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Course: US history   >   Unit 8

  • Introduction to the Civil Rights Movement
  • African American veterans and the Civil Rights Movement
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
  • Emmett Till
  • The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • "Massive Resistance" and the Little Rock Nine
  • The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • SNCC and CORE

Black Power

  • The Civil Rights Movement
  • “Black Power” refers to a militant ideology that aimed not at integration and accommodation with white America, but rather preached black self-reliance, self-defense, and racial pride.
  • Malcolm X was the most influential thinker of what became known as the Black Power movement, and inspired others like Stokely Carmichael of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale of the Black Panther Party.
  • The Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, operated as both a black self-defense militia and a provider of services to the black community.

The origins of Black Power

Malcolm x and the nation of islam, the black panther party, the black panther party for self-defense ten-point platform and program.

  • We want freedom. We want power to determine the destiny of our Black Community.
  • We want full employment for our people.
  • We want an end to the robbery by the white men of our Black Community.
  • We want decent housing, fit for shelter of human beings.
  • We want education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present day society.
  • We want all Black men to be exempt from military service.
  • We want an immediate end to POLICE BRUTALITY and MURDER of Black people.
  • We want freedom for all Black men held in federal, state, county and city prisons and jails.
  • We want all Black people when brought to trial to be tried in court by a jury of their peer group or people from their Black Communities, as defined by the Constitution of the United States.
  • We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace.

What do you think?

  • Quoted in John Hope Franklin and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans (New York: McGraw Hill, 2011), 551.
  • Richard Wright, Black Power: An American Negro Views the African Gold Coast (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1954).
  • For more, see Brenda Gayle Plummer, In Search of Power: African Americans in the Era of Decolonization, 1956-1974 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013).
  • For more on Malcolm X, see James L. Conyers, Jr. and Andrew P. Smallwood, eds. Malcolm X: A Historical Reader (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2008).
  • Malcolm X and Alex Haley, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, (New York: Grove Press, 1965).
  • Franklin and Higginbotham, From Slavery to Freedom , 557-558.
  • For more on the Black Panthers, see Donna Jean Murch, Living for the City: Migration, Education, and the Rise of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010); and Joshua Bloom & Waldo E. Martin, Jr., Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).
  • Franklin and Higginbotham, From Slavery to Freedom , 561. See also Ward Churchill & Jim Vanderwall, The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI’s Secret Wars Against Dissent in the United States (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1990).

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black power essay questions

Black Power

black power essay questions

Written by: Peter C. Myers, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

By the end of this section, you will:.

  • Explain how and why various groups responded to calls for the expansion of civil rights from 1960 to 1980

Suggested Sequencing

Use this narrative with the Freedom Riders Narrative; The March on Birmingham Narrative; the Martin Luther King Jr., “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” 1963 Primary Source; the Martin Luther King Jr., “I Have a Dream,” August 28, 1963 Primary Source; the Civil Disobedience across Time Lesson; The Music of the Civil Rights Movement Lesson; and the Civil Rights DBQ Lesson to discuss the different aspects of the civil rights movement during the 1960s. You can also use this narrative with the Malcolm X, “The Ballot or the Bullet,” April 12, 1964 Primary Source to discuss the call for violence in the African American civil rights movement.

On June 6, 1966, one day into his solitary “March Against Fear,” James Meredith was shot and wounded by a sniper in northwest Mississippi. Meredith, an Air Force veteran and the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi, had planned to march from Memphis to Jackson to encourage voter registration by black citizens. As he recovered, prominent black leaders promised Meredith they would continue his march. Among them was Stokely Carmichael, the newly elected chair of SNCC, who aimed to steer the broader movement in a more militant direction. As the march carried on, Carmichael led a crowd at a June 16 rally in Greenwood, Mississippi, in a chant: “We want Black power!” Martin Luther King Jr. had objected, but with that outcry, a new faction of the black freedom movement was born.

Carmichael’s speech gave the faction a name and a new impetus for its organizational development, but he was neither Black Power’s true founder nor its most important formative influence. The crucial figure in the radicalizing of black political thought in this period was Malcolm X, whom Carmichael regarded as his “patron saint.”

Malcolm X, originally Malcolm Little, was born May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska. His father, Earl, and mother, Louise, were followers of the Jamaican-born black nationalist Marcus Garvey. After Earl Little’s death in 1931 in disputed circumstances, an overburdened Louise descended into chronic mental illness. In his teens, Malcolm X lapsed into a life of criminality, landing in prison for grand larceny before he reached the age of 20 years. His imprisonment proved to be the great turning point in his life.

Photograph of Malcolm X smiling and standing behind a microphone.

In prison, Malcolm X met an older inmate named John Elton Bembry, a man of broad knowledge and intellectual curiosity, who inspired him to embark on a rigorous course of self-education. Meanwhile, at the behest of siblings, Malcolm X joined theNation of Islam. After his release from prison in 1952, he became an assistant minister at the Nation of Islam’s Temple No. 1 in Detroit. During the next few years, he established thriving temples in Boston and Philadelphia and finally took a position as the minister of Temple No. 7 in Harlem.

In July 1959, a New York television station aired a documentary series on the Nation of Islam entitled “The Hate that Hate Produced.” Many Americans found it shocking, but shortly after the series aired, membership increased dramatically, and Malcolm X became a nationally known figure.

The message he preached was contrary to the mainstream civil rights movement’s dedication to nonviolence and integration. It advocated defensive, not aggressive, violence, but Malcolm X’s rhetoric nonetheless generated fears that it would incite violence. “You don’t have a turn-the-other-cheek revolution,” he told a Detroit audience in 1963. “There’s no such thing as a nonviolent revolution,” he insisted. “A revolution is bloody.” Revolution overturns and destroys everything that gets in its way.” He continued: “Our religion teaches us to be intelligent. Be peaceful, be courteous, obey the law, respect everyone; but if someone puts his hand on you, send him to the cemetery. That’s a good religion.” The following year, he warned of the consequences of continuing failure to enact reforms: “In 1964, it’s the ballot or the bullet.”

Malcolm X opposed racial integration and derided “the Negro revolution” as the “only revolution in which the goal is a desegregated lunch counter, a desegregated theater – and a desegregated public toilet. That’s no revolution.” The “philosophy of black nationalism,” he explained, “means that the black man should control the politics and the politicians in his own community,” along with the economy. “Why should white people be running all the stores in our community?”

Eventually, Malcolm X wanted to focus more on black understanding of cultural ties to Africa and leadership within black communities. When he broke with the Nation of Islam for moral and political reasons, he made himself a marked man. On February 21, 1965, he was assassinated by Nation of Islam loyalists while he attempted to lecture in Harlem.

Malcolm X’s linking of black self-respect with defensive violence and his calls for political and economic power independent of whites were powerfully appealing to many black residents of northern urban ghettos who were angered by violence committed against the southern civil rights movement and dissatisfied with the limited benefits of its desegregation agenda. His agenda held a similar appeal for younger, increasingly militant factions of the southern movement as it progressed through its climactic campaigns. Carmichael contended that after the violence in Birmingham and Selma, African Americans could no longer be animated by integrationist love. His Black Power call was endorsed by SNCC and the Congress for Racial Equality (CORE), and the schism in the freedom movement became irreparable.

In his manifesto, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America , Carmichael maintained, despite his objections to integration as a trick to achieve white supremacy, that the moral center of Black Power was neither anti-white nor pro-violence. Even so, mainstream leaders’ concerns about divisiveness, incitement to violence, and white backlash were legitimate. The call for Black Power came amid an outbreak of race-related urban rioting that began in 1964 and spread to hundreds of U.S. cities over the next few years. The double-edged character of Black Power – defended as a program of peaceful self-affirmation and self-empowerment but marred at its extremes by a romanticizing of revolutionary violence – was most vividly exemplified by the career of its most controversial product, the Black Panther Party.

Stokely Carmichael smiles and gives a flyer to another man. At the bottom of the flyer is the Black Panther logo.

As the Black Power idea gained support, Black Panther parties and organizations formed across the country. The most influential and longest lasting was the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, formed in Oakland, California, in October 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, both of whom were inspired by the lectures of Malcolm X. Two events the next year brought national notoriety to the newly founded party. In May 1967, 30 Panthers, 20 of whom bore arms in open display, demonstrated at the state capitol in Sacramento to protest a bill designed to prevent party members from conducting armed patrols to deter police misconduct. The bill passed, likely due, in part, to the demonstration. Then, in October, Newton was involved in a traffic altercation with police that left an officer dead and resulted in a manslaughter conviction for Newton. The conviction was overturned in 1970 due to an error by the judge, but in the meantime, Newton’s imprisonment had made him a political martyr in the eyes of sympathizers. An ensuing “Free Huey” campaign proved a great boon for the party’s fundraising.

A poster shows Bobby Seale (left) and Huey Newtown (right) with text printed over their bodies identifying them as

After Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination in April 1968, membership in Black Panther Party chapters nationwide increased substantially. Supporters admired the party’s boldness in opposing police brutality, along with its efforts to improve conditions in urban ghettos by operating schools, health-care clinics, and free-breakfast programs. Critics, however, pointed to a record of criminality, including murders, beatings, intimidation of witnesses, extortion, and mismanagement of funds that, in the end, alienated its donors and left the party resembling a glorified street gang. It finally disbanded in 1982. Newton was killed in a drug dispute in 1989.

A similar fate had already befallen SNCC. By early 1967, the organization was virtually bankrupt. Carmichael was succeeded as leader by the even more militant H. Rap Brown, who was indicted the next year for incitement to violence. SNCC disintegrated shortly thereafter.

Black Power activism left a divided legacy. Some link its rise to the decline of the black freedom movement, because the upsurge in urban violence and the movement’s factious and illiberal (nationalist and socialist) offshoots alienated mainstream America. The heyday of Black Power activism was over by the mid-1970s, and some of the major problems it addressed – the poverty and social disorder plaguing urban ghettos – have persisted to the present day. In other respects, however, the Black Power movement’s enduring, transformative influence over America’s political institutions and culture is undeniable. Black voters, frequently acting as a bloc, have wielded substantial political power in the elections of numerous African American candidates, including mayors, congressional members, and of course, the first African American U.S. president.

The influence of Black Power on education has been perhaps even more pronounced, as evident foremost in the rise of multicultural education, with its emphasis on the affirmation of racial and ethnic diversity and its discrediting of the traditional “melting pot” model of integration. Finally, Black Power activists’ allegations of racially charged police misconduct have been recently reprised by the Black Lives Matter movement, whose statement of “Demands” shows the heavy influence of the Black Panther Party’s 10-point “Platform and Program.”

As to whether the Black Power movement, on balance, has been a positive or a negative force in American political life, opinions remain divided. It is safe to say that so long as social and economic disparities persist between African Americans and the general American population, the movement’s appeal in one form or another will endure.

Review Questions

1. James Meredith undertook his “March Against Fear” to

  • promote black voter registration
  • demand racial integration in the University of Mississippi
  • protest the imprisonment of Huey Newton
  • raise money for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

2. The person with the deepest influence over the Black Power movement was

  • Stokely Carmichael
  • Charles Hamilton
  • H. Rap Brown

3. Stokely Carmichael argued that the call for Black Power signified a demand for

  • black supremacy in the United States
  • an effective share of power for blacks in the United States
  • the creation of a black sovereign nation within U.S. territory
  • the organization of a separate black police force in the United States

4. The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense was characterized by all the following except

  • it was founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale
  • it operated, in part, as a welfare agency for poor black communities
  • it served as a source of inspiration for the Black Lives Matter movement
  • it was modeled after Dr. King’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference

5. Malcolm X’s statement “In 1964, it’s the ballot or the bullet” most clearly reflected

  • growing frustration with the tactics and limited success of Martin Luther King Jr. and his followers
  • a rejection of the electoral victory of Lyndon B. Johnson
  • a call for confining civil rights activity to the Deep South
  • support for the Brown v. Board of Education decision

6. According to Malcolm X, black nationalism is best described as

  • full integration into the white community
  • black economic and political control over black communities
  • a movement inconsistent with the ideas of Marcus Garvey
  • a movement consistent with the ideas of Nation of Islam

7. Malcolm X’s calls for black power and defensive violence resonated most strongly with

  • rural southern African Americans
  • residents of northern urban ghettos
  • suburban African Americans
  • older members of predominantly African American churches

8. Black Power was most strongly supported by the

  • Congress for Racial Equality
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • Black Panthers
  • National Association of Colored People

Free Response Questions

  • Compare the main ideas included in the term Black Power with the tactics of Martin Luther King Jr. and the SCLC.
  • Explain the causes of the rise of Black Power as a significant force in U.S. politics in the mid to late 1960s.
  • Discuss the reasons for the decline of the Black Power movement as a significant force in American politics in the mid to late 1960s.

AP Practice Questions

The poster reads

1. A historian could use this image to support

  • the Vietnam War’s impact on the development of the counterculture
  • the success of the federal government in expanding civil rights and individual liberties
  • the increased debate among civil rights activists over the efficacy of nonviolence
  • the way demographic change shaped cultural conformity

2. Which of the following groups would most likely support the point of view in the image?

  • Segregationists
  • Members of Martin Luther King’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • Black nationalists
  • Critics of the Harlem Renaissance

3. This image best challenged the idea that

  • legal and political progress toward Reconstruction-era promises had occurred
  • mass culture became increasingly homogeneous in the postwar years
  • social mobility encouraged movement to the suburbs
  • Cold War policy led to public debate over the power of the federal government

Primary Sources

Barbour, Floyd, ed. The Black Power Revolt: A Collection of Essays . New York: Collier Books, 1969.

Carmichael, Stokely, and Charles Hamilton. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America . New York: Random House, 1967.

Malcolm X. The Autobiography of Malcolm X . New York: Grove Press, 1965.

Newton, Huey P. To Die for the People: The Writings of Huey P. Newton , Toni Morrison ed. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2009; originally published 1972.

Suggested Resources

Branch, Taylor. At Canaan’s Edge: America in the King Years, 1965-68 . New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.

Branch, Taylor. Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-65 . New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.

Coleman, Kate, and Paul Avery. “The Party’s Over.” New Times , July 10, 1978, pp. 23-47.

Joseph, Peniel E. Waiting ‘Til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America . New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2006.

Lincoln, C. Eric. The Black Muslims in America . Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdman’s Publishing, 1994.

Marable, Manning. Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention . New York: Penguin, 2011.

Ogbar, Jeffrey O. G. Black Power: Radical Politics and African American Identity . Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

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Humanities LibreTexts

2.2: "Empowering the Black Power Movement"

  • Last updated
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  • Page ID 229871

  • Rebecca Al Haider
  • Reedly College

Chapter 5 Objectives

Students will be able to

  • Practice vocabulary with an increased understanding of the chapter words
  • Learn about the Cornell note-taking strategy and practice it while reading
  • Study and discuss the way movements spread through society with the correct use of the order words "before" and "after"
  • Read “ Empowering the Black Power Movement ” by USHistory.org and answer comprehension questions based on this reading
  • Make connections between this chapter and previously assigned texts
  • Practice strategies for writing introduction and conclusion paragraphs
  • Create a 5-paragraph draft of an essay about social change
  • Develop complete sentences while editing for run-on or fragment errors

Vocabulary Introduction

Exercise 1 prior knowledge.

Look at the words in bold in Exercise 2 without reading the example sentences. Rate your current knowledge of the word before doing the unit exercises. Use the numbered scale and write the number in front of the sentences in Exercise 2. With each exercise and by the end of the unit, your knowledge should work toward a "4", which means you will know the word, can explain it and give an example. It is expected that you will mark many words with a "1" or "2" now since they might be completely new words.

1. I do not know this word, and I have never heard of it before.

2. I have heard of this word before. It sounds familiar.

3. I can give an example of this word, but I cannot explain it.

4. I know this word. I can explain it and give an example.

Exercise 2 Definitions

Read the sentences below. Guess the meaning of the words in bold based on the example sentence(s).

____ 1. Alicia was determined to pass the class, so she studied often.

Your definition:

____ 2. The financial aid will help me have more time to study instead of working.

____ 3. Parents should be involved in their children’s lives by doing activities on the weekend, talking at dinnertime, and taking trips together.

____ 4. Ahmed will never disobey his parents. He follows all the rules.

____ 5. The abandoned house attracted homeless people and drug activity.

____ 6. His body rejected the medicine. He had to change his treatment strategy.

Take Cornell Notes on a separate piece of paper. To help you, read the passage first and write margin notes and highlight. Next, transfer your notes into a Cornell Notes template.

Empowering the Black Power Movement by USHistory.org

This informational text discusses how the Black Power movement of the 1960s and 1970s emerged as a major political force following the Civil Rights Movement. While the Civil Rights Movement helped end legal segregation in America, the Black Power movement sought to end the economic and social inequality that African Americans continued to face. As you read, take notes on how the Black Power Movement was formed.

fHEIppW4HPEqLtR4HHDYPGD5rSCa83xj_F59NPGADBBE-mYaaJtEh2OG9eFwlejI_35n6WfJIMDIiSAFaAqvnNUiq7FQMfv3vRcqlpGawfEf42fFqgvcZBmNv2j2QuxNFXhH2Qc

2 Civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr., Floyd McKissick of CORE, and Stokely Carmichael of SNCC rushed to Meredith's hospital bed. They determined that his march must be completed. As Carmichael and McKissick walked through Mississippi, they observed that when it came to race relations, little had changed despite federal legislation. Local townspeople harassed the marchers while the police turned a blind eye or arrested the activists as troublemakers.

3 At a mass rally, Carmichael uttered the simple statement: “What we need is black power.” Crowds chanted the phrase as a slogan, and a movement began to flower.

4 Carmichael and McKissick were heavily influenced by the words of Malcolm X, and rejected integration as a short-term goal. Carmichael felt that blacks needed to feel a sense of racial pride and self-respect before any meaningful gains could be achieved. He encouraged the strengthening of African American communities without the help of whites.

5 Chapters of SNCC and CORE — both integrated organizations — began to reject white membership as Carmichael abandoned peaceful resistance. Martin Luther King Jr. and the NAACP denounced black power as the proper forward path. But black power was a powerful message in the streets of urban America, where resentment boiled and tempers flared.

6 Soon, African American students began to celebrate African American culture boldly and publicly. Colleges teemed with young blacks wearing traditional African colors and clothes. Soul singer James Brown had his audience chanting “Say it loud, I'm black and I'm proud.” Hairstyles unique to African Americans became popular and youths proclaimed, “Black is Beautiful!”

7 That same year, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale took Carmichael's advice one step further. They formed the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California. Openly brandishing weapons, the Panthers decided to take control of their own neighborhoods to aid their communities and to resist police brutality. Soon the Panthers spread across the nation. The Black Panther Party borrowed many tenets from socialist movements, including Mao Zedong's famous creed “Political power comes through the barrel of a gun.” The Panthers and the police exchanged gunshots on American streets as white Americans viewed the growing militancy with increasing alarm. Newton himself was arrested in October of 1968 after he was involved in a shootout with police that left an officer dead. Despite the escalation in violence around the country, the Black Panther Party kept growing.

8 The peaceful Civil Rights Movement was dealt a severe blow in the spring of 1968. On the morning of April 4, King was gunned down by a white assassin named James Earl Ray. Riots spread through American cities as African Americans mourned the death of their most revered leader. Black power advocates saw the murder as another sign that white power must be met with similar force. As the decade came to a close, there were few remaining examples of legal discrimination. But across the land, de facto segregation loomed large. Many schools were hardly integrated and African Americans struggled to claim their fair share of the economic pie.

9 Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement led by CORE, SNCC, and NAACP achieved much with their nonviolent civil disobedience methods in regards to ending Jim Crow laws and supporting integration laws. But the 1970s would belong to the Black Power movement.

“ Empowering the Black Power Movement ” by USHistory.org is licensed under CC BY 4.0

Text-Dependent Questions

Directions: For the following questions, choose the best answer or respond in complete sentences.

1. PART A: Which of the following best identifies a central idea of this text?

A. The Black Power movement’s main purpose was to incite violence against white power.

B. The Black Power movement’s goals included integration and ending police brutality.

C. The Black Power movement’s purpose was to establish black pride and protect black communities.

D. The Black Power movement’s goals included empowering black urban youth and arming them for their own protection.

2. PART B: Which TWO phrases from the text best support the answer to Part A?

A. “Carmichael and McKissick were heavily influenced by the words of Malcolm X, and rejected integration as a short-term goal.” (Paragraph 4)

B. “Carmichael felt that blacks needed to feel a sense of racial pride and self-respect before any meaningful gains could be achieved.” (Paragraph 4)

C. “they observed that when it came to race relations, little had changed despite federal legislation” (Paragraph 2)

D. “Openly brandishing weapons, the Panthers decided to take control of their own neighborhoods to aid their communities and to resist police brutality.” (Paragraph 7)

E. “Riots spread through American cities as African Americans mourned the death of their most revered leader.” (Paragraph 8)

F. “Many schools were hardly integrated and African Americans struggled to claim their fair share of the economic pie.” (Paragraph 8)

3. How does the inclusion of paragraph 6 contribute to the author’s description of the Black Power movement?

A. It explains how black musicians were more influential than black activists.

B. It depicts the enlightenment and spiritual awakening of the Black Power movement.

C. It shows how the movement celebrated and uplifted African Americans.

D. It reveals the wide gap between white America and black America during integration.

4. What statement best describes the relationship between Stokely Carmichael and Huey Newton?

A. Carmichael’s call for black power inspired Newton to physically empower black communities.

B. Carmichael’s exclusion of white members inspired Newton to form a black-only movement.

C. Newton worked with Carmichael to learn how to start the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California.

D. Newton’s self-defense methods scared Carmichael because of Newton’s conflicts with the police.

Reading/Writing Strategy: Understand Order of Events

Exercise 5 discuss how movements spread.

1: Watch the video

Take notes of the main ideas. Click "CC" for English subtitles. Re-watch, if needed.

2: Practice vocabulary from the video

Take notes on new vocabulary terms. Click "CC" for English subtitles. Pause as needed.

3: Share Your Ideas

Hint: This type of movement is defined as a group of people working together to advance their shared political, social, or artistic ideas.

How do social-political movements become popular? How do the ideas spread?

Give an example of one movement: What was it? How did it start? How did others join in?

Write at least 5 sentences for your initial post.

The Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement began due to videos of police brutality against Black people spreading online. Protesters called for justice and equality through peaceful demonstrations, marches, and civil disobedience, raising awareness about police violence. Social media, especially hashtags like #BlackLivesMatter, helped the movement go global, gaining support through videos and personal stories. While the movement led to some policy changes in certain police forces, there's still work to be done. The movement continues to spread through online stories and news sources.

4: Reply to two of your peers

After you have created your own post, respond to at least two of your classmates' posts. See if others know about similar movements or have information that you find interesting. You may ask a follow-up question or make a connection to the other student's post. Each reply post should be at least 3 sentences.

Exercise 6 Using before and after to show sequence:

Before connects to the clause of the later event to show that something came before this. Example: Before I came to Delta College, I took some English classes at adult school.

(this happened later) (this happened first)

After connects to the clause of the earlier event to show that something came after this. Example: After I came to Delta College, I made a lot friends from many different countries.

(this happened first) (this happened later)

Punctuation: When you use before and after, your sentence will always have two clauses to show the two different events. You can write these clauses in any order. Before and after are called dependent clause words, meaning the clause with this word is not a complete sentence; it needs to be connected to the other clause. Use a comma to separate the two clauses when you start a sentence with any dependent clause word.

Example: Before a movement really takes off, someone has to start it and a few others have to join in.

(comma needed to separate the two clauses)

Use ideas from the chart to complete the before/after sentences. Add/change words when needed.

Writing Skill-Introduction to Essays

Paragraph to essay.

Recall that a paragraph has three major components: a topic sentence (main idea), supporting details (the body), and a concluding sentence. An essay also has three major parts: an introductory paragraph, a body (supporting paragraphs), and a conclusion paragraph. In this unit, you will learn about the parts of an essay in more detail. In Chapter 4, you wrote an outline with ideas for three body paragraphs about social change. Now, we will discuss strategies for adding an intro paragraph and a conclusion paragraph to create your first full essay assignment.

Introductory Paragraphs

The first paragraph of an essay is called the introduction. Typically, instructors want a hook, connecting information, and a thesis statement. The hook is a sentence that attracts the reader’s attention; however, it is important to note that once you have the reader’s attention, you need to try to keep it. The thesis statement is similar to a topic sentence in that it states the main idea of the essay. In this section, we will focus on the first two parts of an introductory paragraph. Then, you will add your thesis statement.

There are several strategies for the introductory paragraph. More than one strategy can be used.

Definition : Define key concepts that are the focus of the essay.

Surprising facts or statistics : Provide statistics and facts

Funnel : A funnel is like an upside-down triangle. The paragraph begins with a general statement and then the sentences become more and more specific.

Historical Background : Explain the history of the topic. What is the relationship between groups involved? Has there been conflict? This strategy usually involves dates.

Quotation (Expert or Expression): Use a quote or expression related to the topic. The quote should be from an authority or expert on the topic. The expression can be cultural like a proverb.

Anecdote : Tell a story of someone or something that is related to the topic of your essay. For example, if your essay is about immigration (which it is!), then tell the story of an immigrant.

Exercise 5: Identifying the strategies

Look at the three example introductory paragraphs. Identify which strategies are used in each paragraph. More than one strategy per paragraph is possible. Underline the thesis statement.

Example Introduction 1

There is a famous expression in English: "Stop the world, I want to get off!" This expression refers to a feeling of panic, or stress, that makes a person want to stop whatever they are doing, try to relax, and become calm again. 'Stress' means pressure or tension. It is one of the most common causes of health problems in modern life. Too much stress results in physical, emotional, and mental health problems.

Example Introduction 2

First generation immigrants are people that decided to immigrate to another country

looking for a better way of life. Through the years, most of these immigrants get established and

overcome economical hardships. At the same time that these foreign people begin to form their

families in the country where they immigrate, they start to provide to their children who are the

second generation immigrants, better opportunities to live. As immigrants there are some

contrasts between both of these groups, such as economic and educational success, social beliefs,

and social relationships.

Example Introduction 3

United States immigrant history can be found since first English colonists stepped on this land. By the 1960s, United States had become first choice for immigrants. About one-fifth of world immigrants now live in United States (Zong, Batalova, and Hallock). By 2016, United States immigrant population already pass 43.7 million, about one-eighth of total US population. In this large group, Asians and Hispanics are the top two immigrant sources. A recent study shows there are big differences between the first generation and second generation of Asian and Hispanic immigrant by comparing data of education, social views, and identity from each.

Example introduction 1 strategies:

Example introduction 2 strategies:

Example introduction 3 strategies:

Which introductory paragraph is your favorite? What features of this paragraph do you like?

“Example Paragraph 1” is derived from “ Writing for Success ” by Tara Horkoff and Scott McLean licensed CC BY-NC-SA .

Exercise 6: Write a draft for your Essay Introduction (social change)

Write an introductory paragraph for the outline you wrote about social change in Chapter 4. Be sure to use one or more of the strategies you learned in this chapter. Then end the intro paragraph with a clear main idea (your thesis statement!)

Writing Skill-Conclusion Paragraphs

A good conclusion paragraph will restate the main idea from the thesis but not in the exact words and end with a final thought. Strategies for the final thought might be a suggestion, solution, prediction, or opinion. The conclusion should not be a summary. Writing a summary for the conclusion can be redundant or repetitive.

Final Thought Strategies

Suggestion : What do you suggest people do or not do? Should policies or rules be changed? Should people stop a habit?

Example: The second-generation immigrants could give back to their parents who worked so hard to help them become successful. They could help their parents learn English.

Solution : How can the problem be fixed? What are the steps to fixing the problem?

Example: To prevent students from dropping out of college, a peer mentorship program could be created so that students can get advice from students who may have faced the same obstacles in their educational career.

Prediction : What might happen in the future related to this topic?

Example: If immigration policies in America are reformed to create legal status for dreamers, lives will be tremendously changed for the better.

Opinion : How do you feel about this topic without saying “in my opinion”? Is this good, bad, important and why?

Example: Creating laws that deter texting while driving is an important step in preventing accidents, major injuries, and even death.

Exercise 7: Write a draft for your Essay Conclusion (social change)

Write a conclusion paragraph for your essay on social change. Be sure to write a restatement of the thesis and several sentences that provide a final thought using one or more of the strategies above.

Social Change Essay Draft 1

Use the outline from Chapter 8 to write the first draft of your essay (a 5-paragraph essay on the most effective strategies for social change). When you write your draft, be sure to use strategies for the introductory and conclusion paragraphs. Remember that you are trying to convince the reader that these are effective strategies, so be sure to provide strong reasons why these strategies will bring change. You are encouraged to use examples from the readings in this unit.

Vocabulary Practice

Exercise 9 sentence completion.

Complete the sentences using the vocabulary in the box below.

Table 20 Chapter 9 Sentence Completion

1. Esmeralda had to ________________ the car and walk to the gas station.

2. Jorge is ________________ sports and clubs on campus.

3. Christina ________________ offers of help. She wanted to do it alone.

4. Soloman ________________ his mother and went to the party although she said not to.

5. After the earthquake, ________________ arrived from different regions of the country.

6. Natasha is ________________ lose weight, so she only eats salads.

Exercise 10 Discussion Questions

Take notes answering the questions below. Then discuss your answers with a partner or group.

1. Tell about a time you were determined to do something. Why were you so determined?

2. Tell about a time you disobeyed your parents, teacher, or an authority.

3. Are you or your children involved in any clubs or organizations (e.g., sports or religious)? Explain. Why or why not?

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Black Power Movement

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This page features a small selection of UConn library and external resources to support learning and research pertaining to the Black Power Movement. This list is meant to be exploratory and is not a comprehensive representation or list of the library's holdings.

For additional assistance, please contact Stephanie Birch, Research Services Librarian for Africana Studies at  [email protected] .

Black Power

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-- National Museum of African American History & Culture, on the  The Foundations of Black Power  (2019).

Collection Highlights

Black Power Mixtape, 19657-1975 (2011) is a 9-part documentary series by Swedish journalists drawn to the US by stories of urban unrest and revolution. Featuring prominent figures like Stokely Carmichael, Bobby Seale, Angela Davis, and Eldridge Cleaver, the filmmakers captured movement leaders in intimate moments and remarkably unguarded interviews.  Available in DVD format at the UConn library . Watch a clip:

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Black Arts Movement

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Black Panther Party

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Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee

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Online Resources

  • Black Panthers Collection  | Television news collection from the San Francisco Bay Area Television Archive at San Francisco State University
  • Black Panther Party Newspaper  | Free full-text access to a digital collection of the Party's official newspaper, with issues ranging from 1967-76
  • FBI Vault  | Surveillance record from the Federal Bureau of Investigation on Black religious, social, and political organizations and their leaders
  • Huey P. Newton Foundation  | Organization providing information on the history of the Black Panther Party with video, sound files, and other primary sources
  • SNCC Digital Gateway  | A documentary website by the SNCC Legacy Project and Duke University that uses documents, photographs, and audiovisual material to chronicle SNCC’s historic struggle for voting rights. 
  • Vanderbilt Television News Archives  | Contains digitized video of network television news reporting on the Black Panthers back to 1967. Non-digitized news segments can be requested from the archive. Search for "Black Panthers"
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The Foundations of Black Power

Fists in the air, attendees smile at the Revolutionary People's Party Constitutional Convention, Philadelphia, September 1970.

Black power emphasized black self-reliance and self-determination more than integration. Proponents believed African Americans should secure their human rights by creating political and cultural organizations that served their interests.

They insisted that African Americans should have power over their own schools, businesses, community services and local government. They focused on combating centuries of humiliation by demonstrating self-respect and racial pride as well as celebrating the cultural accomplishments of black people around the world. The black power movement frightened most of white America and unsettled scores of black Americans.

Malcolm X The inspiration behind much of the black power movement, Malcolm X’s intellect, historical analysis, and powerful speeches impressed friend and foe alike. The primary spokesman for the Nation of Islam until 1964, he traveled to Mecca that year and returned more optimistic about social change. He saw the African American freedom movement as part of an international struggle for human rights and anti-colonialism. After his assassination in 1965, his memory continued to inspire the rising tide of black power.

Malcolm X speaking in front of the 369th Regiment Armory, 1964.

Malcolm X speaking in front of the 369th Regiment Armory, 1964. 

More than any other person, Malcolm X was responsible for the growing consciousness and new militancy of black people. Julius Lester 1968

Malcolm X’s expression of black pride and self-determination continued to resonate with and engage many African Americans long after his death in February 1965. For example, listening to recordings of his speeches inspired African American soldiers to organize GIs United Against the War in Vietnam in 1969.

This 16mm film is a short documentary made by Madeline Anderson for National Education Television's Black Journal television program to commemorate the four year anniversary of the assassination of Malcolm X.

Stokely Carmichael Stokely Carmichael set a new tone for the black freedom movement when he demanded “black power” in 1966. Drawing on long traditions of racial pride and black nationalism, black power advocates enlarged and enhanced the accomplishments and tactics of the civil rights movement. Rather than settle for legal rights and integration into white society, they demanded the cultural, political, and economic power to strengthen black communities so they could determine their own futures.

Martin Luther King Jr.'s former associate Stokely Carmichael Speaking at civil rights rally in Washington, April 4, 1970

Martin Luther King Jr.'s former associate Stokely Carmichael speaks at civil rights rally in Washington, April 4, 1970.

Black Power Intertwines with Civil Rights Organizers made no distinctions between black power and nonviolent civil rights boycotts in Madison County, Mississippi, 1966.

black power essay questions

Flyer for the Madison County Movement, founded 1963. 

SNCC Supports Black Power SNCC, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, created in 1960, destroyed “the psychological shackles which had kept black southerners in physical and mental peonage,” according to its chairman, Julian Bond.

Julian Bond standing and writing as a young African American boy watches closely, 1976. 

Julian Bond standing and writing as a young African American boy watches closely, 1976. 

Protest, Teaneck, New Jersey ​Building on the successes of the civil rights movement in dismantling segregation, the black power movement sought a further transformation of American society and culture.

A woman sits on a bench outside the Black Panther office in Harlem circa 1970 in New York City. Pictured in the window are Panther founders Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

A woman sits on a bench outside the Black Panther office in Harlem circa 1970 in New York City. Pictured in the window are Panther founders Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. 

Black Power Around the World ​Revolutions in other nations inspired advocates of black power. The African revolutions against European colonialism in the 1950s and 1960s were exciting examples of success. Wars of national liberation in Southeast Asia and Northern Africa offered still more encouragement. Stokely Carmichael’s five-month world speaking tour in 1967 made black power a key to revolutionary language in places like Algeria, Cuba and Vietnam.

Dead and wounded rioters lying in the streets of Sharpeville, South Africa, following an anti-apartheid demonstration organized by the Pan-Africanist Congress which called upon Africans to leave their passes at home, March 23, 1960.

Sharpeville massacre: Dead and wounded rioters lie in the streets of Sharpeville, South Africa, following an anti-apartheid demonstration organized by the Pan-Africanist Congress which called upon Africans to leave their passes at home, March 21, 1960. The South African police opened fire on the crowd, killing 69 people and injuring 180 others. 

Protesting Apartheid, Cape Town, South Africa In 1972 African Americans began annual celebrations of African Liberation Day to commemorate and support liberation movements in Africa. 

black power essay questions

This flyer announces a protest against apartheid in South Africa, 1977.  Pan African Students Organization in the Americas  (1960 - 1977) and  Youth Against War & Fascism , founded 1961. 

“Free All Political Prisoners!” Critics vilified black power organizations as separatist groups or street gangs. These critics ignored the movement’s political activism, cultural innovations and social programs. Of nearly 300 authorized FBI operations against black nationalist groups, more than 230 targeted the Black Panthers. This forced organizations to spend time, money, and effort toward legal defense rather than social programs. 

A round, yellow pinback button with a photographic portrait of Angela Davis in the center, 1970-72

A round, yellow pinback button with a photographic portrait of Angela Davis in the center, 1970-72. 

The War on Black Power Between 1956 and 1971, the FBI and other government agencies waged a war against dissidents, especially African Americans and anti-war advocates. The FBI’s Counterintelligence Program (COINTELPRO) targeted Martin Luther King Jr., the Black Panthers, Us and other black groups. Activities included spying, wiretapping phones, making criminal charges on flimsy evidence, spreading rumors and even assassinating prominent individuals, like Black Panther Fred Hampton. By the mid-1970s, these actions helped to weaken or destroy many of the groups associated with the black power movement.

The Black Panther Party, without question, represents the greatest threat to the internal security of the country. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover 1969

Olympic Medalists Giving Black Power Sign: Tommie Smith and John Carlos, gold and bronze medalists in the 200-meter run at the 1968 Olympic Games, engage in a victory stand protest against unfair treatment of blacks in the United States. With heads lowered and black-gloved fists raised in the black power salute, they refuse to recognize the American flag and national anthem. Australian Peter Norman is the silver medalist.

Olympic Medalists Giving Black Power Sign, 1968 Tommie Smith (center) and John Carlos (right) gold and bronze medalists in the 200-meter run at the 1968 Olympic Games. During the national anthem, they stand with heads lowered and black-gloved fists raised in the black power salute to protest against unfair treatment of blacks in the United States. Australian Peter Norman is the silver medalist (left).

Subtitle here for the credits modal.

Black Power Movement in America Essay (Critical Writing)

In America, the beginning of the 1960s was characterized by a number of political and civil movements that were aimed at providing the Black people with rights, freedoms, and opportunities. Regarding the thoughts developed by Malcolm X and Mr. King and the outcomes of their murders, many people did not want to accept the fact that a Black man should not have the rights to power.

The fact that a Black man was deprived of power made people believe that they deserved that right and that they had all possibilities to achieve power and use it as they wished. Black Americans were constantly oppressed, and protests and revolutions turned out to be the only chance to change the situation. Though many Whites admitted that the Blacks promoted hate as the only weapon to demonstrate their intentions ( Eyes on the Prize ), the participants refused that idea underlining that the only strong desire they have is “to live with hope and human dignity that existence without them is impossible” (Newton 5).

The Black Power movement helped to provide people with a sense of racial pride. People had not to be afraid of the color of their skin. All they had to do was to comprehend that the white color is not better than the black color, and there was no person, who could give a clear explanation of why racial diversity should be developed in favor of the Whites. There were a number of attempts to prove the worth of the black nation, and the creation of the Black Panther Party was one of the brightest achievements in the middle of the 1960s.

Huey Newton and Bobby Seale were the founders of the party when they came to the conclusion that there was no other way to deal with white shotguns that spread fear among ordinary black citizens and the instability that deprived people of hope. The idea to create a new political party that could be legally approved was based on casual discussions and conversations (Newton 111). People were in need of something more than the white rooster that represented the Democratic Party, and the elephant that represented the Republican Party.

Now, it was a black cat that spoke for all Black communities ( Eyes on the Prize ). The ideas offered by the Black Panther Party were impressive. It was not enough for them to ask for freedoms, education, employment, etc. It was necessary to prove that the Black community was not worse for the communities organized by the white people, and certain systematic changes were necessary for America.

A ten-point program was developed by the representatives of the Black Panther Party within the frames of which the main ideas and intentions of the Black community were identified. One of the most interesting ideas was the necessity to deal with police brutality and murders of Black people (Newton 120). The organization of self-defense groups was the decision that proved the importance of patrolling.

According to the Second Amendment to the US Constitution, people had the right to bear arms, and Newton used that opportunity to help the Black people protect themselves against the police as “it was ridiculous to report the police to the police, but… by raising encounters to a higher level, by patrolling the police with arms, we would see a change in their behavior” (120). These were the first steps that helped to realize that the Black people could do a lot of things to improve their lives in case they did everything on their own.

Works Cited

Eyes on the Prize . Ex. Prod. Henry Hampton. Boston: Blackside, 1987-1990. Web.

Newton, Huey, P. Revolutionary Suicide , New York: Writers and Readers Publishing, 1995. Print.

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IvyPanda. (2020, September 26). Black Power Movement in America. https://ivypanda.com/essays/black-power-movement-in-america/

"Black Power Movement in America." IvyPanda , 26 Sept. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/black-power-movement-in-america/.

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IvyPanda . 2020. "Black Power Movement in America." September 26, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/black-power-movement-in-america/.

1. IvyPanda . "Black Power Movement in America." September 26, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/black-power-movement-in-america/.

Bibliography

IvyPanda . "Black Power Movement in America." September 26, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/black-power-movement-in-america/.

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Grade 12 History Essay: Black Power Movement USA

Grade 12 History Essay: Black Power Movement USA

Subject: History

Age range: 16+

Resource type: Assessment and revision

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Last updated

13 February 2024

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black power essay questions

The Black Power Movement Essay explores the historical and social significance of the Black Power Movement that emerged in the 1960s. This essay examines the key ideologies, leaders, and activities that shaped the movement and analyzes its impact on the African American community and the broader civil rights movement.

The essay begins by providing a brief overview of the historical context in which the Black Power Movement emerged, including the Civil Rights Movement and the socio-political climate of the time. It then delves into the core principles of the movement, such as self-determination, racial pride, and the rejection of nonviolence as the sole strategy for achieving racial equality.

The essay explores the influential figures within the Black Power Movement, including Stokely Carmichael, Angela Davis, and Huey P. Newton. It discusses their roles as leaders and their contributions to the movement’s ideology and activism. Additionally, the essay highlights significant events and organizations associated with the movement, such as the Black Panther Party and the National Black Power Conferences.

Furthermore, the essay examines the impact of the Black Power Movement on the African American community and the broader civil rights movement. It analyzes how the movement challenged traditional civil rights strategies and redefined notions of Black identity and empowerment. The essay also discusses the movement’s influence on subsequent activist movements and its lasting legacy in contemporary social and political discourse.

Overall, the Black Power Movement Essay provides a comprehensive analysis of this significant chapter in American history, shedding light on its ideologies, leaders, impact, and lasting relevance in the fight for racial justice and equality.

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How the Black Power Movement Influenced the Civil Rights Movement

By: Sarah Pruitt

Updated: July 27, 2023 | Original: February 20, 2020

How the Black Power Movement Influenced the Civil Rights Movement

By 1966, the civil rights movement had been gaining momentum for more than a decade, as thousands of African Americans embraced a strategy of nonviolent protest against racial segregation and demanded equal rights under the law.

But for an increasing number of African Americans, particularly young Black men and women, that strategy did not go far enough. Protesting segregation, they believed, failed to adequately address the poverty and powerlessness that generations of systemic discrimination and racism had imposed on so many Black Americans.

Inspired by the principles of racial pride, autonomy and self-determination expressed by Malcolm X (whose assassination in 1965 had brought even more attention to his ideas), as well as liberation movements in Africa, Asia and Latin America, the Black Power movement that flourished in the late 1960s and ‘70s argued that Black Americans should focus on creating economic, social and political power of their own, rather than seek integration into white-dominated society.

Crucially, Black Power advocates, particularly more militant groups like the Black Panther Party, did not discount the use of violence, but embraced Malcolm X’s challenge to pursue freedom, equality and justice “by any means necessary.”

The March Against Fear - June 1966

The emergence of Black Power as a parallel force alongside the mainstream civil rights movement occurred during the March Against Fear, a voting rights march in Mississippi in June 1966. The march originally began as a solo effort by James Meredith, who had become the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi, a.k.a. Ole Miss, in 1962. He had set out in early June to walk from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi, a distance of more than 200 miles, to promote Black voter registration and protest ongoing discrimination in his home state.

But after a white gunman shot and wounded Meredith on a rural road in Mississippi, three major civil rights leaders— Martin Luther King, Jr. of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Stokely Carmichael of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Floyd McKissick of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) decided to continue the March Against Fear in his name.

In the days to come, Carmichael, McKissick and fellow marchers were harassed by onlookers and arrested by local law enforcement while walking through Mississippi. Speaking at a rally of supporters in Greenwood, Mississippi, on June 16, Carmichael (who had been released from jail that day) began leading the crowd in a chant of “We want Black Power!” The refrain stood in sharp contrast to many civil rights protests, where demonstrators commonly chanted “We want freedom!”

Stokely Carmichael’s Role in Black Power

Martin Luther King Jr. and Stokely Carmichael

Though the author Richard Wright had written a book titled Black Power in 1954, and the phrase had been used among other Black activists before, Stokely Carmichael was the first to use it as a political slogan in such a public way. As biographer Peniel E. Joseph writes in Stokely: A Life , the events in Mississippi “catapulted Stokely into the political space last occupied by Malcolm X,” as he went on TV news shows, was profiled in Ebony and written up in the New York Times under the headline “Black Power Prophet.”

Carmichael’s growing prominence put him at odds with King, who acknowledged the frustration among many African Americans with the slow pace of change but didn’t see violence and separatism as a viable path forward. With the country mired in the Vietnam War , (a war both Carmichael and King spoke out against) and the civil rights movement King had championed losing momentum, the message of the Black Power movement caught on with an increasing number of Black Americans.

Black Power Movement Growth—and Backlash

Stokely Carmichael

King and Carmichael renewed their alliance in early 1968, as King was planning his Poor People’s Campaign, which aimed to bring thousands of protesters to Washington, D.C., to call for an end to poverty. But in April 1968, King was assassinated in Memphis while in town to support a strike by the city’s sanitation workers as part of that campaign.

In the aftermath of King’s murder, a mass outpouring of grief and anger led to riots in more than 100 U.S. cities . Later that year, one of the most visible Black Power demonstrations took place at the Summer Olympics in Mexico City, where Black athletes John Carlos and Tommie Smith raised black-gloved fists in the air on the medal podium.

By 1970, Carmichael (who later changed his name to Kwame Ture) had moved to Africa, and SNCC had been supplanted at the forefront of the Black Power movement by more militant groups, such as the Black Panther Party , the US Organization, the Republic of New Africa and others, who saw themselves as the heirs to Malcolm X’s revolutionary philosophy. Black Panther chapters began operating in a number of cities nationwide, where they advocated a 10-point program of socialist revolution (backed by armed self-defense). The group’s more practical efforts focused on building up the Black community through social programs (including free breakfasts for school children ).

Many in mainstream white society viewed the Black Panthers and other Black Power groups negatively, dismissing them as violent, anti-white and anti-law enforcement. Like King and other civil rights activists before them, the Black Panthers became targets of the FBI’s counterintelligence program, or COINTELPRO, which weakened the group considerably by the mid-1970s through such tactics as spying, wiretapping, flimsy criminal charges and even assassination .

Legacy of Black Power

Black Lives Matter

Even after the Black Power movement’s decline in the late 1970s, its impact would continue to be felt for generations to come. With its emphasis on Black racial identity, pride and self-determination, Black Power influenced everything from popular culture to education to politics, while the movement’s challenge to structural inequalities inspired other groups (such as Chicanos, Native Americans, Asian Americans and LGBTQ people) to pursue their own goals of overcoming discrimination to achieve equal rights.

The legacies of both the Black Power and civil rights movements live on in the Black Lives Matter movement . Though Black Lives Matter focuses more specifically on criminal justice reform, it channels the spirit of earlier movements in its efforts to combat systemic racism and the social, economic and political injustices that continue to affect Black Americans.

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Essay on Black Power Movement

Students are often asked to write an essay on Black Power Movement in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Black Power Movement

Introduction.

The Black Power Movement was a social movement for racial equality that took place in the 1960s and 1970s. It aimed to empower African Americans in the United States. This movement demanded more political power and economic self-sufficiency for Black people.

The movement started in the mid-1960s. It was sparked by the Civil Rights Movement’s struggles and victories. The term ‘Black Power’ was made popular by Stokely Carmichael, a civil rights leader. He wanted Black people to be proud of their heritage and fight for their rights.

The movement’s main goal was to gain equal rights for Black people. They wanted to end racial discrimination and segregation. They also aimed for economic equality and political power. They believed in self-defense and self-determination for Black people.

The Black Power Movement had a significant impact on American society. It led to the rise of Black political leaders and the creation of important laws against racial discrimination. It also promoted a sense of pride and identity among Black people.

The Black Power Movement played a crucial role in the fight for racial equality in the United States. It left a lasting legacy that continues to inspire and influence movements for racial justice today.

250 Words Essay on Black Power Movement

The beginning of the black power movement.

The Black Power Movement started in the 1960s in the United States. It was a social movement by African Americans to fight for their rights and freedom. They wanted to be treated the same as white people. The movement was about black pride, self-respect, and self-defense.

Why the Movement Started

Before the movement, African Americans were treated very badly. They were not allowed to go to the same schools, eat in the same restaurants, or live in the same neighborhoods as white people. This was called segregation. The Black Power Movement started because African Americans were tired of being treated unfairly.

What the Movement Did

The Black Power Movement did many things to fight for equal rights. They held protests and marches. They also started groups like the Black Panther Party to protect their communities. They spoke out against racism and demanded change.

The Impact of the Movement

The Black Power Movement had a big impact. It helped to end segregation and led to laws that protect the rights of African Americans. It also inspired other groups to fight for their rights. The movement showed the world that African Americans were strong and could stand up for themselves.

In conclusion, the Black Power Movement was an important part of history. It helped to bring about change and equality for African Americans. It showed the world that black is beautiful and powerful.

500 Words Essay on Black Power Movement

Introduction to the black power movement.

The Black Power Movement was a significant period in American history. It took place in the 1960s and 1970s. The main goal was to achieve rights and freedom for Black people in America. This movement was a response to the slow progress of the Civil Rights Movement.

Why the Black Power Movement Began

Black people in America were treated unfairly for a long time. They did not have the same rights as white people. They were not allowed to go to the same schools, eat in the same restaurants, or live in the same neighborhoods. This was because of racism, a belief that one race is superior to another. The Civil Rights Movement, which took place before the Black Power Movement, tried to end this unfair treatment. But change was slow. This made many Black people frustrated. They wanted faster change. So, the Black Power Movement began.

Key Figures in the Black Power Movement

There were many important people in the Black Power Movement. One of them was Stokely Carmichael. He was a leader in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, a group that fought for Black rights. Carmichael was the first to use the term “Black Power” in a public speech. Another key figure was Malcolm X. He believed that Black people should defend themselves if necessary. He was a strong voice for Black pride and self-respect.

Actions Taken During the Black Power Movement

The Black Power Movement was not just about words. It was also about action. Black people organized protests and marches. They demanded equal rights and better treatment. They also started their own businesses, schools, and cultural institutions. They did this to show that they were proud of their race and culture. They wanted to be independent and not rely on white people for everything.

Impact of the Black Power Movement

The Black Power Movement had a big impact. It made many people, both Black and white, think about race and racism in new ways. It also led to important changes in laws and policies. For example, more Black people were elected to public office. More Black students were able to go to college. And more Black people were able to live in better neighborhoods. The movement also sparked a sense of pride and self-respect among Black people. It encouraged them to celebrate their culture and history.

The Black Power Movement was a powerful time in American history. It showed that change is possible when people stand up for their rights. It also taught us that everyone, no matter their race, should be treated fairly. Even though the Black Power Movement happened many years ago, its lessons are still important today. We should remember this movement and continue to fight for equality for all people.

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White Supremacy’s Horcrux and Why the Black Power Movement Almost Destroyed It

  • Published: 29 June 2022
  • Volume 26 , pages 221–247, ( 2022 )

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  • Marcus D. Watson 1  

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Written to recapture the original purpose of Africana Studies, this analytic essay starts with an observation of US social movements of the 1950s and 1960s. Our culture highlights that which is associated with the classical Civil Rights Movement, when Africans called themselves Negro and freedom was equated with integrating into white society. What is left silent or disparaged is the subsequent Black Power Movement, in which Africans called themselves Black and understood freedom as regrouping on an independent, often African-centered basis. This pattern of highlighting Negro integrationists and vilifying Black separatists remains a refrain in the way US history is told. The author posits the notions of Negro and Black not simply as identity labels, but as subconscious orientations where antiblackness functions as the pathological source fueling White supremacy’s genocidal nature. This explains why White supremacy must erase blackness, prop up Negro-ness, and silence or disparage the Black Power Movement, whose affirmation of blackness carried the seeds of White supremacy’s destruction.

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Watson, M.D. White Supremacy’s Horcrux and Why the Black Power Movement Almost Destroyed It. J Afr Am St 26 , 221–247 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-022-09585-3

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History Paper 1 Questions - Grade 12 June 2021 Exemplars

INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION

  • This question paper consists of SECTION A and SECTION B based on the prescribed content framework in the CAPS document. SECTION A: SOURCE-BASED QUESTIONS QUESTION 1: EXTENSION OF THE COLD WAR: THE ORIGINS OF COLD WAR QUESTION 2: INDEPENDENT AFRICA: CASE STUDY – ANGOLA QUESTION 3: CIVIL SOCIETY PROTESTS FROM THE 1950s TO THE 1970s: THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT SECTION B: ESSAY QUESTIONS QUESTION 4: THE COLD WAR: CASE STUDY – VIETNAM QUESTION 5: INDEPENDENT AFRICA: COMPARATIVE CASE STUDIES – THE CONGO AND TANZANIA QUESTION 6: CIVIL SOCIETY PROTESTS FROM THE 1950s TO THE 1970s: BLACK POWER MOVEMENT
  • SECTION A consists of THREE source-based questions. Source material that is required to answer these questions can be found in the ADDENDUM.
  • SECTION B consists of THREE essay questions.
  • Candidates are required to answer TWO questions as follows: At least ONE must be a source-based question and at least ONE must be an essay question.
  • You are advised to spend at least ONE hour per question.
  • When candidates answer questions, they are required to demonstrate application of knowledge, skills and insight.
  • You will be disadvantaged by merely rewriting the sources as answers.
  • Number the answers correctly according to the numbering system used in this question paper.
  • Start each question on a NEW page and rule off at the end of each question.
  • Write neatly and legibly.

SECTION A: SOURCE-BASED QUESTIONS Answer at least ONE question in this section. Source material that is required to answer these questions is contained in the ADDENDUM. QUESTION 1: HOW DID BERLIN BECOME A FOCAL POINT OF THE COLD WAR AFTER 1945? Study Sources 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D and answer the questions that follow. 1.1 Study Source 1A. 1.1.1 What, according to the source, was the Yalta Conference’s decision regarding Germany? (1 x 2) (2) 1.1.2 Define the concept Cold War in your own words. (1 x 2) (2) 1.1.3 Use the information in the source and your own knowledge to explain why Germany and Berlin was to be divided into four zones. (2 x 2) (4) 1.1.4 Explain what is implied with the statement, ‘… in which the former members of the Grand Coalition confronted each other eyeball to eyeball.’ (2 x 2) (4) 1.1.5 Mention THREE capital cities of the Western allies as indicated in the source. (3 x 1) (3) 1.2 Read Source 1B. 1.2.1 When, according to the source, was the first heightening of Cold War tensions? (1 x 1) (1) 1.2.2 What, according to the source, did the Soviets impose? (2 x 1) (2) 1.2.3 List TWO key events that led to the Soviet Blockade of Berlin in 1948. (2 x 1) (2) 1.2.4 Explain how the Western Allies responded to the Soviet Blockade of Berlin. (1 x 2) (2) 1.2.5 Comment on why Stalin decided to lift the Blockade. (2 x 2) (4) 1.2.6 How useful is this source to a history student researching about the reasons for the Berlin Blockade. (2 x 2) (4) 1.3 Refer to Source 1C. 1.3.1 What term is used in the source that may be used to describe a system of government based on the principle of majority decision- making? (1 x 2) (2) 1.3.2 Using the information in the source and your own knowledge, explain the impact that the Berlin Blockade had on East-West relations. (1 x 2) (2) 1.4 Consider Source 1D. Explain the messages that are conveyed in the cartoon. Use the visual clues in the source to support your answer. (2 x 2) (4) 1.5 Compare Sources 1B and 1D. Explain how the information in Source 1A supports the evidence in Source 1D regarding the Berlin Blockade. (2 x 2) (4) 1.6 Using the information from the relevant sources and your own knowledge, write a paragraph of about EIGHT lines (about 80 words) explaining how Berlin became the focal point of the Cold War after 1945. (8) [50]

QUESTION 2: WHY DID FOREIGN POWERS BECOME INVOLVED IN THE ANGOLAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE? Study Sources 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D and answer the following questions. 2.1 Use Source 2A. 2.1.1 Define the concept ‘communism’ in your own words. (1 x 2) (2) 2.1.2 Why, according to the source, was South Africa against an arrangement with the MPLA? (1 x 2) (2) 2.1.3 List TWO organisations that the South African government supported during the conflict in Angola. (2 x 1) (2) 2.1.4 Use the information in the source and your own knowledge to explain why the South African government was against the MPLA ruling Angola. (2 x 2) (4) 2.1.5 Comment on the significance of the statement: ‘Both committed to denying SWAPO bases from which to operate in southern Angola.’ (2 x 2) (4) 2.2 Refer to Source 2B. 2.2.1 Name the countries that supported the following liberation movements during the Angolan War of Independence:

  • The FNLA (2 x 1) (2)

2.2.2 Why, according to the source, did the Soviet Union and Cuba intervene in Angola? (1 x 2) (2) 2.2.3 What conclusions can be drawn from the statement: ‘The United States saw the USSR’s bid to play a role in Angola as a threat to its economic interests in the region.’? (2 x 2) (4) 2.2.4 Explain the usefulness of this source for historians researching the involvement of foreign powers in the Angolan War of Independence. (2 x 2) (4) 2.3 Consult Source 2C. 2.3.1 How, according to the source, did the South African Defence Force support UNITA during the Angolan War of Independence? (2 x 1) (2) 2.3.2 What did Castro imply by the statement: ‘No Cuban military unit was sent to Angola to participate directly in the fight, nor was that projected.’? (1 x 2) (2) 2.3.3 Why, according to the source, did Cuba decide to send their troops to Angola? (2 x 1) (2) 2.3.4 Explain the reliability of the source for historians researching the reasons for Cuba’s involvement in the Angolan War of Independence. (2 x 2) (4) 2.4 Use Source 2D. 2.4.1 What do you think was the intention of the photographer in publishing this photo? Use the visual clues in the source to support your answer. (2 x 2) (4) 2.4.2 Use the source and your own knowledge to explain how the South African Defence Force might have reacted towards this picture. (1 x 2) (2) 2.5 Using the information from the relevant sources and your own knowledge, write a paragraph of about EIGHT lines (about 80 words) explaining why the foreign powers became involved in the Angolan War of Independence. (8) [50]

QUESTION 3: HOW DID THE PROCESS OF SCHOOL INTEGRATION UNFOLD AT CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL IN LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS? Study Sources 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D and answer the following questions. 3.1 Study Source 3A. 3.1.1 Why, according to the source, did Governor Faubus call on the National Guard troops at Central High School? (1 x 2) (2) 3.1.2 Quote evidence from the source that suggest that Governor Faubus did not want African Americans at Central High School. (1 x 2) (2) 3.1.3 Why, according to the source, did the citizens of Little Rock decide to gather? (1 x 2) (2) 3.1.4 What is implied by the statement, “Blood will run in the streets”? (1 x 2) (2) 3.1.5 Explain the usefulness of this source for historians researching the role played by Daisy Bates with regards to the integration at Central High School. (2 x 2) (4) 3.2 Consider Source 3B. 3.2.1 What, according to the source, was Elizabeth Eckford’s thinking of Governor Faubus to call the troops? (1 x 2) (2) 3.2.2 Mention TWO reasons why Elizabeth Eckford arrived alone at Central High School. (2 x 1) (2) 3.2.3 What conclusions can be drawn from the source about the attitude of the white American mob towards Elizabeth Eckford? (2 x 2) (4) 3.2.4 Explain how Elizabeth Eckford’s human rights were violated by the time she tried to enter at Central High School. (2 x 2) (4) 3.3 Consult Source 3C. 3.3.1 What do you think was the intention of the photographer in publishing this photograph? Use the visual clues in the source to support your answer. (2 x 2) (4) 3.3.2 Explain how Elizabeth Eckford has been portrayed in this photograph. (1 x 2) (2) 3.3.3 Refer to Sources 3B and 3C. Explain how the information in Source 3B supports the evidence in Source 3C regarding the treatment of Elizabeth Eckford at Central High School. (2 x 2) (4) 3.4 Refer to Source 3D. 3.4.1 Mention TWO reasons why the three white girls behaved as they did on this occasion. (2 x 1) (2) 3.4.2 Quote evidence from the source that suggest that these three white girls did not support integration. (1 x 2) (2) 3.4.3 Why do you think Hazel Bryan responded to Elizabeth Eckford in this manner? (2 x 2) (4) 3.5 Using the information from the relevant sources and your own knowledge, write a paragraph of about EIGHT lines (about 80 words) explaining how the process of school integration unfolded at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. (8) [50]

SECTION B: ESSAY QUESTIONS Answer at least ONE question in this section. Your essay should be about THREE pages long.

QUESTION 4: EXTENSION OF THE COLD WAR: CASE STUDY – VIETNAM All the military might of the United States of America’s army could not defeat a small nation of Vietnamese peasants. Critically discuss this statement in the context of the military strategies that both the United States of America and the Vietcong used in Vietnam between 1963 and 1973. [50]

QUESTION 5: INDEPENDENT AFRICA – COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY After attaining an independence Congo and Tanzania were faced with economic, social and political challenges although there were successes that Mobuto and Nyerere gained in trying to improve the living standards for blacks. Do you agree with this statement? Use appropriate evidence to support your argument. [50]

QUESTION 6: CIVIL SOCIETY PROTESTS FROM THE 1950s TO THE 1970s: BLACK POWER MOVEMENT Explain to what extent did Black Power Movement influence the actions of African Americans in the 1960s. Use relevant examples to support your line of argument. [50]

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Civil Rights Movement 1950 to 1970 essay: Black Power Movement History Grade 12

black power essay questions

Civil Rights Movement 1950 to 1970 essay: Black Power Movement History Grade 12 memo and answer guide.

CIVIL SOCIETY PROTESTS FROM THE 1950s TO THE 1970s: BLACK POWER MOVEMENT

Explain to what extent did Black Power Movement influence the actions of African Americans in the 1960s. Use relevant examples to support your line of argument.

[Plan and construct an original argument based on relevant evidence using analytical and interpretative skills.]

Candidates should indicate to what extent the Black Power Movement influenced the actions of African Americans in the 1960s. Candidates should use relevant examples to support their line of argument.

MAIN ASPECTS

Candidates should include the following aspects in their response:

Introduction: Candidates should indicate to what extent the Black Power Movement influenced the actions of African Americans in the 1960s.

ELABORATION

Origins of the Movement:

  • The Black Power Movement came out of dissatisfaction with the Civil Rights Movements.
  • The Civil Rights Movement had focused on black and white Americans working together but inequalities remained. African Americans still faced poverty and racial discrimination.
  • Some African American were disappointed with the Civil Rights Movement and believed that King was too moderate
  • They wanted change in the USA to happen faster and they were prepared to use violence to do this.
  • Black Power Movement promoted black pride, unity and self- reliance
  • Black nationalists believed that the use of force was justified in order to gain social, political and economic power for Black Americans

Role of Malcolm X:

  • Malcolm X, leading figure in the Black Power Movement, powerful speaker and dedicated human rights activist
  • In 1952 he became a leading member of the nation of Islam, a black Muslim group which believed that white society was holding African Americans back and they desired separation of races
  • Eloquence and charisma attracted many new members to this organisation membership grew from 500 in 1952 to 30 000 in 1963
  • Promoted the use of violence to achieve the aims of Black Power
  • Challenged the peaceful approach of Martin Luther King Jnr
  • After a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1963-1964, Malcolm X changed his ideas about integration as he had seen how Muslims of all nationalities and races could live together peacefully
  • Founded the Organisation of Afro-American unity in 1964. He became less militant and adopted views that were not popular with black nationalists

The Black Panther

  • Huey Newton and Bobby Searle formed the Black Panther Party (BPP) for Self Defence in 1966
  • They aimed to protect African American neighbourhoods from police brutality and racism
  • The Black Panthers promoted African Americans carrying guns to defend themselves
  • The idea of Black Power scared many white Americans
  • The BPP started programmes to help ease poverty in Black communities such as Free Breakfast for Children, feeding thousands of poor and hungry black children everyday
  • Clinics where adults and children could get free medical care
  • A tutoring scheme to help black children succeed at school
  • The BPP drew up a ten-point programme that included the following demands:
  • Full employment and an end to capitalism that preyed on the African American community
  • Descent housing and education for African Americans
  • An end to police brutality
  • The Black panthers were very popular in the 1960s as they were involved in defending the rights of both workers and ethnic minorities like the African American communities in the ghettoes

The role of Stokely Carmichael

  • Stokely Carmichael joined the Civil Rights Movement when he saw the bravery of those involved in a sit-in
  • Became a member of SNCC and a Freedom Rider
  • His commitment to Martin Luther King’s passive resistance ideals changed in 1966 after James Meredith, a civil rights activist engaged in a peaceful protest march, was shot
  • Carmichael and other activists continued on the march to honour Meredith and during the march he was arrested
  • When he was released from jail, Carmichael made a famous speech using the term ‘Black Power’ for the first time and he urged African Americans to take pride in being black
  • He was in favour of African dress and Afro hairstyles
  • He wanted African Americans to recognise their heritage and build a sense of community
  • He also adopted the slogan ‘Black is beautiful’ which promoted pride in being black
  • Carmichael started to criticise other leaders, like King, and how they wanted to work with whites
  • He later left the SNCC and joined the BPP where he promoted the Black Power Movement as a leader, speaker and writer
  • He later wrote a book linking Black Power to Pan-Africanism
  • Any other relevant answer Conclusion: Candidates should tie up their argument with relevant conclusion

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The Philippines economy in 2024: Stronger for longer?

The Philippines ended 2023 on a high note, being the fastest growing economy across Southeast Asia with a growth rate of 5.6 percent—just shy of the government's target of 6.0 to 7.0 percent. 1 “National accounts,” Philippine Statistics Authority, January 31, 2024; "Philippine economic updates,” Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, November 16, 2023. Should projections hold, the Philippines is expected to, once again, show significant growth in 2024, demonstrating its resilience despite various global economic pressures (Exhibit 1). 2 “Economic forecast 2024,” International Monetary Fund, November 1, 2023; McKinsey analysis.

The growth in the Philippine economy in 2023 was driven by a resumption in commercial activities, public infrastructure spending, and growth in digital financial services. Most sectors grew, with transportation and storage (13 percent), construction (9 percent), and financial services (9 percent), performing the best (Exhibit 2). 3 “National accounts,” Philippine Statistics Authority, January 31, 2024. While the country's trade deficit narrowed in 2023, it remains elevated at $52 billion due to slowing global demand and geopolitical uncertainties. 4 “Highlights of the Philippine export and import statistics,” Philippine Statistics Authority, January 28, 2024. Looking ahead to 2024, the current economic forecast for the Philippines projects a GDP growth of between 5 and 6 percent.

Inflation rates are expected to temper between 3.2 and 3.6 percent in 2024 after ending 2023 at 6.0 percent, above the 2.0 to 4.0 percent target range set by the government. 5 “Nomura downgrades Philippine 2024 growth forecast,” Nomura, September 11, 2023; “IMF raises Philippine growth rate forecast,” International Monetary Fund, July 16, 2023.

For the purposes of this article, most of the statistics used for our analysis have come from a common thread of sources. These include the Central Bank of the Philippines (Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas); the Department of Energy Philippines; the IT and Business Process Association of the Philippines (IBPAP); and the Philippines Statistics Authority.

The state of the Philippine economy across seven major sectors and themes

In the article, we explore the 2024 outlook for seven key sectors and themes, what may affect each of them in the coming year, and what could potentially unlock continued growth.

Financial services

The recovery of the financial services sector appears on track as year-on-year growth rates stabilize. 6 Philippines Statistics Authority, November 2023; McKinsey in partnership with Oxford Economics, November 2023. In 2024, this sector will likely continue to grow, though at a slower pace of about 5 percent.

Financial inclusion and digitalization are contributing to growth in this sector in 2024, even if new challenges emerge. Various factors are expected to impact this sector:

  • Inclusive finance: Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas continues to invest in financial inclusion initiatives. For example, basic deposit accounts (BDAs) reached $22 million in 2023 and banking penetration improved, with the proportion of adults with formal bank accounts increasing from 29 percent in 2019 to 56 percent in 2021. 7 “Financial inclusion dashboard: First quarter 2023,” Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, February 6, 2024.
  • Digital adoption: Digital channels are expected to continue to grow, with data showing that 60 percent of adults who have a mobile phone and internet access have done a digital financial transaction. 8 “Financial inclusion dashboard: First quarter 2023,” Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, February 6, 2024. Businesses in this sector, however, will need to remain vigilant in navigating cybersecurity and fraud risks.
  • Unsecured lending growth: Growth in unsecured lending is expected to continue, but at a slower pace than the past two to three years. For example, unsecured retail lending for the banking system alone grew by 27 percent annually from 2020 to 2022. 9 “Loan accounts: As of first quarter 2023,” Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, February 6, 2024; "Global banking pools,” McKinsey, November 2023. Businesses in this field are, however, expected to recalibrate their risk profiling models as segments with high nonperforming loans emerge.
  • High interest rates: Key interest rates are expected to decline in the second half of 2024, creating more accommodating borrowing conditions that could boost wholesale and corporate loans.

Supportive frameworks have a pivotal role to play in unlocking growth in this sector to meet the ever-increasing demand from the financially underserved. For example, financial literacy programs and easier-to-access accounts—such as BDAs—are some measures that can help widen market access to financial services. Continued efforts are being made to build an open finance framework that could serve the needs of the unbanked population, as well as a unified credit scoring mechanism to increase the ability of historically under-financed segments, such as small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), to access formal credit. 10 “BSP launches credit scoring model,” Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, April 26, 2023.

Energy and Power

The outlook for the energy sector seems positive, with the potential to grow by 7 percent in 2024 as the country focuses on renewable energy generation. 11 McKinsey analysis based on input from industry experts. Currently, stakeholders are focused on increasing energy security, particularly on importing liquefied natural gas (LNG) to meet power plants’ requirements as production in one of the country’s main sources of natural gas, the Malampaya gas field, declines. 12 Myrna M. Velasco, “Malampaya gas field prod’n declines steeply in 2021,” Manila Bulletin , July 9, 2022. High global inflation and the fact that the Philippines is a net fuel importer are impacting electricity prices and the build-out of planned renewable energy projects. Recent regulatory moves to remove foreign ownership limits on exploration, development, and utilization of renewable energy resources could possibly accelerate growth in the country’s energy and power sector. 13 “RA 11659,” Department of Energy Philippines, June 8, 2023.

Gas, renewables, and transmission are potential growth drivers for the sector. Upgrading power grids so that they become more flexible and better able to cope with the intermittent electricity supply that comes with renewables will be critical as the sector pivots toward renewable energy. A recent coal moratorium may position natural gas as a transition fuel—this could stimulate exploration and production investments for new, indigenous natural gas fields, gas pipeline infrastructure, and LNG import terminal projects. 14 Philippine energy plan 2020–2040, Department of Energy Philippines, June 10, 2022; Power development plan 2020–2040 , Department of Energy Philippines, 2021. The increasing momentum of green energy auctions could facilitate the development of renewables at scale, as the country targets 35 percent share of renewables by 2030. 15 Power development plan 2020–2040 , 2022.

Growth in the healthcare industry may slow to 2.8 percent in 2024, while pharmaceuticals manufacturing is expected to rebound with 5.2 percent growth in 2024. 16 McKinsey analysis in partnership with Oxford Economics.

Healthcare demand could grow, although the quality of care may be strained as the health worker shortage is projected to increase over the next five years. 17 McKinsey analysis. The supply-and-demand gap in nursing alone is forecast to reach a shortage of approximately 90,000 nurses by 2028. 18 McKinsey analysis. Another compounding factor straining healthcare is the higher than anticipated benefit utilization and rising healthcare costs, which, while helping to meet people's healthcare budgets, may continue to drive down profitability for health insurers.

Meanwhile, pharmaceutical companies are feeling varying effects of people becoming increasingly health conscious. Consumers are using more over the counter (OTC) medication and placing more beneficial value on organic health products, such as vitamins and supplements made from natural ingredients, which could impact demand for prescription drugs. 19 “Consumer health in the Philippines 2023,” Euromonitor, October 2023.

Businesses operating in this field may end up benefiting from universal healthcare policies. If initiatives are implemented that integrate healthcare systems, rationalize copayments, attract and retain talent, and incentivize investments, they could potentially help to strengthen healthcare provision and quality.

Businesses may also need to navigate an increasingly complex landscape of diverse health needs, digitization, and price controls. Digital and data transformations are being seen to facilitate improvements in healthcare delivery and access, with leading digital health apps getting more than one million downloads. 20 Google Play Store, September 27, 2023. Digitization may create an opportunity to develop healthcare ecosystems that unify touchpoints along the patient journey and provide offline-to-online care, as well as potentially realizing cost efficiencies.

Consumer and retail

Growth in the retail and wholesale trade and consumer goods sectors is projected to remain stable in 2024, at 4 percent and 5 percent, respectively.

Inflation, however, continues to put consumers under pressure. While inflation rates may fall—predicted to reach 4 percent in 2024—commodity prices may still remain elevated in the near term, a top concern for Filipinos. 21 “IMF raises Philippine growth forecast,” July 26, 2023; “Nomura downgrades Philippines 2024 growth forecast,” September 11, 2023. In response to challenging economic conditions, 92 percent of consumers have changed their shopping behaviors, and approximately 50 percent indicate that they are switching brands or retail providers in seek of promotions and better prices. 22 “Philippines consumer pulse survey, 2023,” McKinsey, November 2023.

Online shopping has become entrenched in Filipino consumers, as they find that they get access to a wider range of products, can compare prices more easily, and can shop with more convenience. For example, a McKinsey Philippines consumer sentiment survey in 2023 found that 80 percent of respondents, on average, use online and omnichannel to purchase footwear, toys, baby supplies, apparel, and accessories. To capture the opportunity that this shift in Filipino consumer preferences brings and to unlock growth in this sector, retail organizations could turn to omnichannel strategies to seamlessly integrate online and offline channels. Businesses may need to explore investments that increase resilience across the supply chain, alongside researching and developing new products that serve emerging consumer preferences, such as that for natural ingredients and sustainable sources.

Manufacturing

Manufacturing is a key contributor to the Philippine economy, contributing approximately 19 percent of GDP in 2022, employing about 7 percent of the country’s labor force, and growing in line with GDP at approximately 6 percent between 2023 and 2024. 23 McKinsey analysis based on input from industry experts.

Some changes could be seen in 2024 that might affect the sector moving forward. The focus toward building resilient supply chains and increasing self-sufficiency is growing. The Philippines also is likely to benefit from increasing regional trade, as well as the emerging trend of nearshoring or onshoring as countries seek to make their supply chains more resilient. With semiconductors driving approximately 45 percent of Philippine exports, the transfer of knowledge and technology, as well as the development of STEM capabilities, could help attract investments into the sector and increase the relevance of the country as a manufacturing hub. 24 McKinsey analysis based on input from industry experts.

To secure growth, public and private sector support could bolster investments in R&D and upskill the labor force. In addition, strategies to attract investment may be integral to the further development of supply chain infrastructure and manufacturing bases. Government programs to enable digital transformation and R&D, along with a strategic approach to upskilling the labor force, could help boost industry innovation in line with Industry 4.0 demand. 25 Industry 4.0 is also referred to as the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Priority products to which manufacturing industries could pivot include more complex, higher value chain electronic components in the semiconductor segment; generic OTC drugs and nature-based pharmaceuticals in the pharmaceutical sector; and, for green industries, products such as EVs, batteries, solar panels, and biomass production.

Information technology business process outsourcing

The information technology business process outsourcing (IT-BPO) sector is on track to reach its long-term targets, with $38 billion in forecast revenues in 2024. 26 Khriscielle Yalao, “WHF flexibility key to achieving growth targets—IBPAP,” Manila Bulletin , January 23, 2024. Emerging innovations in service delivery and work models are being observed, which could drive further growth in the sector.

The industry continues to outperform headcount and revenue targets, shaping its position as a country leader for employment and services. 27 McKinsey analysis based in input from industry experts. Demand from global companies for offshoring is expected to increase, due to cost containment strategies and preference for Philippine IT-BPO providers. New work setups continue to emerge, ranging from remote-first to office-first, which could translate to potential net benefits. These include a 10 to 30 percent increase in employee retention; a three- to four-hour reduction in commute times; an increase in enabled talent of 350,000; and a potential reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 1.4 to 1.5 million tons of CO 2 per year. 28 McKinsey analysis based in input from industry experts. It is becoming increasingly more important that the IT-BPO sector adapts to new technologies as businesses begin to harness automation and generative AI (gen AI) to unlock productivity.

Talent and technology are clear areas where growth in this sector can be unlocked. The growing complexity of offshoring requirements necessitates building a proper talent hub to help bridge employee gaps and better match local talent to employers’ needs. Businesses in the industry could explore developing facilities and digital infrastructure to enable industry expansion outside the metros, especially in future “digital cities” nationwide. Introducing new service areas could capture latent demand from existing clients with evolving needs as well as unserved clients. BPO centers could explore the potential of offering higher-value services by cultivating technology-focused capabilities, such as using gen AI to unlock revenue, deliver sales excellence, and reduce general administrative costs.

Sustainability

The Philippines is considered to be the fourth most vulnerable country to climate change in the world as, due to its geographic location, the country has a higher risk of exposure to natural disasters, such as rising sea levels. 29 “The Philippines has been ranked the fourth most vulnerable country to climate change,” Global Climate Risk Index, January 2021. Approximately $3.2 billion, on average, in economic loss could occur annually because of natural disasters over the next five decades, translating to up to 7 to 8 percent of the country’s nominal GDP. 30 “The Philippines has been ranked the fourth most vulnerable country to climate change,” Global Climate Risk Index, January 2021.

The Philippines could capitalize on five green growth opportunities to operate in global value chains and catalyze growth for the nation:

  • Renewable energy: The country could aim to generate 50 percent of its energy from renewables by 2040, building on its high renewable energy potential and the declining cost of producing renewable energy.
  • Solar photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing: More than a twofold increase in annual output from 2023 to 2030 could be achieved, enabled by lower production costs.
  • Battery production: The Philippines could aim for a $1.5 billion domestic market by 2030, capitalizing on its vast nickel reserves (the second largest globally). 31 “MineSpans,” McKinsey, November 2023.
  • Electric mobility: Electric vehicles could account for 15 percent of the country’s vehicle sales by 2030 (from less than 1 percent currently), driven by incentives, local distribution, and charging infrastructure. 32 McKinsey analysis based on input from industry experts.
  • Nature-based solutions: The country’s largely untapped total abatement potential could reach up to 200 to 300 metric tons of CO 2 , enabled by its biodiversity and strong demand.

The Philippine economy: Three scenarios for growth

Having grown faster than other economies in Southeast Asia in 2023 to end the year with 5.6 percent growth, the Philippines can expect a similarly healthy growth outlook for 2024. Based on our analysis, there are three potential scenarios for the country’s growth. 33 McKinsey analysis in partnership with Oxford Economics.

Slower growth: The first scenario projects GDP growth of 4.8 percent if there are challenging conditions—such as declining trade and accelerated inflation—which could keep key policy rates high at about 6.5 percent and dampen private consumption, leading to slower long-term growth.

Soft landing: The second scenario projects GDP growth of 5.2 percent if inflation moderates and global conditions turn out to be largely favorable due to a stable investment environment and regional trade demand.

Accelerated growth: In the third scenario, GDP growth is projected to reach 6.1 percent if inflation slows and public policies accommodate aspects such as loosening key policy rates and offering incentive programs to boost productivity.

Focusing on factors that could unlock growth in its seven critical sectors and themes, while adapting to the macro-economic scenario that plays out, would allow the Philippines to materialize its growth potential in 2024 and take steps towards achieving longer-term, sustainable economic growth.

Jon Canto is a partner in McKinsey’s Manila office, where Frauke Renz is an associate partner, and Vicah Villanueva is a consultant.

The authors wish to thank Charlene Chua, Charlie del Rosario, Ryan delos Reyes, Debadrita Dhara, Evelyn C. Fong, Krzysztof Kwiatkowski, Frances Lee, Aaron Ong, and Liane Tan for their contributions to this article.

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