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Locating and Using Images for Presentations and Coursework

  • Free & Open Source Images
  • How to Cite Images
  • Alt Text Image Descriptions

Copyright Resources

  • Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States from Cornell University Library
  • Copyright Overview from Purdue University
  • U.S. Copyright Office
  • Fair Use Evaluator
  • Visual Resources Association's Statement of Fair Use of Images for Teaching, Research, and Study
  • Creative Commons Licenses

Attribution

Again, the majority of images you find are under copyright and cannot be used without permission from the creator. There are exceptions with Fair Use, but this Libguide is intended to help you locate images you can use with attribution (and in some case, the images are free to use without attribution when stated, such as with stock images from pixabay). ***Please read about public domain . These images aren't under copyright, but it's still good practice to include attribution if the information is available. Attribution : the act of attributing something, especially the ascribing of a work (as of literature or art) to a particular author or artist. When you have given proper attribution, it means you have given the information necessary for people to know who the creator of the work is.

Citation General Guidelines

Include as much of the information below when citing images in a paper and formal presentations. Apply the appropriate citation style (see below for APA, MLA examples).

  • Image creator's name (artist, photographer, etc.)
  • Title of the image
  • Date the image (or work represented by the image) was created
  • Date the image was posted online
  • Date of access (the date you accessed the online image)
  • Institution (gallery, museum) where the image is located/owned (if applicable)
  • Website and/or Database name

Citing Images in MLA, APA, Chicago, and IEEE

  • Directions for citing in MLA, APA, and Chicago MLA: Citing images in-text, incorporating images into the text of your paper, works cited APA 6th ed.: Citing images in-text and reference list Chicago 17th ed.: Citing images footnotes and endnotes and bibliography from Simon Fraser University
  • How to Cite Images Using IEEE from the SAIT Reg Erhardt Library
  • Image, Photograph, or Related Artwork (IEEE) from the Rochester Institute of Technology Library

Citing Images in Your PPT

Currently, citing images in PPT is a bit of the Wild West. If details aren't provided by an instructor, there are a number of ways to cite. What's most important is that if the image is not a free stock image, you give credit to the author for the work. Here are some options:

1. Some sites, such as Creative Commons and Wikimedia, include the citation information with the image. Use that citation when available. Copy the citation and add under the image. For example, an image of a lake from Creative Commons has this citation next to it:  "lake"  by  barnyz  is licensed under  CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 .

2. Include a marker, such as Image 1. or Figure 1., and in the reference section, include full citation information with the corresponding number

3. Include a complete citation (whatever the required format, such as APA) below the image

4. Below the image, include the link to the online image location

5. Hyperlink the title of the image with the online image location

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SciSpace Resources

How to cite images and graphs in your research paper

Deeptanshu D

Table of Contents

How-to-cite-images-and-graphs-in-a-research-paper

If you are confused about whether you should include pictures, images, charts, and other non-textual elements in your research paper or not, I would suggest you must insert such elements in your research paper. Including non-textual elements like images and charts in the research paper helps extract a higher acceptance of your proposed theories.

An image or chart will make your research paper more attractive, interesting, explanatory, and understandable for the audience. In addition, when you cite an image or chart, it helps you describe your research and its parts with far more precision than simple, long paragraphs.

There are plenty of reasons why you should cite images in your research paper. However, most scholars and academicians avoid it altogether, losing the opportunity to make their research papers more interesting and garner higher readership.

Additionally, it has been observed that there are many misconceptions around the use or citation of images in research papers. For example, it is widely believed and practiced that using pictures or any graphics in the research papers will render it unprofessional or non-academic. However, in reality, no such legit rules or regulations prohibit citing images or any graphic elements in the research papers.

You will find it much easier once you know the appropriate way to cite images or non-textual elements in your research paper. But, it’s important to keep in mind some rules and regulations for using different non-textual elements in your research paper. You can easily upgrade your academic/ research writing skills by leveraging various guides in our repository.

In this guide, you will find clear explanations and guidelines that will teach you how to identify appropriate images and other non-textual elements and cite them in your research paper. So, cut the clutter; let’s start.

Importance of citing images in a research paper

Although it’s not mandatory to cite images in a research paper, however, if you choose to include them, it will help showcase your deep understanding of the research topic. It can even represent the clarity you carry for your research topic and help the audience navigate your paper easily.

Why-it-is-important-to-use-images-and-graphs-in-a-research-paper.

There are several reasons why you must cite images in your research paper like:

(i) A better explanation for the various phenomenon

While writing your research paper, certain topics will be comparatively more complex than others. In such a scenario where you find out that words are not providing the necessary explanation, you can always switch to illustrating the process using images. For example, you can write paragraphs describing climate change and its associated factors and/or cite a single illustration to describe the complete process with its embedded factors.

(ii) To simplify examples

To create an impeccable research paper, you need to include evidence and examples supporting your argument for the research topic. Rather than always explaining the supporting evidence and examples through words, it will be better to depict them through images. For example, to demonstrate climate change's effects on a region, you can always showcase and cite the “before and after” images.

(iii) Easy Classification

If your research topic requires segregation into various sub-topics and further, you can easily group and classify them in the form of a classification tree or a chart. Providing such massive information in the format of a classification tree will save you a lot of words and present the information in a more straightforward and understandable form to your audience.

(iv) Acquire greater attention from the audience

Including images in your research paper, theses, and dissertations will help you garner the audience's greater attention. If you add or cite images in the paper, it will provide a better understanding and clarification of the topics covered in your research. Additionally, it will make your research paper visually attractive.

Types of Images that you can use or cite in your research paper

Using and citing images in a research paper as already explained can make your research paper more understanding and structured in appearance. For this, you can use photos, drawings, charts, graphs, infographics, etc. However, there are no mandatory regulations to use or cite images in a research paper, but there are some recommendations as per the journal style.

Before including any images in your research paper, you need to ensure that it fits the research topic and syncs with your writing style. As already mentioned, there are no strict regulations around the usage of images. However, you should make sure that it satisfies certain parameters like:

  • Try using HD quality images for better picture clarity in both print and electronic formats
  • It should not be copyrighted, and if it is, you must obtain the license to use it. In short cite the image properly by providing necessary credits to its owner
  • The image should satisfy the context of the research topic

You can cite images in your research paper either at the end, in between the topics, or in a separate section for all the non-textual elements used in the paper. You can choose to insert images in between texts, but you need to provide the in-text citations for every image that has been used.

Additionally, you need to attach the name, description and image number so that your research paper stays structured. Moreover, you must cite or add the copyright details of the image if you borrow images from other platforms to avoid any copyright infringement.

Graphs and Charts

You can earn an advantage by providing better and simple explanations through graphs and charts rather than wordy descriptions. There are several reasons why you must cite or include graphs and charts in your research paper:

  • To draw a comparison between two events, phenomena, or any two random parameters
  • Illustration of statistics through charts and graphs are most significant in drawing audience attention towards your research topic
  • Classification tree or pie charts goes best to show off the degree of influence of a specific event, or phenomenon in your research paper

With the usage of graphs and charts, you can answer several questions of your readers without them even questioning. With charts and graphs, you can provide an immense amount of information in a brief yet attractive manner to your readers, as these elements keep them interested in your research topic.

Providing these non-textual elements in your research paper increases its readability. Moreover, the graphs and charts will drive the reader’s attention compared to text-heavy paragraphs.

You can easily use the graphs or charts of some previously done research in your chosen domain, provided that you cite them appropriately, or else you can create your graphs through different tools like Canva, Excel, or MS PowerPoint. Additionally, you must provide supporting statements for the graphs and charts so that readers can understand the meaning of these illustrations easily.

Similarly, like pictures or images, you can choose one of the three possible methods of placement in your research paper, i.e., either after the text or on a different page right after the corresponding paragraph or inside the paragraph itself.

How to Cite Images and Graphs in a Research Paper?

How-to-cite-images-and-graphs-in-a-research-paper.

Once you have decided the type of images you will be using in your paper, understand the rules of various journals for the fair usage of these elements. Using pictures or graphs as per these rules will help your reader navigate and understand your research paper easily. If you borrow or cite previously used pictures or images, you need to follow the correct procedure for that citation.

Usage or citation of pictures or graphs is not prohibited in any academic writing style, and it just differs from each other due to their respective formats.

Cite an Image/Graphs in APA (American Psychological Association) style

Most of the scientific works, society, and media-based research topics are presented in the APA style. It is usually followed by museums, exhibitions, galleries, libraries, etc. If you create your research paper in APA style and cite already used images or graphics, you need to provide complete information about the source.

In APA style, the list of the information that you must provide while citing an element is as follows:

  • Owner of the image (artist, designer, photographer, etc.)
  • Complete Date of the Image: Follow the simple DD/MM/YYYY to provide the details about the date of the image. If you have chosen a certain historical image, you can choose to provide the year only, as the exact date or month may be unknown
  • Country or City where the Image was first published
  • A Name or Title of the Image (Optional: Means If it is not available, you can skip it)
  • Publisher Name: Organization, association, or the person to whom the image was first submitted

If you want to cite some images from the internet, try providing its source link rather than the name or webpage.

Format/Example of Image Citation:

Johanson, M. (Photographer). (2017, September, Vienna, Austria. Rescued bird. National gallery.

Cite an Image/Graphs in MLA (Modern Language Association) style

MLA style is again one of the most preferred styles worldwide for research paper publication. You can easily use or cite images in this style provided no rights of the image owner get violated. Additionally, the format or the information required for citation or usage is very brief yet precise.

In the MLA style, the following are the details that a used image or graph must carry:

  • Name of the creator of the owner
  • Title, Name, or the Description of the Image
  • Website Or the Source were first published
  • Contributors Name (if any)
  • Version or Serial Number (if any)
  • Publisher’s Details; at least Name must be provided
  • Full Date (DD:MM: YYYY) of the first published Image
  • Link to the original image

Auteur, Henry. “Abandoned gardens, Potawatomi, Ontario.” Historical Museum, Reproduction no. QW-YUJ78-1503141, 1989, www.flickr.com/pictures/item/609168336/

Final Words

It is easy to cite images in your research paper, and you should add different forms of non-textual elements in the paper. There are different rules for using or citing images in research papers depending on writing styles to ensure that your paper doesn’t fall for copyright infringement or the owner's rights get violated.

No matter which writing style you choose to write your paper, make sure that you provide all the details in the appropriate format. Once you have all the details and understanding of the format of usage or citation, feel free to use as many images that make your research paper intriguing and interesting enough.

If you still have doubts about how to use or cite images, join our SciSpace (Formerly Typeset) Community and post your questions there. Our experts will address your queries at the earliest. Explore the community to know what's buzzing and be a part of hot discussion topics in the academic domain.

Learn more about SciSpace's dedicated research solutions by heading to our product page. Our suite of products can simplify your research workflows so that you can focus more on what you do best: advance science.

With a best-in-class solution, you can handle everything from literature search and discovery to profile management, research writing, and formatting.

But Before You Go,

You might also like.

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Literature Review and Theoretical Framework: Understanding the Differences

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Types of Essays in Academic Writing

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Using Images and Non-Textual Materials in Presentations, Papers, Theses, and Dissertations

  • Documenting and Citing Images
  • Finding Images - Select Sources

Documenting and Citing Images/Photographs and Their Sources

Please note that this is advice on best practices and considerations in documenting and citing images and non-print materials. It does not represent legal advice on obtaining permissions.

Generally, images copied from other sources should not be used without permissions in publications or for commercial purposes. Many American academic institutions require graduate students to archive their finished and approved theses/dissertations in institutional electronic repositories and/or institutional libraries and repositories, and/or to post them on Proquest's theses database. Unpublished theses and dissertations are a form of scholarly dissemination. Someone else's images, like someone else's ideas, words or music, should be used with critical commentary, and need to be identified and cited. If a thesis/dissertation is revised for publication,  waivers or permissions from the copyright holder(s) of the images and non-textual materials must be obtained. Best practices also apply to materials found on the internet and on social media, and, properly speaking, require identification, citation, and clearance of permissions, as relevant.

Use the following elements when identifying and citing an image, depending on the information you have available . It is your responsibility to do due diligence and document as much as possible about the image you are using:

  • Artist's/creator's name, if relevant;
  • Title of the work/image, if known, or description;
  • Ownership information (such as a person, estate, museum, library collection) and source of image;
  • Material, if known, particularly for art works;
  • Dimensions of the work, if known.

The Chicago Manual of Style online can be searched for norms on appropriate ways to caption illustrations, capitalize titles of visual works, or cite print materials that contain images.

Including images/photographs in a bibliography:

Best practice is to not include images within a bibliography of works cited. It is common, instead, to create a separate list of images (or figures) and their source, such as photographer (even if it's you) or collection. It may be useful to also include location, e.g., museum, geographic reference, address, etc.

Examples of Documenting Images

The image below is scanned from a published book. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation, classroom session, or  paper/thesis, as follows:

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

[ Figure 1. This photograph from 1990 shows the Monument against Fascism designed by Jochen Gerz and Esther Shalev-Gerz, Hamburg, 1986-1993. Image from James Young, ed.,  Art of Memory: Holocaust Memorials in History (New York: Prestel, 1994), 70]

If you need to use this image in a published work, you will have to seek permission. For example, the book from which this image was scanned should have a section on photo credits which would help you identify the person/archive holding this image.

The image below was found through Google Images and downloaded from the internet. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation,  classroom session, or paper/thesis, as follows:

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

[Figure 2. This image shows the interior of Bibliotheca Alexandrina designed by the Norwegian architecture firm Snøhetta in 2001. Image downloaded from https://mgkhs.com/gallery/alexandria in March 2016.]

If you want to use this image in a published work, you will have to do your best to track down its source to request permission to use. The web site or social media site where you found the image may not be an appropriate source, since it is common for people to repost images without attribution. Just because "everyone does it" does not mean that you should be using such materials without attribution or documentation. In this specific example, you may need to write to the photographer or to the architecture firm. If you have done due diligence and were unable to find the source, or have not received a response, you may be able to use an image found on the internet with appropriate documentation in a publication.

The image below was downloaded from a digitized historic collection of photographs held by an institutional archive. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation,  classroom session, or paper/thesis, as follows:

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

[Figure 3. In the 1920s the urban landscape of Los Angeles started to change, as various developers began building multi-family apartment houses in sections previously zoned for single family dwellings. Seen in this photograph by Dick Whittington is the Warrington apartment building, which was completed in 1928, surrounded by older single family structures. Downloaded from the USC Digital Library in February 2016]

I f you plan to use this photograph in a publication, seek permission from the library/institution from whose digital archive you downloaded the image. Contact information is usually found in the record for the image.

The image below was taken by the author. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation, classroom session , paper/thesis, or a publication* as follows:

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

[Figure 4. Genex Tower, also known as West City Gate, is a residential tower located in New Belgrade. This example of late 20th century brutalist-style architecture was designed in 1977 by Mihajlo Mitrović. Photographed by the author in 2013.]

*Please note, if you re-photographed someone else's photograph or a work of art, or if you re-photographed a published image, you may not be able to publish your photograph without first seeking permission or credit for its content.  If you have done due diligence and were unable to find the source or have not received a response, you may be able to use your image with appropriate documentation.

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Using Images in Research and Presentations

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Why Do I Need to Cite Images?

Creative commons attribution.

Citing all your sources of information and creative work you use is part of academic integrity. You are giving credit where credit is due.

In academic work, images should be followed by and attribution or in text citation whether that be in a note or caption immediately following the image or at the bottom of a presentation slide. A full citation should be found in your Works Cited or Reference List, though you might separate them out into an Image Credit List, depending on the style of citation you are using.

The 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association expended their explanations and examples of how to cite multimedia sources including multimedia materials. Examples of reference are found in Chapter 10 of the Manual and the following sections focus on multimedia sources

  • 10.12 Audiovisual works (films, streaming videos, television series, etc.)
  • 10.13 Audio works (music, podcast, radio broadcast, etc.)
  • 10.14 Visual works (fine art, clip art, infographics, photographs, maps, etc.)
  • 10.15 Social media (including Instagram posts).

A related section of the Manual is Chapter 7 which deals with the presentation of tables and figures, so the Manual shows you how images should be incorporated into your work in addition to how they should be cited; see Sample Figure 7.3 for how to include an attribution in the figure note.

Here is an example of how the following photograph (found through Pixabay) should be cited using the APA style.

stokpic. (2015, February 10). Blonde Girl Taking Photo [Photograph]. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/photos/blonde-girl-taking-photo-629726/

Blonde Girl Taking Photo

Remember, the library has a copy of the Manual at the Reference Desk if you need to use it.

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

The 8th edition of the MLA Handbook does not have as many examples of references as the APA Manual does, but if you follow the guidelines and templates in the section "Creating Your Documentation" (pp. 19 - 53), you should be able to construct a citation.

Here is an example of how the following photograph (found through Pixabay) should be cited using the MLA style.

stokpic. Blonde Girl Taking Photo. 10 February 2015. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/photos/blonde-girl-taking-photo-629726/

Remember, the library has a copy of the  Handbook  at the Reference Desk if you need to use it.

book cover

  • Use & Remix - Creative Commons The "Use & remix" section of the Creative Commons website details how to properly attribute content licensed under a CC license. Attribution is a condition of all CC licenses. more info... less info... Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization dedicated to building a globally-accessible public commons of knowledge and culture. They provide Creative Commons licenses and public domain tools that give every person and organization in the world a free, simple, and standardized way to grant copyright permissions for creative and academic works; ensure proper attribution; and allow others to copy, distribute, and make use of those works.
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Referencing style - APA 7th: Images, tables and figures

  • Introduction
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APA examples: Images, tables and figures

All images, figures and tables referred to in the text or reproduced in an essay, assignment or presentation, must be cited and included in your reference list. 

See this guides images, figures and tables tab to view how the attribution of these examples below are treated within the text. 

See  APA Style examples, Clip Art Image and  Artwork References  for general notes and more examples. 

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Citing Sources

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More About Citing Images

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

Chicago/Turabian Style Image Citations:

Note Number. First Name Last Name of Artist, Title of Work , Year, Medium, Name and location of where it is housed, accessed (date), URL.

12. Andy Warhol, Endangered Species: Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) , 1983, silkscreen print, Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, accessed January 20, 2022, Artstor, https://library.artstor.org/#/asset/LARRY_QUALLS_10312602459.

Free Image Resources

  • Free Media for Creative Use: Image Resources Sources for stock photos, historical images, digital collections from museums, and more.

Images or illustrations can enhance your papers and presentations. Like written sources, images also need to be properly cited. Always indicate, or  cite  where you found the image. 

Citations can be formatted according to the citation style you are using (MLA, APA, Chicago, etc). 

Using images you did not create requires a citation in all cases. Citations should be accessible in the context of the image's use and should link back to the original image whenever possible. Include a caption below the image and a formal citation in your works cited. 

Citing Image Sources - Basic Guidelines

  • Give attribution to image creators in citations and credit statements to acknowledge authorship
  • Indicate when using a personal photograph
  • Include source information
  • Citations to images included in image databases should include the following (or as much of it as can be easily determined from the source):
  • Creator's name
  • Title of the work, as given
  • Location of the work (museum, library), if known
  • Database collection, if known
  • Rights information, if known

No matter where you get your image (Google image search, Artstor, WGSN Fashion, museum website, scan from a book) or how you use it (Power Point, in a paper for class, a flyer) you MUST provide a citation for every image you use. This is as simple as adding any of the known information about the work (listed above) to the bottom of the digital image. Provide as much information as possible. For formal papers and presentations provide BOTH a caption and a citation in your bibliography or works cited. 

For example, this image was found using a Google Image Search. The image is hyperlinked back to the original source (on Flickr) and as much information as is known about the image is included in the caption below. 

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

Red Panda by Mathias Appel , 2015. Flickr (Public Domain)

Citing Image Sources - Image from Artstor

The following image was downloaded from Artstor. Here's the information provided by the metadata within Artstor that I need to keep track of and include where appropriate. 

An image from ARTstor

  • Creator's name:  Andy Warhol
  • Title of the work, as given:  Endangered Species: Giant Panda ( Ailuropoda   melanoleuca )
  • Location of the work (museum, library), if known:  Exhibited at Ronald Feldman Fine Arts
  • Database collection, if known:   In  Artstor  [database online]
  • Rights information, if known:  © The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. 

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

Endangered Species: Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by Andy Warhol, 1983.  Artstor. ©  The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Arts, Inc.

The MLA Citation in your Works Cited would be: 

Warhol, Andy.  Endangered Species: Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).  1983. Exhibited at Ronald Feldman Fine Arts. Artstor, https://library.artstor.org/#/asset/LARRY_QUALLS_10312602459 .  

Citing Image Sources - WGSN or WWD Runway Photo

The following image was downloaded from Women's Wear Daily from a Paris Fall 2016 Couture runway show. There were very few details provided by the database, but I've captured what I can. 

  • Creator's name:   Giovanni  Giannoni  (photographer),   Zuhair Murad   (designer) 
  • Titles of the work, as given: Gown, Paris Fall 2016 Couture
  • Location of the work:  Paris  
  • Database collection, if known:  Women's Wear Daily
  • Rights information, if known: Giovanni Giannoni, WWD Photographer

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

Zuhair Murad Paris Fall 2016 Couture (look 13), 2016. Women's Wear Daily.  

The MLA Citation in your Works Cited would be:

Giannoni, Giovanni. Zuhair Murad Paris Fall 2016 Couture Runway (look 13) , 2016. Women's Wear Daily . Accessed August 24, 2016.

Citing Image Sources - WGSN Report

The following image was downloaded from WGSN Fashion database. Here's the information I need to keep track of: 

  • Creator's name: Yvonne Luk
  • Title of the work, as given: Wild Animals from  The Creative Faces of Beauty Masks 
  • Date: July 16, 2015
  • Location of the work (museum, library), if known: N/A
  • Database collection, if known: WGSN Fashion
  • Rights information, if known. Unknown, but most likely copyrighted by WGSN. 

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

Wild Animals from The Creative Faces of Beauty Masks by Yvonne Luk, 2015. WGSN Fashion .

Luk, Yvonne. "Wild Animals," The Creative Faces of Beauty Masks.  2015. WGSN Fashion.  Accessed August 2016.

Citing Image Sources - Chart from Statista

The following image was downloaded from Statista. Here's the information provided by the databases (including the MLA citation below generated for you!)

  • Creator's name:  Nike
  • Title of the work, as given:  Nike's North American Revenue from 2009 to 2016, by Segment (in Million U.S. Dollars) 
  • Date: July 2016
  • Location of the work:  Statista   
  • Database collection, if known: Statista - the Statistics Portal
  • Rights information, if known. Unknown

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

This image includes much of the information I would include in a caption - but if you download a chart or graph without this info included, be sure to caption it as well. 

Nike. "Nike's North American Revenue from 2009 to 2016, by Segment (in Million U.S. Dollars)." Statista - The Statistics Portal. Statista. July 2016. Web. 30 Aug 2016.

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AMA Citation Style: Images

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In your reference list, cite an image the same way you would cite a website.

Author(s). Title of specific item cited (or, if unavailable, give the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of Web Site. URL. Publication date. Updated date.  Accessed date.

TIP! If you do not know the author of an image, start with the title of the image. If the image does not have a title, provide a brief description of the image.

Protocol Snow. Harvard Medical School classroom. Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/6wAnUu. Published June 15, 2009. Accessed July 23, 2020.

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Works-Cited-List Entries

How to cite an image.

To create a basic works-cited-list entry for an image, list the creator of the image, the title of the image, the date of composition, and the location of the image, which would be a physical location if you viewed the image in person. If you viewed the image online, provide the name of the website containing the image and the URL. If you viewed the image in a print work, provide the publication information for the print work, including a page number. Below are sample entries for images along with links to posts containing many other examples.

A Photograph Viewed in Person

Cameron, Julia Margaret. Alfred, Lord Tennyson . 1866, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

A Painting Viewed Online

Bearden, Romare. The Train . 1975. MOMA , www.moma.org/collection/works/65232?locale=en.

An Untitled Image from a Print Magazine

Karasik, Paul. Cartoon. The New Yorker , 14 Apr. 2008, p. 49.

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Images Research Guide: Citing Images

How to cite images.

There are many ways to cite images. Most important is to include all relevant information so others can locate, understand and evaluate any images you use.

Academic Styles of Citing Images:

APA Style (7th Edition)

MLA Style (9th Edition)

Non-Academic Style:

Image Credits

Cover Art

Reference List

General Format:

Creator, C. (Year of Production or publication). Title of work [Description, Medium, or other relevant information]. Source. Retrieval information or location of work.

Image Found on the Web Euloth, G. (2012). Sleepy Kitty, Purr, Purr, Purr [Photograph]. Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/bD838X

Image from a Database Sharkstar, A.J. (2014). Two Cats Bound Together By A Snake [Sticker]. A rtstor . https://library.artstor.org/public/SS7730635_7730635_12095826 

Image from a Book O’Keeffe, G. (1923). Alligator Pears in a Basket [Charcoal drawing]. In Sayre, H.M., Writing about art (6 th ed., pp. 39). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009.

Image from a Museum or Archive Website Lawrence, J. (1977). The Studio [Painting]. Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WA, United States. https://art.seattleartmuseum.org/objects/10605/the-studio

Image in a Museum Mirra, H. (2016). Standard Incomparable [Textile]. Pasadena, CA: Armory Center for the Arts.

In-text Citations

(Creator Last Name, Year)

If there is no creator, use (Title, Year)

(Amero, 1951)

Figure Captions

Figure 1. Author, A. A. (Year). Title of material . [Description of material]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx

Figure 1. Amero, E. (1951). Fiesta. [Print]. Retrieved from Artstor.

Image Credits (Non-Academic Style)

A credit statement can be an alternative to a full academic citation, and especially useful when writing for the Web. Provide a link to the image if you can.

Title by Creator, date (if available), via source (Creative Common License Type, if applicable).

Sleep Kitty, Purr, Purr, Purr by Glenn Euloth, 2012, via Flickr (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0).

Open Attribution Builder:

If you are using an openly licensed image, try generating an image credit with the Open Attribution Builder .

Open Attribution Builder. Enter image info, then copy and paste text or code.

Why Cite Images?

There are many important reasons to cite images you use:

  • Give credit to the creator of the image.
  • Provide information so others can find and reuse the image
  • Participate in ongoing scholarly conversations about images

MLA Style (Ninth Edition, 2021)

Cover Art

Works Cited List

Previously, researchers made citations by following the MLA’s instructions for the source’s publication format (book, DVD, Web page, etc.). Now, there is one standard, universal format that researchers can use to create their citations:

Author. Title of source. Title of container, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Note: Containers are the elements that “hold” the source. For example, if a photo is posted on Flickr, Flickr is the container. Sometimes a source is nested inside of two separate containers, like an image found in a book read on an ebook platform like Ebook Library (EBL). Both the title of the source and its container (or multiple containers) are included in a citation.

Image Found on the Web Euloth, Glenn. Sleepy Kitty, Purr, Purr, Purr. 2012. Flickr , flic.kr/p/bD838X .

Image from a Database Amero, Emilio. Fiesta . 1951. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Artstor , https://library.artstor.org/#/asset/external/8D5Jcj0oMloyLyw%2Ffzx%2FRHsp

Image from a Book O’Keeffe, Georgia. Alligator Pears in a Basket . 1923. Writing about Art by Henry M. Sayre, 6 th ed., Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009, pp. 39.

Image from a Museum or Archive Website Lawrence, Jacob. The Studio . 1977. Seattle Art Museum, Seattle. Seattle Art Museum, www1.seattleartmuseum.org/eMuseum/code/emuseum.asp?style=browse&currentrecord=1&page=search&profile=objects&searchdesc=90.27&quicksearch=90.27&newvalues=1&newstyle=single&newcurrentrecord=1.

Image in a Museum Mirra, Helen. Standard Incomparable . 2016, Armory Center for the Arts, Pasadena, CA.

In-text citations

(Creator Last Name, Page Number)

If there is no creator, use (“Title", Page Number)

For images found online, do not list a page number.

Fig 1. Ann Author, Title of Work , Museum and/or Publication information.

Fig 1. Emilio Amero, Fiesta , National Gallery of Art, 1951, Washington, D.C.

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how do you cite pictures in a research paper

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What is APA?

APA style was created by the American Psychological Association. It is a set of rules for publications, including research papers.

In APA, you must "cite" sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places:

  • In the body of your paper where you add a brief in-text citation.
  • In the Reference list at the end of your paper where you give more complete information for the source.

Acknowledgement

What's new in the 7th edition of apa.

Below is a summary of the major changes in the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Essay Format:

  • Font - While you still can use Times New Roman 12, you are free to use other fonts. Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans 10, and Georgia 11 are all acceptable.
  • Headers - No running headers are required for student papers.
  • Tables and Figures - There is a standardized format for both tables and figures.

Style, Grammar, Usage:

  • Singular "they" required in two situations: when used by a known person as their personal pronoun or when the gender of a singular person is not known.
  • Use only one space after a sentence-ending period.

Citation Style:

  • Developed the 'Four Elements of a Reference" (Author, Date, Title, Source) to help writers to create references for source types not explicitly examined in the APA Manual.
  • Three or more authors can be abbreviated to First author, et al. on the first citation.
  • Up to 20 authors are spelled out in the References List.
  • Publisher location is not required for books
  • Ebook platform, format, or device is not required for eBooks.  
  • Library database names are generally not required
  • No "doi:" prefix, simply include the doi.
  • All hyperlinks retain the https://
  • Links can be "live" in blue with underline or black without underlining

Commonly Used Terms

Citing : The process of acknowledging the sources of your information and ideas.

DOI (doi) : Some electronic content, such as online journal articles, is assigned a unique number called a Digital Object Identifier (DOI or doi). Items can be tracked down online using their doi.

In-Text Citation : A brief note at the point where information is used from a source to indicate where the information came from. An in-text citation should always match more detailed information that is available in the Reference List.

Paraphrasing : Taking information that you have read and putting it into your own words.

Plagiarism : Taking, using, and passing off as your own, the ideas or words of another.

Quoting : The copying of words of text originally published elsewhere. Direct quotations generally appear in quotation marks and end with a citation.

Reference : Details about one cited source.

Reference List : Contains details on ALL the sources cited in a text or essay, and supports your research and/or premise.

Retrieval Date : Used for websites where content is likely to change over time (e.g. Wikis), the retrieval date refers to the date you last visited the website.

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Finding and referencing images: Referencing images

  • Referencing images
  • Finding images and videos

Introduction

In this guide, ' IMAGE ' is used to refer to any visual resource such as a diagram, graph, illustration, design, photograph, or video. They may be found in books, journals, reports, web pages, online video, DVDs and other kinds of media. This guide also refers to ‘ CREATOR ’. This could be an illustrator, photographer, author or organisation.

The examples are presented in Harvard (Bath) style and offer general guidelines on good practice. For essays, project reports, dissertations and theses, ask your School or Department which style they want you to use. Different referencing styles require the use of similar information but will be formatted differently. For more information on other referencing styles, visit our referencing guide .

Using images to illustrate or make clear the description and discussion in your text is useful, but it is important that you give due recognition to the work of other people that you present with your own. This will help to show the value of their work to your assignment and how your ideas fit with a wider body of academic knowledge.

It is just as important to properly cite and reference images as it is the journal articles, books and other information sources that you draw upon. If you do not, you could find yourself accused of plagiarism and/or copyright infringement.

Using images and copyright

For educational assignments it is sufficient to cite and reference any image used. If you publish your work in any way , including posting online, then you will need to follow copyright rules. It is your responsibility to find out whether, and in what ways, you are permitted to use an image in your coursework or publications. Please refer to our copyright guidance and ask for further assistance if you are unsure.

Some images are given limited rights for reuse by their creators. This is likely to be accompanied with a requirement to give recognition to their work and may limit the extent to which it can be modified. The ‘Creative Commons’ copyright licensing scheme offers creators a set of tools for telling people how they wish their work to be used. You can find out more about the different kinds of licence, and what they mean, on the organisation’s web pages .

What is a caption?

Any image that you use should be given a figure number  and a brief description of what it is. Permission for use of an image in a published work should be acknowledged in the figure caption. Some organisations will require the permission statement to be given exactly as they specify. If they are required, permissions need to be stated in addition to the citing and referencing guidance given below.

Referencing images in PowerPoint slides

For a presentation you should include a brief citation under the image. Keep a reference list to hand (e.g. hidden slide) for questions. Making a public presentation or posting it online is publishing your work. You must include your references and observe permission and copyright rules.

Example of a caption

Library book with pink 7 day loan ticket

Figure 1. Library book. Reproduced with permission from: Rogers, T., 2015, University of Bath Library

Citing and referencing images

Citing images from a book or journal article.

If you wish to refer to images used in a book or journal, they are cited in the same way as text information , for example:

The functions and flow of genetic information within a plant cell can be visualised as a complex system (Campbell et al., 2015, pp. 282-283).

Campbell et al. (2015, pp. 282-283) have clearly illustrated how a plant cell functions.

If you were to include this example in an essay the caption and citation below the image would look similar to this:

Figure 7. The functions and flow of genetic information within a plant cell (Campbell et al., 2015, pp. 282-283).

The reference at the end of the work would be as recommended for a book reference in our general referencing guide .

For a large piece of work such as a dissertation, thesis or report, a list of figures may be required at the front of the work after the contents page. Check with your department for information on specific requirements of your work.

Google images

When referencing an image found via Google you need to make sure that the information included in your reference relates to the original website that your search has found. Click on the image within the results to get to the original website and take your reference information from there. Take care to use credible sources with good quality information.

Citing and referencing images from a web page

If you use an image from a web page, blog or an online photograph gallery you should reference the individual image . Cite the image creator in the caption and year of publication. The creator may be different from the author of the web page or blog. They may be individual people or an organisation. Figure 2 below gives an example of an image with a corporate author:

Nasa Astronaut Tim Kopra on Dec. 21 2015 Spacewalk

List the image reference within your references list at the end of your work, using the format:

NASA, 2015.  NASA astronaut Tim Kopra on Dec. 21 spacewalk [Online]. Washington: NASA. Available from: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/nasa-astronaut-tim-kopra-on-dec-21-spacewalk [Accessed 7 January 2015].

Wikipedia images

If you want to reference an image included in a Wikipedia article, double-click on the image to see all the information needed for your reference. This will open a new page containing information such as creator, image title, date and specific URL. The format should be:

Iliff, D., 2006. Royal Crescent in Bath, England - July 2006  [Online] .  San Francisco: Wikimedia Foundation. Available from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Royal_Crescent_in_Bath,_England_-_July_2006.jpg [Accessed 7 January 2016].

Images and designs from exhibitions, museums or archives

If you want to reference an image or design that you have found in an exhibition, museum or archive, then you also need to observe copyright rules and reference the image correctly. The format is:

For example, if you want to reference an old black and white photograph from 1965 that is held in an archive at the University of Bath:

Bristol Region Building Record, 1965. Green Park House (since demolished), viewed from southwest [Photograph]. BRBR, D/877/1. Archives & Research Collections, University of Bath Library.

NB if you were to reproduce this archive image in your work, or any part of it (rather than just cite it), you would also need to note ‘© University of Bath Library’. This copyright note should be added to the image caption along with the citation.

Referencing your own images

If you take a photograph, you do not have to reference it. For sake of clarity you may want to add “Image by author” to the caption. If you create an original illustration or a diagram that you have produced from your own idea then you do not have to cite or reference them. If you generate an image from a graphics package, for example a molecular structure from chemistry drawing software, you do not need to cite the source of the image.

Referencing images that you adapt from elsewhere

If you use someone else’s work for an image then you must give them due credit. If you reproduce it by hand or using graphics software it is the same as if you printed, scanned or photocopied it. You must cite and reference the work as described in this guide. If the image is something that you have created in an earlier assignment or publication you need to reference earlier piece of work to avoid self-plagiarism. If you want to annotate information to improve upon, extend or change an existing image you must cite the original work. However, you would use the phrase ‘adapted from’ in your citation and reference the original work in your reference list.

AI generated images

If you have used an AI tool to generate an image you must acknowledge that tool as a source  (see point 7 of the  academic integrity statement ).

This content is not recoverable; it cannot be linked or retrieved. There is no published source that you can reference directly. Instead you would give an in-text, ‘personal communications’ citation , as described in part 15 of our 'Write a citation' guidance (from the Harvard Bath guide). This type of citation includes the author details followed by (pers. comm.) and the date of the communication.

For example, an image of a shark in a library generated with Craiyon with a ‘personal communications’ citation included in the image caption:

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

Figure 3. Shark in a library image generated using an AI tool (Craiyon, AI Image Generator (pers. comm.) 14 July 2022). 

Online images and resources for your work

The library has compiled a list of useful audio-visual resources, including images, that can be used for essays or assignments. Visit the ' finding images and videos ' tab of this guide to find out more.

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Citing Images

The caption contains a description of the image and a credit line., the citation contains enough information as necessary to locate the image. , some captions do both -  they serve as both the caption and citation., title  or  description. credit line..

A  caption  appears next to the image and identifies or describes the image, and credits the source.   There is no standard format for captions.

Description

Point out any aspects of the image that you think are noteworthy or relevant.  You may want to include:

  • Names of people who deserve creative credit for the image (photographer, designer, stylist...)
  • Title or Description of Work
  • Date of Work
  • Medium (photograph, digital photograph, painting, sculpture, installation, drawing, poster, artists' book)

- Architecture & Interior Design architect or designer, type of illustration (e.g., interior, exterior, plan, elevation, drawing), location (street address, intersection, neighborhood, city, state/province, region), year built, year designed, year pictured, block & lot, GPS coordinates, official name of site.

- Fashion model or person, label or house, type of garment, fabric or material, collection or season, runway look number, location.

- Photography type of print, name of series, location.

Credit Line

  • Suggested terms to credit a source: "From..." "Collection of ..." "Courtesy ..."
  • The credit line can be brief if you are also including a full citation in your paper or project.
  • For books and periodicals, it helps to include a date of publication.  You can also include the author, title, and page number.

* When reposting digital images publicly, you must follow any stated rules in a source's "Terms of Use," Image Credits," or "Image Permissions" section.

Name. Title (or Description). Year.  Source.

A citation appears in a note or in a bibliography and should follow the conventions provided in a style guide.   However, there is no standard format for citations, either.   The key to a good citation is that provides enough information to help readers locate the image. 

  • Name: If the creator is unknown, you can substitute the name of the entity that commissioned the image (e.g., Paramount Studios, Chicago Public Library, NASA).
  • If source is an image database: include identifying numbers and collection information.
  • URLs can be included but with the recognition that they are unstable and may become invalid in a few years. 
  • If the source is a book, periodical, or website: cite using Chicago style.
  • Chicago Manual of Style The online Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press.

Additional Resources

  • Harder to Find than Nemo: the Elusive Image Citation Standard (article) Article written by librarian Jennifer Yao Weinraub, published by College & Research Libraries.
  • LinkedIn Learning: Citing Images

how do you cite pictures in a research paper

  • Visual Literacy for Libraries by Nicole E. Brown; Kaila Bussert; Denise Hattwig; Ann Medaille ISBN: 9780838913819 Publication Date: 2016-03-01
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to Cite a Picture or Image in MLA

How to Cite a Picture or Image in MLA

Photograph – An image produced by a camera.

Citing a photograph or image displayed in a museum or institution (viewed in-person)

The citations below  are based on information from the MLA Style Center .

View Screenshot | Cite your source

Citing a photograph or image from a museum or institution (viewed online)

Many museums have online collections of their work. The citations below  are based on information from the MLA Style Center .

Citing a digital image on a web page or online article

Digital Image – A picture that can be viewed electronically by a computer.

Here’s the standard structure for a digital image citation found on a website. It follows guidance found in the MLA Style Center .  

 View Screenshot | Cite your source

Image search: Do not cite the search engine (example: Google Images) where the image is found, but the website of the image the search engine indexes.

Citing a photograph from a book

Citing a photograph you took.

The photo would be considered as part of a “personal collection.” The example below follows guidance found in the MLA Style Center .  

Citing a photograph from a database

  View Screenshot | Cite your source

MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.

Updated April 26, 2021.

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

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  • View MLA Guide

Citation Examples

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  • View all MLA Examples

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To cite an image with no author in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the title or description, museum or website name, date, and URL if applicable. Templates and examples for in-text citations and works cited list entries for an image with no author (viewed online) are provided below:

In-text citation template and example:

For citations in prose and parenthetical citations, use the title of the image.

Citation in prose:

The photograph Robert Frank in Automobile ….

Parenthetical:

….( Robert Frank )

Works-cited-list entry template and example:

Viewed online:

Title of Photograph or Description. Date Published.  Name of Gallery/Museum or Website Name, URL.

Robert Frank in Automobile. 1958. National Gallery of Art, https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.89153.html.

To cite an image with no date in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the artist name, image title, and either the website where the image was viewed online or the museum or gallery name where it was viewed in person. If no date information is provided for an online image, omit the publication date details and instead provide the date you accessed it. Templates and examples for in-text citations and works cited list entries for an image with no date (viewed online and firsthand) are provided below:

For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the artist on the first occurrence. For subsequent citations, use only the surname. In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the artist.

First mention: Janet Cameron ….

Subsequent occurrences: Cameron ….

….(Cameron).

Viewed firsthand :

Artist Surname, First Name. Title of the Image. Name of the Museum or Gallery, Physical Location (Major City or City, State).

Muybridge, Eadweard. Attitudes of Animals in Motion . Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

Viewed online :

Artist Surname, First Name. Title of the Image. Name of the Website , URL. Accessed Date.

Cameron, Janet. Who Was Cleopatra? Decoded Past , www.decodedpast.com/philosophy-2/ . Accessed 20 Sept. 2021.

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  • Citing sources

How to Cite Sources | Citation Generator & Quick Guide

Citing your sources is essential in  academic writing . Whenever you quote or paraphrase a source (such as a book, article, or webpage), you have to include a  citation crediting the original author.

Failing to properly cite your sources counts as plagiarism , since you’re presenting someone else’s ideas as if they were your own.

The most commonly used citation styles are APA and MLA. The free Scribbr Citation Generator is the quickest way to cite sources in these styles. Simply enter the URL, DOI, or title, and we’ll generate an accurate, correctly formatted citation.

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Citation examples and full guides, frequently asked questions about citing sources.

Citations are required in all types of academic texts. They are needed for several reasons:

  • To avoid plagiarism by indicating when you’re taking information from another source
  • To give proper credit to the author of that source
  • To allow the reader to consult your sources for themselves

A citation is needed whenever you integrate a source into your writing. This usually means quoting or paraphrasing:

  • To quote a source , copy a short piece of text word for word and put it inside quotation marks .
  • To paraphrase a source , put the text into your own words. It’s important that the paraphrase is not too close to the original wording. You can use the paraphrasing tool if you don’t want to do this manually.

Citations are needed whether you quote or paraphrase, and whatever type of source you use. As well as citing scholarly sources like books and journal articles, don’t forget to include citations for any other sources you use for ideas, examples, or evidence. That includes websites, YouTube videos , and lectures .

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Usually, your institution (or the journal you’re submitting to) will require you to follow a specific citation style, so check your guidelines or ask your instructor.

In some cases, you may have to choose a citation style for yourself. Make sure to pick one style and use it consistently:

  • APA Style is widely used in the social sciences and beyond.
  • MLA style is common in the humanities.
  • Chicago notes and bibliography , common in the humanities
  • Chicago author-date , used in the (social) sciences
  • There are many other citation styles for different disciplines.

If in doubt, check with your instructor or read other papers from your field of study to see what style they follow.

In most styles, your citations consist of:

  • Brief in-text citations at the relevant points in the text
  • A reference list or bibliography containing full information on all the sources you’ve cited

In-text citations most commonly take the form of parenthetical citations featuring the last name of the source’s author and its year of publication (aka author-date citations).

An alternative to this type of in-text citation is the system used in numerical citation styles , where a number is inserted into the text, corresponding to an entry in a numbered reference list.

There are also note citation styles , where you place your citations in either footnotes or endnotes . Since they’re not embedded in the text itself, these citations can provide more detail and sometimes aren’t accompanied by a full reference list or bibliography.

A reference list (aka “Bibliography” or “Works Cited,” depending on the style) is where you provide full information on each of the sources you’ve cited in the text. It appears at the end of your paper, usually with a hanging indent applied to each entry.

The information included in reference entries is broadly similar, whatever citation style you’re using. For each source, you’ll typically include the:

  • Author name
  • Publication date
  • Container (e.g., the book an essay was published in, the journal an article appeared in)
  • Location (e.g., a URL or DOI , or sometimes a physical location)

The exact information included varies depending on the source type and the citation style. The order in which the information appears, and how you format it (e.g., capitalization, use of italics) also varies.

Most commonly, the entries in your reference list are alphabetized by author name. This allows the reader to easily find the relevant entry based on the author name in your in-text citation.

APA-reference-list

In numerical citation styles, the entries in your reference list are numbered, usually based on the order in which you cite them. The reader finds the right entry based on the number that appears in the text.

Vancouver reference list example

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The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:

  • Missing commas and periods
  • Incorrect usage of “et al.”
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how do you cite pictures in a research paper

Because each style has many small differences regarding things like italicization, capitalization , and punctuation , it can be difficult to get every detail right. Using a citation generator can save you a lot of time and effort.

Scribbr offers citation generators for both APA and MLA style. Both are quick, easy to use, and 100% free, with no ads and no registration required.

Just input a URL or DOI or add the source details manually, and the generator will automatically produce an in-text citation and reference entry in the correct format. You can save your reference list as you go and download it when you’re done, and even add annotations for an annotated bibliography .

Once you’ve prepared your citations, you might still be unsure if they’re correct and if you’ve used them appropriately in your text. This is where Scribbr’s other citation tools and services may come in handy:

Plagiarism Checker

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Citation Editing

Plagiarism means passing off someone else’s words or ideas as your own. It’s a serious offense in academia. Universities use plagiarism checking software to scan your paper and identify any similarities to other texts.

When you’re dealing with a lot of sources, it’s easy to make mistakes that could constitute accidental plagiarism. For example, you might forget to add a citation after a quote, or paraphrase a source in a way that’s too close to the original text.

Using a plagiarism checker yourself before you submit your work can help you spot these mistakes before they get you in trouble. Based on the results, you can add any missing citations and rephrase your text where necessary.

Try out the Scribbr Plagiarism Checker for free, or check out our detailed comparison of the best plagiarism checkers available online.

Scribbr Plagiarism Checker

Scribbr’s Citation Checker is a unique AI-powered tool that automatically detects stylistic errors and inconsistencies in your in-text citations. It also suggests a correction for every mistake.

Currently available for APA Style, this is the fastest and easiest way to make sure you’ve formatted your citations correctly. You can try out the tool for free below.

If you need extra help with your reference list, we also offer a more in-depth Citation Editing Service.

Our experts cross-check your in-text citations and reference entries, make sure you’ve included the correct information for each source, and improve the formatting of your reference page.

If you want to handle your citations yourself, Scribbr’s free Knowledge Base provides clear, accurate guidance on every aspect of citation. You can see citation examples for a variety of common source types below:

And you can check out our comprehensive guides to the most popular citation styles:

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

The abbreviation “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”) is used to shorten citations of sources with multiple authors.

“Et al.” is used in APA in-text citations of sources with 3+ authors, e.g. (Smith et al., 2019). It is not used in APA reference entries .

Use “et al.” for 3+ authors in MLA in-text citations and Works Cited entries.

Use “et al.” for 4+ authors in a Chicago in-text citation , and for 10+ authors in a Chicago bibliography entry.

The Scribbr Citation Generator is developed using the open-source Citation Style Language (CSL) project and Frank Bennett’s citeproc-js . It’s the same technology used by dozens of other popular citation tools, including Mendeley and Zotero.

You can find all the citation styles and locales used in the Scribbr Citation Generator in our publicly accessible repository on Github .

APA format is widely used by professionals, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business.

Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in to double-check which style you should be using.

MLA Style  is the second most used citation style (after APA ). It is mainly used by students and researchers in humanities fields such as literature, languages, and philosophy.

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IMAGES

  1. How to Cite a Research Paper in APA (with Pictures)

    how do you cite pictures in a research paper

  2. How to Cite a Picture in MLA

    how do you cite pictures in a research paper

  3. APA Citation Generator (Free) & Complete APA Format Guide

    how do you cite pictures in a research paper

  4. How to Cite MLA in Your Paper: a Complete Guide from Flowcie

    how do you cite pictures in a research paper

  5. How To Cite a Research Paper: Citation Styles Guide

    how do you cite pictures in a research paper

  6. How to Cite a Picture in MLA

    how do you cite pictures in a research paper

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Cite an Image

    Citing an image in APA Style. In an APA Style reference entry for an image found on a website, write the image title in italics, followed by a description of its format in square brackets. Include the name of the site and the URL. The APA in-text citation just includes the photographer's name and the year. APA format. Author last name, Initials.

  2. How to Cite Images

    Include as much of the information below when citing images in a paper and formal presentations. Apply the appropriate citation style (see below for APA, MLA examples). Image creator's name (artist, photographer, etc.) Title of the image; Date the image (or work represented by the image) was created; Date the image was posted online

  3. How to Cite a Picture or Image in APA

    Citing vs. 'reproducing' This guide provides information on how to cite images and photographs. However, reproducing the image inside of your essay or research paper might require additional permissions and/or attributions. Section 12.15 of the Publication Manual provides more information on reproducing images and graphics.

  4. How to Cite Images, Graphs & Tables in a Research Paper

    You can cite images in your research paper either at the end, in between the topics, or in a separate section for all the non-textual elements used in the paper. You can choose to insert images in between texts, but you need to provide the in-text citations for every image that has been used. Additionally, you need to attach the name ...

  5. Documenting and Citing Images

    Use the following elements when identifying and citing an image, depending on the information you have available. It is your responsibility to do due diligence and document as much as possible about the image you are using: Artist's/creator's name, if relevant; Title of the work/image, if known, or description;

  6. How to Cite an Image in MLA

    If you include an image directly in your paper, it should be labeled "Fig." (short for "Figure"), given a number, and presented in the MLA figure format. Directly below the image, place a centered caption starting with the figure label and number (e.g. "Fig. 2"), then a period. For the rest of the caption, you have two options:

  7. Citing Images

    The only official, authorized book on MLA style. The new, ninth edition builds on the MLA's unique approach to documenting sources using a template of core elements facts, common to most sources, like author, title, and publication date that allows writers to cite any type of work, from books, e-books, and journal articles in databases to song lyrics, online images, social media posts ...

  8. APA 7th: Images, tables and figures

    In-Text Citation. Reference List & Notes. Copied Image (reproduced within the document) For Figure 2 Pilotus Flowers (Family Amaranthaceae) Example: Species such as the Pilotus flower (Figure 2) are ideal for weed control due to their spreading habit. Note: No need to cite the author of an image when you refer to an image figure within your text.

  9. Citing & Using Images

    Like written sources, images also need to be properly cited. Always indicate, or cite where you found the image. Citations can be formatted according to the citation style you are using (MLA, APA, Chicago, etc). Using images you did not create requires a citation in all cases. Citations should be accessible in the context of the image's use and ...

  10. AMA Citation Style: Images

    In your reference list, cite an image the same way you would cite a website. Author(s). Title of specific item cited (or, if unavailable, give the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of Web Site. URL. Publication date. Updated date. Accessed date. TIP! If you do not know the author of an image, start with the title of the ...

  11. How to Cite an Image

    How to Cite an Image. To create a basic works-cited-list entry for an image, list the creator of the image, the title of the image, the date of composition, and the location of the image, which would be a physical location if you viewed the image in person. If you viewed the image online, provide the name of the website containing the image and ...

  12. Images Research Guide: Citing Images

    MLA Handbook by The Modern Language Association of America Relied on by generations of writers, the MLA Handbookis published by the Modern Language Association and is the only official, authorized book on MLA style. The new, ninth edition builds on the MLA's unique approach to documenting sources using a template of core elements--facts, common to most sources, like author, title, and ...

  13. LibGuides: APA Citation Style 7th Edition: Welcome

    In APA, you must "cite" sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places: In the body of your paper where you add a brief in-text citation. In the Reference list at the end of your paper where you give more complete information for the source.

  14. Finding and referencing images: Referencing images

    If you use an image from a web page, blog or an online photograph gallery you should reference the individual image. Cite the image creator in the caption and year of publication. The creator may be different from the author of the web page or blog. They may be individual people or an organisation.

  15. Images for Designers and Art Researchers

    The key to a good citation is that provides enough information to help readers locate the image. Name: If the creator is unknown, you can substitute the name of the entity that commissioned the image (e.g., Paramount Studios, Chicago Public Library, NASA). If source is an image database: include identifying numbers and collection information.

  16. How to reference an image in Harvard style

    Today, finding and citing a digital or online image is simple. You'll need the following information: Photographer's name. (Year published) Title of the photograph, italizised. Available at: URL (Accessed: the date you sourced the image) In-text citation structure and example: (Photographer's name, Year published) OR.

  17. How to cite self-created images or pictures in thesis

    Cite your own work just like you'd cite someone else's. Without citation you're suggesting originality. A reader knows when an author cites their own work. The author of both works are the same (or overlapping). There's no need to be explicit (by stating, for instance, in my earlier work), unless it is useful.

  18. Citing Google Images in APA, MLA or Chicago

    To cite an image found through Google using the image-search function or through searching Google Images, identify the website where the image was originally posted. Cite the image as though you found it on the original website where it was posted. To find the publisher's details, this means clicking through to the site with the image.

  19. How to Cite an Image in Chicago Style

    Citing an image from a book. An image you encountered in a book, journal article, or other print source should be cited by first listing information about the image itself, then listing information about the source it was contained in, including the page number where the image can be found.. Use italics for the title an image originally created outside the context of the book or article (e.g ...

  20. How to Cite a Picture or Image in MLA

    Citing a photograph you took. The photo would be considered as part of a "personal collection.". The example below follows guidance found in the MLA Style Center. Your Last Name, First Name. Image description or Image Title. Day Month Year taken. Author's personal collection. Doe, Jane. Tumbleweed Gulch. 3 Jan. 2019.

  21. How To Cite: A Basic Guide for College Students

    Note that when you are citing a source in APA format, you will need to add the page number of the source to the in-text citation if you are using a direct quote from that source. Here's an example: The scientists working on the maze study noted, "the brand of peanut butter didn't seem to matter to the mice; they liked both Skippy and Jiff ...

  22. How to Cite Sources

    At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays, research papers, and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises). Add a citation whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.