthesis Brainly? 7 What are the product of photosynthesis? 8 What are the end products of photosynthesis quizlet? 9 What is the main product of photosynthesis? 10 What are the products and reactants of photosynthesis? 11 What are the end products of cellular respiration? 12 What are the end product of photosynthesis and respiration? 13 What are the end product of photosynthesis What is the significance of photosynthesis? 14 What are the end products formed photosynthesis and respiration? 15 What are the two principal end products of photosynthesis? 16 What are the products of photosynthesis quizlet? 17 Which is the final step in photosynthesis process? 18 What are final products of photosynthesis and of aerobic respiration quizlet?

Video advice: End Products of Photosynthesis

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What's the End Result of Photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is a complex process that plants use to produce glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water.

The Formula – Humans and most other animals need certain things to survive. Oxygen is one of them, and the carbohydrate glucose is another. Fortunately for them, plants (and certain bacteria and algae) produce both of these as the result of a complex process known as photosynthesis. The Formula The formula associated with the process of photosynthesis is 6H2O + 6CO2 = C6H12O6 + 6O2. This formula tells you is that six molecules of water plus six molecules of carbon dioxide will produce one molecule of glucose plus six molecules of oxygen. This entire process goes through two distinct stages before it is completed. The first stage is a light-dependent process and the second stage is a light-independent process. Light Dependent In the light-dependent process, the electrons of the chloroplasts (special organelles used to carry out photosynthesis) are excited into a higher energy state when they are bombarded with light. These excited electrons cause a series of reactions that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH).

The final product of photosynthesis is A Carbohydrates class 11 biology CBSE

The final product of photosynthesis is A Carbohydrates B Carbon dioxide C Nitrogen D Water.

The ultimate product of photosynthesis is-A. Carbohydrates. B. Co2. C. Nitrogen. D. Water. VerifiedHint: For the entire process of photosynthesis, co2 and water are utilized as recycleables. Oxygen gas is really a by-product from the photosynthesis, which is often used by other living microorganisms for the entire process of respiration. The plants can establish their food by means of glucose and store it by means of starch. Complete answer: The eco-friendly vegetation is autotrophic anyway. They are able to synthesize their very own food by the entire process of photosynthesis. The guarana plant uses sunlight energy to organize food from co2 and water in the existence of chlorophyll pigment. Fundamental essentials eco-friendly colour pigments based in the chloroplast of leaves. The photosynthesis can be explained as “the process through which eco-friendly plants synthesize their very own food from inorganic material like co2 and water in the existence of sunlight and chlorophyll molecules. ” Oxygen gas can also be created like a by-product. The co2 air, that is needed for that food preparation, enters through stomata in to the plant.

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis This article needs additional citations for verification.Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may.

One product of oxygenase activity is phosphoglycolate (2 carbon) rather of three-phosphoglycerate (3 carbon). Phosphoglycolate can’t be metabolized through the Calvin-Benson cycle to represent carbon lost in the cycle. A higher oxygenase activity, therefore, drains the sugars which are needed to recycle ribulose 5-bisphosphate but for the continuation from the Calvin-Benson cycle.

  • Additional recommended knowledge
  • In algae and bacteria
  • Origin of chloroplasts
  • Cyanobacteria and the evolution of photosynthesis
  • Light to chemical energy
  • Carbon fixation
  • Light intensity (Irradiance), wavelength and temperature
  • Carbon dioxide levels and photorespiration

Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy into chemical energy by living organisms. The raw materials are carbon dioxide and water; the energy source is sunlight; and the end-products are oxygen and (energy rich) carbohydrates, for example sucrose and starch. This process is arguably the most important biochemical pathway,(1) since nearly all life depends on it. It is a complex process occurring in higher plants, phytoplankton, algae, as well as bacteria such as cyanobacteria. Photosynthetic organisms are also referred to as photoautotrophs.

Related Articles:

  • What Goes On within the Light Result of Photosynthesis?
  • The Result of Darkness on Photosynthesis
  • The Result of Salinity on Photosynthesis
  • The Result of Temperature on Cell Membranes
  • The Result of Sunlight on Creatures & Plants
  • The Result of Salt & Sugar on Dehydrated Cells

what is the end result in photosynthesis

Erwin van den Burg

Stress and anxiety researcher at CHUV2014–present Ph.D. from Radboud University NijmegenGraduated 2002 Lives in Lausanne, Switzerland2013–present

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2024 Kentucky Derby full finishing order and results: Mystik Dan wins in thrilling photo finish

what is the end result in photosynthesis

Mystik Dan wins 150th Kentucky Derby

Mystik Dan is your winner of the 150th Kentucky Derby, winning in a photo finish by a hair over Sierra Leone and Forever Young. Mystik Dan entered the race with with 18-1 odds.

The underdog made up ground in the second half after the pack got off to a hot start with early leaders Fierceness and Track Phantom taking the pack through first half of the race in 46.63. The finishing order is 3-2-11-4.

Mystik Dan’s trainer Ken McPeek becomes the first trainer since 1952 to win the Oaks and Derby in the same year.

Kentucky Derby: Mystik Dan wins in photo finish over Sierra Leone, Forever Young

Kentucky Derby: Mystik Dan wins in photo finish over Sierra Leone, Forever Young

Andrew DeWitt

The 2024 Kentucky Derby was an incredible event that somehow exceeded its hype

Here’s what I learned about the Kentucky Derby today: It lives up to the hype and then some.

It’s a great event. The sound that comes from the grandstand as the horses make their turn towards home is something you can’t forget.

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Hannah Vanbiber

Thorpedo Anna and Mystik Dan wore the same bridle to win their races

The press conference ends with the reveal that Thorpedo Anna and Mystik Dan wore the same bridle to win their races. McPeek says maybe they should auction it off to charity. “That’s a pretty lucky bridle. I gotta get back there and make sure nobody swipes it.”

A Kentucky Derby love story

“Years ago, when Lance and I were dating, he was late to pick me up because he was at the races. I wasn’t going to go,” says Sharilyn Gasaway. Why she’s glad she did? “I didn’t know but my mom knew he was going to ask me to marry him that night.”

McPeek says he felt sure they had won even with that photo finish, and then gets choked up sharing how it felt to turn to his wife who was standing there next to him to see it happen.

'I was just smiling the whole time'

“I was just smiling the whole time. It’s an amazing feeling when you have the horse under you and you now they’re gonna go forward and forward and forward.” Brian Hernandez reflects on how strong Mystik Dan felt throughout the race, from a powerful start with sure footing all the way to the finish.

An emotional win for Mystik Dan owner

“To me, this is for him,” says owner Lance Gasaway, whose father passed away a year ago today. “Dad would’ve loved it, he loved the game."

Thorpedo Anna and Mystik Dan were too fast for each other

Thorpedo Anna, the winner of Friday night's Kentucky Oaks, and Mystik Dan used to be training partners. But then they weren't anymore. Why? McPeek says they were too fast for each other and that you don’t want to push them over the edge.

Jockey jokes about photo finish wait

“From the fastest two minutes in sports to the longest,” says Brian Hernandez with a laugh, referencing the long minutes of waiting to hear which horse won the photo finish.

Mystik Dan jockey reflects on race

“Oh god, did we win the Kentucky Derby?” The thoughts on jockey Brian Hernandez’s mind the second after he crossed the finish line.

“My horse was just cruising along so comfortably, it never felt like we were going that quickly. Other horses were piling up and we had a little pocket there. We may have taken a little off the inside fence but that’s okay," said Hernandez.

Mystik Dan, the 'old soul'

“This horse is an old soul, he’s just so chill,” says Sharilyn Gasaway, one of Mystik Dan’s owners.

No Preakness guarantee yet

Trainer Kenneth McPeek didn’t commit to running in the Preakness. Says he doesn’t make fast moves, "never make a decision until you absolutely have to."

'I believe in mojo'

'I believe in mojo'

(Photo: Hannah Vanbiber / The Athletic)

"I believe in mojo," Mystik Dan trainer Kenneth McPeek said.

McPeek has praise for his jockey, too, not just the mojo. “This is typical Brian, he knows what he’s doing out there. We rarely second guess anything he does.”

Nando Di Fino

What happened to Fierceness?

Favorite Fierceness ultimately finished in 16th, which put him below the alternate, Epic Ride, The offspring of Justified, Just Steel and Just a Touch (who a few people picked as the winner on the broadcast) finished in the bottom five.

Fierceness’ low finish probably took down a lot of exacta and trifecta bets where bettors paired their longshot pick with the 3-1 favorite. I’m sure we’ll get some answers later as to what happened with Fierceness.

Mystik Dan’s jockey still in shock

“It still hasn’t sunk in," said Mystik Dan’s jockey Brian Hernandez. Hernandez hails from Lafayette, La., something Louisianans are very proud of.

"We have to thank all the guys back at the barn…. I don’t know how long it’ll take to sink in but it’s a surreal moment."

Full finishing order

Here is the full finishing order of the 150th Kentucky Derby. Fierceness, the big favorite before the race, finished just behind Epic Ride, who was a late add this week after a scratch.

  • Sierra Leone
  • Forever Young
  • Catching Freedom
  • T O Password
  • Honor Marie
  • Track Phantom
  • West Saratoga
  • Domestic Product
  • Society Man
  • Grand Mo The First
  • Just A Touch

what is the end result in photosynthesis

The press is awaiting the winners. As are these hats and seats.

That was an expensive sip

Woodford Reserve made only 150 bottles of the “Baccarat” version. One of those has been set aside for the winner, although it wasn’t clear when they would receive the bottle.

The Baccarat edition costs $15,000. You can get the regular 150 bottle (seen on the stage) for about $45-50 at your local liquor store.

Someone got thirsty?

Someone got thirsty?

(Photo: Andrew DeWitt / The Athletic)

Here at the winners press conference, it appears someone broke into the Woodford Reserve bottle early and took a nice swig out of one of the bottles.

Given the level of drinking we’ve seen here today, that isn’t too surprising.

Oh, you thought the racing was over?

If you thought the party ended with the Kentucky Derby… not so fast. There’s still racing at Churchill Downs. In about 30 minutes, Race 13 will go off, with several Derby jockeys on different horses. Discreet Mischief is the 9/5 current favorite

India Lok Sabha election 2024 Phase 3: Who votes and what’s at stake?

Voters in 93 constituencies in 11 states, territories go to polls on May 7 in latest phase of world’s largest election.

Mohanlal Gupta, a scrap trader, worships a statue of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi at a temple he has built on the third floor of his residential building at Gadkhol village near Ankleshwar in Baruch district of Gujarat state,

Millions of Indians will cast their ballots on May 7 in the third phase of a seven-phase election , which will feature India’s powerful interior minister, a perfume baron and the scion of a former princely state.

Minister of Home Affairs Amit Shah, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s right-hand man, is seeking re-election from the city of Gandhinagar in Gujarat State.

Keep reading

Is today’s india more unequal than under british rule, jobless engineers, mbas: the hidden army of indian election ‘consultants’, farm suicides, anger mount in indian villages that modi promised hope, india votes in phase 2 of mammoth election as modi raises campaign pitch.

Meanwhile, Jyotiraditya Scindia, the minister of civil aviation and steel as well as the grandson of the last ruler of the princely state of Gwalior, is contesting from the city of Guna in Madhya Pradesh state while Badruddin Ajmal, the owner of the perfume brand Ajmal, is on the ballot from Dhubri in the northeastern state of Assam.

Voters will decide the fates of 1,351 candidates running for 93 seats in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament. The constituencies are spread across 11 states and federally governed territories, with Gujarat, Modi’s home state, voting on 25 seats. Voters will not choose who will fill Gujarat’s Surat seat because the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) candidate was declared the winner after all his opponents withdrew.

Below-average voter turnout, anti-Muslim hate speeches and allegations of Election Commission bias marked the first two phases on April 19 and 26 of the world’s largest-ever democratic exercise. About 969 million registered voters will vote in 543 parliamentary constituencies spread across 36 states and federally governed territories – called union territories.

A coalition of 26 parties called the Indian National Developmental Inclusive Alliance (INDIA), led by the main opposition party , the Indian National Congress, is hoping to defeat the governing National Democratic Alliance (NDA), led by Modi’s BJP. Opinion polls give Modi the advantage, with his personal popularity seemingly intact despite those surveyed counting inflation and a lack of jobs as growing concerns.

Who votes in Phase 3?

Voters from the following states and territories will cast their ballots for these constituencies in the third phase:

Karnataka:  14 of the southern state’s 28 seats

Gujarat: 25 of the western state’s 26 seats

Uttar Pradesh: 10 of the northern state’s 80 seats

Madhya Pradesh: nine of the central state’s 29 seats

Assam: four of the northeastern state’s 14 seats

Goa: both of the coastal state’s seats

Chhattisgarh: seven of the central state’s 11 seats

Bihar: five of the eastern state’s 40 seats

Maharashtra: 11 of the western state’s 48 seats

West Bengal:  four of the eastern state’s 42 seats

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu: both of the union territory’s seats

INTERACTIVE_INDIA_ELECTION_PHASE_3_MAY6_2024

What are some of the key constituencies?

Gandhinagar (Gujarat): Since 1989, the BJP has been a dominant player in the Gandhinagar constituency, which has been represented by party stalwarts such Lal Krishna Advani and former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

Advani, who took centre stage in national politics in the late 1980s for leading a divisive nationwide campaign to build a Hindu temple on the site of a mosque in Ayodhya, had won the seat six times before making way for Shah in 2019. Shah won by a margin of more than half a million votes. Modi inaugurated the Ayodhya temple in January.

Like his mentor Modi, Shah was a member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a Hindu nationalist organisation that has influenced the BJP’s ideology and policies. Shah rose through the ranks to become BJP president, a post he quit after becoming the interior minister in 2019.

The 59-year-old is known for his Machiavellian style of politics among both supporters and opponents. Critics have accused him of orchestrating horse-trading to destabilise opposition-led governments. In 2010, he was jailed and barred from visiting his home state over alleged extrajudicial killings while he was state interior minister under then-Chief Minister Modi. He was subsequently cleared of the charges. Shah has consistently denied all charges against him, and has accused the opposition Congress Party – then in power federally – of targeting him in 2010 out of political vindictiveness.

Guna (Madhya Pradesh): Scindia is contesting from Guna. He represented Guna in parliament as a Congress Party member from 2002 to 2019. He lost the 2019 election as a Modi wave swept the country.

His father, Madhavrao Scindia (also a Congress stalwart), and grandmother Vijaya Raje Scindia represented the Guna and Gwalior seats – considered a Gwalior royal family pocket borough.

Jyotiraditya Scindia, who was considered close to the Gandhi family dynasty, which dominates the Congress Party, joined the BJP in 2020 in a shock move. He also served as a minister under Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (2004-2019).

Vidisha (Madhya Pradesh): Former Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan is contesting from Vidisha after two decades. He had won the seat four times and served as a federal minister before being anointed chief minister of this Hindi heartland state. He led the BJP to victory in state legislative elections in late 2023 but was asked by the party to hand the baton to a younger leader.

Vajpayee (1991) and former Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj (2009 and 2014) have also represented Vidisha, which has been a BJP bastion since 1984.

Dhubri (Assam): Ajmal is seeking a fourth term as a member of parliament from Dhubri, which borders Bangladesh. Muslims form more than two-thirds of the population of the constituency.

Ajmal founded his own party, the Assam United Democratic Front (AUDF), in 2005 to fight for the rights of Muslims, who represent a third of the state’s population. Muslims have been called “foreigners” and “illegal” and face discrimination and harassment after xenophobic politics took root in the 1980s after the influx of Bangladeshi refugees in the 1970s.

Ajmal is among “the 500 most influential Muslims” of the world, according to a list compiled by the Jordan-based Royal Islamic Studies Centre. The Ajmal perfume brand, started by Ajmal’s father in the 1960s in Mumbai, has grown into a major perfume brand in the Middle East.

Dharwad, Shimoga, Haveri (Karnataka): These three constituencies in Karnataka, home to India’s $245bn IT industry, have been a BJP stronghold for the past two decades. Coal Minister Pralhad Joshi is seeking a fourth term from Dharwad, while former Chief Minister Basavaraj Bommai is in the fray in Haveri.

Shimoga has been a bastion of the Yediyurappa political family with both former Chief Minister Bookanakere Siddalingappa Yediyurappa and his son Bookanakere Yeddyurappa Raghavendra representing it. But the BJP’s decision to field Raghavendra again has not gone down well with former Chief Minister KS Eshwarappa, who has decided to contest as an independent.

Eshwarappa, once a top BJP leader, has been expelled from the party for his defiance.

Adding glamour to the political slugfest in Shimoga is the entry of Kannada film superstar Shiva Rajkumar’s wife, Geetha Shivrajkumar, as a Congress candidate.

When does the voting start and end?

Voting will start at 7am (01:30 GMT) and end at 6pm (12:30 GMT). Voters already in the queue by the time polls close will get to vote even if that means keeping polling stations open longer.

Results are to be released on June 4.

Which parties rule the states that vote in Phase 3?

  • The BJP governs Assam, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  • The BJP governs Maharashtra and Bihar in alliances.
  • Congress governs Karnataka.
  • The president appoints an administrator for Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.
  • West Bengal is governed by the All India Trinamool Congress Party, a member of the INDIA alliance.

Who won these Lok Sabha seats in 2019?

  • In the last Lok Sabha elections, Congress along with parties now affiliated with the INDIA alliance and those affiliated then with the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance won 11 of the 93 seats to be decided on May 7.
  • The BJP and parties affiliated with the NDA won 80 of the seats in 2019. The BJP also won Surat, where this year, the BJP’s Mukesh Dalal ran unopposed and has already been declared the winner.
  • One independent candidate won a seat in Assam in the 2019 elections.
  • Independent candidate Mohanbhai Sanjibhai Delkar was elected in the union territory constituency of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Delkar died on February 22, 2021. Kalaben Delker of the NDA-aligned Shiv Sena was elected in a by-election in 2021.

How much of India has voted so far?

The first and second phases of the Lok Sabha elections have already decided the fate of 190 MPs. In the first two phases, voting concluded for all seats in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep and Puducherry.

Voting has been concluded for most of Assam’s and half of Karnataka’s seats as of phase two.

Voting in Madhya Pradesh’s Betul seat has been moved from phase two to three after the death of candidate Ashok Bhalavi from the Bahujan Samaj Party.

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Why Is ‘Baby Reindeer’ Such a Hit? It’s All in the Ending.

The Netflix stalker series combines the appeal of a twisty thriller with a deep sense of empathy. The conclusion illustrates why it’s become one of the most-discussed shows of the year.

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By Noel Murray

This article includes spoilers for all of “Baby Reindeer.”

The mini-series “Baby Reindeer” arrived on Netflix on April 11 without much advance hype, but it quickly became one of the most talked-about TV shows of 2024.

It’s not hard to understand why. Based on the Scottish comedian Richard Gadd’s award-winning 2019 one-man stage show, “Baby Reindeer” baits its hook in the first episode, which introduces Martha (Jessica Gunning), an emotionally fragile middle-aged woman who appreciates the kindness shown to her by Donny (Gadd), a struggling stand-up comic who offers her a free drink in the pub where he works.

By the end of that first episode, Martha’s neediness has begun to shade into creepiness. And by the time Donny discovers that his new friend has a history of stalking, she’s already begun what will eventually become a torrent of abuse, as she floods his email and social media with poorly spelled messages that insult his character and sometimes threaten sexual violence.

What makes “Baby Reindeer” so effective is that as Martha pushes further and further into Donny’s personal life — attending his comedy shows, befriending his landlady, calling his parents — the audience shares his mounting feelings of powerlessness and frustration, cut with flashes of pity for the woman who is ruining his life. The show has the “slow-motion train wreck” appeal of a twisty true-crime documentary, but balanced with empathy for two profoundly broken people.

A story as dark and uneasy as this one needs a proper ending, though. “Baby Reindeer” has one that is satisfying in its particulars, if haunting in its implications.

Gadd (who wrote every episode) plants the seeds for the finale in the penultimate episode, the sixth, which ends with Donny having a career-altering meltdown while competing in a stand-up comedy contest. Donny’s comic style is highly conceptual, involving corny props and awkward jokes, designed to leave his audience wondering whether or not they’re meant to laugh. He’s like a Scottish (and much less effective) version of Steve Martin in his “Wild and Crazy Guy” days. (Or, as Donny puts it: “I’m a comedian when they laugh, a performance artist when they don’t.”)

When the crowd can’t get on his wavelength at the competition, Donny ditches his props and just talks, sharing with a stunned audience the story that we have been watching for the previous five episodes. He tells them about how when he was a young and inexperienced comedian, he took an unpaid gig working for Darrien O’Connor (Tom Goodman-Hill), a well-respected TV writer who repeatedly drugged and sexually assaulted him. He tells them about his transgender girlfriend, Teri (Nava Mau), whom he’s too embarrassed to kiss in public.

And, of course, he tells them about Martha, the angel and the devil on his shoulders: sometimes telling him how sweet, funny and handsome he is, and sometimes calling him a weak-willed, talentless degenerate.

As the show’s seventh and final episode opens, a video of Donny’s train-wreck performance has landed on YouTube (under the title “Comedian Has Epic Breakdown”), bringing him viral fame and new opportunities. The pressure of that higher profile — coupled with Martha’s ceaseless string of threatening voice mail messages — prompts Donny to confide in his unexpectedly sympathetic parents about being raped. All of these confessions feel liberating.

Not too long after, one of Martha’s threats is dire enough to get her arrested — and eventually jailed. Gadd brings the conflict between Donny and Martha to a logical conclusion, with Martha finally acknowledging the harm she’s done by pleading guilty.

So Donny lives happily … but not for ever after. More like for a day or two.

The unsettling ambiguities of the “Baby Reindeer” epilogue — the real ending, which comes after Martha is safely locked away — are a big part of what has made the show a word-of-mouth hit.

First, Donny finds himself going back over Martha’s old messages, and turning every one of their past interactions into pieces of a puzzle that he then pins up on his wall — like a detective trying to crack a complicated case. His inquiry even leads him back to the doorstep of the man who molested him, where Donny falls into an old pattern of deference and eagerness to please.

Then, in the series’s knockout closing scene, a bartender gives a teary-eyed Donny a free drink, echoing what Donny once did for Martha. What makes Donny so upset? Take your pick: He’s still processing what Martha and Darrien have done to him. He’s furious with himself for not standing up to his abuser. He attained the fame he always craved and found that it didn’t solve his problems.

The final trigger comes when, as he listens to one of Martha’s old messages, he hears her explain that she always calls him “reindeer” because he reminds her of the stuffed toy that comforted her during a rough childhood. For a moment, this former terrifying nuisance goes back to being a person worthy of understanding and even grace. Or maybe, again, it’s actually empathy: Donny ending the story in the same state in which he first encountered Martha makes manifest the bond between them.

Part of the global popularity of “Baby Reindeer” is no doubt a result of the web sleuth dimension — the online rush to identify the real figures behind Martha and Darrien. Gadd has discouraged such speculation , and innocent people have been accused.

But much of the show’s distinctive appeal comes from how, at a time when trauma narratives almost have become cliché in high-end TV drama, “Baby Reindeer” presents a more nuanced version of one. It authentically depicts trauma and mental illness as confusing, unpredictable and deeply personal, all of which is underscored by the emotional ambivalence of its conclusion.

“Baby Reindeer” relies a lot on its subjective point of view. Donny’s voice-over narration dominates every episode, recounting in vivid detail his disgust with himself. The series’s two directors, Weronika Tofilska and Josephine Bornebusch, often keep the camera trained on Donny’s face, capturing his feelings of disorientation as even his best moments are disrupted by Martha’s constant intrusions. Viewers are drawn deep into Donny’s neuroses, which include, he and we begin to understand, an addiction to being the object of one woman’s obsession.

But while this show holds close to Donny’s perspective, in a way it also sees the world through Martha’s eyes — or at least to the extent that Donny identifies with her. She’s out of his life by the end of the finale, but he still has to live with that part of himself that feels exactly how she feels.

Throughout “Baby Reindeer,” Donny struggles to explain why he’s not more proactive when it comes to Martha. Why doesn’t he warn his friends about her? Why does he take so long to get the police involved? Why doesn’t he freeze her out the first time she turns weird?

The answer is that, on some level, he gets it. He too is lost, lonely and awkward much of the time. That’s why there is no real triumph in besting Martha. For Donny, it’s like defeating himself — something he already does nearly every day.

Explore More in TV and Movies

Not sure what to watch next we can help..

The Netflix stalker series “ Baby Reindeer ” combines the appeal of a twisty thriller with a deep sense of empathy. The ending illustrates why it’s become such a hit .

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The writer-director Alex Garland has made it clear that “Civil War” should be a warning. Instead, the ugliness of war comes across as comforting thrills .

Studios obsessively focused on PG-13 franchises and animation in recent years, but movies like “Challengers” and “Saltburn” show that Hollywood is embracing sex again .

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AP®︎/College Biology

Course: ap®︎/college biology   >   unit 3.

  • Photosynthesis
  • Intro to photosynthesis
  • Breaking down photosynthesis stages
  • Conceptual overview of light dependent reactions

The light-dependent reactions

  • The Calvin cycle
  • Photosynthesis evolution
  • Photosynthesis review

Introduction

  • Plants carry out a form of photosynthesis called oxygenic photosynthesis . In oxygenic photosynthesis, water molecules are split to provide a source of electrons for the electron transport chain, and oxygen gas is released as a byproduct. Plants organize their photosynthetic pigments into two separate complexes called photosystems (photosystems I and II), and they use chlorophylls as their reaction center pigments.
  • Purple sulfur bacteria, in contrast, carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis , meaning that water is not used as an electron source and oxygen gas is not produced. Instead, these bacteria use hydrogen sulfide ( H 2 S ‍   ) as an electron source and produce elemental sulfur as a byproduct. In addition, purple sulfur bacteria have only one photosystem, and they use chlorophyll-like molecules called bacteriochlorophylls as reaction center pigments 1 , 2 , 3 ‍   .

Overview of the light-dependent reactions

  • Light absorption in PSII. When light is absorbed by one of the many pigments in photosystem II, energy is passed inward from pigment to pigment until it reaches the reaction center. There, energy is transferred to P680, boosting an electron to a high energy level. The high-energy electron is passed to an acceptor molecule and replaced with an electron from water. This splitting of water releases the O 2 ‍   we breathe.
  • ATP synthesis. The high-energy electron travels down an electron transport chain, losing energy as it goes. Some of the released energy drives pumping of H + ‍   ions from the stroma into the thylakoid interior, building a gradient. ( H + ‍   ions from the splitting of water also add to the gradient.) As H + ‍   ions flow down their gradient and into the stroma, they pass through ATP synthase, driving ATP production in a process known as chemiosmosis .
  • Light absorption in PSI. The electron arrives at photosystem I and joins the P700 special pair of chlorophylls in the reaction center. When light energy is absorbed by pigments and passed inward to the reaction center, the electron in P700 is boosted to a very high energy level and transferred to an acceptor molecule. The special pair's missing electron is replaced by a new electron from PSII (arriving via the electron transport chain).
  • NADPH formation. The high-energy electron travels down a short second leg of the electron transport chain. At the end of the chain, the electron is passed to NADP + ‍   (along with a second electron from the same pathway) to make NADPH.

What is a photosystem?

Photosystem i vs. photosystem ii.

  • Special pairs. The chlorophyll a special pairs of the two photosystems absorb different wavelengths of light. The PSII special pair absorbs best at 680 nm, while the PSI special absorbs best at 700 nm. Because of this, the special pairs are called P680 and P700 , respectively.
  • Primary acceptor . The special pair of each photosystem passes electrons to a different primary acceptor. The primary electron acceptor of PSII is pheophytin, an organic molecule that resembles chlorophyll, while the primary electron acceptor of PSI is a chlorophyll called A 0 ‍   7 , 8 ‍   .
  • Source of electrons . Once an electron is lost, each photosystem is replenished by electrons from a different source. The PSII reaction center gets electrons from water, while the PSI reaction center is replenished by electrons that flow down an electron transport chain from PSII.

Photosystem II

Electron transport chains and photosystem i, some electrons flow cyclically, attribution:, works cited:.

  • Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S. L., Matsudaira, P., Baltimore, D., and Darnell, J. (2000). Molecular analysis of photosystems. In Molecular cell biology (4th ed., section 16.4). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21484/ .
  • Boundless. (2015, July 21). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. In Boundless microbiology . Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/microbial-evolution-phylogeny-and-diversity-8/nonproteobacteria-gram-negative-bacteria-105/anoxygenic-photosynthetic-bacteria-551-7338/ .
  • Purple sulfur bacteria. (2015, July 16). Retrieved October 24, 2015 from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purple_sulfur_bacteria .
  • Soda lake. (2015, September 26). Retrieved October 24, 2015 from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soda_lake .
  • Gutierrez, R. Bio41 Week 7 Biochemistry Lectures 11 and 12. Bio41. 2009.
  • Berg, J. M., Tymoczko, J. L., and Stryer, L. (2002). Accessory pigments funnel energy into reaction centers. In Biochemistry (5th ed., section 19.5). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22604/ .
  • Pheophytin. (2015, February 11). Retrieved October 28, 2015 from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pheophytin .
  • Photosystem I. (2016, June 25). Retrieved from Wikipedia on July 22, 2016: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photosystem_I .
  • Berg, J. M., Tymoczko, J. L., and Stryer, L. (2002). Two photosystems generate a proton gradient and NADPH in oxygenic photosynthesis. In Biochemistry (5th ed., section 19.3). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22538/#_A2681_ .
  • Joliot, P. and Johnson, G. N. (2011). Regulation of cyclic and linear electron flow in higher plants. PNAS, 108(32), 13317-13322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1110189108 .
  • Johnson, Giles N. (2011). Physiology of PSI cyclic electron transport in higher plants. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics , 1807 (8), 906-911. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2010.11.009 .
  • Berg, J. M., Tymoczko, J. L., and Stryer, L. (2002). A proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane drives ATP synthesis. In Biochemistry (5th ed., section 19.4). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22519/ .
  • Takahashi, S., Milward, S. E., Fan, D.-Y., Chow, W. S., and Badger, M. R. (2008). How does cyclic electron flow alleviate photoinhibition in Arabidopsis? Plant Physiology , 149 (3), 1560-1567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.108.134122 .

Additional references:

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Great Answer

IMAGES

  1. Two Stages of Photosynthesis

    what is the end result in photosynthesis

  2. What Are the Products of Photosynthesis?

    what is the end result in photosynthesis

  3. Diagram showing process photosynthesis in plant Vector Image

    what is the end result in photosynthesis

  4. Photosynthesis Diagram

    what is the end result in photosynthesis

  5. What is Photosynthesis: Light Reaction, Dark Reaction, and Significance

    what is the end result in photosynthesis

  6. Photosynthesis Explained

    what is the end result in photosynthesis

VIDEO

  1. PHOTOSYNTHESIS ONE SHOT

  2. What are the 4 end products of photosynthesis?

  3. Plant Physiology ।। Photosynthesis ।। Light reaction Vs Dark reaction ।। #santkripabiologyclasses

  4. Photosynthesis

  5. Photosynthesis

  6. GR 12 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis (Science Tutorial Video)

COMMENTS

  1. What Is the End Product of Photosynthesis?

    The Formula. The formula associated with the process of photosynthesis is. 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 = C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. This formula tells you is that six molecules of water plus six molecules of carbon dioxide will produce one molecule of glucose plus six molecules of oxygen. This entire process goes through two distinct stages before it is completed.

  2. Intro to photosynthesis (article)

    Photosynthesis is the process in which light energy is converted to chemical energy in the form of sugars. In a process driven by light energy, glucose molecules (or other sugars) are constructed from water and carbon dioxide, and oxygen is released as a byproduct. The glucose molecules provide organisms with two crucial resources: energy and ...

  3. Photosynthesis

    Photosynthesis Definition. Photosynthesis is the biochemical pathway which converts the energy of light into the bonds of glucose molecules. The process of photosynthesis occurs in two steps. In the first step, energy from light is stored in the bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH).

  4. Photosynthesis

    In chemical terms, photosynthesis is a light-energized oxidation-reduction process. (Oxidation refers to the removal of electrons from a molecule; reduction refers to the gain of electrons by a molecule.) In plant photosynthesis, the energy of light is used to drive the oxidation of water (H 2 O), producing oxygen gas (O 2 ), hydrogen ions (H ...

  5. Photosynthesis review (article)

    In photosynthesis, solar energy is harvested as chemical energy in a process that converts water and carbon dioxide to glucose. Oxygen is released as a byproduct. In cellular respiration, oxygen is used to break down glucose, releasing chemical energy and heat in the process. Carbon dioxide and water are products of this reaction.

  6. Photosynthesis in organisms (article)

    Photosynthesis is powered by energy from sunlight. This energy is used to rearrange atoms in carbon dioxide and water to make oxygen and sugars. Carbon dioxide and water are inputs of photosynthesis. These inputs come from the environment. Oxygen and sugars are outputs of photosynthesis. The oxygen is released into the environment.

  7. 5.1: Overview of Photosynthesis

    5.1: Overview of Photosynthesis. All living organisms on earth consist of one or more cells. Each cell runs on the chemical energy found mainly in carbohydrate molecules (food), and the majority of these molecules are produced by one process: photosynthesis. Through photosynthesis, certain organisms convert solar energy (sunlight) into chemical ...

  8. 8.1: Overview of Photosynthesis

    Main Structures and Summary of Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a multi-step process that requires sunlight, carbon dioxide (which is low in energy), and water as substrates (Figure 8.1.3 8.1. 3 ). After the process is complete, it releases oxygen and produces glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA3P), simple carbohydrate molecules (which are high in ...

  9. Photosynthesis

    Photosynthesis ( / ˌfoʊtəˈsɪnθəsɪs / FOH-tə-SINTH-ə-sis) [1] is a system of biological processes by which photosynthetic organisms, such as most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, convert light energy, typically from sunlight, into the chemical energy necessary to fuel their activities.

  10. What is photosynthesis?

    The end result is the formation of a single carbohydrate molecule (C6H12O6, or glucose) along with six molecules each of oxygen and water. ... Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, a type of ...

  11. 5.1 Overview of Photosynthesis

    The energy that is harnessed from photosynthesis enters the ecosystems of our planet continuously and is transferred from one organism to another. Therefore, directly or indirectly, the process of photosynthesis provides most of the energy required by living things on earth. Photosynthesis also results in the release of oxygen into the atmosphere.

  12. Photosynthesis

    Photosynthesis is really important for the plant because it provides the plant with food: some of the glucose is used immediately, to give the plant energy in the process of respiration. some of ...

  13. What Are the Products of Photosynthesis?

    Photosynthesis is a set of chemical reactions that plants and other organisms use to make chemical energy in the form of sugar. Like any chemical reaction, photosynthesis has reactants and products. Overall, the reactants of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water, while the products of photosynthesis are oxygen and glucose (a sugar).

  14. 8.2: The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis

    The overall function of light-dependent reactions is to convert solar energy into chemical energy in the form of NADPH and ATP. This chemical energy supports the light-independent reactions and fuels the assembly of sugar molecules. The light-dependent reactions are depicted in Figure 8.2.7 8.2. 7.

  15. Photosynthesis

    Photosynthesis (Google doc) Most life on Earth depends on photosynthesis .The process is carried out by plants, algae, and some types of bacteria, which capture energy from sunlight to produce oxygen (O 2) and chemical energy stored in glucose (a sugar). Herbivores then obtain this energy by eating plants, and carnivores obtain it by eating ...

  16. Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products

    During photosynthesis, light energy converts carbon dioxide and water (the reactants) into glucose and oxygen (the products). 1. Photosynthesis is the process plants use to make their own food. Like all living things, plants need energy to carry out the processes that keep them alive. They get this energy from food.

  17. What Are the Products of Photosynthesis?

    Photosynthesis is the name given to the set of chemical reactions performed by plants to convert energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of sugar. Specifically, plants use energy from sunlight to react carbon dioxide and water to produce sugar ( glucose) and oxygen. Many reactions occur, but the overall chemical reaction for ...

  18. Photosynthesis

    Light Intensity: Increased light intensity results in a higher rate of photosynthesis. On the other hand, low light intensity results in a lower rate of photosynthesis. ... Check your score and answers at the end of the quiz. Start Quiz. Congrats! Visit BYJU'S for all Biology related queries and study materials. Your result is as below.

  19. What Is Produced As a Result of Photosynthesis?

    The Importance of Glucose. Glucose is a sugar that many plants, animals and fungi use for energy. In plants, glucose is produced as a result of photosynthesis. Plants need the energy glucose provides in order to grow and reproduce. Glucose is also required for the process of cellular respiration, in which plants convert carbon dioxide from the ...

  20. Photosynthesis in ecosystems (article)

    Photosynthesis is a vital process that converts light energy into chemical energy and produces organic molecules and oxygen for living things. In this article, you will learn how photosynthesis works in different ecosystems, how it affects the carbon cycle, and how it interacts with other biogeochemical cycles. Khan Academy is a free online platform that offers high-quality education for ...

  21. What's the End Result of Photosynthesis?

    Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy into chemical energy by living organisms. The raw materials are carbon dioxide and water; the energy source is sunlight; and the end-products are oxygen and (energy rich) carbohydrates, for example sucrose and starch. This process is arguably the most important biochemical pathway, (1) since ...

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  27. The Calvin cycle (article)

    In the Calvin cycle, carbon atoms from CO 2 are fixed (incorporated into organic molecules) and used to build three-carbon sugars. This process is fueled by, and dependent on, ATP and NADPH from the light reactions. Unlike the light reactions, which take place in the thylakoid membrane, the reactions of the Calvin cycle take place in the stroma ...

  28. Celsius Holdings, Inc. 2024 Q1

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  29. Why Is 'Baby Reindeer' Such a Hit? It's All in the Ending

    The Netflix stalker series combines the appeal of a twisty thriller with a deep sense of empathy. The conclusion illustrates why it's become one of the most-discussed shows of the year.

  30. Light-dependent reactions (photosynthesis reaction) (article)

    The light-dependent reactions use light energy to make two molecules needed for the next stage of photosynthesis: the energy storage molecule ATP and the reduced electron carrier NADPH. In plants, the light reactions take place in the thylakoid membranes of organelles called chloroplasts.