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How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

The conclusion of a research paper is a crucial section that plays a significant role in the overall impact and effectiveness of your research paper. However, this is also the section that typically receives less attention compared to the introduction and the body of the paper. The conclusion serves to provide a concise summary of the key findings, their significance, their implications, and a sense of closure to the study. Discussing how can the findings be applied in real-world scenarios or inform policy, practice, or decision-making is especially valuable to practitioners and policymakers. The research paper conclusion also provides researchers with clear insights and valuable information for their own work, which they can then build on and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field.

The research paper conclusion should explain the significance of your findings within the broader context of your field. It restates how your results contribute to the existing body of knowledge and whether they confirm or challenge existing theories or hypotheses. Also, by identifying unanswered questions or areas requiring further investigation, your awareness of the broader research landscape can be demonstrated.

Remember to tailor the research paper conclusion to the specific needs and interests of your intended audience, which may include researchers, practitioners, policymakers, or a combination of these.

Table of Contents

What is a conclusion in a research paper, summarizing conclusion, editorial conclusion, externalizing conclusion, importance of a good research paper conclusion, how to write a conclusion for your research paper, research paper conclusion examples.

  • How to write a research paper conclusion with Paperpal? 

Frequently Asked Questions

A conclusion in a research paper is the final section where you summarize and wrap up your research, presenting the key findings and insights derived from your study. The research paper conclusion is not the place to introduce new information or data that was not discussed in the main body of the paper. When working on how to conclude a research paper, remember to stick to summarizing and interpreting existing content. The research paper conclusion serves the following purposes: 1

  • Warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem.
  • Recommend specific course(s) of action.
  • Restate key ideas to drive home the ultimate point of your research paper.
  • Provide a “take-home” message that you want the readers to remember about your study.

how to write conclusion on research project

Types of conclusions for research papers

In research papers, the conclusion provides closure to the reader. The type of research paper conclusion you choose depends on the nature of your study, your goals, and your target audience. I provide you with three common types of conclusions:

A summarizing conclusion is the most common type of conclusion in research papers. It involves summarizing the main points, reiterating the research question, and restating the significance of the findings. This common type of research paper conclusion is used across different disciplines.

An editorial conclusion is less common but can be used in research papers that are focused on proposing or advocating for a particular viewpoint or policy. It involves presenting a strong editorial or opinion based on the research findings and offering recommendations or calls to action.

An externalizing conclusion is a type of conclusion that extends the research beyond the scope of the paper by suggesting potential future research directions or discussing the broader implications of the findings. This type of conclusion is often used in more theoretical or exploratory research papers.

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The conclusion in a research paper serves several important purposes:

  • Offers Implications and Recommendations : Your research paper conclusion is an excellent place to discuss the broader implications of your research and suggest potential areas for further study. It’s also an opportunity to offer practical recommendations based on your findings.
  • Provides Closure : A good research paper conclusion provides a sense of closure to your paper. It should leave the reader with a feeling that they have reached the end of a well-structured and thought-provoking research project.
  • Leaves a Lasting Impression : Writing a well-crafted research paper conclusion leaves a lasting impression on your readers. It’s your final opportunity to leave them with a new idea, a call to action, or a memorable quote.

how to write conclusion on research project

Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper is essential to leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here’s a step-by-step process to help you create and know what to put in the conclusion of a research paper: 2

  • Research Statement : Begin your research paper conclusion by restating your research statement. This reminds the reader of the main point you’ve been trying to prove throughout your paper. Keep it concise and clear.
  • Key Points : Summarize the main arguments and key points you’ve made in your paper. Avoid introducing new information in the research paper conclusion. Instead, provide a concise overview of what you’ve discussed in the body of your paper.
  • Address the Research Questions : If your research paper is based on specific research questions or hypotheses, briefly address whether you’ve answered them or achieved your research goals. Discuss the significance of your findings in this context.
  • Significance : Highlight the importance of your research and its relevance in the broader context. Explain why your findings matter and how they contribute to the existing knowledge in your field.
  • Implications : Explore the practical or theoretical implications of your research. How might your findings impact future research, policy, or real-world applications? Consider the “so what?” question.
  • Future Research : Offer suggestions for future research in your area. What questions or aspects remain unanswered or warrant further investigation? This shows that your work opens the door for future exploration.
  • Closing Thought : Conclude your research paper conclusion with a thought-provoking or memorable statement. This can leave a lasting impression on your readers and wrap up your paper effectively. Avoid introducing new information or arguments here.
  • Proofread and Revise : Carefully proofread your conclusion for grammar, spelling, and clarity. Ensure that your ideas flow smoothly and that your conclusion is coherent and well-structured.

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Remember that a well-crafted research paper conclusion is a reflection of the strength of your research and your ability to communicate its significance effectively. It should leave a lasting impression on your readers and tie together all the threads of your paper. Now you know how to start the conclusion of a research paper and what elements to include to make it impactful, let’s look at a research paper conclusion sample.

Summarizing ConclusionImpact of social media on adolescents’ mental healthIn conclusion, our study has shown that increased usage of social media is significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression among adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the complex relationship between social media and mental health to develop effective interventions and support systems for this vulnerable population.
Editorial ConclusionEnvironmental impact of plastic wasteIn light of our research findings, it is clear that we are facing a plastic pollution crisis. To mitigate this issue, we strongly recommend a comprehensive ban on single-use plastics, increased recycling initiatives, and public awareness campaigns to change consumer behavior. The responsibility falls on governments, businesses, and individuals to take immediate actions to protect our planet and future generations.  
Externalizing ConclusionExploring applications of AI in healthcareWhile our study has provided insights into the current applications of AI in healthcare, the field is rapidly evolving. Future research should delve deeper into the ethical, legal, and social implications of AI in healthcare, as well as the long-term outcomes of AI-driven diagnostics and treatments. Furthermore, interdisciplinary collaboration between computer scientists, medical professionals, and policymakers is essential to harness the full potential of AI while addressing its challenges.

how to write conclusion on research project

How to write a research paper conclusion with Paperpal?

A research paper conclusion is not just a summary of your study, but a synthesis of the key findings that ties the research together and places it in a broader context. A research paper conclusion should be concise, typically around one paragraph in length. However, some complex topics may require a longer conclusion to ensure the reader is left with a clear understanding of the study’s significance. Paperpal, an AI writing assistant trusted by over 800,000 academics globally, can help you write a well-structured conclusion for your research paper. 

  • Sign Up or Log In: Create a new Paperpal account or login with your details.  
  • Navigate to Features : Once logged in, head over to the features’ side navigation pane. Click on Templates and you’ll find a suite of generative AI features to help you write better, faster.  
  • Generate an outline: Under Templates, select ‘Outlines’. Choose ‘Research article’ as your document type.  
  • Select your section: Since you’re focusing on the conclusion, select this section when prompted.  
  • Choose your field of study: Identifying your field of study allows Paperpal to provide more targeted suggestions, ensuring the relevance of your conclusion to your specific area of research. 
  • Provide a brief description of your study: Enter details about your research topic and findings. This information helps Paperpal generate a tailored outline that aligns with your paper’s content. 
  • Generate the conclusion outline: After entering all necessary details, click on ‘generate’. Paperpal will then create a structured outline for your conclusion, to help you start writing and build upon the outline.  
  • Write your conclusion: Use the generated outline to build your conclusion. The outline serves as a guide, ensuring you cover all critical aspects of a strong conclusion, from summarizing key findings to highlighting the research’s implications. 
  • Refine and enhance: Paperpal’s ‘Make Academic’ feature can be particularly useful in the final stages. Select any paragraph of your conclusion and use this feature to elevate the academic tone, ensuring your writing is aligned to the academic journal standards. 

By following these steps, Paperpal not only simplifies the process of writing a research paper conclusion but also ensures it is impactful, concise, and aligned with academic standards. Sign up with Paperpal today and write your research paper conclusion 2x faster .  

The research paper conclusion is a crucial part of your paper as it provides the final opportunity to leave a strong impression on your readers. In the research paper conclusion, summarize the main points of your research paper by restating your research statement, highlighting the most important findings, addressing the research questions or objectives, explaining the broader context of the study, discussing the significance of your findings, providing recommendations if applicable, and emphasizing the takeaway message. The main purpose of the conclusion is to remind the reader of the main point or argument of your paper and to provide a clear and concise summary of the key findings and their implications. All these elements should feature on your list of what to put in the conclusion of a research paper to create a strong final statement for your work.

A strong conclusion is a critical component of a research paper, as it provides an opportunity to wrap up your arguments, reiterate your main points, and leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here are the key elements of a strong research paper conclusion: 1. Conciseness : A research paper conclusion should be concise and to the point. It should not introduce new information or ideas that were not discussed in the body of the paper. 2. Summarization : The research paper conclusion should be comprehensive enough to give the reader a clear understanding of the research’s main contributions. 3 . Relevance : Ensure that the information included in the research paper conclusion is directly relevant to the research paper’s main topic and objectives; avoid unnecessary details. 4 . Connection to the Introduction : A well-structured research paper conclusion often revisits the key points made in the introduction and shows how the research has addressed the initial questions or objectives. 5. Emphasis : Highlight the significance and implications of your research. Why is your study important? What are the broader implications or applications of your findings? 6 . Call to Action : Include a call to action or a recommendation for future research or action based on your findings.

The length of a research paper conclusion can vary depending on several factors, including the overall length of the paper, the complexity of the research, and the specific journal requirements. While there is no strict rule for the length of a conclusion, but it’s generally advisable to keep it relatively short. A typical research paper conclusion might be around 5-10% of the paper’s total length. For example, if your paper is 10 pages long, the conclusion might be roughly half a page to one page in length.

In general, you do not need to include citations in the research paper conclusion. Citations are typically reserved for the body of the paper to support your arguments and provide evidence for your claims. However, there may be some exceptions to this rule: 1. If you are drawing a direct quote or paraphrasing a specific source in your research paper conclusion, you should include a citation to give proper credit to the original author. 2. If your conclusion refers to or discusses specific research, data, or sources that are crucial to the overall argument, citations can be included to reinforce your conclusion’s validity.

The conclusion of a research paper serves several important purposes: 1. Summarize the Key Points 2. Reinforce the Main Argument 3. Provide Closure 4. Offer Insights or Implications 5. Engage the Reader. 6. Reflect on Limitations

Remember that the primary purpose of the research paper conclusion is to leave a lasting impression on the reader, reinforcing the key points and providing closure to your research. It’s often the last part of the paper that the reader will see, so it should be strong and well-crafted.

  • Makar, G., Foltz, C., Lendner, M., & Vaccaro, A. R. (2018). How to write effective discussion and conclusion sections. Clinical spine surgery, 31(8), 345-346.
  • Bunton, D. (2005). The structure of PhD conclusion chapters.  Journal of English for academic purposes ,  4 (3), 207-224.

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Home » Research Paper Conclusion – Writing Guide and Examples

Research Paper Conclusion – Writing Guide and Examples

Table of Contents

Research Paper Conclusion

Research Paper Conclusion


A research paper conclusion is the final section of a research paper that summarizes the key findings, significance, and implications of the research. It is the writer’s opportunity to synthesize the information presented in the paper, draw conclusions, and make recommendations for future research or actions.

The conclusion should provide a clear and concise summary of the research paper, reiterating the research question or problem, the main results, and the significance of the findings. It should also discuss the limitations of the study and suggest areas for further research.

Parts of Research Paper Conclusion

The parts of a research paper conclusion typically include:

Restatement of the Thesis

The conclusion should begin by restating the thesis statement from the introduction in a different way. This helps to remind the reader of the main argument or purpose of the research.

Summary of Key Findings

The conclusion should summarize the main findings of the research, highlighting the most important results and conclusions. This section should be brief and to the point.

Implications and Significance

In this section, the researcher should explain the implications and significance of the research findings. This may include discussing the potential impact on the field or industry, highlighting new insights or knowledge gained, or pointing out areas for future research.

Limitations and Recommendations

It is important to acknowledge any limitations or weaknesses of the research and to make recommendations for how these could be addressed in future studies. This shows that the researcher is aware of the potential limitations of their work and is committed to improving the quality of research in their field.

Concluding Statement

The conclusion should end with a strong concluding statement that leaves a lasting impression on the reader. This could be a call to action, a recommendation for further research, or a final thought on the topic.

How to Write Research Paper Conclusion

Here are some steps you can follow to write an effective research paper conclusion:

  • Restate the research problem or question: Begin by restating the research problem or question that you aimed to answer in your research. This will remind the reader of the purpose of your study.
  • Summarize the main points: Summarize the key findings and results of your research. This can be done by highlighting the most important aspects of your research and the evidence that supports them.
  • Discuss the implications: Discuss the implications of your findings for the research area and any potential applications of your research. You should also mention any limitations of your research that may affect the interpretation of your findings.
  • Provide a conclusion : Provide a concise conclusion that summarizes the main points of your paper and emphasizes the significance of your research. This should be a strong and clear statement that leaves a lasting impression on the reader.
  • Offer suggestions for future research: Lastly, offer suggestions for future research that could build on your findings and contribute to further advancements in the field.

Remember that the conclusion should be brief and to the point, while still effectively summarizing the key findings and implications of your research.

Example of Research Paper Conclusion

Here’s an example of a research paper conclusion:

Conclusion :

In conclusion, our study aimed to investigate the relationship between social media use and mental health among college students. Our findings suggest that there is a significant association between social media use and increased levels of anxiety and depression among college students. This highlights the need for increased awareness and education about the potential negative effects of social media use on mental health, particularly among college students.

Despite the limitations of our study, such as the small sample size and self-reported data, our findings have important implications for future research and practice. Future studies should aim to replicate our findings in larger, more diverse samples, and investigate the potential mechanisms underlying the association between social media use and mental health. In addition, interventions should be developed to promote healthy social media use among college students, such as mindfulness-based approaches and social media detox programs.

Overall, our study contributes to the growing body of research on the impact of social media on mental health, and highlights the importance of addressing this issue in the context of higher education. By raising awareness and promoting healthy social media use among college students, we can help to reduce the negative impact of social media on mental health and improve the well-being of young adults.

Purpose of Research Paper Conclusion

The purpose of a research paper conclusion is to provide a summary and synthesis of the key findings, significance, and implications of the research presented in the paper. The conclusion serves as the final opportunity for the writer to convey their message and leave a lasting impression on the reader.

The conclusion should restate the research problem or question, summarize the main results of the research, and explain their significance. It should also acknowledge the limitations of the study and suggest areas for future research or action.

Overall, the purpose of the conclusion is to provide a sense of closure to the research paper and to emphasize the importance of the research and its potential impact. It should leave the reader with a clear understanding of the main findings and why they matter. The conclusion serves as the writer’s opportunity to showcase their contribution to the field and to inspire further research and action.

When to Write Research Paper Conclusion

The conclusion of a research paper should be written after the body of the paper has been completed. It should not be written until the writer has thoroughly analyzed and interpreted their findings and has written a complete and cohesive discussion of the research.

Before writing the conclusion, the writer should review their research paper and consider the key points that they want to convey to the reader. They should also review the research question, hypotheses, and methodology to ensure that they have addressed all of the necessary components of the research.

Once the writer has a clear understanding of the main findings and their significance, they can begin writing the conclusion. The conclusion should be written in a clear and concise manner, and should reiterate the main points of the research while also providing insights and recommendations for future research or action.

Characteristics of Research Paper Conclusion

The characteristics of a research paper conclusion include:

  • Clear and concise: The conclusion should be written in a clear and concise manner, summarizing the key findings and their significance.
  • Comprehensive: The conclusion should address all of the main points of the research paper, including the research question or problem, the methodology, the main results, and their implications.
  • Future-oriented : The conclusion should provide insights and recommendations for future research or action, based on the findings of the research.
  • Impressive : The conclusion should leave a lasting impression on the reader, emphasizing the importance of the research and its potential impact.
  • Objective : The conclusion should be based on the evidence presented in the research paper, and should avoid personal biases or opinions.
  • Unique : The conclusion should be unique to the research paper and should not simply repeat information from the introduction or body of the paper.

Advantages of Research Paper Conclusion

The advantages of a research paper conclusion include:

  • Summarizing the key findings : The conclusion provides a summary of the main findings of the research, making it easier for the reader to understand the key points of the study.
  • Emphasizing the significance of the research: The conclusion emphasizes the importance of the research and its potential impact, making it more likely that readers will take the research seriously and consider its implications.
  • Providing recommendations for future research or action : The conclusion suggests practical recommendations for future research or action, based on the findings of the study.
  • Providing closure to the research paper : The conclusion provides a sense of closure to the research paper, tying together the different sections of the paper and leaving a lasting impression on the reader.
  • Demonstrating the writer’s contribution to the field : The conclusion provides the writer with an opportunity to showcase their contribution to the field and to inspire further research and action.

Limitations of Research Paper Conclusion

While the conclusion of a research paper has many advantages, it also has some limitations that should be considered, including:

  • I nability to address all aspects of the research: Due to the limited space available in the conclusion, it may not be possible to address all aspects of the research in detail.
  • Subjectivity : While the conclusion should be objective, it may be influenced by the writer’s personal biases or opinions.
  • Lack of new information: The conclusion should not introduce new information that has not been discussed in the body of the research paper.
  • Lack of generalizability: The conclusions drawn from the research may not be applicable to other contexts or populations, limiting the generalizability of the study.
  • Misinterpretation by the reader: The reader may misinterpret the conclusions drawn from the research, leading to a misunderstanding of the findings.

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  • How to Write Discussions and Conclusions

How to Write Discussions and Conclusions

The discussion section contains the results and outcomes of a study. An effective discussion informs readers what can be learned from your experiment and provides context for the results.

What makes an effective discussion?

When you’re ready to write your discussion, you’ve already introduced the purpose of your study and provided an in-depth description of the methodology. The discussion informs readers about the larger implications of your study based on the results. Highlighting these implications while not overstating the findings can be challenging, especially when you’re submitting to a journal that selects articles based on novelty or potential impact. Regardless of what journal you are submitting to, the discussion section always serves the same purpose: concluding what your study results actually mean.

A successful discussion section puts your findings in context. It should include:

  • the results of your research,
  • a discussion of related research, and
  • a comparison between your results and initial hypothesis.

Tip: Not all journals share the same naming conventions.

You can apply the advice in this article to the conclusion, results or discussion sections of your manuscript.

Our Early Career Researcher community tells us that the conclusion is often considered the most difficult aspect of a manuscript to write. To help, this guide provides questions to ask yourself, a basic structure to model your discussion off of and examples from published manuscripts. 

how to write conclusion on research project

Questions to ask yourself:

  • Was my hypothesis correct?
  • If my hypothesis is partially correct or entirely different, what can be learned from the results? 
  • How do the conclusions reshape or add onto the existing knowledge in the field? What does previous research say about the topic? 
  • Why are the results important or relevant to your audience? Do they add further evidence to a scientific consensus or disprove prior studies? 
  • How can future research build on these observations? What are the key experiments that must be done? 
  • What is the “take-home” message you want your reader to leave with?

How to structure a discussion

Trying to fit a complete discussion into a single paragraph can add unnecessary stress to the writing process. If possible, you’ll want to give yourself two or three paragraphs to give the reader a comprehensive understanding of your study as a whole. Here’s one way to structure an effective discussion:

how to write conclusion on research project

Writing Tips

While the above sections can help you brainstorm and structure your discussion, there are many common mistakes that writers revert to when having difficulties with their paper. Writing a discussion can be a delicate balance between summarizing your results, providing proper context for your research and avoiding introducing new information. Remember that your paper should be both confident and honest about the results! 

What to do

  • Read the journal’s guidelines on the discussion and conclusion sections. If possible, learn about the guidelines before writing the discussion to ensure you’re writing to meet their expectations. 
  • Begin with a clear statement of the principal findings. This will reinforce the main take-away for the reader and set up the rest of the discussion. 
  • Explain why the outcomes of your study are important to the reader. Discuss the implications of your findings realistically based on previous literature, highlighting both the strengths and limitations of the research. 
  • State whether the results prove or disprove your hypothesis. If your hypothesis was disproved, what might be the reasons? 
  • Introduce new or expanded ways to think about the research question. Indicate what next steps can be taken to further pursue any unresolved questions. 
  • If dealing with a contemporary or ongoing problem, such as climate change, discuss possible consequences if the problem is avoided. 
  • Be concise. Adding unnecessary detail can distract from the main findings. 

What not to do


  • Rewrite your abstract. Statements with “we investigated” or “we studied” generally do not belong in the discussion. 
  • Include new arguments or evidence not previously discussed. Necessary information and evidence should be introduced in the main body of the paper. 
  • Apologize. Even if your research contains significant limitations, don’t undermine your authority by including statements that doubt your methodology or execution. 
  • Shy away from speaking on limitations or negative results. Including limitations and negative results will give readers a complete understanding of the presented research. Potential limitations include sources of potential bias, threats to internal or external validity, barriers to implementing an intervention and other issues inherent to the study design. 
  • Overstate the importance of your findings. Making grand statements about how a study will fully resolve large questions can lead readers to doubt the success of the research. 

Snippets of Effective Discussions:

Consumer-based actions to reduce plastic pollution in rivers: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

Identifying reliable indicators of fitness in polar bears

  • How to Write a Great Title
  • How to Write an Abstract
  • How to Write Your Methods
  • How to Report Statistics
  • How to Edit Your Work

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How to write an excellent thesis conclusion [with examples]

Tips for writing thesis conclusion

Restate the thesis

Review or reiterate key points of your work, explain why your work is relevant, a take-away for the reader, more resources on writing thesis conclusions, frequently asked questions about writing an excellent thesis conclusion, related articles.

At this point in your writing, you have most likely finished your introduction and the body of your thesis, dissertation, or research paper . While this is a reason to celebrate, you should not underestimate the importance of your conclusion. The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable.

A good conclusion will review the key points of the thesis and explain to the reader why the information is relevant, applicable, or related to the world as a whole. Make sure to dedicate enough of your writing time to the conclusion and do not put it off until the very last minute.

This article provides an effective technique for writing a conclusion adapted from Erika Eby’s The College Student's Guide to Writing a Good Research Paper: 101 Easy Tips & Tricks to Make Your Work Stand Out .

While the thesis introduction starts out with broad statements about the topic, and then narrows it down to the thesis statement , a thesis conclusion does the same in the opposite order.

  • Restate the thesis.
  • Review or reiterate key points of your work.
  • Explain why your work is relevant.
  • Include a core take-away message for the reader.

Tip: Don’t just copy and paste your thesis into your conclusion. Restate it in different words.

The best way to start a conclusion is simply by restating the thesis statement. That does not mean just copying and pasting it from the introduction, but putting it into different words.

You will need to change the structure and wording of it to avoid sounding repetitive. Also, be firm in your conclusion just as you were in the introduction. Try to avoid sounding apologetic by using phrases like "This paper has tried to show..."

The conclusion should address all the same parts as the thesis while making it clear that the reader has reached the end. You are telling the reader that your research is finished and what your findings are.

I have argued throughout this work that the point of critical mass for biopolitical immunity occurred during the Romantic period because of that era's unique combination of post-revolutionary politics and innovations in smallpox prevention. In particular, I demonstrated that the French Revolution and the discovery of vaccination in the 1790s triggered a reconsideration of the relationship between bodies and the state.

Tip: Try to reiterate points from your introduction in your thesis conclusion.

The next step is to review the main points of the thesis as a whole. Look back at the body of of your project and make a note of the key ideas. You can reword these ideas the same way you reworded your thesis statement and then incorporate that into the conclusion.

You can also repeat striking quotations or statistics, but do not use more than two. As the conclusion represents your own closing thoughts on the topic , it should mainly consist of your own words.

In addition, conclusions can contain recommendations to the reader or relevant questions that further the thesis. You should ask yourself:

  • What you would ideally like to see your readers do in reaction to your paper?
  • Do you want them to take a certain action or investigate further?
  • Is there a bigger issue that your paper wants to draw attention to?

Also, try to reference your introduction in your conclusion. You have already taken a first step by restating your thesis. Now, check whether there are other key words, phrases or ideas that are mentioned in your introduction that fit into your conclusion. Connecting the introduction to the conclusion in this way will help readers feel satisfied.

I explored how Mary Wollstonecraft, in both her fiction and political writings, envisions an ideal medico-political state, and how other writers like William Wordsworth and Mary Shelley increasingly imagined the body politic literally, as an incorporated political collective made up of bodies whose immunity to political and medical ills was essential to a healthy state.

Tip: Make sure to explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research.

Although you can encourage readers to question their opinions and reflect on your topic, do not leave loose ends. You should provide a sense of resolution and make sure your conclusion wraps up your argument. Make sure you explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research and how your research intervenes within, or substantially revises, existing scholarly debates.

This project challenged conventional ideas about the relationship among Romanticism, medicine, and politics by reading the unfolding of Romantic literature and biopolitical immunity as mutual, co-productive processes. In doing so, this thesis revises the ways in which biopolitics has been theorized by insisting on the inherent connections between Romantic literature and the forms of biopower that characterize early modernity.

Tip: If you began your thesis with an anecdote or historical example, you may want to return to that in your conclusion.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as:

  • a call to action
  • a recommendation
  • a gesture towards future research
  • a brief explanation of how the problem or idea you covered remains relevant

Ultimately, you want readers to feel more informed, or ready to act, as they read your conclusion.

Yet, the Romantic period is only the beginning of modern thought on immunity and biopolitics. Victorian writers, doctors, and politicians upheld the Romantic idea that a "healthy state" was a literal condition that could be achieved by combining politics and medicine, but augmented that idea through legislation and widespread public health measures. While many nineteenth-century efforts to improve citizens' health were successful, the fight against disease ultimately changed course in the twentieth century as global immunological threats such as SARS occupied public consciousness. Indeed, as subsequent public health events make apparent, biopolitical immunity persists as a viable concept for thinking about the relationship between medicine and politics in modernity.

Need more advice? Read our 5 additional tips on how to write a good thesis conclusion.

The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable. To write a great thesis conclusion you should:

The basic content of a conclusion is to review the main points from the paper. This part represents your own closing thoughts on the topic. It should mainly consist of the outcome of the research in your own words.

The length of the conclusion will depend on the length of the whole thesis. Usually, a conclusion should be around 5-7% of the overall word count.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as a question, warning, or call to action. Depending on the topic, you can also end with a recommendation.

In Open Access: Theses and Dissertations you can find thousands of completed works. Take a look at any of the theses or dissertations for real-life examples of conclusions that were already approved.

how to write conclusion on research project

How to write a strong conclusion for your research paper

Last updated

17 February 2024

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Writing a research paper is a chance to share your knowledge and hypothesis. It's an opportunity to demonstrate your many hours of research and prove your ability to write convincingly.

Ideally, by the end of your research paper, you'll have brought your readers on a journey to reach the conclusions you've pre-determined. However, if you don't stick the landing with a good conclusion, you'll risk losing your reader’s trust.

Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper involves a few important steps, including restating the thesis and summing up everything properly.

Find out what to include and what to avoid, so you can effectively demonstrate your understanding of the topic and prove your expertise.

  • Why is a good conclusion important?

A good conclusion can cement your paper in the reader’s mind. Making a strong impression in your introduction can draw your readers in, but it's the conclusion that will inspire them.

  • What to include in a research paper conclusion

There are a few specifics you should include in your research paper conclusion. Offer your readers some sense of urgency or consequence by pointing out why they should care about the topic you have covered. Discuss any common problems associated with your topic and provide suggestions as to how these problems can be solved or addressed.

The conclusion should include a restatement of your initial thesis. Thesis statements are strengthened after you’ve presented supporting evidence (as you will have done in the paper), so make a point to reintroduce it at the end.

Finally, recap the main points of your research paper, highlighting the key takeaways you want readers to remember. If you've made multiple points throughout the paper, refer to the ones with the strongest supporting evidence.

  • Steps for writing a research paper conclusion

Many writers find the conclusion the most challenging part of any research project . By following these three steps, you'll be prepared to write a conclusion that is effective and concise.

  • Step 1: Restate the problem

Always begin by restating the research problem in the conclusion of a research paper. This serves to remind the reader of your hypothesis and refresh them on the main point of the paper. 

When restating the problem, take care to avoid using exactly the same words you employed earlier in the paper.

  • Step 2: Sum up the paper

After you've restated the problem, sum up the paper by revealing your overall findings. The method for this differs slightly, depending on whether you're crafting an argumentative paper or an empirical paper.

Argumentative paper: Restate your thesis and arguments

Argumentative papers involve introducing a thesis statement early on. In crafting the conclusion for an argumentative paper, always restate the thesis, outlining the way you've developed it throughout the entire paper.

It might be appropriate to mention any counterarguments in the conclusion, so you can demonstrate how your thesis is correct or how the data best supports your main points.

Empirical paper: Summarize research findings

Empirical papers break down a series of research questions. In your conclusion, discuss the findings your research revealed, including any information that surprised you.

Be clear about the conclusions you reached, and explain whether or not you expected to arrive at these particular ones.

  • Step 3: Discuss the implications of your research

Argumentative papers and empirical papers also differ in this part of a research paper conclusion. Here are some tips on crafting conclusions for argumentative and empirical papers.

Argumentative paper: Powerful closing statement

In an argumentative paper, you'll have spent a great deal of time expressing the opinions you formed after doing a significant amount of research. Make a strong closing statement in your argumentative paper's conclusion to share the significance of your work.

You can outline the next steps through a bold call to action, or restate how powerful your ideas turned out to be.

Empirical paper: Directions for future research

Empirical papers are broader in scope. They usually cover a variety of aspects and can include several points of view.

To write a good conclusion for an empirical paper, suggest the type of research that could be done in the future, including methods for further investigation or outlining ways other researchers might proceed.

If you feel your research had any limitations, even if they were outside your control, you could mention these in your conclusion.

After you finish outlining your conclusion, ask someone to read it and offer feedback. In any research project you're especially close to, it can be hard to identify problem areas. Having a close friend or someone whose opinion you value read the research paper and provide honest feedback can be invaluable. Take note of any suggested edits and consider incorporating them into your paper if they make sense.

  • Things to avoid in a research paper conclusion

Keep these aspects to avoid in mind as you're writing your conclusion and refer to them after you've created an outline.

Dry summary

Writing a memorable, succinct conclusion is arguably more important than a strong introduction. Take care to avoid just rephrasing your main points, and don't fall into the trap of repeating dry facts or citations.

You can provide a new perspective for your readers to think about or contextualize your research. Either way, make the conclusion vibrant and interesting, rather than a rote recitation of your research paper’s highlights.

Clichéd or generic phrasing

Your research paper conclusion should feel fresh and inspiring. Avoid generic phrases like "to sum up" or "in conclusion." These phrases tend to be overused, especially in an academic context and might turn your readers off.

The conclusion also isn't the time to introduce colloquial phrases or informal language. Retain a professional, confident tone consistent throughout your paper’s conclusion so it feels exciting and bold.

New data or evidence

While you should present strong data throughout your paper, the conclusion isn't the place to introduce new evidence. This is because readers are engaged in actively learning as they read through the body of your paper.

By the time they reach the conclusion, they will have formed an opinion one way or the other (hopefully in your favor!). Introducing new evidence in the conclusion will only serve to surprise or frustrate your reader.

Ignoring contradictory evidence

If your research reveals contradictory evidence, don't ignore it in the conclusion. This will damage your credibility as an expert and might even serve to highlight the contradictions.

Be as transparent as possible and admit to any shortcomings in your research, but don't dwell on them for too long.

Ambiguous or unclear resolutions

The point of a research paper conclusion is to provide closure and bring all your ideas together. You should wrap up any arguments you introduced in the paper and tie up any loose ends, while demonstrating why your research and data are strong.

Use direct language in your conclusion and avoid ambiguity. Even if some of the data and sources you cite are inconclusive or contradictory, note this in your conclusion to come across as confident and trustworthy.

  • Examples of research paper conclusions

Your research paper should provide a compelling close to the paper as a whole, highlighting your research and hard work. While the conclusion should represent your unique style, these examples offer a starting point:

Ultimately, the data we examined all point to the same conclusion: Encouraging a good work-life balance improves employee productivity and benefits the company overall. The research suggests that when employees feel their personal lives are valued and respected by their employers, they are more likely to be productive when at work. In addition, company turnover tends to be reduced when employees have a balance between their personal and professional lives. While additional research is required to establish ways companies can support employees in creating a stronger work-life balance, it's clear the need is there.

Social media is a primary method of communication among young people. As we've seen in the data presented, most young people in high school use a variety of social media applications at least every hour, including Instagram and Facebook. While social media is an avenue for connection with peers, research increasingly suggests that social media use correlates with body image issues. Young girls with lower self-esteem tend to use social media more often than those who don't log onto social media apps every day. As new applications continue to gain popularity, and as more high school students are given smartphones, more research will be required to measure the effects of prolonged social media use.

What are the different kinds of research paper conclusions?

There are no formal types of research paper conclusions. Ultimately, the conclusion depends on the outline of your paper and the type of research you’re presenting. While some experts note that research papers can end with a new perspective or commentary, most papers should conclude with a combination of both. The most important aspect of a good research paper conclusion is that it accurately represents the body of the paper.

Can I present new arguments in my research paper conclusion?

Research paper conclusions are not the place to introduce new data or arguments. The body of your paper is where you should share research and insights, where the reader is actively absorbing the content. By the time a reader reaches the conclusion of the research paper, they should have formed their opinion. Introducing new arguments in the conclusion can take a reader by surprise, and not in a positive way. It might also serve to frustrate readers.

How long should a research paper conclusion be?

There's no set length for a research paper conclusion. However, it's a good idea not to run on too long, since conclusions are supposed to be succinct. A good rule of thumb is to keep your conclusion around 5 to 10 percent of the paper's total length. If your paper is 10 pages, try to keep your conclusion under one page.

What should I include in a research paper conclusion?

A good research paper conclusion should always include a sense of urgency, so the reader can see how and why the topic should matter to them. You can also note some recommended actions to help fix the problem and some obstacles they might encounter. A conclusion should also remind the reader of the thesis statement, along with the main points you covered in the paper. At the end of the conclusion, add a powerful closing statement that helps cement the paper in the mind of the reader.

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  • Writing Tips

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

3-minute read

  • 29th August 2023

If you’re writing a research paper, the conclusion is your opportunity to summarize your findings and leave a lasting impression on your readers. In this post, we’ll take you through how to write an effective conclusion for a research paper and how you can:

·   Reword your thesis statement

·   Highlight the significance of your research

·   Discuss limitations

·   Connect to the introduction

·   End with a thought-provoking statement

Rewording Your Thesis Statement

Begin your conclusion by restating your thesis statement in a way that is slightly different from the wording used in the introduction. Avoid presenting new information or evidence in your conclusion. Just summarize the main points and arguments of your essay and keep this part as concise as possible. Remember that you’ve already covered the in-depth analyses and investigations in the main body paragraphs of your essay, so it’s not necessary to restate these details in the conclusion.

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Highlighting the Significance of Your Research

The conclusion is a good place to emphasize the implications of your research . Avoid ambiguous or vague language such as “I think” or “maybe,” which could weaken your position. Clearly explain why your research is significant and how it contributes to the broader field of study.

Here’s an example from a (fictional) study on the impact of social media on mental health:

Discussing Limitations

Although it’s important to emphasize the significance of your study, you can also use the conclusion to briefly address any limitations you discovered while conducting your research, such as time constraints or a shortage of resources. Doing this demonstrates a balanced and honest approach to your research.

Connecting to the Introduction

In your conclusion, you can circle back to your introduction , perhaps by referring to a quote or anecdote you discussed earlier. If you end your paper on a similar note to how you began it, you will create a sense of cohesion for the reader and remind them of the meaning and significance of your research.

Ending With a Thought-Provoking Statement

Consider ending your paper with a thought-provoking and memorable statement that relates to the impact of your research questions or hypothesis. This statement can be a call to action, a philosophical question, or a prediction for the future (positive or negative). Here’s an example that uses the same topic as above (social media and mental health):

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  • USC Libraries
  • Research Guides

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

  • 9. The Conclusion
  • Purpose of Guide
  • Design Flaws to Avoid
  • Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Glossary of Research Terms
  • Reading Research Effectively
  • Narrowing a Topic Idea
  • Broadening a Topic Idea
  • Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
  • Academic Writing Style
  • Applying Critical Thinking
  • Choosing a Title
  • Making an Outline
  • Paragraph Development
  • Research Process Video Series
  • Executive Summary
  • The C.A.R.S. Model
  • Background Information
  • The Research Problem/Question
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Citation Tracking
  • Content Alert Services
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Tiertiary Sources
  • Scholarly vs. Popular Publications
  • Qualitative Methods
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  • Insiderness
  • Using Non-Textual Elements
  • Limitations of the Study
  • Common Grammar Mistakes
  • Writing Concisely
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Footnotes or Endnotes?
  • Further Readings
  • Generative AI and Writing
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The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points derived from the findings of your study and, if applicable based on your analysis, explain new areas for future research. For most college-level research papers, two or three well-developed paragraphs is sufficient for a conclusion, although in some cases, more paragraphs may be required in describing the key findings and highlighting their significance.

Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of a Good Conclusion

A well-written conclusion provides important opportunities to demonstrate to the reader your understanding of the research problem. These include:

  • Presenting the last word on the issues you raised in your paper . Just as the introduction gives a first impression to your reader, the conclusion offers a chance to leave a lasting impression. Do this, for example, by highlighting key findings in your analysis that advance new understanding about the research problem, that are unusual or unexpected, or that have important implications applied to practice.
  • Summarizing your thoughts and conveying the larger significance of your study . The conclusion is an opportunity to succinctly re-emphasize  your answer to the "So What?" question by placing the study within the context of how your research advances past studies about the topic.
  • Identifying how a gap in the literature has been addressed . The conclusion can be where you describe how a previously identified gap in the literature [first identified in your literature review section] has been addressed by your research and why this contribution is significant.
  • Demonstrating the importance of your ideas . Don't be shy. The conclusion offers an opportunity to elaborate on the impact and significance of your findings. This is particularly important if your study approached examining the research problem from an unusual or innovative perspective.
  • Introducing possible new or expanded ways of thinking about the research problem . This does not refer to introducing new information [which should be avoided], but to offer new insight and creative approaches for framing or contextualizing the research problem based on the results of your study.

Bunton, David. “The Structure of PhD Conclusion Chapters.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 (July 2005): 207–224; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Conclusion. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Rules

The general function of your paper's conclusion is to restate the main argument . It reminds the reader of your main argument(s) strengths and reiterates the most important evidence supporting those argument(s). Do this by clearly summarizing the context, background, and the necessity of examining the research problem in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found in the literature. However, make sure that your conclusion is not simply a repetitive summary of the findings. This reduces the impact of the argument(s) you have developed in your paper.

When writing the conclusion to your paper, follow these general rules:

  • Present your conclusions in clear, concise language. Re-state the purpose of your study, then describe how your findings differ or support those of other studies and why [i.e., describe what were the unique, new, or crucial contributions your study made to the overall research about your topic].
  • Do not simply reiterate your findings or the discussion of your results. Provide a synthesis of arguments presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem and the overall objectives of your study.
  • Indicate opportunities for future research if you haven't already done so in the discussion section of your paper. Highlighting the need for further research provides the reader with evidence that you have an in-depth awareness of the research problem but that further analysis should take place beyond the scope of your investigation.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is presented well:

  • If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize the argument for your reader.
  • If, prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
  • Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from the data [this is opposite of the introduction, which begins with general discussion of the context and ends with a detailed description of the research problem]. 

The conclusion also provides a place for you to persuasively and succinctly restate the research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with all the information about the topic . Depending on the discipline you are writing in, the concluding paragraph may contain your reflections on the evidence presented. However, the nature of being introspective about the research you have conducted will depend on the topic and whether your professor wants you to express your observations in this way. If asked to think introspectively about the topic, do not delve into idle speculation. Being introspective means looking within yourself as an author to try and understand an issue more deeply, not to guess at possible outcomes or make up scenarios not supported by the evidence.

II.  Developing a Compelling Conclusion

Although an effective conclusion needs to be clear and succinct, it does not need to be written passively or lack a compelling narrative. Strategies to help you move beyond merely summarizing the key points of your research paper may include any of the following:

  • If your paper addresses a critical, contemporary problem, warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem proactively based on the evidence presented in your study.
  • Recommend a specific course or courses of action that, if adopted, could address a specific problem in practice or in the development of new knowledge leading to positive change.
  • Cite a relevant quotation or expert opinion already noted in your paper in order to lend authority and support to the conclusion(s) you have reached [a good source would be from a source cited in your literature review].
  • Explain the consequences of your research in a way that elicits action or demonstrates urgency in seeking change.
  • Restate a key statistic, fact, or visual image to emphasize the most important finding of your paper.
  • If your discipline encourages personal reflection, illustrate your concluding point by drawing from your own life experiences.
  • Return to an anecdote, an example, or a quotation that you presented in your introduction, but add further insight derived from the findings of your study; use your interpretation of results from your study to recast it in new or important ways.
  • Provide a "take-home" message in the form of a succinct, declarative statement that you want the reader to remember about your study.

III. Problems to Avoid

Failure to be concise Your conclusion section should be concise and to the point. Conclusions that are too lengthy often have unnecessary information in them. The conclusion is not the place for details about your methodology or results. Although you should give a summary of what was learned from your research, this summary should be relatively brief, since the emphasis in the conclusion is on the implications, evaluations, insights, and other forms of analysis that you make. Strategies for writing concisely can be found here .

Failure to comment on larger, more significant issues In the introduction, your task was to move from the general [topic studied within the field of study] to the specific [the research problem]. However, in the conclusion, your task is to move the discussion from specific [your research problem] back to a general discussion framed around the implications and significance of your findings [i.e., how your research contributes new understanding or fills an important gap in the literature]. In short, the conclusion is where you should place your research within a larger context [visualize the structure of your paper as an hourglass--start with a broad introduction and review of the literature, move to the specific method of analysis and the discussion, conclude with a broad summary of the study's implications and significance].

Failure to reveal problems and negative results Negative aspects of the research process should never be ignored. These are problems, deficiencies, or challenges encountered during your study. They should be summarized as a way of qualifying your overall conclusions. If you encountered negative or unintended results [i.e., findings that are validated outside the research context in which they were generated], you must report them in the results section and discuss their implications in the discussion section of your paper. In the conclusion, use negative or surprising results as an opportunity to explain their possible significance and/or how they may form the basis for future research.

Failure to provide a clear summary of what was learned In order to discuss how your research fits within your field of study [and possibly the world at large], you need to summarize briefly and succinctly how it contributes to new knowledge or a new understanding about the research problem. This element of your conclusion may be only a few sentences long, but it often represents the key takeaway for your reader.

Failure to match the objectives of your research Often research objectives in the social and behavioral sciences change while the research is being carried out due to unforeseen factors or unanticipated variables. This is not a problem unless you forget to go back and refine the original objectives in your introduction. As these changes emerge they must be documented so that they accurately reflect what you were trying to accomplish in your research [not what you thought you might accomplish when you began].

Resist the urge to apologize If you've immersed yourself in studying the research problem, you presumably should know a good deal about it [perhaps even more than your professor!]. Nevertheless, by the time you have finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you have produced. Repress those doubts! Don't undermine your authority as a researcher by saying something like, "This is just one approach to examining this problem; there may be other, much better approaches that...." The overall tone of your conclusion should convey confidence to the reader concerning the validity and realiability of your research.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8; Concluding Paragraphs. College Writing Center at Meramec. St. Louis Community College; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Freedman, Leora  and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Leibensperger, Summer. Draft Your Conclusion. Academic Center, the University of Houston-Victoria, 2003; Make Your Last Words Count. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin Madison; Miquel, Fuster-Marquez and Carmen Gregori-Signes. “Chapter Six: ‘Last but Not Least:’ Writing the Conclusion of Your Paper.” In Writing an Applied Linguistics Thesis or Dissertation: A Guide to Presenting Empirical Research . John Bitchener, editor. (Basingstoke,UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 93-105; Tips for Writing a Good Conclusion. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Conclusion. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; Writing Conclusions. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University; Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Dartmouth College.

Writing Tip

Don't Belabor the Obvious!

Avoid phrases like "in conclusion...," "in summary...," or "in closing...." These phrases can be useful, even welcome, in oral presentations. But readers can see by the tell-tale section heading and number of pages remaining that they are reaching the end of your paper. You'll irritate your readers if you belabor the obvious.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8.

Another Writing Tip

New Insight, Not New Information!

Don't surprise the reader with new information in your conclusion that was never referenced anywhere else in the paper. This is why the conclusion rarely has citations to sources that haven't been referenced elsewhere in your paper. If you have new information to present, add it to the discussion or other appropriate section of the paper. Note that, although no new information is introduced, the conclusion, along with the discussion section, is where you offer your most "original" contributions in the paper; the conclusion is where you describe the value of your research, demonstrate that you understand the material that you have presented, and position your findings within the larger context of scholarship on the topic, including describing how your research contributes new insights to that scholarship.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina.

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Sumalatha G

Table of Contents

Writing a conclusion for a research paper is a critical step that often determines the overall impact and impression the paper leaves on the reader. While some may view the conclusion as a mere formality, it is actually an opportunity to wrap up the main points, provide closure, and leave a lasting impression. In this article, we will explore the importance of a well-crafted conclusion and discuss various tips and strategies to help you write an engaging and impactful conclusion for your research paper.


Before delving into the specifics of writing a conclusion, it is important to understand why it is such a crucial component of a research paper. The conclusion serves to summarize the main points of the paper and reemphasize their significance. A well-written conclusion can leave the reader satisfied and inspired, while a poorly executed one may undermine the credibility of the entire paper. Therefore, it is essential to give careful thought and attention to crafting an effective conclusion.

When writing a research paper, the conclusion acts as the final destination for the reader. It is the point where all the information, arguments, and evidence presented throughout the paper converge. Just as a traveler reaches the end of a journey, the reader reaches the conclusion to find closure and a sense of fulfillment. This is why the conclusion should not be taken lightly; it is a critical opportunity to leave a lasting impact on the reader.

Moreover, the conclusion is not merely a repetition of the introduction or a summary of the main points. It goes beyond that by providing a deeper understanding of the research findings and their implications. It allows the writer to reflect on the significance of their work and its potential contributions to the field. By doing so, the conclusion elevates the research paper from a mere collection of facts to a thought-provoking piece of scholarship.

In the following sections, we will explore various strategies and techniques for crafting a compelling conclusion. By understanding the importance of the conclusion and learning how to write one effectively, you will be equipped to create impactful research papers.

Structuring the Conclusion

In order to create an effective conclusion, it is important to consider its structure. A well-structured conclusion should begin by restating the thesis statement and summarizing the main points of the paper. It should then move on to provide a concise synthesis of the key findings and arguments, highlighting their implications and relevance. Finally, the conclusion should end with a thought-provoking statement that leaves the reader with a lasting impression.

Additionally, using phrases like "this research demonstrates," "the findings show," or "it is clear that" can help to highlight the significance of your research and emphasize your main conclusions.

Tips for Writing an Engaging Conclusion

Writing an engaging conclusion requires careful consideration and attention to detail. Here are some tips to help you create an impactful conclusion for your research paper:

  • Revisit the Introduction: Start your conclusion by referencing your introduction. Remind the reader of the research question or problem you initially posed and show how your research has addressed it.
  • Summarize Your Main Points: Provide a concise summary of the main points and arguments presented in your paper. Be sure to restate your thesis statement and highlight the key findings.
  • Offer a Fresh Perspective: Use the conclusion as an opportunity to provide a fresh perspective or offer insights that go beyond the main body of the paper. This will leave the reader with something new to consider.
  • Leave a Lasting Impression: End your conclusion with a thought-provoking statement or a call to action. This will leave a lasting impression on the reader and encourage further exploration of the research topic.

Addressing Counter Arguments In Conclusion

While crafting your conclusion, you can address any potential counterarguments or limitations of your research. This will demonstrate that you have considered alternative perspectives and have taken them into account in your conclusions. By acknowledging potential counterarguments, you can strengthen the credibility and validity of your research. And by openly discussing limitations, you demonstrate transparency and honesty in your research process.

Language and Tone To Be Used In Conclusion

The language and tone of your conclusion play a crucial role in shaping the overall impression of your research paper. It is important to use clear and concise language that is appropriate for the academic context. Avoid using overly informal or colloquial language that may undermine the credibility of your research. Additionally, consider the tone of your conclusion – it should be professional, confident, and persuasive, while still maintaining a respectful and objective tone.

When it comes to the language used in your conclusion, precision is key. You want to ensure that your ideas are communicated effectively and that there is no room for misinterpretation. Using clear and concise language will not only make your conclusion easier to understand but will also demonstrate your command of the subject matter.

Furthermore, it is important to strike the right balance between formality and accessibility. While academic writing typically requires a more formal tone, you should still aim to make your conclusion accessible to a wider audience. This means avoiding jargon or technical terms that may confuse readers who are not familiar with the subject matter. Instead, opt for language that is clear and straightforward, allowing anyone to grasp the main points of your research.

Another aspect to consider is the tone of your conclusion. The tone should reflect the confidence you have in your research findings and the strength of your argument. By adopting a professional and confident tone, you are more likely to convince your readers of the validity and importance of your research. However, it is crucial to strike a balance and avoid sounding arrogant or dismissive of opposing viewpoints. Maintaining a respectful and objective tone will help you engage with your audience in a more persuasive manner.

Moreover, the tone of your conclusion should align with the overall tone of your research paper. Consistency in tone throughout your paper will create a cohesive and unified piece of writing.

Common Mistakes to Avoid While Writing a Conclusion

When writing a conclusion, there are several common mistakes that researchers often make. By being aware of these pitfalls, you can avoid them and create a more effective conclusion for your research paper. Some common mistakes include:

  • Repeating the Introduction: A conclusion should not simply be a reworded version of the introduction. While it is important to revisit the main points, try to present them in a fresh and broader perspective, by foregrounding the implications/impacts of your research.
  • Introducing New Information: The conclusion should not introduce any new information or arguments. Instead, it should focus on summarizing and synthesizing the main points presented in the paper.
  • Being Vague or General: Avoid using vague or general statements in your conclusion. Instead, be specific and provide concrete examples or evidence to support your main points.
  • Ending Abruptly: A conclusion should provide a sense of closure and completeness. Avoid ending your conclusion abruptly or leaving the reader with unanswered questions.

Editing and Revising the Conclusion

Just like the rest of your research paper, the conclusion should go through a thorough editing and revising process. This will help to ensure clarity, coherence, and impact in the conclusion. As you revise your conclusion, consider the following:

  • Check for Consistency: Ensure that your conclusion aligns with the main body of the paper and does not introduce any new or contradictory information.
  • Eliminate Redundancy: Remove any repetitive or redundant information in your conclusion. Instead, focus on presenting the key points in a concise and engaging manner.
  • Proofread for Clarity: Read your conclusion aloud or ask someone else to read it to ensure that it is clear and understandable. Check for any grammatical or spelling errors that may distract the reader.
  • Seek Feedback: Consider sharing your conclusion with peers or mentors to get their feedback and insights. This can help you strengthen your conclusion and make it more impactful.

How to Write Conclusion as a Call to Action

Finally, consider using your conclusion as a call to action. Encourage the reader to take further action, such as conducting additional research or considering the implications of your findings. By providing a clear call to action, you can inspire the reader to actively engage with your research and continue the conversation on the topic.

Adapting to Different Research Paper Types

It is important to adapt your conclusion approach based on the type of research paper you are writing. Different research paper types may require different strategies and approaches to writing the conclusion. For example, a scientific research paper may focus more on summarizing the key findings and implications, while a persuasive research paper may emphasize the call to action and the potential impact of the research. Tailor your conclusion to suit the specific goals and requirements of your research paper.

Final Thoughts

A well-crafted conclusion can leave a lasting impression on the reader and enhance the impact of your research. By following the tips and strategies outlined in this article, you can create an engaging and impactful conclusion that effectively summarizes your main points, addresses potential counterarguments, and leaves the reader with a sense of closure and inspiration. Embrace the importance of the conclusion and view it as an opportunity to showcase the significance and relevance of your research.

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how to write conclusion on research project

How to Write Conclusion in Research Paper (With Example)

Writing a strong conclusion is a crucial part of any research paper. It provides a final opportunity to summarize your key findings, restate your thesis, and leave a lasting impression on your reader. However, many students struggle with how to effectively write a conclusion that ties everything together.

In this article, we’ll provide some tips and strategies for writing a compelling conclusion, along with an example to help illustrate the process. By following these guidelines, you can ensure that your research paper ends on a high note and leaves a lasting impact on your audience.

Why Conclusion is Important in Research Paper

The conclusion is the final chapter of your research paper journey, sealing the deal on all your hard work. After thoroughly laying out your main points and arguments in the body paragraphs, the conclusion gives you a chance to tie everything together into a neat, cohesive package.

More than just summarizing your key ideas, an effective conclusion shows readers the bigger picture of your research and why it matters. It highlights the significance of your findings , explains how your work contributes to the field, and points to potential future directions stemming from your study.

The conclusion is your last chance to leave a lasting impact and compel readers to seriously consider your perspective. With the right phrasing and tone, you can amplify the power of your work. Choose your words wisely, be persuasive yet diplomatic, and guide readers to walk away feeling satisfied by your reasoning and conclusions.

Approach the conclusion thoughtfully, reflect deeply on the larger meaning of your research, and craft impactful final sentences that linger in the reader’s mind. Wield your conclusion skillfully to make your research paper transformative and memorable. A powerful, thoughtful conclusion inspires action, sparks curiosity, and showcases the valuable insights you bring to the academic conversation.

How to Write Conclusion for a Research Paper

Crafting an effective conclusion in research paper requires thoughtful consideration and deliberate effort. After presenting your findings and analysis, the conclusion allows you to close your work with a flourish.

Begin by briefly summarizing the main points of your paper, provide a quick recap of your thesis, methodology, and key findings without repeating too much details from the body. Use this as an opportunity to reinforce your main argument and position within the field.

Next, highlight the significance and implications of your research. What new insights or perspectives does your work contribute? Discuss how your findings can inform future studies or practical applications. Convey why your research matters and how it moves the needle forward in your discipline.

Address any limitations of the current study and propose potential next steps that could be taken by you or other scholars to further the research. This shows readers you have critically considered ways to continue expanding knowledge in this area.

Finally, close with a memorable statement that captures the essence of your work and leaves a lasting impression. This could be an apt metaphor, a call to action, or a thought provoking question for readers to ponder. Choose words that will resonate with your audience and demonstrate the impact of your research.

With care and creativity, your conclusion can elevate your paper and cement your scholarly authority. Revisit often as you write to ensure your conclusion accomplishes its purpose, to convince readers of the value of your study and ignite further progress in your field.

What Not to Include in a Research Paper Conclusion

1. New Data: In a research paper conclusion, avoid presenting new data or evidence that wasn’t discussed earlier in the paper. It’s the time to summarize, analyze, or explain the significance of data already provided, not to introduce new material.

2. Irrelevant Details: The conclusion is not the spot for extraneous details not directly related to your research or its findings. Be focused and concise, tying up the paper neatly without going off-target.

3. Personal Opinions: Try not to include personal beliefs or subjective opinions unless your paper calls for it. Stick to empirical evidence, facts, and objective interpretation of your research.

4. Vague Summarization: While summarizing is the essence of a conclusion, too much of a broad or vague narrative should be avoided. Your conclusion shouldn’t be a generalization of the research but should specifically state your significant findings and their implications.

5. Overstating Results: No matter how exhilarating your research may be, don’t exaggerate its implications or general applications. Remember to acknowledge limitations or potential areas for future exploration.

6. Procrastinating: Refrain from leaving unresolved issues for future research. The conclusion is meant to tie up loose ends, not create more.

7. Repetition: While some reiteration is necessary, completely repeating the same phrases and points made previously can make your conclusion sound boring and redundant. Instead, try to look at your argument from a fresh, summarized perspective.

8. Apologies: Do not apologize or discredit your research efforts. Avoid phrases like, “This research was only” or “Although the study wasn’t able to prove”. A conclusion should confidently present your research results even if they’re unexpected or differ from your hypothesis.

9. Impractical Recommendations: While it’s often good to suggest directions for future research, don’t go overboard by proposing impractical or unachievable goals. Keep your recommendations relevant to your findings and within the realm of possibility.

10. Too Much Jargon: While it’s appropriate to use technical language throughout your research paper, remember the conclusion might be what a layman reads. Stick with a happy medium of professional lingo intermixed with understandable, plain language.

Also Check:   Conclusion for Internship Report

Conclusion in research Example

Research: Impact of Social Media Use on Adolescent Mental Health.

In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the significant impact of social media use on adolescent mental health. Our findings indicate that frequent social media use is associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression, particularly among girls. These results underscore the need for continued research in this area, as well as the development of interventions and strategies to promote healthy social media use among young people. By addressing this issue, we can help to ensure the well-being and success of the next generation.

Conclusion in research

Conclusion in Research Paper Example

Research: Impact of climate change on coral reefs in Florida.

In conclusion, the effect of climate change on Florida’s coral reefs presents a significant concern for the state’s ecosystem and economy. The data collected during this investigation reveal a direct correlation between rising ocean temperatures and coral bleaching events. This pattern has increased over the past decade, indicating that coral reefs’ health directly correlates with climate change effects.

Example Conclusion in Research

Research: The Influence of Social Media on Consumer Buying Behavior

Social media significantly shapes consumer buying behavior. Its power to influence is seen through peer opinions, online advertising, and brand communication. However, with the potential for misinformation, the reliability and quality of information are areas for further study. Despite these concerns, businesses leveraging social media can effectively boost their market reach and sales.

Conclusion in Research Paper Example

Research Paper Conclusion

Research: Impacts of Remote Work on Employee Productivity

Remote work has been found to notably enhance employee productivity. The elimination of commuting time, flexible scheduling, and comforting environment contribute to this increase. However, factors like home distractions and technological difficulties offer room for further research. Yet, integrating remote work can be a strategic pathway towards improved efficiency and workforce satisfaction.

These examples demonstrate techniques for crafting an effective conclusion in a research paper, providing your thesis with a powerful final statement. Now it is your turn to compose a strong concluding paragraph that summarizes your findings, reinforces your central argument, and leaves readers with a memorable takeaway.

Remember to restate your thesis without repeating it verbatim, highlight your main points without introducing new evidence, and end on a note that conveys the significance of your research. With a clear structure and purpose, proper grammar, and impactful writing, you can give your paper the persuasive conclusion it deserves.

Writing an effective conclusion takes practice, but by honing these skills you will elevate your academic writing to new heights. Use the strategies outlined here as a guide, believe in your capabilities, and soon you will be adept at concluding research papers powerfully. The final paragraph is your last chance to impress readers, so make it count!

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Conclusion of earthquake example, conclusion of yoga and meditation, conclusion of social media, conclusion of waste management, conclusion for assignment, conclusion of artificial intelligence | how to write | with example.

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Last Updated: July 8, 2024 Approved

This article was co-authored by Christopher Taylor, PhD . Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. He received his PhD in English Literature and Medieval Studies from the University of Texas at Austin in 2014. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 43 testimonials and 83% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 2,261,778 times.

The conclusion of a research paper needs to summarize the content and purpose of the paper without seeming too wooden or dry. Every basic conclusion must share several key elements, but there are also several tactics you can play around with to craft a more effective conclusion and several you should avoid to prevent yourself from weakening your paper's conclusion. Here are some writing tips to keep in mind when creating a conclusion for your next research paper.

Sample Conclusions

Writing a basic conclusion.

Step 1 Restate the topic.

  • Do not spend a great amount of time or space restating your topic.
  • A good research paper will make the importance of your topic apparent, so you do not need to write an elaborate defense of your topic in the conclusion.
  • Usually a single sentence is all you need to restate your topic.
  • An example would be if you were writing a paper on the epidemiology of infectious disease, you might say something like "Tuberculosis is a widespread infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide every year."
  • Yet another example from the humanities would be a paper about the Italian Renaissance: "The Italian Renaissance was an explosion of art and ideas centered around artists, writers, and thinkers in Florence."

Step 2 Restate your thesis.

  • A thesis is a narrowed, focused view on the topic at hand.
  • This statement should be rephrased from the thesis you included in your introduction. It should not be identical or too similar to the sentence you originally used.
  • Try re-wording your thesis statement in a way that complements your summary of the topic of your paper in your first sentence of your conclusion.
  • An example of a good thesis statement, going back to the paper on tuberculosis, would be "Tuberculosis is a widespread disease that affects millions of people worldwide every year. Due to the alarming rate of the spread of tuberculosis, particularly in poor countries, medical professionals are implementing new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and containment of this disease ."

Step 3 Briefly summarize your main points.

  • A good way to go about this is to re-read the topic sentence of each major paragraph or section in the body of your paper.
  • Find a way to briefly restate each point mentioned in each topic sentence in your conclusion. Do not repeat any of the supporting details used within your body paragraphs.
  • Under most circumstances, you should avoid writing new information in your conclusion. This is especially true if the information is vital to the argument or research presented in your paper.
  • For example, in the TB paper you could summarize the information. "Tuberculosis is a widespread disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Due to the alarming rate of the spread of tuberculosis, particularly in poor countries, medical professionals are implementing new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and containment of this disease. In developing countries, such as those in Africa and Southeast Asia, the rate of TB infections is soaring. Crowded conditions, poor sanitation, and lack of access to medical care are all compounding factors in the spread of the disease. Medical experts, such as those from the World Health Organization are now starting campaigns to go into communities in developing countries and provide diagnostic testing and treatments. However, the treatments for TB are very harsh and have many side effects. This leads to patient non-compliance and spread of multi-drug resistant strains of the disease."

Step 4 Add the points up.

  • Note that this is not needed for all research papers.
  • If you already fully explained what the points in your paper mean or why they are significant, you do not need to go into them in much detail in your conclusion. Simply restating your thesis or the significance of your topic should suffice.
  • It is always best practice to address important issues and fully explain your points in the body of your paper. The point of a conclusion to a research paper is to summarize your argument for the reader and, perhaps, to call the reader to action if needed.

Step 5 Make a call to action when appropriate.

  • Note that a call for action is not essential to all conclusions. A research paper on literary criticism, for instance, is less likely to need a call for action than a paper on the effect that television has on toddlers and young children.
  • A paper that is more likely to call readers to action is one that addresses a public or scientific need. Let's go back to our example of tuberculosis. This is a very serious disease that is spreading quickly and with antibiotic-resistant forms.
  • A call to action in this research paper would be a follow-up statement that might be along the lines of "Despite new efforts to diagnose and contain the disease, more research is needed to develop new antibiotics that will treat the most resistant strains of tuberculosis and ease the side effects of current treatments."

Step 6 Answer the “so what” question.

  • For example, if you are writing a history paper, then you might discuss how the historical topic you discussed matters today. If you are writing about a foreign country, then you might use the conclusion to discuss how the information you shared may help readers understand their own country.

Making Your Conclusion as Effective as Possible

Step 1 Stick with a basic synthesis of information.

  • Since this sort of conclusion is so basic, you must aim to synthesize the information rather than merely summarizing it.
  • Instead of merely repeating things you already said, rephrase your thesis and supporting points in a way that ties them all together.
  • By doing so, you make your research paper seem like a "complete thought" rather than a collection of random and vaguely related ideas.

Step 2 Bring things full circle.

  • Ask a question in your introduction. In your conclusion, restate the question and provide a direct answer.
  • Write an anecdote or story in your introduction but do not share the ending. Instead, write the conclusion to the anecdote in the conclusion of your paper.
  • For example, if you wanted to get more creative and put a more humanistic spin on a paper on tuberculosis, you might start your introduction with a story about a person with the disease, and refer to that story in your conclusion. For example, you could say something like this before you re-state your thesis in your conclusion: "Patient X was unable to complete the treatment for tuberculosis due to severe side effects and unfortunately succumbed to the disease."
  • Use the same concepts and images introduced in your introduction in your conclusion. The images may or may not appear at other points throughout the research paper.

Step 3 Close with logic.

  • Include enough information about your topic to back the statement up but do not get too carried away with excess detail.
  • If your research did not provide you with a clear-cut answer to a question posed in your thesis, do not be afraid to indicate as much.
  • Restate your initial hypothesis and indicate whether you still believe it or if the research you performed has begun swaying your opinion.
  • Indicate that an answer may still exist and that further research could shed more light on the topic at hand.

Step 4 Pose a question.

  • This may not be appropriate for all types of research papers. Most research papers, such as one on effective treatment for diseases, will have the information to make the case for a particular argument already in the paper.
  • A good example of a paper that might ask a question of the reader in the ending is one about a social issue, such as poverty or government policy.
  • Ask a question that will directly get at the heart or purpose of the paper. This question is often the same question, or some version of it, that you may have started with when you began your research.
  • Make sure that the question can be answered by the evidence presented in your paper.
  • If desired you can briefly summarize the answer after stating the question. You could also leave the question hanging for the reader to answer, though.

Step 5 Make a suggestion.

  • Even without a call to action, you can still make a recommendation to your reader.
  • For instance, if you are writing about a topic like third-world poverty, you can various ways for the reader to assist in the problem without necessarily calling for more research.
  • Another example would be, in a paper about treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis, you could suggest donating to the World Health Organization or research foundations that are developing new treatments for the disease.

Avoiding Common Pitfalls

Step 1 Avoid saying

  • These sayings usually sound stiff, unnatural, or trite when used in writing.
  • Moreover, using a phrase like "in conclusion" to begin your conclusion is a little too straightforward and tends to lead to a weak conclusion. A strong conclusion can stand on its own without being labeled as such.

Step 2 Do not wait until the conclusion to state your thesis.

  • Always state the main argument or thesis in the introduction. A research paper is an analytical discussion of an academic topic, not a mystery novel.
  • A good, effective research paper will allow your reader to follow your main argument from start to finish.
  • This is why it is best practice to start your paper with an introduction that states your main argument and to end the paper with a conclusion that re-states your thesis for re-iteration.

Step 3 Leave out new information.

  • All significant information should be introduced in the body of the paper.
  • Supporting evidence expands the topic of your paper by making it appear more detailed. A conclusion should narrow the topic to a more general point.
  • A conclusion should only summarize what you have already stated in the body of your paper.
  • You may suggest further research or a call to action, but you should not bring in any new evidence or facts in the conclusion.

Step 4 Avoid changing the tone of the paper.

  • Most often, a shift in tone occurs when a research paper with an academic tone gives an emotional or sentimental conclusion.
  • Even if the topic of the paper is of personal significance for you, you should not indicate as much in your paper.
  • If you want to give your paper a more humanistic slant, you could start and end your paper with a story or anecdote that would give your topic more personal meaning to the reader.
  • This tone should be consistent throughout the paper, however.

Step 5 Make no apologies.

  • Apologetic statements include phrases like "I may not be an expert" or "This is only my opinion."
  • Statements like this can usually be avoided by refraining from writing in the first-person.
  • Avoid any statements in the first-person. First-person is generally considered to be informal and does not fit with the formal tone of a research paper.

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About This Article

Christopher Taylor, PhD

To write a conclusion for a research paper, start by restating your thesis statement to remind your readers what your main topic is and bring everything full circle. Then, briefly summarize all of the main points you made throughout your paper, which will help remind your readers of everything they learned. You might also want to include a call to action if you think more research or work needs to be done on your topic by writing something like, "Despite efforts to contain the disease, more research is needed to develop antibiotics." Finally, end your conclusion by explaining the broader context of your topic and why your readers should care about it, which will help them understand why your topic is relevant and important. For tips from our Academic co-author, like how to avoid common pitfalls when writing your conclusion, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Find out which type of conclusion best suits your research, how to write it step-by-step, and common mistakes to avoid.

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When writing a research paper, it can be challenging to make your point after providing an extensive amount of information. For this reason, a well-organized conclusion is essential. 

A research paper’s conclusion should be a brief summary of the paper’s substance and objectives; what you present in your research paper can gain impact by having a strong conclusion section.

In this Mind The Graph article, you will learn how to write a conclusion for a research report in a way that inspires action and helps the readers to better understand your research paper. This article will provide you the definition and some broad principles before providing step-by-step guidance.

What is a conclusion for a research paper and why is it important?

A conclusion is where you summarize the main points and, if appropriate, make new research suggestions. It is not merely a summary of the key points discussed or a rehash of your research question.

The reader is expected to comprehend from the article’s conclusion why your study should be significant to them after reading it. A conclusion of one or two well-developed paragraphs is appropriate for the majority of research papers; however, in a few unusual cases, more paragraphs may be required to highlight significant findings and their importance.

Just as the introduction is responsible for giving the reader a first impression on the subject, the conclusion is the chance to make a final impression by summarizing major information of your research paper and, most often, giving a different point of view on significant implications.

Adding a strong conclusion to your research paper is important because it’s a possibility to give the reader the comprehension of your research topic. Given that the reader is now fully informed on the subject, the conclusion also gives you a chance to restate the research problem effectively and concisely.

how to write conclusion on research project

Examples of conclusions for a research paper

Now that you are aware of what a conclusion is and its significance for a research paper, it is time to provide you with some excellent samples of well-structured conclusions so you may get knowledge about the type of conclusion you can use for your research paper.

Argumentative Research Paper Conclusion

The most convincing arguments from your research paper should be added to the conclusion if you want to compose a strong argumentative conclusion.

Additionally, if your thesis statement expresses your perspective on the subject, you should think about restarting it as well as including any other pertinent information.

Example: As a result of the sixth extinction, which is currently affecting Earth, many species are vanishing every day. There are at least three strategies that people could employ to keep them from going extinct entirely in the ensuing fifty years. More recycling options, innovative plastic production techniques, and species preservation could save lives.

Analytical Research Paper Conclusion

The first thing you should do is reiterate your thesis and list the main elements of your arguments.

There should undoubtedly be a spotlight on a bigger context in the analytical research paper conclusion, which is the key distinction between it and other types of conclusions. It means you can add some meaning to the findings.

Example: Elon Musk has revolutionized the way we drive, pay for things, and even fly. His innovations are solely motivated by the desire to simplify things, but they inevitably alter the course of history. When Musk was a student, he had his first idea for PayPal, which is now among the most widely used methods of online payment. Likewise with Tesla automobiles.

Comparative Research Paper Conclusion

The conclusion of a comparative essay should be deeply analytical. To clearly express your conclusions, you must be very thorough when reviewing the data. Furthermore, the sources must be reliable.

A paraphrased thesis statement and a few sentences describing the significance of your study research are also required, as per normal.

Example: Gas-powered vehicles are ineffective and inefficient compared to electric vehicles. Not only do they emit fewer pollutants, but the drivers also get there more quickly. Additionally, gas cars cost more to maintain. Everything stems from the details of the far more straightforward engines used in electric cars.

How to write a conclusion for a research paper

In this section, you will learn how to write a conclusion for a research paper effectively and properly. These few easy steps will enable you to write the most convincing conclusion to your research paper.

1. Remember about the main topic

The statement must be written clearly and concisely to be effective, just one sentence. Remember that your conclusion should be concise and precise, expressing only the most important elements.

2. Reaffirm your thesis

Restate the research paper’s thesis after that. This can be done by going back to the original thesis that you presented in the research’s introduction. The thesis statement in your conclusion must be expressed differently from how it was in the introduction. This section can also be written effectively in a single sentence.

3. Sum important points in a summary

It’s time to make a list of the important arguments in your research paper. This phase can be made simpler by reading over your research and emphasizing only the main ideas and evidence.

Remember that the conclusion should not contain any new information. Focus only on the concepts you cover in your paper’s main body as a result. And also, keep in mind that this brief summary reminds your readers of the importance of the topic you are researching.

4. Emphasize the importance

At this stage, you can genuinely express a few words about how significant your arguments are. A succinct but impactful sentence can successfully achieve its aim. You could also attempt to examine this circumstance from a wider perspective.

Give an example of how your discoveries have affected a certain field. It would be beneficial if you made an effort to answer the question, “So what?” if there was any ambiguity.

5. Finish up your argument

As you wrap up your conclusion, consider posing a question or a call to action that will encourage readers to consider your point of view even further. This sentence can also answer any queries that were not addressed in the paper’s body paragraphs.

In addition, if there is an unresolved question in the main body, this is a fantastic area to comment on.

Common mistakes you should avoid

After learning the fundamentals of producing a strong research paper conclusion, it’s time to learn the common mistakes to avoid.

  • Weak conclusion: If your ending is weak, readers will feel dissatisfied and disappointed. Writing ambiguous closing lines for essays also lowers the quality of the paper and the capacity of your arguments to support your main topic.
  • Abrupt conclusion: Your research has to be an expression of your writing as a whole, not just a section. Therefore, make sure your thoughts are fully stated.
  • Adding new information: Only your research should only be summarized in the conclusion. As the conclusion cannot contain extra information, make sure to offer all of your conclusions and supporting evidence in the body paragraphs.
  • Absence of focus: A conclusion needs to be concise and well-focused. Avoid concluding the research with inane or superfluous details.
  • Absurd length: Research must be of a proper length—neither too long nor too short. If you write more than is necessary, you can miss the point, which is to revisit the paper’s argument straightforwardly. Additionally, if you write too little, your readers will think you’re being negligent. It should be written in at least one or two whole paragraphs.

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

how to write conclusion on research project

When you're wrapping up a research paper, the conclusion is like the grand finale of a fireworks show – it's your chance to leave a lasting impression. In this article, we'll break down the steps to help you write a winning research paper conclusion that not only recaps your main points but also ties everything together. Consider it the "So what?" moment – why should people care about your research? Our professional essay writers will guide you through making your conclusion strong, clear, and something that sticks with your readers long after they've put down your paper. So, let's dive in and ensure your research ends on a high note!

What Is a Conclusion in a Research Paper

In a research paper, the conclusion serves as the final segment, where you summarize the main points and findings of your study. It's not just a repetition of what you've already said but rather a chance to tie everything together and highlight the significance of your research. As you learn how to start a research paper , a good conclusion also often discusses the implications of your findings, suggests potential areas for further research, and leaves the reader with a lasting impression of the importance and relevance of your work in the broader context of the field. Essentially, it's your last opportunity to make a strong impact and leave your readers with a clear understanding of the significance of your research. Here’s a research paper conclusion example:

In conclusion, this research paper has navigated the intricacies of sustainable urban development, shedding light on the pivotal role of community engagement and innovative planning strategies. Through applying qualitative and quantitative research methods, we've uncovered valuable insights into the challenges and opportunities inherent in fostering environmentally friendly urban spaces. The implications of these findings extend beyond the confines of this study, emphasizing the imperative for continued exploration in the realms of urban planning and environmental sustainability. By emphasizing both the practical applications and theoretical contributions, this research underscores the significance of community involvement and forward-thinking strategies in shaping the future of urban landscapes. As cities evolve, incorporating these insights into planning and development practices will create resilient and harmonious urban environments.

Conclusion Outline for Research Paper

This outline for a research paper conclusion provides a structured framework to ensure that your ending effectively summarizes the key elements of your research paper and leaves a lasting impression on your readers. Adjust the content based on the specific requirements and focus of your research.

Restate the Thesis Statement

  • Briefly restate the main thesis or research question.
  • Emphasize the core objective or purpose of the study.

Summarize Key Findings

  • Recap the main points and key findings from each section of the paper.
  • Provide a concise overview of the research journey.

Discuss Implications

  • Explore the broader implications of the research findings.
  • Discuss how the results contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the field.

Address Limitations

  • Acknowledge any limitations or constraints encountered during the research process.
  • Explain how these limitations may impact the interpretation of the findings.

Suggest Areas for Future Research

  • Propose potential directions for future studies related to the topic.
  • Identify gaps in the current research that warrant further exploration.

Reaffirm Significance

  • Reaffirm the importance and relevance of the research in the broader context.
  • Highlight the practical applications or real-world implications of the study.

Concluding Statement

  • Craft a strong, memorable closing statement that leaves a lasting impression.
  • Sum up the overall impact of the research and its potential contribution to the field.

Study the full guide on how to make a research paper outline here, which will also specify the conclusion writing specifics to improve your general prowess.

Tips on How to Make a Conclusion in Research

Here are key considerations regarding a conclusion for research paper to not only recap the primary ideas in your work but also delve deeper to earn a higher grade:

Research Paper Conclusion

  • Provide a concise recap of your main research outcomes.
  • Remind readers of your research goals and their accomplishments.
  • Stick to summarizing existing content; refrain from adding new details.
  • Emphasize why your research matters and its broader implications.
  • Clearly explain the practical or theoretical impact of your findings.
  • Prompt readers to reflect on how your research influences their perspective.
  • Briefly discuss the robustness of your research methods.
  • End with a suggestion for future research or a practical application.
  • Transparently address any constraints or biases in your study.
  • End on a powerful note, leaving a memorable impression on your readers.

devices in research paper conclusion

For your inspiration, we’ve also prepared this research proposal example APA , which dwells on another important aspect of research writing.

How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

As you finish your research paper, the conclusion takes center stage. In this section, we've got five practical tips for writing a conclusion for a research paper. We'll guide you through summarizing your key findings, revisiting your research goals, discussing the bigger picture, addressing any limitations, and ending on a powerful note. Think of it as your roadmap to creating a conclusion that not only wraps up your research but also leaves a lasting impact on your readers. Let's dive in and make sure your conclusion stands out for all the right reasons!

How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

Synthesize Core Discoveries. Initiate your conclusion by synthesizing the essential discoveries of your research. Offer a succinct recapitulation of the primary points and outcomes you have elucidated in your paper. This aids in reinforcing the gravity of your work and reiterates the pivotal information you have presented.

Revisit Research Objectives. Revisit the research objectives or questions you outlined at the beginning of your paper. Assess whether you have successfully addressed these objectives and if your findings align with the initial goals of your research. This reflection helps tie your conclusion back to the purpose of your study.

Discuss Implications and Contributions. Discuss the broader implications of your research and its potential contributions to the field. Consider how your findings might impact future research, applications, or understanding of the subject matter. This demonstrates the significance of your work and places it within a larger context.

Address Limitations and Future Research. Acknowledge any limitations in your study, such as constraints in data collection or potential biases. Briefly discuss how these limitations might have affected your results. Additionally, suggest areas for future research that could build upon your work, addressing any unanswered questions or unexplored aspects. This demonstrates a thoughtful approach to your research.

End with a Strong Conclusion Statement. Conclude your research paper with a strong and memorable statement that reinforces the key message you want readers to take away. This could be a call to action, a proposal for further investigation, or a reflection on the broader significance of your findings. Leave your readers with a lasting impression that emphasizes the importance of your research. Remember that you can buy a research paper anytime if you lack time or get stuck in writer’s block.

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Stylistic Devices to Use in a Conclusion

Discover distinctive stylistic insights that you can apply when writing a conclusion for a research paper:

  • Rhetorical Questions. When using rhetorical questions, strategically place them to engage readers' minds. For instance, you might pose a question that prompts reflection on the broader implications of your findings, leaving your audience with something to ponder.
  • Powerful Language. Incorporate strong language to convey a sense of conviction and importance. Choose words that resonate with the overall tone of your research and amplify the significance of your conclusions. This adds weight to your key messages.
  • Repetitions. Repetitions can be employed to reinforce essential ideas. Reiterate key phrases or concepts in a way that emphasizes their importance without sounding redundant. This technique serves to drive home your main points.
  • Anecdotes. Integrating anecdotes into your conclusion can provide a human touch. Share a brief and relevant story that connects with your research, making the information more relatable and memorable for your audience.
  • Vivid Imagery. Lastly, use vivid imagery to paint a picture in the minds of your readers. Appeal to their senses by describing scenarios or outcomes related to your research. This creates a more immersive and lasting impression.

If you have a larger paper to write, for example a thesis, use our custom dissertation writing can help you in no time.

How to Make a Conclusion Logically Appealing

Knowing how to write a conclusion for a research paper that is logically appealing is important for leaving a lasting impression on your readers. Here are some tips to achieve this:

Logical Sequencing

  • Present your conclusion in a structured manner, following the natural flow of your paper. Readers should effortlessly follow your thought process, making your conclusion more accessible and persuasive.

Reinforce Main Arguments

  • Emphasize the core arguments and findings from your research. By reinforcing key points, you solidify your stance and provide a logical culmination to your paper.

Address Counterarguments

  • Acknowledge and address potential counterarguments or limitations in your research. Demonstrate intellectual honesty and strengthen your conclusion by preemptively addressing potential doubts.

Connect with Introduction

  • Revisit themes or concepts introduced in your introduction to create a cohesive narrative, allowing readers to trace the logical progression of your research from start to finish.

Propose Actionable Insights

  • Suggest practical applications or recommendations based on your findings. This will add a forward-looking dimension, making your conclusion more relevant and compelling.

Highlight Significance

  • Clearly articulate the broader implications of your research to convey the importance of your work and its potential impact on the field, making your conclusion logically compelling.

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Avoid These Things When Writing a Research Paper Conclusion

As you write your conclusion of research paper, there’s a list of things professional writers don’t recommend doing. Consider these issues carefully:

Avoid in Your Research Paper Conclusion

  • Repetition of Exact Phrases
  • Repetitively using the same phrases or sentences from the main body. Repetition can make your conclusion seem redundant and less engaging.
  • Overly Lengthy Summaries
  • Providing excessively detailed summaries of each section of your paper. Readers may lose interest if the conclusion becomes too long and detailed.
  • Unclear Connection to the Introduction
  • Failing to connect the conclusion back to the introduction. A lack of continuity may make the paper feel disjointed.
  • Adding New Arguments or Ideas
  • Introducing new arguments or ideas that were not addressed in the body. This can confuse the reader and disrupt the coherence of your paper.
  • Overuse of Complex Jargon
  • Using excessively complex or technical language without clarification. Clear communication is essential in the conclusion, ensuring broad understanding.
  • Apologizing or Undermining Confidence
  • Apologizing for limitations or expressing doubt about your work. Maintain a confident tone; if limitations exist, present them objectively without undermining your research.
  • Sweeping Generalizations
  • Making overly broad or unsupported generalizations. Such statements can weaken the credibility of your conclusion.
  • Neglecting the Significance
  • Failing to emphasize the broader significance of your research. Readers need to understand why your findings matter in a larger context.
  • Abrupt Endings
  • Concluding abruptly without a strong closing statement. A powerful ending leaves a lasting impression; avoid a sudden or weak conclusion.

Research Paper Conclusion Example

That covers the essential aspects of summarizing a research paper. The only remaining step is to review the conclusion examples for research paper provided by our team.

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Final Thoughts

In conclusion, the knowledge of how to write the conclusion of a research paper is pivotal for presenting your findings and leaving a lasting impression on your readers. By summarizing the key points, reiterating the significance of your research, and offering avenues for future exploration, you can create a conclusion that not only reinforces the value of your study but also encourages further academic discourse. Remember to balance brevity and completeness, ensuring your conclusion is concise yet comprehensive. Emphasizing the practical implications of your research and connecting it to the broader academic landscape will help solidify the impact of your work. Pay someone to write a research paper if you are having a hard time finishing your coursework on time.

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How To Write A Conclusion For A Research Paper?

What should the conclusion of a research paper contain, how to start a conclusion paragraph for a research paper.

Daniel Parker

Daniel Parker

is a seasoned educational writer focusing on scholarship guidance, research papers, and various forms of academic essays including reflective and narrative essays. His expertise also extends to detailed case studies. A scholar with a background in English Literature and Education, Daniel’s work on EssayPro blog aims to support students in achieving academic excellence and securing scholarships. His hobbies include reading classic literature and participating in academic forums.

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How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion Section

how to write conclusion on research project

What is a conclusion in a research paper?

The conclusion in a research paper is the final paragraph or two in a research paper. In scientific papers, the conclusion usually follows the Discussion section , summarizing the importance of the findings and reminding the reader why the work presented in the paper is relevant.

However, it can be a bit confusing to distinguish the conclusion section/paragraph from a summary or a repetition of your findings, your own opinion, or the statement of the implications of your work. In fact, the conclusion should contain a bit of all of these other parts but go beyond it—but not too far beyond! 

The structure and content of the conclusion section can also vary depending on whether you are writing a research manuscript or an essay. This article will explain how to write a good conclusion section, what exactly it should (and should not) contain, how it should be structured, and what you should avoid when writing it.  

Table of Contents:

What does a good conclusion section do, what to include in a research paper conclusion.

  • Conclusion in an Essay
  • Research Paper Conclusion 
  • Conclusion Paragraph Outline and Example
  • What Not to Do When Writing a Conclusion

The conclusion of a research paper has several key objectives. It should:

  • Restate your research problem addressed in the introduction section
  • Summarize your main arguments, important findings, and broader implications
  • Synthesize key takeaways from your study

The specific content in the conclusion depends on whether your paper presents the results of original scientific research or constructs an argument through engagement with previously published sources.

You presented your general field of study to the reader in the introduction section, by moving from general information (the background of your work, often combined with a literature review ) to the rationale of your study and then to the specific problem or topic you addressed, formulated in the form of the statement of the problem in research or the thesis statement in an essay.

In the conclusion section, in contrast, your task is to move from your specific findings or arguments back to a more general depiction of how your research contributes to the readers’ understanding of a certain concept or helps solve a practical problem, or fills an important gap in the literature. The content of your conclusion section depends on the type of research you are doing and what type of paper you are writing. But whatever the outcome of your work is, the conclusion is where you briefly summarize it and place it within a larger context. It could be called the “take-home message” of the entire paper.

What to summarize in the conclusion

Your conclusion section needs to contain a very brief summary of your work , a very brief summary of the main findings of your work, and a mention of anything else that seems relevant when you now look at your work from a bigger perspective, even if it was not initially listed as one of your main research questions. This could be a limitation, for example, a problem with the design of your experiment that either needs to be considered when drawing any conclusions or that led you to ask a different question and therefore draw different conclusions at the end of your study (compared to when you started out).

Once you have reminded the reader of what you did and what you found, you need to go beyond that and also provide either your own opinion on why your work is relevant (and for whom, and how) or theoretical or practical implications of the study , or make a specific call for action if there is one to be made.   

How to Write an Essay Conclusion

Academic essays follow quite different structures than their counterparts in STEM and the natural sciences. Humanities papers often have conclusion sections that are much longer and contain more detail than scientific papers. There are three main types of academic essay conclusions.

Summarizing conclusion

The most typical conclusion at the end of an analytical/explanatory/argumentative essay is a summarizing conclusion . This is, as the name suggests, a clear summary of the main points of your topic and thesis. Since you might have gone through a number of different arguments or subtopics in the main part of your essay, you need to remind the reader again what those were, how they fit into each other, and how they helped you develop or corroborate your hypothesis.

For an essay that analyzes how recruiters can hire the best candidates in the shortest time or on “how starving yourself will increase your lifespan, according to science”, a summary of all the points you discussed might be all you need. Note that you should not exactly repeat what you said earlier, but rather highlight the essential details and present those to your reader in a different way. 

Externalizing conclusion

If you think that just reminding the reader of your main points is not enough, you can opt for an externalizing conclusion instead, that presents new points that were not presented in the paper so far. These new points can be additional facts and information or they can be ideas that are relevant to the topic and have not been mentioned before.

Such a conclusion can stimulate your readers to think about your topic or the implications of your analysis in a whole new way. For example, at the end of a historical analysis of a specific event or development, you could direct your reader’s attention to some current events that were not the topic of your essay but that provide a different context for your findings.

Editorial conclusion

In an editorial conclusion , another common type of conclusion that you will find at the end of papers and essays, you do not add new information but instead present your own experiences or opinions on the topic to round everything up. What makes this type of conclusion interesting is that you can choose to agree or disagree with the information you presented in your paper so far. For example, if you have collected and analyzed information on how a specific diet helps people lose weight, you can nevertheless have your doubts on the sustainability of that diet or its practicability in real life—if such arguments were not included in your original thesis and have therefore not been covered in the main part of your paper, the conclusion section is the place where you can get your opinion across.    

How to Conclude an Empirical Research Paper

An empirical research paper is usually more concise and succinct than an essay, because, if it is written well, it focuses on one specific question, describes the method that was used to answer that one question, describes and explains the results, and guides the reader in a logical way from the introduction to the discussion without going on tangents or digging into not absolutely relevant topics.

Summarize the findings

In a scientific paper, you should include a summary of the findings. Don’t go into great detail here (you will have presented your in-depth  results  and  discussion  already), but do clearly express the answers to the  research questions  you investigated.

Describe your main findings, even if they weren’t necessarily the ones anticipated, and explain the conclusion they led you to. Explain these findings in as few words as possible.

Instead of beginning with “ In conclusion, in this study, we investigated the effect of stress on the brain using fMRI …”, you should try to find a way to incorporate the repetition of the essential (and only the essential) details into the summary of the key points. “ The findings of this fMRI study on the effect of stress on the brain suggest that …” or “ While it has been known for a long time that stress has an effect on the brain, the findings of this fMRI study show that, surprisingly… ” would be better ways to start a conclusion. 

You should also not bring up new ideas or present new facts in the conclusion of a research paper, but stick to the background information you have presented earlier, to the findings you have already discussed, and the limitations and implications you have already described. The one thing you can add here is a practical recommendation that you haven’t clearly stated before—but even that one needs to follow logically from everything you have already discussed in the discussion section.

Discuss the implications

After summing up your key arguments or findings, conclude the paper by stating the broader implications of the research , whether in methods , approach, or findings. Express practical or theoretical takeaways from your paper. This often looks like a “call to action” or a final “sales pitch” that puts an exclamation point on your paper.

If your research topic is more theoretical in nature, your closing statement should express the significance of your argument—for example, in proposing a new understanding of a topic or laying the groundwork for future research.

Future research example

Future research into education standards should focus on establishing a more detailed picture of how novel pedagogical approaches impact young people’s ability to absorb new and difficult concepts. Moreover, observational studies are needed to gain more insight into how specific teaching models affect the retention of relationships and facts—for instance, how inquiry-based learning and its emphasis on lateral thinking can be used as a jumping-off point for more holistic classroom approaches.

Research Conclusion Example and Outline

Let’s revisit the study on the effect of stress on the brain we mentioned before and see what the common structure for a conclusion paragraph looks like, in three steps. Following these simple steps will make it easy for you to wrap everything up in one short paragraph that contains all the essential information: 

One: Short summary of what you did, but integrated into the summary of your findings:

While it has been known for a long time that stress has an effect on the brain, the findings of this fMRI study in 25 university students going through mid-term exams show that, surprisingly, one’s attitude to the experienced stress significantly modulates the brain’s response to it. 

Note that you don’t need to repeat any methodological or technical details here—the reader has been presented with all of these before, they have read your results section and the discussion of your results, and even (hopefully!) a discussion of the limitations and strengths of your paper. The only thing you need to remind them of here is the essential outcome of your work. 

Two: Add implications, and don’t forget to specify who this might be relevant for: 

Students could be considered a specific subsample of the general population, but earlier research shows that the effect that exam stress has on their physical and mental health is comparable to the effects of other types of stress on individuals of other ages and occupations. Further research into practical ways of modulating not only one’s mental stress response but potentially also one’s brain activity (e.g., via neurofeedback training) are warranted.

This is a “research implication”, and it is nicely combined with a mention of a potential limitation of the study (the student sample) that turns out not to be a limitation after all (because earlier research suggests we can generalize to other populations). If there already is a lot of research on neurofeedback for stress control, by the way, then this should have been discussed in your discussion section earlier and you wouldn’t say such studies are “warranted” here but rather specify how your findings could inspire specific future experiments or how they should be implemented in existing applications. 

Three: The most important thing is that your conclusion paragraph accurately reflects the content of your paper. Compare it to your research paper title , your research paper abstract , and to your journal submission cover letter , in case you already have one—if these do not all tell the same story, then you need to go back to your paper, start again from the introduction section, and find out where you lost the logical thread. As always, consistency is key.    

Problems to Avoid When Writing a Conclusion 

  • Do not suddenly introduce new information that has never been mentioned before (unless you are writing an essay and opting for an externalizing conclusion, see above). The conclusion section is not where you want to surprise your readers, but the take-home message of what you have already presented.
  • Do not simply copy your abstract, the conclusion section of your abstract, or the first sentence of your introduction, and put it at the end of the discussion section. Even if these parts of your paper cover the same points, they should not be identical.
  • Do not start the conclusion with “In conclusion”. If it has its own section heading, that is redundant, and if it is the last paragraph of the discussion section, it is inelegant and also not really necessary. The reader expects you to wrap your work up in the last paragraph, so you don’t have to announce that. Just look at the above example to see how to start a conclusion in a natural way.
  • Do not forget what your research objectives were and how you initially formulated the statement of the problem in your introduction section. If your story/approach/conclusions changed because of methodological issues or information you were not aware of when you started, then make sure you go back to the beginning and adapt your entire story (not just the ending). 

Consider Receiving Academic Editing Services

When you have arrived at the conclusion of your paper, you might want to head over to Wordvice AI’s AI Writing Assistant to receive a free grammar check for any academic content. 

After drafting, you can also receive English editing and proofreading services , including paper editing services for your journal manuscript. If you need advice on how to write the other parts of your research paper , or on how to make a research paper outline if you are struggling with putting everything you did together, then head over to the Wordvice academic resources pages , where we have a lot more articles and videos for you.

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  • How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

How to Write a Dissertation Conclusion | Checklist and Examples

Published on 9 September 2022 by Tegan George and Shona McCombes. Revised on 10 October 2022.

The conclusion is the very last part of your thesis or dissertation . It should be concise and engaging, leaving your reader with a clear understanding of your main findings, as well as the answer to your research question .

In it, you should:

  • Clearly state the answer to your main research question
  • Summarise and reflect on your research process
  • Make recommendations for future work on your topic
  • Show what new knowledge you have contributed to your field
  • Wrap up your thesis or dissertation

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Table of contents

Discussion vs. conclusion, how long should your conclusion be, step 1: answer your research question, step 2: summarise and reflect on your research, step 3: make future recommendations, step 4: emphasise your contributions to your field, step 5: wrap up your thesis or dissertation, full conclusion example, conclusion checklist, frequently asked questions about conclusion sections.

While your conclusion contains similar elements to your discussion section , they are not the same thing.

Your conclusion should be shorter and more general than your discussion. Instead of repeating literature from your literature review , discussing specific research results , or interpreting your data in detail, concentrate on making broad statements that sum up the most important insights of your research.

As a rule of thumb, your conclusion should not introduce new data, interpretations, or arguments.

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Depending on whether you are writing a thesis or dissertation, your length will vary. Generally, a conclusion should make up around 5–7% of your overall word count.

An empirical scientific study will often have a short conclusion, concisely stating the main findings and recommendations for future research. A humanities topic or systematic review , on the other hand, might require more space to conclude its analysis, tying all the previous sections together in an overall argument.

Your conclusion should begin with the main question that your thesis or dissertation aimed to address. This is your final chance to show that you’ve done what you set out to do, so make sure to formulate a clear, concise answer.

  • Don’t repeat a list of all the results that you already discussed
  • Do synthesise them into a final takeaway that the reader will remember.

An empirical thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:

A case study –based thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:

In the second example, the research aim is not directly restated, but rather added implicitly to the statement. To avoid repeating yourself, it is helpful to reformulate your aims and questions into an overall statement of what you did and how you did it.

Your conclusion is an opportunity to remind your reader why you took the approach you did, what you expected to find, and how well the results matched your expectations.

To avoid repetition , consider writing more reflectively here, rather than just writing a summary of each preceding section. Consider mentioning the effectiveness of your methodology , or perhaps any new questions or unexpected insights that arose in the process.

You can also mention any limitations of your research, but only if you haven’t already included these in the discussion. Don’t dwell on them at length, though – focus on the positives of your work.

  • While x limits the generalisability of the results, this approach provides new insight into y .
  • This research clearly illustrates x , but it also raises the question of y .

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You may already have made a few recommendations for future research in your discussion section, but the conclusion is a good place to elaborate and look ahead, considering the implications of your findings in both theoretical and practical terms.

  • Based on these conclusions, practitioners should consider …
  • To better understand the implications of these results, future studies could address …
  • Further research is needed to determine the causes of/effects of/relationship between …

When making recommendations for further research, be sure not to undermine your own work. Relatedly, while future studies might confirm, build on, or enrich your conclusions, they shouldn’t be required for your argument to feel complete. Your work should stand alone on its own merits.

Just as you should avoid too much self-criticism, you should also avoid exaggerating the applicability of your research. If you’re making recommendations for policy, business, or other practical implementations, it’s generally best to frame them as ‘shoulds’ rather than ‘musts’. All in all, the purpose of academic research is to inform, explain, and explore – not to demand.

Make sure your reader is left with a strong impression of what your research has contributed to the state of your field.

Some strategies to achieve this include:

  • Returning to your problem statement to explain how your research helps solve the problem
  • Referring back to the literature review and showing how you have addressed a gap in knowledge
  • Discussing how your findings confirm or challenge an existing theory or assumption

Again, avoid simply repeating what you’ve already covered in the discussion in your conclusion. Instead, pick out the most important points and sum them up succinctly, situating your project in a broader context.

The end is near! Once you’ve finished writing your conclusion, it’s time to wrap up your thesis or dissertation with a few final steps:

  • It’s a good idea to write your abstract next, while the research is still fresh in your mind.
  • Next, make sure your reference list is complete and correctly formatted. To speed up the process, you can use our free APA citation generator .
  • Once you’ve added any appendices , you can create a table of contents and title page .
  • Finally, read through the whole document again to make sure your thesis is clearly written and free from language errors. You can proofread it yourself , ask a friend, or consider Scribbr’s proofreading and editing service .

Here is an example of how you can write your conclusion section. Notice how it includes everything mentioned above:

V. Conclusion

The current research aimed to identify acoustic speech characteristics which mark the beginning of an exacerbation in COPD patients.

The central questions for this research were as follows: 1. Which acoustic measures extracted from read speech differ between COPD speakers in stable condition and healthy speakers? 2. In what ways does the speech of COPD patients during an exacerbation differ from speech of COPD patients during stable periods?

All recordings were aligned using a script. Subsequently, they were manually annotated to indicate respiratory actions such as inhaling and exhaling. The recordings of 9 stable COPD patients reading aloud were then compared with the recordings of 5 healthy control subjects reading aloud. The results showed a significant effect of condition on the number of in- and exhalations per syllable, the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable, and the ratio of voiced and silence intervals. The number of in- and exhalations per syllable and the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable were higher for COPD patients than for healthy controls, which confirmed both hypotheses.

However, the higher ratio of voiced and silence intervals for COPD patients compared to healthy controls was not in line with the hypotheses. This unpredicted result might have been caused by the different reading materials or recording procedures for both groups, or by a difference in reading skills. Moreover, there was a trend regarding the effect of condition on the number of syllables per breath group. The number of syllables per breath group was higher for healthy controls than for COPD patients, which was in line with the hypothesis. There was no effect of condition on pitch, intensity, center of gravity, pitch variability, speaking rate, or articulation rate.

This research has shown that the speech of COPD patients in exacerbation differs from the speech of COPD patients in stable condition. This might have potential for the detection of exacerbations. However, sustained vowels rarely occur in spontaneous speech. Therefore, the last two outcome measures might have greater potential for the detection of beginning exacerbations, but further research on the different outcome measures and their potential for the detection of exacerbations is needed due to the limitations of the current study.

Checklist: Conclusion

I have clearly and concisely answered the main research question .

I have summarized my overall argument or key takeaways.

I have mentioned any important limitations of the research.

I have given relevant recommendations .

I have clearly explained what my research has contributed to my field.

I have  not introduced any new data or arguments.

You've written a great conclusion! Use the other checklists to further improve your dissertation.

In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context.

The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.

While it may be tempting to present new arguments or evidence in your thesis or disseration conclusion , especially if you have a particularly striking argument you’d like to finish your analysis with, you shouldn’t. Theses and dissertations follow a more formal structure than this.

All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the discussion section and results section .) The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.

For a stronger dissertation conclusion , avoid including:

  • Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
  • Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5-7% of your overall word count.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation should include the following:

  • A restatement of your research question
  • A summary of your key arguments and/or results
  • A short discussion of the implications of your research

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Frequently asked questions

What should i include in a research paper conclusion.

The conclusion of a research paper has several key elements you should make sure to include:

  • A restatement of the research problem
  • A summary of your key arguments and/or findings
  • A short discussion of the implications of your research

Frequently asked questions: Writing a research paper

A research project is an academic, scientific, or professional undertaking to answer a research question . Research projects can take many forms, such as qualitative or quantitative , descriptive , longitudinal , experimental , or correlational . What kind of research approach you choose will depend on your topic.

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

Formulating a main research question can be a difficult task. Overall, your question should contribute to solving the problem that you have defined in your problem statement .

However, it should also fulfill criteria in three main areas:

  • Researchability
  • Feasibility and specificity
  • Relevance and originality

Research questions anchor your whole project, so it’s important to spend some time refining them.

In general, they should be:

  • Focused and researchable
  • Answerable using credible sources
  • Complex and arguable
  • Feasible and specific
  • Relevant and original

All research questions should be:

  • Focused on a single problem or issue
  • Researchable using primary and/or secondary sources
  • Feasible to answer within the timeframe and practical constraints
  • Specific enough to answer thoroughly
  • Complex enough to develop the answer over the space of a paper or thesis
  • Relevant to your field of study and/or society more broadly

Writing Strong Research Questions

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

Your research objectives indicate how you’ll try to address your research problem and should be specific:

Research objectives describe what you intend your research project to accomplish.

They summarize the approach and purpose of the project and help to focus your research.

Your objectives should appear in the introduction of your research paper , at the end of your problem statement .

The main guidelines for formatting a paper in Chicago style are to:

  • Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman
  • Use 1 inch margins or larger
  • Apply double line spacing
  • Indent every new paragraph ½ inch
  • Include a title page
  • Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center
  • Cite your sources with author-date citations or Chicago footnotes
  • Include a bibliography or reference list

To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .

The main guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA style are as follows:

  • Use an easily readable font like 12 pt Times New Roman
  • Set 1 inch page margins
  • Include a four-line MLA heading on the first page
  • Center the paper’s title
  • Use title case capitalization for headings
  • Cite your sources with MLA in-text citations
  • List all sources cited on a Works Cited page at the end

To format a paper in APA Style , follow these guidelines:

  • Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman or 11 pt Arial
  • If submitting for publication, insert a running head on every page
  • Apply APA heading styles
  • Cite your sources with APA in-text citations
  • List all sources cited on a reference page at the end

No, it’s not appropriate to present new arguments or evidence in the conclusion . While you might be tempted to save a striking argument for last, research papers follow a more formal structure than this.

All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the results and discussion sections if you are following a scientific structure). The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.

Don’t feel that you have to write the introduction first. The introduction is often one of the last parts of the research paper you’ll write, along with the conclusion.

This is because it can be easier to introduce your paper once you’ve already written the body ; you may not have the clearest idea of your arguments until you’ve written them, and things can change during the writing process .

The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper . A research paper that presents a sustained argument will usually encapsulate this argument in a thesis statement .

A research paper designed to present the results of empirical research tends to present a research question that it seeks to answer. It may also include a hypothesis —a prediction that will be confirmed or disproved by your research.

The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:

  • A hook to catch the reader’s interest
  • Relevant background on the topic
  • Details of your research problem

and your problem statement

  • A thesis statement or research question
  • Sometimes an overview of the paper

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Watch CBS News

What is Project 2025? What to know about the conservative blueprint for a second Trump administration

By Melissa Quinn , Jacob Rosen

Updated on: July 11, 2024 / 9:40 AM EDT / CBS News

Washington — Voters in recent weeks have begun to hear the name "Project 2025" invoked more and more by President Biden and Democrats, as they seek to sound the alarm about what could be in store if former President Donald Trump wins a second term in the White House.

Overseen by the conservative Heritage Foundation, the multi-pronged initiative includes a detailed blueprint for the next Republican president to usher in a sweeping overhaul of the executive branch.

Trump and his campaign have worked to distance themselves from Project 2025, with the former president going so far as to call some of the proposals "abysmal." But Democrats have continued to tie the transition project to Trump, especially as they find themselves mired in their own controversy over whether Mr. Biden should withdraw from the 2024 presidential contest following his startling debate performance last month.

Here is what to know about Project 2025:

What is Project 2025?

Project 2025 is a proposed presidential transition project that is composed of four pillars: a policy guide for the next presidential administration; a LinkedIn-style database of personnel who could serve in the next administration; training for that pool of candidates dubbed the "Presidential Administration Academy;" and a playbook of actions to be taken within the first 180 days in office.

It is led by two former Trump administration officials: Paul Dans, who was chief of staff at the Office of Personnel Management and serves as director of the project, and Spencer Chretien, former special assistant to Trump and now the project's associate director.

Project 2025 is spearheaded by the Heritage Foundation, but includes an advisory board consisting of more than 100 conservative groups.

Much of the focus on — and criticism of — Project 2025 involves its first pillar, the nearly 900-page policy book that lays out an overhaul of the federal government. Called "Mandate for Leadership 2025: The Conservative Promise," the book builds on a "Mandate for Leadership" first published in January 1981, which sought to serve as a roadmap for Ronald Reagan's incoming administration.

The recommendations outlined in the sprawling plan reach every corner of the executive branch, from the Executive Office of the President to the Department of Homeland Security to the little-known Export-Import Bank. 

President Donald Trump speaks during a meeting with advisers in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, D,C., on June 25, 2019.

The Heritage Foundation also created a "Mandate for Leadership" in 2015 ahead of Trump's first term. Two years into his presidency, it touted that Trump had instituted 64% of its policy recommendations, ranging from leaving the Paris Climate Accords, increasing military spending, and increasing off-shore drilling and developing federal lands. In July 2020, the Heritage Foundation gave its updated version of the book to then-White House Chief of Staff Mark Meadows. 

The authors of many chapters are familiar names from the Trump administration, such as Russ Vought, who led the Office of Management and Budget; former acting Defense Secretary Chris Miller; and Roger Severino, who was director of the Office of Civil Rights at the Department of Health and Human Services.

Vought is the policy director for the 2024 Republican National Committee's platform committee, which released its proposed platform on Monday. 

John McEntee, former director of the White House Presidential Personnel Office under Trump, is a senior advisor to the Heritage Foundation, and said that the group will "integrate a lot of our work" with the Trump campaign when the official transition efforts are announced in the next few months.

Candidates interested in applying for the Heritage Foundation's "Presidential Personnel Database" are vetted on a number of political stances, such as whether they agree or disagree with statements like "life has a right to legal protection from conception to natural death," and "the President should be able to advance his/her agenda through the bureaucracy without hindrance from unelected federal officials."

The contributions from ex-Trump administration officials have led its critics to tie Project 2025 to his reelection campaign, though the former president has attempted to distance himself from the initiative.

What are the Project 2025 plans?

Some of the policies in the Project 2025 agenda have been discussed by Republicans for years or pushed by Trump himself: less federal intervention in education and more support for school choice; work requirements for able-bodied, childless adults on food stamps; and a secure border with increased enforcement of immigration laws, mass deportations and construction of a border wall. 

But others have come under scrutiny in part because of the current political landscape. 

Abortion and social issues

In recommendations for the Department of Health and Human Services, the agenda calls for the Food and Drug Administration to reverse its 24-year-old approval of the widely used abortion pill mifepristone. Other proposed actions targeting medication abortion include reinstating more stringent rules for mifepristone's use, which would permit it to be taken up to seven weeks into a pregnancy, instead of the current 10 weeks, and requiring it to be dispensed in-person instead of through the mail.

The Alliance Defending Freedom, a conservative legal group that is on the Project 2025 advisory board, was involved in a legal challenge to mifepristone's 2000 approval and more recent actions from the FDA that made it easier to obtain. But the Supreme Court rejected the case brought by a group of anti-abortion rights doctors and medical associations on procedural grounds.

The policy book also recommends the Justice Department enforce the Comstock Act against providers and distributors of abortion pills. That 1873 law prohibits drugs, medicines or instruments used in abortions from being sent through the mail.


Now that the Supreme Court has overturned Roe v. Wade , the volume states that the Justice Department "in the next conservative administration should therefore announce its intent to enforce federal law against providers and distributors of such pills."

The guide recommends the next secretary of Health and Human Services get rid of the Reproductive Healthcare Access Task Force established by the Biden administration before Roe's reversal and create a "pro-life task force to ensure that all of the department's divisions seek to use their authority to promote the life and health of women and their unborn children."

In a section titled "The Family Agenda," the proposal recommends the Health and Human Services chief "proudly state that men and women are biological realities," and that "married men and women are the ideal, natural family structure because all children have a right to be raised by the men and women who conceived them."

Further, a program within the Health and Human Services Department should "maintain a biblically based, social science-reinforced definition of marriage and family."

During his first four years in office, Trump banned transgender people from serving in the military. Mr. Biden reversed that policy , but the Project 2025 policy book calls for the ban to be reinstated.

Targeting federal agencies, employees and policies

The agenda takes aim at longstanding federal agencies, like the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. The agency is a component of the Commerce Department and the policy guide calls for it to be downsized. 

NOAA's six offices, including the National Weather Service and National Marine Fisheries Service, "form a colossal operation that has become one of the main drivers of the climate change alarm industry and, as such, is harmful to future U.S. prosperity," the guide states. 

The Department of Homeland Security, established in 2002, should be dismantled and its agencies either combined with others, or moved under the purview of other departments altogether, the policy book states. For example, immigration-related entities from the Departments of Homeland Security, Justice and Health and Human Services should form a standalone, Cabinet-level border and immigration agency staffed by more than 100,000 employees, according to the agenda.

The Department of Homeland Security logo is seen on a law enforcement vehicle in Washington on March 7, 2017.

If the policy recommendations are implemented, another federal agency that could come under the knife by the next administration, with action from Congress, is the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.

The agenda seeks to bring a push by conservatives to target diversity, equity and inclusion, or DEI, initiatives in higher education to the executive branch by wiping away a slew of DEI-related positions, policies and programs and calling for the elimination of funding for partners that promote DEI practices.

It states that U.S. Agency for International Development staff and grantees that "engage in ideological agitation on behalf of the DEI agenda" should be terminated. At the Treasury Department, the guide says the next administration should "treat the participation in any critical race theory or DEI initiative without objecting on constitutional or moral grounds, as per se grounds for termination of employment."

The Project 2025 policy book also takes aim at more innocuous functions of government. It calls for the next presidential administration to eliminate or reform the dietary guidelines that have been published by the Department of Agriculture for more than 40 years, which the authors claim have been "infiltrated" by issues like climate change and sustainability.


Trump made immigration a cornerstone of his last two presidential runs and has continued to hammer the issue during his 2024 campaign. Project 2025's agenda not only recommends finishing the wall along the U.S.-Mexico border, but urges the next administration to "take a creative and aggressive approach" to responding to drug cartels at the border. This approach includes using active-duty military personnel and the National Guard to help with arrest operations along the southern border.

A memo from Immigration and Customs Enforcement that prohibits enforcement actions from taking place at "sensitive" places like schools, playgrounds and churches should be rolled back, the policy guide states. 

When the Homeland Security secretary determines there is an "actual or anticipated mass migration of aliens" that presents "urgent circumstances" warranting a federal response, the agenda says the secretary can make rules and regulations, including through their expulsion, for as long as necessary. These rules, the guide states, aren't subject to the Administration Procedure Act, which governs the agency rule-making process.

What do Trump and his advisers say about Project 2025?

In a post to his social media platform on July 5, Trump wrote , "I know nothing about Project 2025. I have no idea who is behind it. I disagree with some of the things they're saying and some of the things they're saying are absolutely ridiculous and abysmal. Anything they do, I wish them luck, but I have nothing to do with them."

Trump's pushback to the initiative came after Heritage Foundation President Kevin Roberts said in a podcast interview that the nation is "in the process of the second American Revolution, which will remain bloodless if the left allows it to be."

The former president continued to disavow the initiative this week, writing in another social media post  that he knows nothing about Project 2025.

"I have not seen it, have no idea who is in charge of it, and, unlike our very well received Republican Platform, had nothing to do with it," Trump wrote. "The Radical Left Democrats are having a field day, however, trying to hook me into whatever policies are stated or said. It is pure disinformation on their part. By now, after all of these years, everyone knows where I stand on EVERYTHING!"

While the former president said he doesn't know who is in charge of the initiative, the project's director, Dans, and associate director, Chretien, were high-ranking officials in his administration. Additionally, Ben Carson, former secretary of Housing and Urban Development under Trump; John Ratcliffe, former director of National Intelligence in the Trump administration; and Peter Navarro, who served as a top trade adviser to Trump in the White House, are listed as either authors or contributors to the policy agenda.

Still, even before Roberts' comments during "The War Room" podcast — typically hosted by conservative commentator Steve Bannon, who reported to federal prison to begin serving a four-month sentence last week — Trump's top campaign advisers have stressed that Project 2025 has no official ties to his reelection bid.

Susie Wiles and Chris LaCivita, senior advisers to the Trump campaign, said in a November statement that 2024 policy announcements will be made by Trump or his campaign team.

"Any personnel lists, policy agendas, or government plans published anywhere are merely suggestions," they said.

While the efforts by outside organizations are "appreciated," Wiles and LaCivita said, "none of these groups or individuals speak for President Trump or his campaign."

In response to Trump's post last week, Project 2025 reiterated that it was separate from the Trump campaign.

"As we've been saying for more than two years now, Project 2025 does not speak for any candidate or campaign. We are a coalition of more than 110 conservative groups advocating policy & personnel recommendations for the next conservative president. But it is ultimately up to that president, who we believe will be President Trump, to decide which recommendations to implement," a statement on the project's X account said.

The initiative has also pushed back on Democrats' claims about its policy proposals and accused them of lying about what the agenda contains.

What do Democrats say?

Despite their attempts to keep some distance from Project 2025, Democrats continue to connect Trump with the transition effort. The Biden-Harris campaign frequently posts about the project on X, tying it to a second Trump term.

Mr. Biden himself accused his Republican opponent of lying about his connections to the Project 2025 agenda, saying in a statement that the agenda was written for Trump and "should scare every single American." He claimed on his campaign social media account  Wednesday that Project 2025 "will destroy America."

Congressional Democrats have also begun pivoting to Project 2025 when asked in interviews about Mr. Biden's fitness for a second term following his lackluster showing at the June 27 debate, the first in which he went head-to-head with Trump.

"Trump is all about Project 2025," Pennsylvania Sen. John Fetterman told CNN on Monday. "I mean, that's what we really should be voting on right now. It's like, do we want the kind of president that is all about Project '25?"

Rep. Jim Clyburn of South Carolina, one of Mr. Biden's closest allies on Capitol Hill, told reporters Monday that the agenda for the next Republican president was the sole topic he would talk about.

"Project 2025, that's my only concern," he said. "I don't want you or my granddaughter to live under that government."

In a statement reiterating her support for Mr. Biden, Rep. Frederica Wilson of Florida called Project 2025 "MAGA Republicans' draconian 920-page plan to end U.S. democracy, give handouts to the wealthy and strip Americans of their freedoms."

What are Republicans saying about Project 2025?

Two GOP senators under consideration to serve as Trump's running mate sought to put space between the White House hopeful and Project 2025, casting it as merely the product of a think tank that puts forth ideas.

"It's the work of a think tank, of a center-right think tank, and that's what think tanks do," Florida Sen. Marco Rubio told CNN's "State of the Union" on Sunday.

He said Trump's message to voters focuses on "restoring common sense, working-class values, and making our decisions on the basis of that."

Ohio Sen. J.D. Vance raised a similar sentiment in an interview with NBC's "Meet the Press," saying organizations will have good ideas and bad ideas.

"It's a 900-page document," he said Sunday. "I guarantee there are things that Trump likes and dislikes about that 900-page document. But he is the person who will determine the agenda of the next administration."

Jaala Brown contributed to this report.

Melissa Quinn is a politics reporter for She has written for outlets including the Washington Examiner, Daily Signal and Alexandria Times. Melissa covers U.S. politics, with a focus on the Supreme Court and federal courts.

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What element of a research project can help you know what to include in summaries of sources? your thesis statement your notes your topic your conclusions

The element of a research project that can help you know what to include in summaries of sources is your thesis statement . Thus the correct option is A .

A summary is a concise introduction to any subject written in your own words with the goal of helping the reader comprehend the main idea and setting of a tale so they may take part.

A research projec t comprises accumulating important data from various sources with the goal of learning more about an important concept in order to share information with an audience.

The thesis statement is a crucial component of a research project since it can guide you in deciding what information to include in source summaries. The topic and goal of your paper are stated in a single sentence known as a thesis statement. 

Therefore, option A is appropriate.

Learn more about Summary , here:

Related Questions

In Gary Soto’s short story “Mother and Daughter,” a young girl is embarrassed when her mother can’t buy her a new dress for the school dance. In Gary Soto’s short story “The Drive-In Movies,” Soto describes his desire to go the drive-in movies as a kid. Discuss the similar themes that Gary Soto explores in the two texts. How does Soto portray the relationships between family members? What similar literary devices does Soto use to explore these themes? (I NEED HELP ASAP GIVING 30 POINTS) ;-;

I think is the fact there embearsed to be poor


Use the information from the passages to write three to five sentences summarizing Helen Keller’s life. Include cited information in your summary. "The most important day I remember in all my life is the one on which my teacher, Anne Mansfield Sullivan, came to me. I am filled with wonder when I consider the immeasurable contrasts between the two lives which it connects. It was the third of March, 1887, three months before I was seven years old" (Keller 23). "Helen lost her ability to see and hear when she was an infant. With Anne Sullivan's help, Helen learned to communicate with sign language and to read and write with braille. Helen Keller was awarded honorary degrees from multiple universities. Until her death in 1968, she was admired around the world for her perseverance and strength" ("Helen's Story").

Helen Keller could not see or hear. "With Anne Sullivan's help, Helen learned to communicate" ("Helen's Story"). Helen Keller described the day she met Anne Sullivan as "the most important day I remember in all my life" (Keller 23). Helen went on to become a very successful student and an inspiration to many people. [end]

I did the test this is the right answer

What runs around the whole yard without moving?

This is for a book I'm writing. I want some real people to be in it so here are the questions you must answer to be qualified. (Even the smallest role plays the biggest part!) The story will be posted on Wattpad next year. 1. Name (doesn't have to be real name fantasy name are encouraged) 2. Appearance (again this doesn't have to be real, can be a fantasy) 3. Personality 4. Role in the story you would like. 5. Gender or Pronouns (ex: she/her they/them) The parts you can play in the story is: a. illegitimate child (child of the king but has a different mother and is in line of succession) b. Nymph c. Witch or Wizard d. Knight e. Servant Hope some of you show interest in this!

“Robots can do the jobs of several people, eliminating high personnel costs. Additionally, they can do tedious jobs over and over again, with little oversight. Humans cannot perform at the same level. In addition, a robot does not need to be fed or paid.” (paragraph 11) What is the effect of the word "tedious" in this excerpt? It emphasizes that these tasks are tiresome. It describes the type of work robots complete. It shows that robots make fewer mistakes than humans. It illustrates that humans work less quickly than robots.

C) It shows that robots make fewer mistakes than humans

Tedious means diffucult or troubleing so it shows a robot can do these jobs without problem

help me with this dumb question l know nothing about l didn't study

Read each sentence and select the direct object if the verb is transitive. Select "intransitive" if the verb is intransitive.

i believe its c

You were correct. (A)

The time is what Jackson enjoyed . Therefor time is the object " enjoyed " is referring to.

if when he where would go so yes he could walk to the past before tommorow?

I would walk to my best friends house yesterday and then play piano to.morow after I yes

B is correct

Which word in this passage from "Let George Do It!" helps you to understand that the boys thought the river was exciting? "The sun sparkled tantalizingly on the waters of the Columbia River. The river always held a special lure for these adventuresome boys. The exuberance of youth filled George - his father's request was forgotten. George cupped his hands and yelled, "Here I come, wait." Running, he kicked at the sagebrush that would defy his advance." tantalizingly defy adventuresome exuberance

tantalizing bc that's the only one that account describes the river

Read the chart carefully then answer the questions located beneath: Green block organization chart with Introduction, Hippopotamuses are the most dangerous animals in Africa, Main Fact 1 brackets body paragraph brackets, topic sentence, yellow block, supporting details, Jaws can bite with one ton of pressure. Teeth are stronger than elephant tusks. Runs faster than 30 mph. Yellow block Main Fact 2 brackets body paragraph brackets, Hippopotamuses have been known to cause death in many different ways. Yellow block, support details, Blue block Conclusion thesis recap Based on the supporting details for main fact 1, which topic sentence would you expect to read? Although it is a vegetarian, the hippopotamus can run and catch food easily. The body features of the hippopotamus are a deadly combination. Hippopotamuses have been known to cause death in many different ways. I think that the hippopotamus has really cool, interesting, and unusual features.

B. The body features of the hippopotamus are a deadly combination.

I took the test

Based on the supporting details for main fact 1, the topic sentence that one would expect to read is B . The body features of the hippopotamus are a deadly combination.

From the information given, the supporting details for the main fact 1 is that the jaws of a hippopotamus can bite with one ton of pressure.

The teeth of the hippopotamus are stronger than elephant tusks and they run faster than 30mph . Therefore, the topic sentence that one would expect to read based on the facts will be that the body features of the hippopotamus are a deadly combination.

Read related link on:

Find examples of the uses of articles which you have on p. 145/ 146 in the text about the grandfather (p.42). Write them next to the uses on p.145/146 PLEASE I NEED HELP !!

Woa.....yea srry bud cant help i wish i could

PLEASE HELP ASAP BEST ANSWER WILL BE MARKED BRAINLIEST Excerpt 1 A proud British lord and lady had taken a trip to Africa with their young infant. They traveled through the jungle exploring different habitats and observing animals. One unfortunate day, their camp was raided by a tribe that did not appreciate that the British were trying to settle in their territory. The tribe chased the baby's parents away, and the baby was left alone. A group of apes could hear the baby crying, and they pitied the poor child. An ape family decided to take the young baby in and raise the baby as their own. Many other chimps and monkeys mocked the ape family for their decision. They claimed that humans were destructive beasts and that one day the child might turn on them. The wild apes ignored the other creatures and felt that if they raised the child with love and care, there should be no reason that they would ever be enemies. They named the child Tarzan. Tarzan grew up thinking that he was no different than the wild apes that raised him. He ate what they ate, and he swung from the trees like they did. He even walked on his knuckles and hooted and called like the wild apes did. For all he knew, the wild apes were his real parents. He lived happily in the love and care of his jungle family. Excerpt 2 A mother, father, and their infant child lived in a small village in India on the outskirts of the jungle. One day the father had wandered into the jungle with their child but got lost. At nightfall, the father found a cave to hide out in with his small child, but soon a tiger found them hiding in the cave. The father went to defend the child from the tiger, but he got chased back to the village by the tiger, and the baby was left alone. The child howled in the dark, much like wolves do. It didn't take long before a pack of wolves found him in the cave. They instantly fell in love with the small boy, for they felt he was very cute. They decided to raise him as they would a wolf pup. They named him Mowgli. Mowgli grew up loving his jungle life. He made friends with all the animals, except one. The same tiger that had chased his father away now wanted to chase off Mowgli. The tiger warned all the others about the evils of humankind, but the other animals wouldn't listen. They loved Mowgli as one of their own. Both excerpts are about human characters who are raised by animals. How do the authors use the events to illustrate how the animal characters feel about raising human children? •Both excerpts show how most of the animal characters ignore the human children and make them feel bad for being different. •Both excerpts show how most of the animal characters loved and cared for the human children. •Both excerpts show how the human children care for the animal characters and make them a part of their families. •Both excerpts show how the human children have to learn to be independent since they do not have a family to care for them.

I will give brainlist How does the phrase, “the relationship deteriorated and within a few years the children of the people who ate together at the first Thanksgiving were killing one another” In the story THE PLYMOUTH THANKSGIVING STORY" Commonlit

The Pilgrims displayed intolerance toward the Indian religion. The relationship deteriorated and within a few years the children of the people who ate together at the first Thanksgiving were killing one another in what came to be called King Phillip's War.

The sentence helped to show how the relationship between the natives and the pilgrims had already been friendly , but was corrupted by greed and intolerance .

We can arrive at this answer because:

This started all the violence established in the American territory during colonization , causing the natives to be suppressed and violated .

More information:

How did American culture develop?

The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western origin, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Pacific Island, and Latin American people and their cultures.

When Europe was rebuilding after World War I, what did the countries of France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Italy form to make trade among its member nations easier? OAllies OEuropean Economic Community, or EEC O North American Free Trade Agreement, or NAFTA O the New Cooperative

Need help with fill in the blanks for onomatopoeias on number 6,7,9, and 10 (also if u can spot errors so I can fix it just in case) :)

10.)  Screech

In an informational piece, what should your purpose be? Select two answers.

In an informational piece your purpose should be to inform someone on a particular subject, and to intrest the reader in this topic.

In the short film "2081", Harrison purposely arranged for the event to be on live TV. His intent of the evening was captured when he said: "If it is greatness that we must destroy, let us drag our enemy out of the darkness where it has been hiding. Let us shine a light so that at last all of the world can see." What did he mean? *

Harrison believed that greatness was considered to be the enemy. So he thought that greatness should be pulled out of the darkness and be allowed to shine, instead of everyone having to hide their talents.

Harrison thought that being exceptional was viewed as the adversary . He, therefore, believed that rather than forcing everyone to conceal their skills , excellence should be dragged out of the shadows and allowed to shine.

Any movie with a runtime that is too short to be categorized as a feature film is referred to as a short film . A short film is described as "an original motion picture that has a running duration of 40 minutes or less , including all credits" by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

From the 1920s until the 1970s, short films in the US that were limited to two or fewer 35 mm reels were referred to as short subjects, and films with three or more reels were referred to as featurettes. It might be shortened to "short" for either term. The increasingly uncommon industry phrase " short subject " implies more that the movie is presented alongside a feature picture as part of a presentation.

Learn more about the short film here:

Hey can y'all check out the story I'm writing and you can give ideas if you have any or y'all like to see something happening here's the link

What does Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious mean"

Answer: It basically means extraordinarily good. You'd never use it in a formal setting though.

Need helpp fastt plss will give brainliest to who is correct plss helpp PLSSS HELPP I NEED THE ANSWER CORRECT

Milliliter to Liter is as Gram to Kilogram

Hope I helped

ou will choose another character from the story to write a diary entry about Anne. You know what Anne thinks of the others, but what do they think of her? Guidelines: -Written from the perspective of anyone else living in the Annex, except Anne* *(You can choose Mr. Frank, Mrs. Frank, Margot Frank, Peter Van Dann, Mrs. Van Daan, Mr. Van Daan, Mr. Dussel). -At least 8 sentences long- minimum -Include details about Anne that have been discussed in the play -Written in first person point of view -Be sure to SIGN your character's name at the end of the diary entry so I know who you are!

I haven't read this book, but I can explain how to do this.

So, just pick a character otehr than Anne and write what they think about Anne. For example, you could say, Mr. Frank thinks that Anne is a silly little girl and just likes to goof around. Then include an example of why you think that. Take a quote from the book and put quotations around it. Include a couple of quotes and say, This is why I think Mr. Frank think that blah blah blah.

When an author uses a fable with a moral to present a message, what is the most likely purpose? (5 points) A. To inform B. To entertain C. To persuade D. To teach

D. To teach

Morals in stories are used to teach a lesson to the reader

Today was the day, Heather decided. She would row that boat across the river in less than half an hour, beating her brother’s record. Of course, even on a sunny, windless day like today, she knew the task would be difficult. No matter the weather, the river currents were always strong. Still, Heather was strong, too. She was a very competitive person. She had been practicing rowing for months. She knew all the tips for using the oars to achieve speed and smoothness in the water. She had increased her upper-arm strength and mastered her rhythm and breathing. “I’ll show you,” Heather told her father. “A girl can be as good an athlete as a boy.” What can you conclude about Heather’s brother from evidence in the passage? He holds a record for crossing the river in less than half an hour. He has not mastered his rhythm and breathing. He has been practicing rowing for months. He holds a record for crossing the river in half an hour.

He holds a record for crossing the river in half an hour

You can read at the top she is trying to beat her brother, and it says she is trying to beat it in less than half an hour so her brother had obviously only crossed in half an hour because Heather is trying to cross it less then half an hour.

There are about 50 bones in a pair of human foots the doctor explained. fix this sentence.

"There are about 50 bones in a pair of human feet", explained the doctor.

I hope this is helpful, english is my verified strong suit, so im hoping this helps you with your questions

what rhymes with of?

That's all i can come up with.

Which quote from Russell Freedman’s Immigrant Kids uses the correct form of a citation? “Others had to make the journey in stages. Often the father came first, found work, and then sent for his family later” (Freedman 6). “Others had to make the journey in stages. Often the father came first, found work, and then sent for his family later” (Immigrant Kids, 6). “Others had to make the journey in stages. Often the father came first, found work, and then sent for his family later” (Immigrant Kids 6). “Others had to make the journey in stages. Often the father came first, found work, and then sent for his family later” (Freedman, p. 6).

The first answer option presents the correct form of citation .

In the first answer option, we can see that the citation is inside quotation marks, followed by the information "(Freedman 6)" that represents the author's last name and the page where the citation was written in the original work. This is the correct way to present citations.

Learn more about citations :

can you help me Number 1 and 2 and 3 pls

Can I get crowned? Or thanked?

Scientific law vs. theory and facts. A hypothesis is a limited explanation of a phenomenon; a scientific theory is an in-depth explanation of the observed phenomenon.

they are difference because the law

This doesn't relate to any subject, but why aren't we allowed to paste links as an answer? I had to pick a subject, please don't get mad!


34t34t gfgrdf

I dont really know why maybe its because they made it that way and because of certain rules

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English in academic knowledge exchanges, llms: a drive for diversity or further standardization, linguistic diversity, academic publishing, and llms, conclusion and ways forward.

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Diversity and Standards in Writing for Publication in the Age of AI—Between a Rock and a Hard Place

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Maria Kuteeva, Marta Andersson, Diversity and Standards in Writing for Publication in the Age of AI—Between a Rock and a Hard Place, Applied Linguistics , Volume 45, Issue 3, June 2024, Pages 561–567,

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Research communities across disciplines recognize the need to diversify and decolonize knowledge. While artificial intelligence-supported large language models (LLMs) can help with access to knowledge generated in the Global North and demystify publication practices, they are still biased toward dominant norms and knowledge paradigms. LLMs lack agency, metacognition, knowledge of the local context, and understanding of how the human language works. These limitations raise doubts regarding their ability to develop the kind of rhetorical flexibility that is necessary for adapting writing to ever-changing contexts and demands. Thus, LLMs are likely to drive both language use and knowledge construction towards homogeneity and uniformity, reproducing already existing biases and structural inequalities. Since their output is based on shallow statistical associations, what these models are unable to achieve to the same extent as humans is linguistic creativity, particularly across languages, registers, and styles. This is the area where key stakeholders in academic publishing—authors, reviewers, and editors—have the upper hand, as our applied linguistics community strives to increase multilingual practices in knowledge production.

Current debates across different fields of academic inquiry underscore the need to promote inclusivity and decolonize knowledge and the way it is communicated in scholarly publications (e.g. Heidt, 2023 ; Mughogho et al ., 2023 ). This journal is no exception, as its latest special issue is dedicated to the topic of a decolonial applied linguistics (volume 44(5)). One issue entangled in the ongoing debates is language use in academic publishing, and the dominance of English in particular, which can facilitate participation for some but restrict it for others (e.g. Kuteeva, 2023 ). Recent discussions in Applied Linguistics go beyond language alone to capture an epistemic bias towards Western modes of thought more broadly (e.g. Figueiredo and Martinez, 2019 ; Kubota, 2020 ; Sugiharto, 2022 ).

In a similar vein, a recent editorial published in Nature Human Behaviour recognizes the limitations of English as the main communication medium and looks forward to employing artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted tools to address systemic biases toward the Global North ( Nature Editorial, 2023 ). While we agree that these tools definitely hold the potential for improving access and participation by unveiling often occluded practices and gate-keeping structures, AI comes with its caveats. The emergence of large language models (LLMs), such as Chat-GPT, has raised existential questions about the nature and future of academic writing in the scientific community, with applied linguistics standing as no exception. In this forum article, we juxtapose and explore the relationship between two trends: decolonization efforts in applied linguistics on the one hand, and AI-supported increased language and knowledge standardization on the other.

As detailed below, due to the nature of its training data, LLMs are susceptible to reproduction of the already dominant norms. Contrary to decolonization’s goals to increase diversity in perspectives and to promote epistemic justice and equal participation, AI-assisted LLMs are likely to drive knowledge communication toward further convergence. Even ChatGPT-3.5 points out this tension, suggesting that we should ‘critically examine the ways in which AI might shape knowledge construction and to ensure that diverse forms of knowledge are valued and promoted’.

Can the centripetal trend toward increased language standardization through AI impact ongoing efforts to promote linguistic and epistemic diversity in applied linguistics? This question is timely and relevant for our research community not only in connection to inequalities in participation and access between the Global South and North. As applied linguistics covers a broad range of research fields, theoretical frameworks, and methodologies—from corpus linguistics to translanguaging research—the impact of AI-assisted tools may vary or be experienced differently by key stakeholders in writing for publication. It is the more locally situated, context-dependent, qualitative lines of inquiry that rely on language in their knowledge-making practices that are more likely to be affected by AI-driven homogenization, starting with the dominance of standard varieties of English.

On the one hand, academic publishing in English enables knowledge exchanges, ensures accessibility of research to a wider readership, and yields the potential for international collaborations. At the same time, the ways in which one language shapes knowledge constrain research perspectives and epistemologies ( Figueiredo and Martinez, 2019 ; Kubota, 2020 ; Sugiharto, 2022 ), sometimes leading to ‘epistemic monoglossia’ ( Kuteeva, 2023 ), a situation when the field is dominated by theoretical and methodological perspectives associated with the use of that one language. The inhibitory nature of English in international knowledge exchanges is intimately linked to the high-stakes nature of writing for publication, which entails adherence to language norms and writing conventions. While these norms have been deemed necessary to ensure comprehensibility, the language standards in place are intertwined with the dominant academic structures and epistemologies of the Global North. These gate-keeping mechanisms influence the frameworks, methodologies, and audiences targeted by accepted publications.

The dominance of standard English in international publishing is arguably a factor counter to promoting alternative ways of thinking and constructing knowledge across disciplines (e.g., Nakadai et al. , 2023 ). One area where language norms tend to be perpetuated is the peer review process, which often witnesses reviewers’ harsh criticism ( Hyland and Jiang, 2020 ). This is indicative of how the workings of standard language ideologies marginalize and affect scholars from emergent regions (e.g. Silbiger and Stubler, 2019 ).

Despite calls for departure from ‘native’ standards (e.g. McKinley and Rose, 2018 ), journal submission guidelines commonly urge authors to use the help of a native speaker and write in impeccable English. As Flowerdew (2019) noted, this is also the case with several major journals in applied linguistics, such as Journal of Second Language Writing and Language Teaching . Outside the field of applied linguistics, with the exception of a handful of journals, including high-impact outlets such as Nature ( Nature Editorial, 2023 ), it is not unusual that submissions get disqualified based on the author’s use of English ( Politzer-Ahles et al ., 2016 ). As reported by members of the ‘Reviewer 2 must be stopped’ online community, critical toward perpetuation and reproduction of the established power bias, the language and style adopted by submission authors can be judged based on different conventions of specific varieties of English. In this publishing landscape, calls for the recognition of epistemologies from the Global South and decolonization of academic knowledge (e.g. Heidt, 2023 ; Mughogho et al., 2023 ) may appear as a drop in the ocean, so long as the underlying systemic bias continues to persist.

Although global participation and access for researchers based outside of the Global North can be enhanced with the help of AI-driven tools (e.g. Nature Editorial, 2023 ), there is also a risk that these tools will contribute to further knowledge and cultural homogenization if the source is predominantly in English ( Nakadai et al. , 2023 ). As we detail below, LLMs play a crucial part in this centripetal trend of knowledge production.

While AI has facilitated writing for decades, initially in the form of spelling and grammar checkers, Google Translate, autocomplete and other tools, it was the emergence of LLMs, such as ChatGPT, that brought the debate to a whole new level. As Chomsky et al. (2023) argue in The New York Times , the current advancements in AI warrant both optimism and apprehension. For instance, the output of ChatGPT paraphraser has been deemed very good in terms of using the accepted standard of grammar and style for scientific writing, as well as maintaining the original meaning of the text. As a result, recent research found that experienced reviewers and journal editors in applied linguistics struggle to detect differences between AI-powered and human-authored academic writing, even though AI-generated texts can be easily identified by the currently developed tools ( Devlin, 2023 ). At the same time, human-generated texts tend to be evaluated in more positive terms ( Casal and Kessler, 2023 ).

Although the way in which LLMs operate is reminiscent of the seminal ‘examine and report back’ methodology developed by Swales and Feak (2004) to teach academic writing, LLMs very much differ from how humans think and use language. As Chomsky et al. ( 2023 ) put it, ‘such programs are stuck in a prehuman or nonhuman phase of cognitive evolution’. They have no agency, no metacognition, and no real understanding of the workings of the human language ( Bender et al ., 2021 ). Due to these limitations, they are less likely to develop the kind of rhetorical flexibility that is necessary for adapting writing to ever-changing contexts and demands. As a result, LLMs will be naturally driving both language use and knowledge construction towards homogeneity and uniformity—if only due to their nature of a mere statistical predictor, labelled ‘a stochastic parrot’ by computational linguists ( Bender et al. , 2021 ). Another issue concerns inbuilt biases at the data gathering stage of LLMs, such as ChatGPT, which affects content ( Payne et al. , 2024 ). Overall, data collected from the Internet overrepresent younger populations based in the so-called WEIRD (Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic) countries.

For example, ChatGPT-2’s training data were harvested from a specific subsample of the Internet, namely outbound links posted in a discussion forum Reddit ( Bender et al. , 2021 ). According to Pew Internet Research’s 2016 survey, 67% of Reddit users in the USA are men, and 64% are aged between 18 and 29 ( Bender et al. , 2021 ). This data selection for GPT-2 is then inevitably skewed towards an anglophone (educated) young man. As a result, a model that is predominantly trained on a specific register of English and cultural references ( Payne et al ., 2024 ) will struggle to deal with other ways of thinking or generate text in registers or languages that it has not been exposed to. If the training data disproportionately represents certain groups/communities, it can lead to a model that favours those linguistic styles and perspectives. Although some progress has been made in training ChatGPT-3.5 by using Reinforcement Learning with Human Feedback (RLHF)—a method that uses human demonstrations and preference comparisons to guide the model toward desired behaviour—the output is still very skewed toward what is widely established and accepted, both in terms of language and content. We elaborate on this point and provide an example in the section below.

From our vantage point, a major issue is the tension between the forces promoting diversity and decolonization in academic knowledge on the one hand, and the application of AI on the other. While decolonization’s goal is to increase the diversity of perspectives, AI—in the case of LLMs—is convergent towards more of the same standard and reproduction of the already dominant norms oriented towards the current gate-keeping mechanisms. These two trends result in a conundrum: while the research community thrives to foster epistemic justice and increase the variety of perspectives, the AI-powered LLMs are driving knowledge towards convergence and the anglophone centre, thereby perpetuating the status quo. In this context, LLMs are unlikely to remedy inequalities in current knowledge-making practices.

While multilingual publication and research communication practices seem to be on the rise (e.g. AAAL’s 2023 decision to accept submissions in languages other than English), they do not necessarily address all issues related to participation. Considering the nature of the training data ( Bender et al. , 2021 ) and the existing disparities in current knowledge production between researchers based in well-resourced institutions in the Global North and those in teaching-intensive or under-funded universities ( Besnier, 2019 ), when facilitated by AI, knowledge flows are more likely to emanate from , rather than to , the anglophone centre, thereby reinforcing the centripetal trend in knowledge exchanges toward the Global North.

So, while there is undoubtedly a great potential for AI-supported tools to facilitate access to (anglophone) knowledge for so-called ‘non-WEIRD’ research communities in the Global South, it does not guarantee increased or equal participation. AI-supported tools can indeed help with translation into standard varieties of major world languages, such as Spanish or Mandarin Chinese, but they are less versed in minority languages. Moreover, a mere translation from English into another (standard) language does not warrant epistemic diversity. The same is true for translations into English, as long as research contributions do not align with expectations of the international research community. As underscored by Niko Besnier (2019) , the former editor of American Ethnologist , the quality of non-anglophone journal submissions intended for translation into English was in most cases questionable and they had to be desk-rejected. This further confirms the disparities between researchers based in elite institutions in the Global North and those in the Global South.

Another aspect pertinent to the issue of diversity concerns the limitation of LLMs in replicating human linguistic creativity, particularly across codes, registers, and styles. When a team of psychoneuroimmunology researchers prompted ChatGPT to contribute to a research paper, the resulting text was coherent and accurate on one hand, yet somewhat lackluster and generic on the other ( Hill-Yardin et al ., 2023 ). This limitation of LLM-generated text is particularly relevant in the aftermath of theoretical developments in applied linguistics which view language as a fluid construct, not limited to established named languages or varieties (e.g. Canagarajah 2022 ; Li Wei 2018 ). In the humanities and social sciences in particular, researchers often work across languages and resort to translingual practices (e.g. Kuteeva, 2023 ). Moreover, in these disciplines, language often serves an important function of discursively constructing knowledge. According to linguistic anthropologist Nick Enfield (2022) , discursive construction of worldviews and interaction is what all human language is really good for, not so much for offering accurate descriptions of reality. For an LLM, any kind of innovative discursive construction is out of the question, as it can only reproduce what is already in place.

For example, when we prompted Chat-GPT 3.5 to write a paragraph for a critical essay about multilingualism in Sweden, and to mix English and Swedish for rhetorical effect and to supporting the argument, it generated a text in which the two languages were mixed in a random fashion, devoid of any deliberate rhetorical significance. Rather than adopting a critical stance, the output outlined the current status quo account of multilingualism which could be applied to any context (e.g. ‘a more intricate reality, where multilingualism grapples with both celebration and assimilation’, ‘we can better appreciate both the challenges and enriching possibilities that multilingualism presents’), lacking any analysis of the extant/potential issues. The text elements in Swedish pertained exclusively to Sweden, its language, and realities, such as Sverige , svenska , den svenska samhällsstrukturen (Sweden, Swedish, the Swedish society structure), and clichés used in official documents or depictions of Sweden, such as integration utan att offra mångfalden (integration without sacrificing diversity) or Sveriges mångspråkliga verklighet (Sweden’s multilingual reality). Thus, instead of introducing a critical perspective, ChatGPT generated a rather descriptive text, reproducing an official discourse about ‘Sweden’s multilingual reality’.

This bland and rosy description results from the model’s lack of contextual information, including situated and physical experience. The inclusion of Swedish expressions was too excessive and would rather cause the reader’s irritation than produce any rhetorical effect. Drawing from our own experiences as researchers situated in the Swedish context, we would have adopted a clearer stance and would have used Swedish more sparingly and strategically. For example, we would deploy Swedish to describe specific contact varieties, such as svengelska (Swenglish) or Rinkebysvenska (a pan-immigrant variety of Swedish spoken in Stockholm area); language policies situated in local contexts, such as parallelspråkighet (parallel language use) or modersmålsundervisning (mother tongue instruction). Thus, even though our ‘locus of enunciation’ (e.g., Figueiredo and Martinez, 2019 ) is technically speaking in the Global North, it is still far from what the LLM has been trained on. The difference lies in our knowledge of the local language, context, and realities, which goes beyond the source data for the LLM.

The disparity between human and AI-powered use of (trans)linguistic resources to generate content is therefore evident. It appears that rhetoric, argumentation, and critical stance continue to be domains where humans maintain a distinct advantage over LLMs and can resort to stylistic nuance, register variation, and language mixing strategically. Within the context of decolonization of academic writing practices, a pertinent example is the award-winning literacy scholar Canagarajah’s (2022) proposal of strategies for ‘rhetorical resistance’. His own academic writing has combined standard and Sri-Lankan English varieties, as well as his heritage language Tamil, to challenge the status quo and reposition the Global South as a legitimate player on the international publishing scene. As Canagarajah argues, non-standard English and other linguistic resources should not be used excessively but strategically. Despite the idiosyncratic nature of Canagarajah’s efforts, they do make a counter-position to the centripetal standardization trend and underscore the importance of individual voice and positioning in knowledge exchanges, emanating from researcher’s locus of enunciation and reflecting their full communicative repertoire. As English is unlikely to lose its dominant position in academic publishing in the near future, at least it can be diversified from within.

AI-powered tools are here to stay and will increase in significance in research and publication practices. Our task as key stakeholders in academic publishing—authors, reviewers, and editors—is to make sure that these tools are used responsibly so as not to limit participation and perpetuate inequalities. This requires two types of action: diversifying the input and training LLMs, and raising awareness of LLMs’ affordances and limitations in supporting epistemic diversity.

On the micro level of text production, AI currently reinforces reliance on templates and accepted language standards, thereby inhibiting linguistic variation and creativity. To mitigate this effect, key stakeholders in writing for publication can strive for more diversity and encourage individual styles, from which the models may eventually learn. The growing recognition of human involvement in AI and the need to monitor its performance ( Chen et al. 2024 ) underscores the necessity for further linguistic research in natural language generation. Addressing the gap in linguistic studies, particularly concerning LLMs’ ability to ‘discern’ nuances in language across purposes and contexts, could enhance our understanding of their capabilities ( Dynel, 2023 ). This, in turn, could lead to the development of more sophisticated LLMs capable of nuanced and purposeful language production in different contexts.

Further, while LLMs can assist in improving access to, and participation in, knowledge exchanges emanating from the Global North, they seem to be underused by the anglophone research community when it comes to engagement with the research published in languages other than English. This concerns both authors as well as reviewers and journal editors, who—after decades of advising/being advised to review more and more publications in international English-medium outlets—may finally broaden their knowledge horizons with the help of AI-assisted translation.

Last but not least, the conundrum of knowledge decolonization vis-à-vis AI-driven homogenization puts the spotlight on academic journals as ultimate centres of knowledge exchanges, where authors, reviewers, and editors shape the research field. LLMs and other AI-powered tools now make it easier to follow the accepted language norms and achieve the desired clarity and understandability in writing for publication. A new challenge is now to ensure that this centripetal trend does not impede linguistic and epistemic diversity, which is imperative for advancing research and fostering a truly equitable academic landscape.

Notes on Contributors

Maria Kuteeva is Professor of English linguistics in the Department of English at Stockholm University. Her research has focused on academic discourse analysis and uses of English in multilingual university settings. She has published two books, five special journal issues, and numerous articles in international peer-reviewed journals. She serves on four editorial boards and is co-editor-in-chief of the AELFE journal Ibérica. Address for correspondence: Department of English, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden < [email protected] >

Marta Andersson is Assistant Professor in the Department of English at Uppsala University. She is a corpus and discourse researcher who is particularly interested in the pragmatics, semantics, and social aspects of computer-mediated communication. Her work has appeared in international peer-reviewed journals.

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Arts | Hopkins researchers launch writing contest to…

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Arts | trump rally shooter identified; secret service investigating how a gunman was able to get so close, things to do, arts | hopkins researchers launch writing contest to learn about how the brain processes stories.

From left, Iris Lee, incoming Johns Hopkins University graduate student, Janice Chen, professor of psychological and brain sciences, and Sammy Tavassoli, PhD student, are running a short story contest to research the relationship between narratives, memory and the brain. (Kim Hairston/Staff)

Now, a research team at the Johns Hopkins University is asking for the public’s help in mapping the areas of the brain that kick into high gear every time we read a new Stephen King novel or see a “Deadpool” sequel, or watch reruns of “Doctor Who.”

It turns out that telling and listening to tales isn’t just fun — it’s a key survival strategy.

“Understanding stories is part of the fundamental anatomy of the brain,” said Janice Chen, an assistant professor of psychological and brain sciences at Johns Hopkins, “and it’s a very robust brain system that you find in everyone.”

Chen said different regions of the brain tune into characters or location, while others are devoted to what could be described as the plot.

“If you think about it, your life is made up of a series of events. And each one of those events is a story,” she said.

But Chen doesn’t study literature. She studies how neural systems support memory. And she’s especially interested in a group of high-level brain regions, known as the “default mode network,” that appear to be involved in episodic memories, or those that spring from personal experience.

Many of her experiments involve putting subjects into an “fMRI” — a functional magnetic resonance imaging machine  — and recording their brain activity as they read a book, watch a movie or talk about an episode of a favorite TV show.

Chen thought members of the public might enjoy helping to design her team’s research studies. How often does the average Baltimorean get a chance to don an imaginary white lab coat, to become Doctor You?

So she reached out to her colleague, Dora Malech, an associate professor in Hopkins’ Writing Seminars and editor in chief of The Hopkins Review literary journal, and asked for her help in devising a short story contest.

The fMRI Writing Prize contest , which runs through July 31, is for a piece of original, unpublished “flash fiction” or a very short story of between about 500 and 1,500 words. It is open to high school students and adults who live, work or study in Baltimore.

“We thought it would be an accessible way to engage the public in science experiments taking place at Hopkins,” Malech said. “There are overlapping questions about what makes enduring art and how art affects memory.”

Two winners — one aged 14 to 18, and one adult — will be selected to receive a $500 prize based on standard literary criteria as well as whether their work contains attributes useful to the researchers.

Chen, for instance, is interested in stories that have unusual narrative structures instead of unfolding chronologically. Sammy Tavasoli, who is studying for her doctorate in brain sciences, is intrigued by memories of emotional events, while scientist Christopher Honey is looking into why some stories linger in the brain for weeks or months after the reader has turned the last page.

The winning stories will be published in the Hopkins Review. Their authors also will receive a tour of the lab where the research is being conducted, plus a framed computer image showing the brain activity of study participants as they read the winning submissions.

Iris Lee, who has worked in Chen’s lab and who will begin graduate school in creative writing this fall, said that because the material collected in the contest will be used for a variety of studies, researchers aren’t looking for any particular type of story. A whodunit is as likely to win as a historical romance.

“Authors can experiment with plot,” she said. “They can experiment with time and write stories that cross generations and that show how the past and future affect one another.”

The winning submissions will be used in experiments exploring the link between narrative and memory, a relationship that helped our species persist from one generation to the next. If our early human couldn’t remember how they escaped the wolves, they might not think to climb a tree the next time. They couldn’t show their friends the hidden stream they found stocked with fat fish.

“If you don’t have a memory, you don’t the ability to go from one moment to the next and predict what’s going to happen,” Chen said. “You can’t connect cause and effect. Memory is essential to being a person.”

And stories have proven particularly suited for helping people remember better.

“There’s decades-old studies that show that if you just give people a list of random words to read and then ask them to recall it, they’re not very good at it,” Chen said.

“But if you force them to create a story out of that same list of words, their memory goes through the roof.”

She said stories across all formats are equally useful at transforming fleeting events into permanent memories, whether from written words, song lyrics played over the radio, or a sequence of images flashed onto screens.

And if at times it seems our need for narrative is insatiable, it’s because our brains are trying to motivate us to consume stories. Like other activities necessary for survival from eating food to having sex, we’re programmed to crave them.

That’s why the Hopkins researchers are asking for Baltimoreans’ help in generating new and original tales. It’s possible, they said, that researchers eventually will learn enough about memory to gain insight into the causes of some of humanity’s most intractable problems, from schizophrenia to Alzheimer’s disease to other forms of age-related memory loss.

“There’s a lot of questions you can ask about memory using the same data,” Chen said.

“This contest is really a two-way street,” she said. “We’re going to see what stories come in, and use them as a source of inspiration for thinking of interesting questions that we can try to answer.”

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Following Trump’s Lead, Republicans Adopt Platform That Softens Stance on Abortion

The document reflects the former president’s ideological grip on his party, outlining the same nationalistic priorities that his campaign website does.

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Former President Donald J. Trump in a suit. American flags are on display behind him.

By Maggie Haberman ,  Shane Goldmacher and Jonathan Swan

  • July 8, 2024

Donald J. Trump told officials on Monday that he supports a new Republican Party platform, one that reflects the presumptive nominee’s new position on abortion rights and slims down policy specifics across all areas of government.

The new platform, as described to The New York Times by people briefed on it, cements Mr. Trump’s ideological takeover of the G.O.P. The platform is even more nationalistic, more protectionist and less socially conservative than the 2016 Republican platform that was duplicated in the 2020 election.

Mr. Trump, who has had the draft for several days, called into a meeting of party officials on Monday and said that he supports it. The document overwhelmingly was approved during a vote by the platform committee on Monday, passing 84 to 18, according to a person briefed on the matter.

The abortion section has been softened. There is no longer a reference to “traditional marriage” as between “one man and one woman.” And there is no longer an emphasis on reducing the national debt, only a brief line about “slashing wasteful government spending.”

The rest of the document reflects Mr. Trump’s priorities as outlined on his campaign website: a hard-line immigration policy, including mass deportations; a protectionist trade policy with new tariffs on most imports; and sections on using federal power to remove policies in academia, the military and throughout the U.S. government put in place by what it describes as radical Democrats.

Mr. Trump and his top aides have alienated some activists by shutting them out of the development of the platform. The former president was especially focused on softening the language on abortion — the issue he views as his biggest vulnerability in the wake of the Supreme Court’s decision overturning Roe v. Wade.

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