Corruption is a Global Problem for Development. To Fight It, We All Have a Role to Play

Oped published in French in La Tribune Afrique, June 13, 2023.

Oped by Ousmane Diagana, World Bank Vice President for Western and Central Africa and Mouhamadou Diagne, World Bank Vice President for Integrity.

Every day, we hear about the onslaught of crises facing the world—from climate change to conflict, inflation and debt, and the ongoing recovery from a years-long pandemic. Add to them the prospect of slow economic growth , and our efforts to overcome these challenges seem rife with obstacles. For developing countries, many with limited and already stretched resources, the confluence of crises will be especially difficult to navigate.

But if we are to achieve success over the challenges of our time, there is one scourge we cannot fail to confront: corruption.

The unfortunate truth is that corruption persists in all countries. It manifests in many ways—from petty bribes and kickbacks to grand theft of public resources. With advances in technology, corruption has increasingly become a transnational challenge without respect for borders, as money can now move more easily in and out of countries to hide illicit gains.

Corruption is also a fundamental problem for development.

Corruption harms the poor and vulnerable the most, increasing costs and reducing access to basic services, such as health, education, social programs, and even justice. It exacerbates inequality and reduces private sector investment to the detriment of markets, job opportunities, and economies. Corruption can also undermine a country’s response to emergencies, leading to unnecessary suffering and, at worst, death. Over time, corruption can undermine the trust and confidence that citizens have for their leaders and institutions, creating social friction and in some contexts increasing the risk of fragility, conflict, and violence.

To prevent these negative impacts, we must confront corruption with determined and deliberate action. For the World Bank Group, fighting corruption in development has been a long-standing commitment in our operational work. This commitment is reflected in our support for countries in building transparent, inclusive, and accountable institutions , but also through initiatives that go beyond developing countries to also include financial centers, take on the politics of corruption more openly than before, and harness new technologies to understand, address, and prevent corruption.  

Indeed, across western and central Africa in particular, it is one of the World Bank Group’s strategic priorities to emphasize issues of good governance, accountability, and transparency among our partner countries, with the aim of reducing corruption. We recognize that transparency in public affairs and the accountability of high-level officials are fundamental to the trust of citizens in their government and the effective delivery of public services. Working to rebuild and bolster trust between citizens and the state is critical today, especially in countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence that make up half of the countries in this region alone.

Across Africa, World Bank Group support is helping countries face these challenges. Recent investments in the Republic of Congo , Ghana , and Morocco , for example, will support institutional governance reforms to improve the performance and transparency of service delivery. In Kenya, our support will further fiscal management reforms for greater transparency in public procurement , thereby reducing opportunities for corruption. Strengthening citizen-state engagement is key: In Burkina Faso, for example, a World Bank-funded project helped the national government improve citizen engagement and public sector accountability through the development of a digital tool to monitor the performance of municipal service delivery. 

The World Bank Group’s commitment to fighting corruption is also reflected in robust mechanisms across the institution that enhance the integrity of our operations. Our independent Integrity Vice Presidency (INT) works to detect, deter, and prevent fraud and corruption involving World Bank Group funds. Over two decades of INT’s work, the World Bank has sanctioned more than 1,100 firms and individuals, often imposing debarments that make them ineligible to participate in the projects and operations we finance. In addition, we have enforced more than 640 cross-debarments from other multilateral development banks, standing with our MDB partners to help keep corruption out of development projects everywhere. Nevertheless, we must remain vigilant to the risks of fraud and corruption that remain.

The World Bank Group also leverages its position as global convener to support anticorruption actors at all levels and from around the world. That is why we are pleased to have organized the next edition of the World Bank Group’s International Corruption Hunters Alliance (ICHA) to take place in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, on June 14-16, 2023.

The ICHA forum is an opportunity for front-line practitioners committed to fighting corruption as well as policy makers and representatives from the private sector and civil society, to come together to share knowledge, experience, and insights for confronting corruption. For the first time since its inception in 2010, we are hosting the ICHA forum in an African country. This reflects the reality that the negative impacts of corruption can be more devastating for developing countries, who face unique challenges and have fewer resources to overcome them. Yet, it also acknowledges that there is a wealth of anticorruption strengths, skills, and expertise from these countries that we must draw upon.

Together, we can affirm that through our collective action, we can advance the fight against corruption even in an era of crises.  

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How common is corruption? What impact does it have? And what can be done to reduce it?

By Esteban Ortiz-Ospina and Max Roser

This page was first published in October 2016 and last revised in January 2024.

This topic page presents research and data on corruption — an important problem imposing political, economic, and environmental costs on societies worldwide.

Corruption involves many different aspects, and it is therefore hard to give a precise and comprehensive definition. However, at the core of most definitions of corruption is the idea that a corrupt act implies the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. Classic examples include bribery , clientelism , and embezzlement . Other, often more subtle and even legal examples of corruption include lobbying and patronage .

While long-run data on corruption is very limited, historical examples suggest that corruption has been a persistent feature of human societies over time and space. Two examples are the sale of parliamentary seats in ‘rotten boroughs’ in England before the Reform Act of 1832, and ‘machine politics’ in the US at the turn of the 19th century. 1

The unethical and often illegal nature of corruption makes measurement particularly complicated. Corruption data usually comes from direct observation (e.g. law enforcement records and audit reports), or perception surveys (e.g. public opinion surveys or expert assessments). In this topic page, we discuss data from both sources and discuss their underlying limitations.

As we show, although precise corruption measurement is difficult, there is a clear correlation between perception and behavior ; so available corruption data provides valuable information that, when interpreted carefully, can tell us something important about our world and contribute to developing effective policies.

For example, the data from perception surveys suggests that corruption correlates with human development, and several studies exploiting rich data from law enforcement records have shown that education is an important element explaining this relationship. Specifically, the data supports the idea that voters with more education tend to be more willing and able to monitor public employees and take action when these employees violate the law.

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Empirical View

Evidence from surveys, where is perceived corruption high.

The non-governmental organization Transparency International (TI) estimates a 'Corruption Perception Index', which is arguably the most widely used indicator of corruption worldwide and shown in the map here.

The index scores countries on a scale of 0-100, where 0 means that a country is perceived as highly corrupt and 100 means that a country is perceived as very clean. The indicator is representative of experts’ opinions, as it is constructed by taking the averages of various standardized expert surveys, including those from the Bertelsmann Foundation, the World Economic Forum, the World Bank, and many others. 2

While TI's Corruption Perception Index has been estimated since 1995, the methodology has been changed recurrently up until 2012. As such, the data presented here starts in 2012. You can explore country-specific trends by clicking on the 'Chart' tab and then clicking 'Edit countries and regions' in the upper-right corner.

As we can see, countries that have received high scores (and thus are perceived as the ‘cleanest’) are Denmark, New Zealand, Finland, Singapore, and Sweden. At the other extreme, countries that have received low scores (and the highest perceived corruption) include Somalia, Syria, South Sudan, Yemen, and North Korea.

We can see that scores are fairly stable, and drastic changes in ranking are not common.

Where do people perceive corruption to be a major problem?

The data visualized previously relied on the perception of experts (e.g. business people, country analysts, etc.). Now we analyze data representing the perceptions of everyday people confronting corruption around the world.

The Global Corruption Barometer, also produced by Transparency International, surveys individuals worldwide, asking them about their opinions and experiences regarding corruption. The visualization shows the average national perception of corruption, as rated on a scale of 1 to 5 by respondents who were asked: "To what extent do you think that corruption is a problem in the public sector in this country?".

The map shows that everyday people's perception of the problems associated with corruption correlates with expert opinion (seen in the previous section) about how much corruption there is. However, the correlation is far from perfect, indicating that these two indicators present us with different perspectives.

The fact that the perceptions of experts and other citizens diverge is at the heart of perception measures: experts and non-experts have different reference points against which they assess whether corruption is a problem. Indeed, in countries where the public finds corruption extremely intolerable, the perception of its implications may be extreme, even if baseline corruption levels are lower than in other countries.

Corruption is sometimes hard to tackle precisely because it is common, so people perceive it to be a natural economic transaction: it is easier to act corruptly if many other individuals think it is acceptable to be corrupt.

Which institutions do people perceive as most corrupt?

The Global Corruption Barometer produced by Transparency International asks individuals across countries whether they perceive specific institutions as corrupt. The chart presents, by institution, the global aggregate figures. The numbers correspond to the percentage of survey respondents who think that "Most" or "All" of each institution is corrupt in their home country.

The estimates show that, globally, people perceive domestic police forces and the legislature to be particularly corrupt.

Perceived corruption of political parties

The next visualization digs deeper into corruption perceptions, specifically in the context of politics. It shows the percentage of survey respondents in each country who think political parties are "corrupt or extremely corrupt".

As we can see, there is substantial cross-country heterogeneity, and patterns again show differences concerning general corruption perceptions.

Where are people more likely to pay bribes to access public services?

Bribery is one of the most common forms of corruption. The following visualization shows the share of people who report having paid a bribe to access public services in the 12 months prior to the survey. The data comes from the Global Corruption Barometer, produced by Transparency International, and the public services in question are: education; judiciary; medical and health; police; registry and permit services; utilities; tax revenue and/or customs; and land services.

Once again, cross-country heterogeneity stands out. In some countries, a majority of survey respondents report having paid a bribe within the past year. In other countries, only a few percent of the respondents report having paid a bribe in the same time window.

While these results show that in some countries the paying of bribes is very rare, we have to consider that these estimates come from ordinary people interacting locally. As we show below , many countries where normal people do not frequently pay bribes, have far-from-perfect international records regarding international private-sector bribery.

How does petty corruption affect people with low incomes?

For those without money and connections, paying even small bribes to access basic public services such as public health or police can have significant consequences. Petty corruption in the form of bribes often acts as a regressive tax, since the burden typically falls disproportionately on people with low incomes.

This visualization, taken from the World Development Report (2011) , uses data from Ecuador to estimate the cost of bribes paid relative to income. More specifically, the right panel shows the self-reported cost of bribes paid by households (as a share of household income), while the left panel shows the self-reported cost of bribes paid by firms (as a share of firm revenue). The presented estimates are in percent and come from a 1999 survey of 1,164 enterprises and another of 1,800 households.

As we can see from this example, petty corruption seems to act as a regressive tax: poor households tend to pay a larger share of their income on bribes to access public services.


Where are firms more likely to be asked for bribes?

Bribes are also requested from and paid by firms in the private sector. The following visualization shows, for a selection of countries, the percentage of firms experiencing at least one bribe payment request during six transactions dealing with utility access, permits, licenses, and taxes. The data comes from the World Bank's Enterprise Surveys.

According to this source, a large majority of firms report being asked for bribes in some countries, while in others, it is almost no firm.

Which countries are perceived by business executives as more likely to 'export corruption'?

The previous visualization provides evidence of the frequency with which firms are requested to pay bribes — the demand side of bribing. Here, we explore the supply side, using data from Transparency International's 'Bribe Payers Survey.'

The survey asks senior business executives around the world for their perceptions of the likelihood of companies from countries they have business dealings with engaging in bribery when doing business in the executive’s own country.

Based on the answers, Transparency International estimates the average of the scores given by all the respondents who rated each country (on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means firms always pay bribes in that country, and 10 means they never do). This gives the so-called 'Bribe Payers Index'. 3

The map shows the results.

Evidence from law enforcement and regulation

Many firms from high-income countries engage in bribery across the world.

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) in the US was passed in 1977 to make the bribery of foreign officials illegal. The visualization from the Mintz Group shows the global distribution of all penalties in US Government FCPA cases since 1977. Darker colors in the map denote larger penalties for activities in the corresponding country. Total penalties are measured in US dollars, so this chart combines the number and magnitude of cases. In Argentina, for example, the dark color is mainly due to one very large case involving Siemens (450 Million USD penalty, in 2008). An interactive version of this map, including details regarding specific penalties, is available from the Mintz Group at .

These official records show that US firms have paid bribes in 80 countries since 1977—including in many OECD countries.


Diplomats from countries with high corruption perception tend to break traffic rules abroad more often

Corruption is commonly defined as "the abuse of entrusted power for private gain." Here, we provide evidence of how diplomats in New York City abused their diplomatic status to break traffic rules by parking illegally.

UN mission personnel and their families benefit from diplomatic immunity. In New York City, until November 2002, diplomatic immunity implied that UN mission personnel could park illegally and avoid paying the corresponding fines. The visualization maps the average unpaid annual New York City parking violations per diplomat by the diplomat's country of origin from November 1997 to November 2002. The data comes from Fisman and Miguel (2007) 5 , who in turn obtained information compiled by the New York City Department of Finance.

As we can see from the map, this ‘revealed-preference’ measure of corruption among diplomats correlates positively with the survey-based measures of corruption we have already discussed. Diplomats from countries where corruption perception is low (e.g. Denmark) seem to be generally less likely to break parking rules abroad, even in situations in which there are no legal consequences.

While the correlation is not perfect (e.g. Colombia has a high corruption perception but zero unpaid parking violations in the data) Fisman and Miguel (2007) show that statistically speaking, the positive correlation between corrupt behavior by diplomats 'abroad,' and corruption perception 'at home,' remains after controlling for factors such as national income in the diplomats’ home country, or the diplomats' salaries. This evidence suggests that cultural norms are one of the factors that affect corrupt behavior.

OECD countries are increasingly providing procedures for public officials to report corruption

Corruption is not something that only affects low-income countries—and in fact, many high-income countries have become increasingly aware of this in recent years.

The table details a list of OECD countries and whether they have specific procedures for public officials to report misconduct or suspected corruption.


As we can see, since 2000 many OECD countries have developed formal mechanisms to allow public officials to expose corruption ('whistle-blowing') more easily. Specifically, the table shows that the share of OECD countries that reported having legal whistle-blowing procedures went up from 44.8% in the year 2000 (13 out of 29 countries in the sample) to 79.3% in 2009 (23 out of 29 countries in the sample). Today, many of these countries supplement legal provisions with internal rules (e.g. minimum requirements for whistle-blowing programs).

These recent changes show that legal provisions to fight corruption are relatively new, and high-income countries are still trying to find new policy instruments to deal with corruption.

What is the relationship between corruption and development?

This visualization shows the cross-country relationship between development (as measured by the United Nations Human Development Index ) and corruption (as measured by Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index ).

As we can see, countries that score higher in the Corruption Perception Index (i.e. countries seen as less corrupt) tend also to have better scores in the Human Development Index.

Education and corruption

The relationship in the visualization above is just a correlation: many factors simultaneously drive corruption and development. Education is an important case in point.

The next scatter plot provides evidence of the cross-country relationship between educational attainment and corruption. The horizontal axis measures corruption using Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index , and the vertical axis measures average years of schooling .

As we can see, there is again a strong positive relationship: countries where people are more educated tend to have better scores in the Corruption Perception Index.

Several academic studies have tried to establish the extent to which this relationship is causal. Glaeser and Saks (2006) 7 , for example, show that within the US, states that are better educated tend to be less corrupt—notably, they show that this relationship holds even when using historical factors like Congregationalism in 1890 as a proxy for the current levels of schooling. In other words, they find that historical levels of education predict differences in levels of corruption across States several generations later. This is consistent with other studies that support the theory that voters with more education tend to be more willing and able to monitor public employees and to take action when these employees violate the law.

What is the relationship between corruption and accountability?

One of the most widely accepted mechanisms of controlling corruption is to ensure that those entrusted with power are held responsible for reporting their activities. This is the idea behind so-called 'accountability' measures against corruption. 8

The visualization shows the cross-country relationship between corruption and accountability. Here, corruption is measured as the share of people who admit having paid bribes in the past 12 months (as per the estimates from the Global Corruption Barometer), and accountability is measured by the Accountability Transparency Index developed by Williams (2015). 9 This index is constructed from a number of underlying indicators that provide information about the extent of free media, fiscal transparency, and political constraints.

corruption essay in the world

As we can see, people are less likely to pay bribes in countries with stronger institutions supporting accountability.

Ferraz and Finan (2011) 10 show there is evidence that this relationship is causal. Specifically, they show that electoral accountability causally affects the corruption practices of incumbent politicians in Brazil. There is significantly less corruption in municipalities where mayors can run for reelection, and the positive effect of accountability via reelection is more pronounced among municipalities with less access to information and where the likelihood of judicial punishment is lower.

How effective are top-down audits to reduce corruption?

A common policy prescription to fight corruption is to increase monitoring and punishments. The logic supporting such policies is straightforward: better monitoring and harsher punishments increase the expected cost of acting corruptly, so people rationally choose not to break the rules.

To test the extent to which monitoring and punishments effectively reduce corruption, economists often rely on 'policy experiments,' where they administer these policies to 'treatment groups.' Olken (2007) 11 follows this approach, increasing the probability of central government audits from 4 percent to 100 percent (the 'policy treatment') in the context of Indonesian village road projects.

The study compares the outcomes for villages that received this intervention with those that did not and finds that audits significantly reduced missing expenditures, as measured by discrepancies between official project costs and independent engineers’ estimates. The following visualization summarizes these results. The height of the bars shows the percentage of expenditures that engineers found missing.

As we can see, missing expenditures were much lower in villages where audits were certain.

The study provides further evidence of the extent to which officials in charge of road projects responded to private incentives: it finds that (i) audits were most effective when officials faced elections soon, and (ii) village elites shifted to nepotism (the practice of hiring family members), which is a form of corruption that was harder for audits to detect.


How important is the link between cultural norms and corruption?

A study by Fisman and Miguel (2007) 13 shows that diplomats from countries where corruption perception is low (e.g. Denmark) seem to be generally less likely to break parking rules abroad, even in situations in which there are no legal consequences.

A world map showing the number of parking violations per diplomat across different UN diplomatic delegations in the New York, US, is available here . You can read more about the data in our section on Evidence from law enforcement and regulation above.

Fisman and Miguel (2007) show that the positive correlation between corrupt behavior by diplomats ‘abroad’ and corruption perception ‘at home’ remains after controlling for factors such as national income in the diplomats’ home country or the diplomats’ salaries. This evidence suggests that cultural norms are one of the factors that affect corrupt behavior.

Definitions, Measurement and Data Quality

Corruption involves many different aspects, and it is therefore hard to give a precise and comprehensive definition. However, at the core of most definitions of corruption is the idea that a corrupt act implies the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. Classic examples include bribery , clientelism , and embezzlement . Other, often more subtle – and sometimes even legal – examples of corruption include lobbying and patronage .

Measurement limitations

The unethical and often illegal nature of corruption makes measurement particularly complicated. Corruption data usually comes from direct observation (typically law-enforcement records) or perception surveys (e.g. general-population attitudinal surveys or expert assessments).

The main disadvantage of direct observation is that corruption is difficult to observe, as should be clear from its definition. This means that estimates are likely biased and are not generally suitable for cross-country comparisons since differences in levels may stem from differences in law enforcement rather than actual differences in corruption.

On the other hand, the main disadvantage of measuring the perception of corruption, rather than corrupt behavior directly, is that estimates are susceptible to how survey respondents — both experts and everyday people — form perceptions in the first place. For instance, differences in perceived corruption between countries may stem from differences in how corruption is defined or morally viewed rather than differences in actual behavior.

In any case, despite these limitations, both sources provide valuable information regarding underlying patterns. For example, studies relying on direct observation have been widely used for within-country studies, specifically in contexts where law enforcement is considered to be broadly constant across states or municipalities (see, for example, Glaeser and Saks 2006 14 , and Ferraz and Finan 2011 15 ).

Relationship between sources

This visualization shows the relationship between two different survey-based measures of corruption. In the vertical axis, perception is measured using Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index (lower scores reflect higher perceived corruption). In the horizontal axis, corruption is measured using self-reported bribe paying behavior (estimated as the share of survey respondents who reported having paid a bribe to access public services in the last year).

As we can see from this plot, there is a clear association between both measures: countries where people often report having to pay bribes also tend to score low in the Corruption Perception Index.

The fact that corruption perception does contain information about corrupt behavior has been corroborated by detailed case studies. Olken (2009) 16 , for example, shows that citizens' perception of corruption in infrastructure projects correlates with objective measures of 'missing expenditures', as measured by independent engineers’ estimates in Indonesia.

Interactive charts on corruption

'Rotten boroughs' were constituencies that had a tiny electorate, and could thus be used by a wealthy patron to secure influence; at the turn of the 19th century in immigrant US cities, 'machine politics' involved hierarchical political organizations that provided social services and jobs in exchange for votes. For more information, see: Aidt, T. S. (2003). Economic analysis of corruption: a survey. The Economic Journal, 113(491), F632-F652.

The list of sources that are considered (subject to availability for each country) are:

African Development Bank - Governance Ratings

Bertelsmann Foundation - Sustainable Governance Indicators

Bertelsmann Foundation - Transformation Index

IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook

Political Risk Services - Country Risk Guide

World Bank - Country Performance and Institutional Assessment

World Economic Forum - Executive Opinion Survey

World Justice Project - Rule of Law Index

Economist Intelligence Unit - Country Risk Assessment

Global Insight - Country Risk Ratings

Political and Economic Risk Consultancy - Asian Intelligence

Freedom House - Nations in Transit

Methodological details are available from Transparency International

Copyright© 2016 Mintz Group LLC. All Rights Reserved. The information and graphics contained in this map are copyrighted and may not be distributed, modified, reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of Mintz Group LLC.

Fisman, R., & Miguel, E. (2007). Corruption, norms, and legal enforcement: Evidence from diplomatic parking tickets. Journal of Political economy, 115(6), 1020-1048.

This is Table D3 in OECD Government at a Glance (2009)

Glaeser, E. L., & Saks, R. E. (2006). Corruption in America. Journal of public Economics, 90(6), 1053-1072.

Transparency International defines accountability as "the concept that individuals, agencies and organisations (public, private and civil society) are held responsible for reporting their activities and executing their powers properly."

Williams, A. (2015). A global index of information transparency and accountability. Journal of Comparative Economics, 43(3), 804-824.

Ferraz, C., & Finan, F. (2011). Electoral accountability and corruption: Evidence from the audits of local governments. The American Economic Review, 101(4), 1274-1311.

Olken, Benjamin A. (2007). "Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia." Journal of Political Economy 115(2): 200-249.

This Policy Briefcase was issued in March 2008, and revised in May 2012. The data comes from Olken, Benjamin A. 2007. "Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia." Journal of Political Economy 115(2): 200-249.

Fisman, R., & Miguel, E. (2007). Corruption, norms, and legal enforcement: Evidence from diplomatic parking tickets. Journal of Political Economy, 115(6), 1020-1048.

Glaeser, E. L., & Saks, R. E. (2006). Corruption in america. Journal of public Economics, 90(6), 1053-1072.

Olken, B. A. (2009). Corruption perceptions vs. corruption reality. Journal of Public Economics, 93(7), 950-964.

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Why fighting corruption is key to addressing the world's most pressing problems

Amid food price inflation, corruption is expected to make food insecurity worse

Amid food price inflation, corruption is expected to make food insecurity worse Image:  Katie Godowski for Pexels

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corruption essay in the world

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  • Corruption is at the centre of many of the world's most pressing problems.
  • Current crises are likely to make corruption worse.
  • This year's Anti-Corruption Day should highlight how anti-corruption efforts can make crisis management more effective.

This Friday, International Anti-Corruption Day is a time to recognise that corruption is at the centre of many of the world’s most pressing problems. Economic, political, social, and environmental challenges can only be solved with good governance. The World Economic Forum’s Partnering Against Corruption Initiative (PACI) serves as the leading business voice on anti-corruption and transparency. This year’s PACI Community Meeting is organized in conjunction with the International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC) and will focus on the role of anti-corruption in mitigating current crises.

“Tackling today’s global challenges requires concerted and systemic action involving all stakeholders. It is vital that our response is built on components of good governance – such as accountability, integrity and effective risk management. This will facilitate responsible decision-making thus enabling long-term business success and positive impact on people and planet.” Nicola Port, Chief Legal Officer, World Economic Forum

Have you read?

Here's the impact of employee-owned companies on worker wealth, can the data revolution drive good governance, 6 ways russia's invasion of ukraine has reshaped the energy world, corruption and the food crisis.

The world is expected to soon face the largest food crisis in modern history . Food price inflation remains high in almost all countries and the number of those facing acute food insecurity has soared . Corruption will make food insecurity worse . For instance, corruption in land and water services affect small-scale farmers in developing countries , which constitute the majority of agricultural providers. On the consumption side, households in low-income countries with high levels of corruption might need to reduce their food consumption to accommodate the costs of bribery .

Corruption might even affect programs that set out to remedy the effects of the current food crisis. The efforts of national and international bodies to combat famine and hunger could be undermined by corruption.

Corruption and the energy crisis

After Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, countries are reassessing their reliance on Russian oil and gas, and considering a speedier adoption of greener energies. This looks like good news for the global anti-corruption agenda, given that countries with large extractive industries are plagued by grand corruption and bribery (commonly known as the “resource curse”).

However, the transition to renewables also carries a myriad of corruption risks, due to the substantial capital investments involved. The future, decarbonized global energy sector is expected to need cumulative investments of at least $110 trillion between now and 2050, representing an average of 2% of global GDP per annum .

“Navigating towards a NET-ZERO society will require a permanent commitment to Integrity and Transparency. Organizations will be scrutinized to demonstrate their positive impact, their contribution to the society and to actively promoting an ethical and competitive business environment under increasingly challenging scenarios.” Salvador Dahan, Chief Governance & Compliance Officer, Petrobras

To manage corruption during the energy transition we need to assess the risks in different renewable energy technologies. Corruption might move across the non-renewable and renewable sectors, driven by the growing demand for critical minerals . Certainly, the renewable energy sector should draw on the lessons learned from mitigating corruption in extractive industries.

Corruption accelerates social vulnerabilities

Corruption is linked to inequality, poverty, discrimination, and social exclusion. There is strong evidence of a negative correlation between corruption and the level of GDP per capita. Waste or diversion of public funds due to corruption leaves governments with fewer resources to fulfil their human rights obligations, to deliver services and to improve the standard of living of their citizens . Consequently, corruption negatively impacts human development and increases social vulnerabilities.

The transition to renewable energy carries a myriad of corruption risks

Take the provision of basic services as an example: an estimated US$500 billion in public health spending is lost globally to corruption every year, undermining health services . Studies suggest that 50% of school children do not complete primary school in countries where bribery is common. Fighting corruption is thus considered a foundation for delivering the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda.

Geopolitical instability

Corruption is closely intertwined with geopolitical instability. Countries experiencing violent conflict show significantly higher rates of corruption, and corruption also makes countries more vulnerable to malign foreign influence. As the National Endowment for Democracy explains : “corrosive capital and strategic corruption differ from other forms of corruption in that they are backed, and sometimes orchestrated, by a state power for political rather than economic goals.”

“We live in a rapidly changing world with fluid and unpredictable geo-political risks. It is in times of crisis, when you don’t often have the luxury of time, that the true essence of an organization is revealed. Having an ethical culture and a proper risk management system in place is essential to operating with integrity and building trust with society. This is the purpose of the Ethics, Risk and Compliance function at Novartis - to support our associates to do the right thing. Doing what’s right for patients and society is, and must always be, our priority. It’s a journey, and we remain humble in our understanding that this will take time. But we are well on our way to building trust.” Klaus Moosmayer, Chief Ethics, Risk & Compliance Officer, Novartis

Anti-corruption measures are essential to reconstruct and stabilize countries in the aftermath of conflict; this is a hard lesson learned from Bosnia and Afghanistan , among others. They will be important for Ukraine in recovering from the current war.

The financial services industry is facing several future risks, including vulnerabilities to cyberattacks due to artificial intelligence and new financial products creating debt.

The World Economic Forum’s Centre for Financial and Monetary Systems works with the public and private sectors to design a more sustainable, resilient, trusted and accessible financial system worldwide.

Learn more about our impact:

  • Net zero future: Our Financing the Transition to a Net Zero Future initiative is accelerating capital mobilization in support of breakthrough decarbonization technologies to help transition the global economy to net zero emissions.
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  • Financing biodiversity: We are convening leading financial institutions to advance the understanding of risks related to biodiversity loss and the opportunities to adopt mitigation strategies through our Biodiversity Finance initiative.

Want to know more about our centre’s impact or get involved? Contact us .

The way forward

The International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC) , taking place from 6 to 10 December in Washington DC, offers the most important multi-stakeholder dialogue on corruption issues. At this year’s International Anti-Corruption Conference, the Forum’s Partnering Against Corruption Initiative is hosting several workshops to shape innovative solutions and pave the way forward for the fight against corruption. We will place more emphasis on the role of good governance – including anti-corruption – which is needed to achieve positive environmental and social change.

A second workshop, organized in cooperation with the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), will shed light on the role of gatekeepers in mitigating illicit financial flows – a key topic in face of the current crisis in Ukraine . Finally, PACI will address how frontier technologies can help to bolster anti-corruption efforts, making detection, prevention, and investigations more efficient and effective.

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World Economic Forum articles may be republished in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License, and in accordance with our Terms of Use.

The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the World Economic Forum.

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Human Rights Careers

5 Essays About Corruption

Internationally, there is no legal definition of corruption, but it includes bribery, illegal profit, abuse of power, embezzlement, and more. Corrupt activities are illegal, so they are discreet and done in secrecy. Depending on how deep the corruption goes, there may be many people aware of what’s going on, but they choose to do nothing because they’ve been bribed or they’re afraid of retaliation. Any system can become corrupt. Here are five essays that explore where corruption exists, its effects, and how it can be addressed.

Learn more about anti-corruption in a free course .

Corruption in Global Health: The Open Secret

Dr. Patricia J. Garcia The Lancet (2019)

In this published lecture, Dr. Garcia uses her experience as a researcher, public health worker, and Minister of Health to draw attention to corruption in health systems. She explores the extent of the problem, its origins, and what’s happening in the present day. Additional topics include ideas on how to address the problem and why players like policymakers and researchers need to think about corruption as a disease. Dr. Garcia states that corruption is one of the most significant barriers to global universal health coverage.

Dr. Garcia is the former Minister of Health of Peru and a leader in global health. She also works as a professor and researcher/trainer in global health, STI/HIV, HPV, medical informatics, and reproductive health. She’s the first Peruvian to be appointed as a member to the United States National Academy of Medicine

‘Are women leaders less corrupt? No, but they shake things up”

Stella Dawson Reuters (2012)

This piece takes a closer look at the idea that more women in power will mean less corruption. Reality is more complicated than that. Women are not less vulnerable to corruption in terms of their resistance to greed, but there is a link between more female politicians and less corruption. The reason appears to be that women are simply more likely to achieve more power in democratic, open systems that are less tolerant of corruption. A better gender balance also means more effective problem-solving. This piece goes on to give some examples of lower corruption in systems with more women and the complexities. While this particular essay is old, newer research still supports that more women in power is linked to better ethics and lower corruption levels into systems, though women are not inherently less corrupt.

Stella Dawson left Reuters in 2015, where she worked as a global editor for economics and markets. At the Thomson Reuters Foundation and 100Reporters, she headed a network of reporters focusing on corruption issues. Dawson has been featured as a commentator for BBC, CNB, C-Span, and public radio.

“Transparency isn’t the solution to corruption – here’s why”

David Riverios Garcia One Young World

Many believe that corruption can be solved with transparency, but in this piece, Garcia explains why that isn’t the case. He writes that governments have exploited new technology (like open data platforms and government-monitoring acts) to appear like they care about corruption, but, in Garcia’s words, “transparency means nothing without accountability.” Garcia focuses on corruption in Latin America, including Paraguay where Garcia is originally from. He describes his background as a young anti-corruption activist, what he’s learned, and what he considers the real solution to corruption.

At the time of this essay’s publication, David Riverios Garcia was an Open Young World Ambassador. He ran a large-scale anti-corruption campaign (reAccion Paraguay), stopping corruption among local high school authorities. He’s also worked on poverty relief and education reform. The Ministry of Education recognized him for his achievements and in 2009, he was selected by the US Department of State as one of 10 Paraguayan Youth Ambassadors.

“What the World Could Teach America About Policing”

Yasmeen Serhan The Atlantic (2020)

The American police system has faced significant challenges with public trust for decades. In 2020, those issues have erupted and the country is at a tipping point. Corruption is rampant through the system. What can be done? In this piece, the author gives examples of how other countries have managed reform. These reforms include first dismantling the existing system, then providing better training. Once that system is off the ground, there needs to be oversight. Looking at other places in the world that have successfully made radical changes is essential for real change in the United States.

Atlantic staff writer Yasmeen Serhan is based in London.

“$2.6 Trillion Is Lost to Corruption Every Year — And It Hurts the Poor the Most”

Joe McCarthy Global Citizen (2018)

This short piece is a good introduction to just how significant the effects of corruption are. Schools, hospitals, and other essential services suffer, while the poorest and most vulnerable society carry the heaviest burdens. Because of corruption, these services don’t get the funding they need. Cycles of corruption erode citizens’ trust in systems and powerful government entities. What can be done to end the cycle?

Joe McCarthy is a staff writer for Global Citizen. He writes about global events and environmental issues.

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About the author, emmaline soken-huberty.

Emmaline Soken-Huberty is a freelance writer based in Portland, Oregon. She started to become interested in human rights while attending college, eventually getting a concentration in human rights and humanitarianism. LGBTQ+ rights, women’s rights, and climate change are of special concern to her. In her spare time, she can be found reading or enjoying Oregon’s natural beauty with her husband and dog.

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Corruption: A Very Short Introduction

Corruption: A Very Short Introduction

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Corruption is one of the biggest global issues, ahead of extreme poverty, unemployment, the rising cost of food and energy, climate change, and terrorism. It is thought to be one of the principal causes of poverty around the globe. Its significance in the contemporary world cannot be overestimated. Corruption: A Very Short Introduction notes that corruption is as old as humanity itself, and then considers why the international community has only highlighted it as a problem in the past two decades. It explores the phenomenon from several different perspectives, from the cultural differences affecting how corruption is defined, its impact, its various causes, and the possible remedies.

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Understanding corruption in the twenty-first century: towards a new constructivist research agenda

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  • Published: 12 January 2021
  • Volume 19 , pages 82–102, ( 2021 )

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corruption essay in the world

  • Sofia Wickberg 1  

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The search for a universally acceptable definition of corruption has been a central element of scholarship on corruption over the last decades, without it ever reaching a consensus in academic circles. Moreover, it is far from certain that citizens share the same understanding of what should be labelled as ‘corruption’ across time, space and social groups. This article traces the journey from the classical conception of corruption, centred around the notions of morals and decay, to the modern understanding of the term focussing on individual actions and practices. It provides an overview of the scholarly struggle over meaning-making and shows how the definition of corruption as the ‘abuse of public/entrusted power for private gain’ became dominant, as corruption was constructed as a global problem by international organizations. Lastly, it advocates for bringing back a more constructivist perspective on the study of corruption which takes the ambiguity and political dimensions of corruption seriously. The article suggests new avenues of research to understand corruption in the changing context of the twenty-first century.

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500+ words essay on corruption.

Essay on Corruption – Corruption refers to a form of criminal activity or dishonesty. It refers to an evil act by an individual or a group. Most noteworthy, this act compromises the rights and privileges of others. Furthermore, Corruption primarily includes activities like bribery or embezzlement. However, Corruption can take place in many ways. Most probably, people in positions of authority are susceptible to Corruption. Corruption certainly reflects greedy and selfish behavior.

Essay on Corruption

Methods of Corruption

First of all, Bribery is the most common method of Corruption. Bribery involves the improper use of favours and gifts in exchange for personal gain. Furthermore, the types of favours are diverse. Above all, the favours include money, gifts, company shares, sexual favours, employment , entertainment, and political benefits. Also, personal gain can be – giving preferential treatment and overlooking crime.

Embezzlement refers to the act of withholding assets for the purpose of theft. Furthermore, it takes place by one or more individuals who were entrusted with these assets. Above all, embezzlement is a type of financial fraud.

The graft is a global form of Corruption. Most noteworthy, it refers to the illegal use of a politician’s authority for personal gain. Furthermore, a popular way for the graft is misdirecting public funds for the benefit of politicians .

Extortion is another major method of Corruption. It means to obtain property, money or services illegally. Above all, this obtainment takes place by coercing individuals or organizations. Hence, Extortion is quite similar to blackmail.

Favouritism and nepotism is quite an old form of Corruption still in usage. This refers to a person favouring one’s own relatives and friends to jobs. This is certainly a very unfair practice. This is because many deserving candidates fail to get jobs.

Abuse of discretion is another method of Corruption. Here, a person misuses one’s power and authority. An example can be a judge unjustly dismissing a criminal’s case.

Finally, influence peddling is the last method here. This refers to illegally using one’s influence with the government or other authorized individuals. Furthermore, it takes place in order to obtain preferential treatment or favour.

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Ways of Stopping Corruption

One important way of preventing Corruption is to give a better salary in a government job. Many government employees receive pretty low salaries. Therefore, they resort to bribery to meet their expenses. So, government employees should receive higher salaries. Consequently, high salaries would reduce their motivation and resolve to engage in bribery.

corruption essay in the world

Tough laws are very important for stopping Corruption. Above all, strict punishments need to be meted out to guilty individuals. Furthermore, there should be an efficient and quick implementation of strict laws.

Applying cameras in workplaces is an excellent way to prevent corruption. Above all, many individuals would refrain from indulging in Corruption due to fear of being caught. Furthermore, these individuals would have otherwise engaged in Corruption.

The government must make sure to keep inflation low. Due to the rise in prices, many people feel their incomes to be too low. Consequently, this increases Corruption among the masses. Businessmen raise prices to sell their stock of goods at higher prices. Furthermore, the politician supports them due to the benefits they receive.

To sum it up, Corruption is a great evil of society. This evil should be quickly eliminated from society. Corruption is the poison that has penetrated the minds of many individuals these days. Hopefully, with consistent political and social efforts, we can get rid of Corruption.

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Essay on Corruption, Its Causes, and Effects

Causes of corruption: essay introduction, causes of corruption, effects of corruption, conclusion: what are the causes and effects of corruption.


Transparency International defines corruption as an act that abuses the entrusted power for private gain. This means that it violates the rights of individuals that have bestowed power, authority, and legitimacy. Corruption varies in degree and nature depending on the level of its occurrence, people involved, and circumstances that motivate individuals to be corrupt. Modernization has transformed corruption, and people adopt new and complicated ways of concealing their fraudulent activities. This paper presents the causes and effects of corruption in the public and private sector.

Politics is an effective way of ensuring power and resources are shared equally among all individuals from different backgrounds within a specified jurisdiction. However, people have used political activities and offices to advance their gains and neglect the need to be accountable and responsible to the public. The emergence of political elites has created room for corruption to flourish in public and private offices because people no longer respect the need to develop national programs that will benefit citizens. They have diverted the resources of the public to achieve their gains without considering the impacts of their actions on other citizens. Politics has allowed corrupt officers to win elections and take powerful positions in government. Therefore, citizens continue to suffer because their interests are not addressed by those they expected would alleviate their problems.

Also, the existence of artificial scarcity of resources has pushed people to look for cheap ways of getting what they need. For instance, the scarcity of employment and investment opportunities has led to stiff competition for the limited available resources. Therefore, people use unorthodox ways to persuade those in charge of approving projects to allow them to continue with their investment projects. People with malevolent intentions continue to destroy the economy of their nations as they create false impressions of the scarcity of resources. The existence of unhealthy competitions among businesses forces some of them to use unethical ways to persuade their clients to buy their products. Government officials in charge of quality standards are usually bribed to cover the activities of such investors, and this promotes corruption in businesses. This violates the rights of citizens to access quality products and services.

Thirdly, the ethical qualities of people in authority have decreased, and their value system deteriorated due to lack of strong moral teachings and responsibilities. People no longer have respect for the old ideals of moral and honest service delivery procedures, and society has become a haven for individuals that disregard human dignity. It is necessary to explain that modernity has clouded the need to respect the positions and individuals placed to serve others. People have little respect for morals that guide service delivery and ensure others benefit from their services. Therefore, corruption has been fuelled by poor moral values and lack of respect for human life.

The present generation is full of corrupt activities because people fail to condemn them. There are no strong civil societies to rebuke and oppose corrupt leaders, and this promotes the flourishing of this behavior in generations. The American public forum is dominated by debates on gay marriages, foreign policies, and inflated health bills, but nobody seems to pay attention to the escalating cases of corruption in the public and private sectors. The younger generations do not see the need to fight corruption because their predecessors support and cultivate it through modern systems and activities.

Lastly, widespread poverty and illiteracy have contributed to endemic corruption in modern societies. There are efforts to educate people, especially the rural folks, to ensure they know their rights and freedoms to reduce corruption in their societies. However, these efforts seem to bear no fruits because poverty drives them to seek cheap and quick ways of accessing their needs. Also, poverty makes people desperate, and thus, they do anything that will ensure they have food on their tables. Therefore, corruption flourishes in most societies because people do not know their rights and those that do have limited resources to access them.

Corruption violates the rights and freedoms of individuals to get basic services from public and private offices. This means that this practice compromises the quality of services offered by employees in the public and private sectors and puts the lives of citizens at risk. Corrupt officials do not offer equal services to clients because they treat some with more interests than others. This violates the provisions of equality and the rights for justice in various issues. This makes public institutions and offices to become illegitimate because of misusing their democratic power for private gains.

Also, corruption hinders the effective development of political systems in a country. This vice promotes patronage that is serious threats to democratic processes. Most corrupt nations experience civil disobedience and political instability that hamper development projects. The introduction of multi-party democratic systems is usually hampered by the corruption that compromises the legitimacy of political parties and individuals. Civil disobedience and lack of trust in political institutions propel individuals to protest and demand the removal of their leaders from power.

Moreover, this vice stalls development projects and subjects citizens to abject poverty because of a lack of transparency and accountability in public offices. Corruption enables few individuals that have money to have their way and get what they want while those that do not have been forced to look for other alternatives. Poverty and unemployment are common occurrences in societies that condone corruption, and they cannot develop because of poor management systems. The need to offer quality services like improving infrastructure, medical facilities, schools, and social amenities is compromised by the lack of transparent processes of awarding tenders and distributing resources in a society.

Lastly, this vice discourages unity and cooperation in society because some individuals think they are more important than others. Unequal distribution of national resources and restricted access to public services lead to frustration and apathy among citizens, and this weakens the fabric that binds members of the society. This leads to social inequality and the emergence of class differences that violate the dignity and rights of individuals. Uncontrolled corruption widens the gap between the rich and poor, and this results in a weak civil society.

Corruption is caused by man-made factors like capitalism, lack of transparency and accountability, nepotism, tribalism, poverty, weak social and political structures, and poverty. This vice lowers the pace of national development, weakens societies, and increases poverty. Therefore, people should work hard to ensure they fight corruption by educating their members on the importance of transparent practices. Also, government systems should be programmed to detect and eliminate this vice, and those found promoting it should face harsh penalties.

Johnston, M., Syndromes of Corruption: Wealth, Power, and Democracy. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Turvey, B., Forensic Fraud: Evaluating Law Enforcement and Forensic Science Cultures in the Context of Examiner Misconduct . Massachussetts: Academic Press, 2013.

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IvyPanda. (2023, October 29). Essay on Corruption, Its Causes, and Effects.

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How to Stop Corruption Essay: Guide & Topics [+4 Samples]

Corruption is an abuse of power that was entrusted to a person or group of people for personal gain. It can appear in various settings and affect different social classes, leading to unemployment and other economic issues. This is why writing an essay on corruption can become a challenge.

Our specialists will write a custom essay specially for you!

One “how to stop corruption” essay will require plenty of time and effort, as the topic is too broad. That’s why our experts have prepared this guide. It can help you with research and make the overall writing process easier. Besides, you will find free essays on corruption with outlines.

  • ✍️ How to Write an Essay
  • 💰 Essay Examples
  • 🤑 How to Stop Corruption Essay
  • 💲 Topics for Essay

✍️ How to Write an Essay on Corruption

Before writing on the issue, you have to understand a few things. First , corruption can take different forms, such as:

  • Bribery – receiving money or other valuable items in exchange for using power or influence in an illegal way.
  • Graft – using power or authority for personal goals.
  • Extortion – threats or violence for the person’s advantage.
  • Kickback – paying commission to a bribe-taker for some service.
  • Cronyism – assigning unqualified friends or relatives to job positions.
  • Embezzlement – stealing the government’s money.

Second , you should carefully think about the effects of corruption on the country. It seriously undermines democracy and the good name of political institutions. Its economic, political, and social impact is hard to estimate.

Let’s focus on writing about corruption. What are the features of your future paper? What elements should you include in your writing?

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Below, we will show you the general essay on corruption sample and explain each part’s importance:

You already chose the paper topic. What’s next? Create an outline for your future writing. You’re better to compose a plan for your paper so that it won’t suffer from logic errors and discrepancies. Besides, you may be required to add your outline to your paper and compose a corruption essay with headings.

At this step, you sketch out the skeleton:

  • what to write in the introduction;
  • what points to discuss in the body section;
  • what to put into the conclusion.

Take the notes during your research to use them later. They will help you to put your arguments in a logical order and show what points you can use in the essay.

For a long-form essay, we suggest you divide it into parts. Title each one and use headings to facilitate the reading process.

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🔴 Introduction

The next step is to develop a corruption essay’s introduction. Here, you should give your readers a preview of what’s coming and state your position.

  • Start with a catchy hook.
  • Give a brief description of the problem context.
  • Provide a thesis statement.

You can always update and change it when finishing the paper.

🔴 Body Paragraphs

In the body section, you will provide the central points and supporting evidence. When discussing the effects of this problem in your corruption essay, do not forget to include statistics and other significant data.

Every paragraph should include a topic sentence, explanation, and supporting evidence. To make them fit together, use analysis and critical thinking.

Get an originally-written paper according to your instructions!

Use interesting facts and compelling arguments to earn your audience’s attention. It may drift while reading an essay about corruption, so don’t let it happen.

🔴 Quotations

Quotes are the essential elements of any paper. They support your claims and add credibility to your writing. Such items are exceptionally crucial for an essay on corruption as the issue can be controversial, so you may want to back up your arguments.

  • You may incorporate direct quotes in your text. In this case, remember to use quotation marks and mark the page number for yourself. Don’t exceed the 30 words limit. Add the information about the source in the reference list.
  • You may decide to use a whole paragraph from your source as supporting evidence. Then, quote indirectly—paraphrase, summarize, or synthesize the argument of interest. You still have to add relevant information to your reference list, though.

Check your professor’s guidelines regarding the preferred citation style.

🔴 Conclusion

In your corruption essay conclusion, you should restate the thesis and summarize your findings. You can also provide recommendations for future research on the topic. Keep it clear and short—it can be one paragraph long.

Don’t forget your references!

Include a list of all sources you used to write this paper. Read the citation guideline of your institution to do it correctly. By the way, some citation tools allow creating a reference list in pdf or Word formats.

💰 Corruption Essay Examples

If you strive to write a good how to stop a corruption essay, you should check a few relevant examples. They will show you the power of a proper outline and headings. Besides, you’ll see how to formulate your arguments and cite sources.

✔️ Essay on Corruption: 250 Words

If you were assigned a short paper of 250 words and have no idea where to start, you can check the example written by our academic experts. As you can see below, it is written in easy words. You can use simple English to explain to your readers the “black money” phenomenon.

Another point you should keep in mind when checking our short essay on corruption is that the structure remains the same. Despite the low word count, it has an introductory paragraph with a thesis statement, body section, and a conclusion.

Now, take a look at our corruption essay sample and inspire!

✔️ Essay on Corruption: 500 Words

Cause and effect essay is among the most common paper types for students. In case you’re composing this kind of paper, you should research the reasons for corruption. You can investigate factors that led to this phenomenon in a particular country.

Use the data from the official sources, for example, Transparency International . There is plenty of evidence for your thesis statement on corruption and points you will include in the body section. Also, you can use headlines to separate one cause from another. Doing so will help your readers to browse through the text easily.

Check our essay on corruption below to see how our experts utilize headlines.

🤑 How to Stop Corruption: Essay Prompts

Corruption is a complex issue that undermines the foundations of justice, fairness, and equality. If you want to address this problem, you can write a “How to Stop Corruption” essay using any of the following topic ideas.

The writing prompts below will provide valuable insights into this destructive phenomenon. Use them to analyze the root causes critically and propose effective solutions.

How to Prevent Corruption Essay Prompt

In this essay, you can discuss various strategies and measures to tackle corruption in society. Explore the impact of corruption on social, political, and economic systems and review possible solutions. Your paper can also highlight the importance of ethical leadership and transparent governance in curbing corruption.

Here are some more ideas to include:

  • The role of education and public awareness in preventing corruption. In this essay, you can explain the importance of teaching ethical values and raising awareness about the adverse effects of corruption. It would be great to illustrate your essay with examples of successful anti-corruption campaigns and programs.
  • How to implement strong anti-corruption laws and regulations. Your essay could discuss the steps governments should take in this regard, such as creating comprehensive legislation and independent anti-corruption agencies. Also, clarify how international cooperation can help combat corruption.
  • Ways of promoting transparency in government and business operations. Do you agree that open data policies, whistleblower protection laws, independent oversight agencies, and transparent financial reporting are effective methods of ensuring transparency? What other strategies can you propose? Answer the questions in your essay.

How to Stop Corruption as a Student Essay Prompt

An essay on how to stop corruption as a student can focus on the role of young people in preventing corruption in their communities and society at large. Describe what students can do to raise awareness, promote ethical behavior, and advocate for transparency and accountability. The essay can also explore how instilling values of integrity and honesty among young people can help combat corruption.

Here’s what else you can talk about:

  • How to encourage ethical behavior and integrity among students. Explain why it’s essential for teachers to be models of ethical behavior and create a culture of honesty and accountability in schools. Besides, discuss the role of parents and community members in reinforcing students’ moral values.
  • Importance of participating in anti-corruption initiatives and campaigns from a young age. Your paper could study how participation in anti-corruption initiatives fosters young people’s sense of civic responsibility. Can youth engagement promote transparency and accountability?
  • Ways of promoting accountability within educational institutions. What methods of fostering accountability are the most effective? Your essay might evaluate the efficacy of promoting direct communication, establishing a clear code of conduct, creating effective oversight mechanisms, holding all members of the educational process responsible for their actions, and other methods.

How to Stop Corruption in India Essay Prompt

In this essay, you can discuss the pervasive nature of corruption in various sectors of Indian society and its detrimental effects on the country’s development. Explore strategies and measures that can be implemented to address and prevent corruption, as well as the role of government, civil society, and citizens in combating this issue.

Your essay may also include the following:

  • Analysis of the causes and consequences of corruption in India. You may discuss the bureaucratic red tape, weak enforcement mechanisms, and other causes. How do they affect the country’s development?
  • Examination of the effectiveness of existing anti-corruption laws and measures. What are the existing anti-corruption laws and measures in India? Are they effective? What are their strengths and weaknesses?
  • Discussion of potential solutions and reforms to curb corruption. Propose practical solutions and reforms that can potentially stop corruption. Also, explain the importance of political will and international cooperation to implement reforms effectively.

Government Corruption Essay Prompt

A government corruption essay can discuss the prevalence of corruption within government institutions and its impact on the state’s functioning. You can explore various forms of corruption, such as bribery, embezzlement, and nepotism. Additionally, discuss their effects on public services, economic development, and social justice.

Here are some more ideas you can cover in your essay:

  • The causes and manifestations of government corruption. Analyze political patronage, weak accountability systems, and other factors that stimulate corruption. Additionally, include real-life examples that showcase the manifestations of government corruption in your essay.
  • The impact of corruption on public trust and governance. Corruption undermines people’s trust and increases social inequalities. In your paper, we suggest evaluating its long-term impact on countries’ development and social cohesion.
  • Strategies and reforms to combat government corruption. Here, you can present and examine the best strategies and reforms to fight corruption in government. Also, consider the role of international organizations and media in advocating for anti-corruption initiatives.

How to Stop Police Corruption Essay Prompt

In this essay, you can explore strategies and reforms to address corruption within law enforcement agencies. Start by investigating the root causes of police corruption and its impact on public safety and trust. Then, propose effective measures to combat it.

Here’s what else you can discuss in your essay:

  • The factors contributing to police corruption, such as lack of accountability and oversight. Your paper could research various factors that cause police corruption. Is it possible to mitigate their effect?
  • The consequences of police corruption for community relations and public safety. Police corruption has a disastrous effect on public safety and community trust. Your essay can use real-life examples to show how corruption practices in law enforcement undermine their legitimacy and fuel social unrest.
  • Potential solutions, such as improved training, transparency, and accountability measures. Can these measures solve the police corruption issue? What other strategies can be implemented to combat the problem? Consider these questions in your essay.

💲 40 Best Topics for Corruption Essay

Another key to a successful essay on corruption is choosing an intriguing topic. There are plenty of ideas to use in your paper. And here are some topic suggestions for your writing:

  • What is corruption? An essay should tell the readers about the essentials of this phenomenon. Elaborate on the factors that impact its growth or reduce.
  • How to fight corruption ? Your essay can provide ideas on how to reduce the effects of this problem. If you write an argumentative paper, state your arguments, and give supporting evidence. For example, you can research the countries with the lowest corruption index and how they fight with it.
  • I say “no” to corruption . This can be an excellent topic for your narrative essay. Describe a situation from your life when you’re faced with this type of wrongdoing.
  • Corruption in our country. An essay can be dedicated, for example, to corruption in India or Pakistan. Learn more about its causes and how different countries fight with it.
  • Graft and corruption. We already mentioned the definition of graft. Explore various examples of grafts, e.g., using the personal influence of politicians to pressure public service journalists . Provide your vision of the causes of corruption. The essay should include strong evidence.
  • Corruption in society. Investigate how the tolerance to “black money” crimes impact economics in developing countries .
  • How can we stop corruption ? In your essay, provide suggestions on how society can prevent this problem. What efficient ways can you propose?
  • The reasons that lead to the corruption of the police . Assess how bribery impacts the crime rate. You can use a case of Al Capone as supporting evidence.
  • Literature and corruption. Choose a literary masterpiece and analyze how the author addresses the theme of crime. You can check a sample paper on Pushkin’s “ The Queen of Spades ”
  • How does power affect politicians ? In your essay on corruption and its causes, provide your observations on ideas about why people who hold power allow the grafts.
  • Systemic corruption in China . China has one of the strictest laws on this issue. However, crime still exists. Research this topic and provide your observations on the reasons.
  • The success of Asian Tigers . Explore how the four countries reduced corruption crime rates. What is the secret of their success? What can we learn from them?
  • Lee Kuan Yew and his fight against corruption. Research how Singapore’s legislation influenced the elimination of this crime.
  • Corruption in education. Examine the types in higher education institutions . Why does corruption occur?
  • Gifts and bribes . You may choose to analyze the ethical side of gifts in business. Can it be a bribe? In what cases?
  • Cronyism and nepotism in business . Examine these forms of corruption as a part of Chinese culture.
  • Kickbacks and bribery . How do these two terms are related, and what are the ways to prevent them?
  • Corporate fraud . Examine the bribery, payoffs, and kickbacks as a phenomenon in the business world. Point out the similarities and differences.
  • Anti-bribery compliance in corporations. Explore how transnational companies fight with the misuse of funds by contractors from developing countries.
  • The ethical side of payoffs. How can payoffs harm someone’s reputation? Provide your point of view of why this type of corporate fraud is unethical.
  • The reasons for corruption of public officials .
  • Role of auditors in the fight against fraud and corruption.
  • The outcomes of corruption in public administration .
  • How to eliminate corruption in the field of criminal justice .
  • Is there a connection between corruption and drug abuse ?
  • The harm corruption does to the economic development of countries .
  • The role of anti-bribery laws in fighting financial crimes.
  • Populist party brawl against corruption and graft.
  • An example of incorrigible corruption in business: Enron scandal .
  • The effective ways to prevent corruption .
  • The catastrophic consequences of corruption in healthcare .
  • How regular auditing can prevent embezzlement and financial manipulation.
  • Correlation between poverty and corruption .
  • Unethical behavior and corruption in football business.
  • Corruption in oil business: British Petroleum case.
  • Are corruption and bribery socially acceptable in Central Asian states ?
  • What measures should a company take to prevent bribery among its employees?
  • Ways to eliminate and prevent cases of police corruption .
  • Gift-giving traditions and corruption in the world’s culture.
  • Breaking business obligations : embezzlement and fraud.

These invaluable tips will help you to get through any kind of essay. You are welcome to use these ideas and writing tips whenever you need to write this type of academic paper. Share the guide with those who may need it for their essay on corruption.

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🔗 References

  • Public Corruption: FBI, U.S. Department of Justice
  • Anti-Corruption and Transparency: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
  • United Nations Convention against Corruption: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
  • Corruption Essay: Cram
  • How to Construct an Essay: Josh May
  • Essay Writing: University College Birmingham
  • Structuring the Essay: Research & Learning Online
  • Insights from U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre: Medium
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Essay on Corruption

Here we have shared the Essay on Corruption in detail so you can use it in your exam or assignment of 150, 250, 400, 500, or 1000 words.

You can use this Essay on Corruption in any assignment or project whether you are in school (class 10th or 12th), college, or preparing for answer writing in competitive exams. 

Topics covered in this article.

Essay on Corruption in 150-250 words

Essay on corruption in 300-400 words, essay on corruption in 500-1000 words.

Corruption is a pervasive problem that plagues societies worldwide, undermining progress, eroding trust in institutions, and hindering economic development. It involves the abuse of entrusted power for personal gain, often through bribery, embezzlement, or nepotism.

Corruption has severe consequences for societies. It diverts public resources away from essential services such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure, exacerbating inequality and impeding socio-economic progress. It undermines the rule of law, erodes public trust in government institutions, and fosters a culture of impunity.

Addressing corruption requires a comprehensive approach. Transparency, accountability, and strong institutions are essential. Governments must enact and enforce stringent anti-corruption laws, establish independent oversight bodies, and promote transparency in public procurement and financial transactions. Strengthening the judicial system and providing protection to whistleblowers are also crucial steps.

Moreover, fostering a culture of integrity and ethical behavior is vital. Education and awareness campaigns should highlight the damaging effects of corruption and promote the values of honesty, fairness, and accountability. Civil society plays a crucial role in monitoring and advocating for anti-corruption measures, and individuals must reject corrupt practices and demand ethical conduct from their leaders.

In conclusion, corruption is a pervasive problem that undermines societal progress and hampers economic development. Combating corruption requires the concerted efforts of governments, institutions, and individuals. By promoting transparency, accountability, and a culture of integrity, we can build a society that upholds the values of honesty, fairness, and justice, fostering a brighter future for all.

Corruption is a deep-rooted issue that plagues societies worldwide, undermining trust in institutions, hindering economic growth, and perpetuating inequality. It refers to the misuse of power or position for personal gain, often through bribery, embezzlement, or nepotism.

Corruption has far-reaching consequences. It siphons public resources away from essential services such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure, leaving societies deprived of much-needed development. It perpetuates a culture of unfairness and inequality, as those with wealth and connections can manipulate systems for their advantage while the marginalized suffer the consequences.

Furthermore, corruption erodes the rule of law and weakens institutions meant to uphold justice and fairness. It erodes public trust in governments and fosters cynicism among citizens, leading to apathy and disengagement from civic life. Corruption also undermines investment and economic growth, as it deters both domestic and foreign investors who fear unfair competition and lack of accountability.

Addressing corruption requires a multi-faceted approach. Strong institutions, transparency, and accountability are crucial. Governments must enact and enforce robust anti-corruption laws, establish independent oversight bodies, and ensure the swift prosecution of offenders. Strengthening the judicial system and providing protection to whistleblowers are essential steps toward combating corruption effectively.

Promoting a culture of integrity and ethics is equally important. Education and awareness campaigns should emphasize the damaging effects of corruption and instill values of honesty, fairness, and accountability in individuals from an early age. Anti-corruption education should be integrated into school curricula, and training programs should be provided to public officials to promote ethical behavior and strengthen their resistance to corruption temptations.

Civil society plays a crucial role in fighting corruption. NGOs, media outlets, and citizen-led initiatives can monitor and expose corrupt practices, advocate for transparency, and hold public officials accountable. Empowering and protecting whistleblowers is vital to encourage reporting and ensure their safety.

Individuals also have a responsibility to reject corruption and demand ethical conduct from their leaders. By exercising their rights, participating in civic activities, and promoting transparency and accountability, citizens can contribute to building a corruption-free society.

In conclusion, corruption remains a grave challenge that hampers progress and undermines societal well-being. Tackling corruption requires a comprehensive approach involving strong institutions, transparency, education, and citizen participation. By promoting integrity, demanding accountability, and fostering a culture that values ethics and fairness, we can build a more just and prosperous society for all.

Title: Corruption – A Cancer Eating Away at Societal Progress

Introduction :

Corruption is a deeply rooted problem that plagues societies worldwide, hindering progress, eroding public trust, and perpetuating inequality. It refers to the misuse of power, position, or resources for personal gain, often through bribery, embezzlement, or nepotism. This essay explores the causes and consequences of corruption, its impact on society and development, effective measures to combat it, and the importance of promoting transparency, accountability, and ethical behavior.

Understanding Corruption

Corruption manifests in various forms, including grand corruption at the highest levels of government and petty corruption in everyday interactions. It arises from factors such as weak governance, lack of transparency, inadequate accountability mechanisms, and a culture of impunity. Additionally, socioeconomic factors, such as poverty and income inequality, can exacerbate corruption by creating opportunities for bribery and favoritism.

Consequences of Corruption

Corruption has severe consequences for societies. It diverts resources away from essential public services, leading to inadequate healthcare, education, and infrastructure. The marginalized and vulnerable bear the brunt of corruption, as it perpetuates inequality and undermines social justice. Moreover, corruption weakens institutions, erodes the rule of law, and fosters a culture of unfairness, eroding public trust in governments and democratic processes.

Economically, corruption hampers development and stifles investment. It distorts markets, creates an uneven playing field, and deters domestic and foreign investors who fear unfair competition and lack of transparency. The misallocation of resources and compromised governance systems hinder economic growth and perpetuate cycles of poverty.

Effective Measures to Combat Corruption

Combating corruption requires a multi-pronged approach at various levels:

a. Strengthening Institutions

B. legislation and enforcement, c. transparency and access to information, d. international cooperation, e. ethical leadership and political will.

Governments must establish strong, independent institutions and enforce the rule of law. This includes establishing robust anti-corruption agencies, promoting transparency and accountability, and ensuring the impartiality and efficiency of the judicial system.

Enacting comprehensive anti-corruption laws and enforcing them rigorously are vital. Governments should criminalize bribery, embezzlement, and illicit enrichment while providing protection for whistleblowers and witnesses.

Governments should promote transparency in public administration, budgeting processes, and procurement practices. Implementing freedom of information laws and establishing mechanisms for public scrutiny can curb corrupt practices and empower citizens to hold officials accountable.

Corruption often crosses borders, necessitating international cooperation in combating it. Governments should collaborate to trace and recover stolen assets, exchange information, and strengthen legal frameworks to prevent money laundering and illicit financial flows.

Leaders must lead by example, demonstrating a commitment to ethical behavior and the fight against corruption. Governments should promote a culture of integrity, fostering ethical conduct in public service and discouraging tolerance for corruption.

Promoting Transparency and Accountability

Transparency and accountability are essential in preventing corruption. Governments should establish mechanisms for public oversight, such as independent auditing bodies and ombudsman offices, to monitor the activities of public officials and ensure adherence to ethical standards. Promoting the use of technology, such as e-governance platforms and online portals for public information, can enhance transparency and reduce opportunities for corruption.

Civil society plays a crucial role in holding governments accountable and advocating for transparency. NGOs, media outlets, and citizen-led initiatives can monitor public spending, expose corrupt practices, and raise awareness about the damaging effects of corruption. Whistleblower protection laws should be enacted and enforced to encourage reporting and safeguard those who expose corruption.

Changing Attitudes and Promoting Ethics

Addressing corruption also requires a shift in societal attitudes and values. Education plays a vital role in promoting ethics, integrity, and responsible citizenship. Incorporating anti-corruption education into school curricula can foster a culture of transparency and ethical behavior from an early age.

Furthermore, promoting a culture of integrity in both public and private sectors is essential. Businesses should adopt robust anti-corruption policies, implement ethical practices, and adhere to international anti-corruption standards. Ethical behavior should be recognized, rewarded, and celebrated, while those engaged in corrupt practices should face consequences.

Conclusion :

Corruption remains a global challenge that undermines societal progress, perpetuates inequality, and hampers development. Addressing corruption requires a comprehensive approach that encompasses strong institutions, transparency, accountability, and a culture of integrity. By enacting and enforcing anti-corruption legislation, promoting transparency and access to information, and fostering ethical leadership, societies can root out corruption and build a more just and prosperous future for all.

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Corruption Essay

Corruption has spread like wildfire throughout India and other countries. It has emerged as one of the social challenges in Indian society that is growing rapidly. Generally, opportunistic leaders are the ones who start it and promote it. Working to increase transparency and accountability can help to effectively control corruption in every sector. Here are a few sample essays on ‘Corruption’.

100 Words Essay on Corruption

200 words essay on corruption, 500 words on corruption essay, how to stop corruption, impact of corruption, factors responsible for corruption.

Corruption Essay

Corruption is one of the most serious issues faced by the society today. It has become increasingly rampant in all sectors, from government to business and even in our everyday lives. It appears in many forms, ranging from bribery and embezzlement to extortion and fraud. Corruption damages trust and erodes public confidence, leading to a breakdown of institutions that are responsible for maintaining law and order. Corruption has expanded in scope, and it now substantially curtails the nation's economic, social, and infrastructure development like never before. There are several causes of corruption and they negatively impact society. We, as conscious citizens, should participate in combatting and addressing the problem of corruption for the betterment of our society.

Corruption is the misuse of power for personal gain. It can take many forms, such as bribery, embezzlement, influence peddling, nepotism, and patronage. Corruption undermines good governance, ethical values, and public trust. It leads to injustices, inefficiencies, and a waste of resources. Corruption in the political and administrative structures of the nation is impeding its development and robbing the people of their fundamental liberties, including the rights to equality, freedom, and equal opportunity as well as to free and obligatory health and education.

Process of Corruption

There are various ways in which corruption can occur—

Bribery | This is when someone in a position of power accepts or solicits a bribe in exchange for a favour.

Embezzlement | This is when someone entrusted with money or property illegally appropriates it for their own use.

Influence Peddling | This is when someone uses their position of power to influence decisions made by others for personal gain.

Nepotism | This is when someone gives favours to family or friends without regard for merit.

Patronage | This is when someone uses their position of power to appoint people to positions or give them benefits based on loyalty rather than capability.

The acceptance of corruption as a frequent occurrence in Indian society explains its high prevalence. Today, there are fewer voices speaking out against corruption than ever before, and the public accepts corruption as normal and inescapable.

A collaboration between two parties is essentially what constitutes corruption, but more often than not, one side may be coerced into the agreement by a second party.

There is no one answer to the question of how to stop corruption. But there are a number of things that can be done to help reduce it.

One way to stop corruption is to increase transparency and accountability. This can be done by requiring public officials to declare their assets and income, and making this information available to the public. There should also be laws against conflicts of interest, and mechanisms in place for reporting and investigating corruption.

Another way to reduce corruption is to improve governance and management. This includes things like increasing institutional capacity, improving coordination between different agencies, and streamlining procedures. It also means making sure there are effective checks and balances, so that no one person or group has too much power.

Ultimately, stopping corruption requires both individual action and collective effort. Each person needs to do their part to uphold integrity and fight against bribery and fraud. But it will also take the concerted action of governments, businesses, civil society groups, and others working together to make real progress.

Corruption is a major problem in many societies. It can have many negative impacts on society, including economic development, social stability, and political stability.

Corruption can lead to economic stagnation by diverting resources away from productive investments and into the pockets of corrupt officials. This can reduce productivity and growth, as well as discourage foreign investment. In addition, corruption can increase the cost of doing business, as firms must pay bribes to secure contracts or regulatory approvals. This raises the cost of goods and services, making them less affordable for consumers.

Corruption can also undermine social stability by eroding trust in government and institutions. This can lead to social unrest and even violence. In addition, corruption can fuel crime by providing opportunities for criminal networks to flourish.

Finally, corruption can jeopardise political stability by weakening faith in democracy and rule of law. This can lead to authoritarianism or even revolution.

There are many factors responsible for corruption. Some of the important ones are listed below:

Lack Of Transparency And Accountability | When there is lack of transparency and accountability in an organisation, it provides scope for corrupt practices. For example, if there is no clarity on how the funds are being utilised, it becomes easy for the officials to misuse them.

Lack Of Adequate Checks And Balances | In any system, it is important to have adequate checks and balances in place to prevent abuse of power. However, if these checks and balances are weak or absent, it can lead to corruption.

Greed | Greed is a major factor responsible for corruption. When people are greedy, they tend to resort to corrupt practices in order to get what they want.

Lack Of Ethical Values | When people do not have strong ethical values, they are more likely to engage in corrupt practices. Ethical values instil a sense of right and wrong in people and help them refrain from indulging in activities that are unethical or illegal.

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A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

Conservation Architect

A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monuments and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

Structural Engineer

A Structural Engineer designs buildings, bridges, and other related structures. He or she analyzes the structures and makes sure the structures are strong enough to be used by the people. A career as a Structural Engineer requires working in the construction process. It comes under the civil engineering discipline. A Structure Engineer creates structural models with the help of computer-aided design software. 

Highway Engineer

Highway Engineer Job Description:  A Highway Engineer is a civil engineer who specialises in planning and building thousands of miles of roads that support connectivity and allow transportation across the country. He or she ensures that traffic management schemes are effectively planned concerning economic sustainability and successful implementation.

Field Surveyor

Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Veterinary Doctor

Speech therapist, gynaecologist.

Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 


The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

Are you searching for an ‘Anatomist job description’? An Anatomist is a research professional who applies the laws of biological science to determine the ability of bodies of various living organisms including animals and humans to regenerate the damaged or destroyed organs. If you want to know what does an anatomist do, then read the entire article, where we will answer all your questions.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


The word “choreography" actually comes from Greek words that mean “dance writing." Individuals who opt for a career as a choreographer create and direct original dances, in addition to developing interpretations of existing dances. A Choreographer dances and utilises his or her creativity in other aspects of dance performance. For example, he or she may work with the music director to select music or collaborate with other famous choreographers to enhance such performance elements as lighting, costume and set design.

Social Media Manager

A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.


Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Individuals who opt for a career as a reporter may often be at work on national holidays and festivities. He or she pitches various story ideas and covers news stories in risky situations. Students can pursue a BMC (Bachelor of Mass Communication) , B.M.M. (Bachelor of Mass Media) , or  MAJMC (MA in Journalism and Mass Communication) to become a reporter. While we sit at home reporters travel to locations to collect information that carries a news value.  

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager

A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans. 

Process Development Engineer

The Process Development Engineers design, implement, manufacture, mine, and other production systems using technical knowledge and expertise in the industry. They use computer modeling software to test technologies and machinery. An individual who is opting career as Process Development Engineer is responsible for developing cost-effective and efficient processes. They also monitor the production process and ensure it functions smoothly and efficiently.

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

ITSM Manager

Automation test engineer.

An Automation Test Engineer job involves executing automated test scripts. He or she identifies the project’s problems and troubleshoots them. The role involves documenting the defect using management tools. He or she works with the application team in order to resolve any issues arising during the testing process. 

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Corruption Essay in English | 1100 Words

We shall make headings in this English Essay on Corruption for better understanding. Please avoid making headings in your formal essays .


Any illegal act, fraudulent conduct, or dishonest way of acquiring benefits or private gains is called corruption.

Corruption is a global phenomenon, but it is more prevalent in third-world countries. It exists in various forms, i.e. bribery, extortion, nepotism, patronage, embezzlement, etc. Usually, corruption is done for financial gain. Mostly, people in power do corruption by exploiting their position of authority.

There are numerous factors that translate into corruption. These factors include poverty, lust for money, lack of morality and ethics, political influences, poor checks, and balances, etc. A society with rampant corruption can never make any progress. Corruption wreaks multiple havoc on society. It leads to unemployment, poverty, the drain of talent, anxiety, etc.

Thus, owing to the dire consequences of corruption, a state must make uprooting corruption its priority. Robust laws and policies can help in this regard.

Causes of Corruption

There are multiple causes of corruption. Below are some prominent causes:

Poverty is a major cause of corruption. When people fail to earn enough money to survive, they resort to corruption.

Usually, people with low incomes and tough job routines commit corruption to gain money. For example, in Pakistan, the police department is notorious for taking bribes and corruption. One main reason is the low salaries of lower-rank police officers.

Thus, they perforce acquire money through illegal ways. Similarly, traffic police officials often prefer to accept bribes as an alternative to challan. Such illegal practices have tarnished the image of the police department. Moreover, people have lost trust in the police.

Corruption in the police department was just one instance. It actually exists in every tier of society. A poor fruit vendor tries to sell rotten fruit for maximum benefit. A shopkeeper sells 2 nd class products but charges them as 1 st class products. A clerk in any department takes money to move files. At petrol pumps, employees are often found doing fraud in filling fuel tanks. In all these examples of corruption, one prominent factor is poverty.

Lust for Wealth

The second prominent reason for corruption is the lust for money. Many people in higher positions also commit corruption which is labeled as a white-collar crime.

White-collar crime refers to a financially motivated, nonviolent crime committed by businesses and government professionals. These people are not poor, but their love for money and wealth makes them commit corruption. Many government officials, bureaucrats, and politicians do corruption to stash more and more wealth.

For example, the Supreme Court of Pakistan has disqualified ex-Premier Nawaz Sharif due to his corruption. This form of corruption is widespread in countries with a lack of rule of law.

Lack of Morality

The third factor behind corruption is the lack of morality. Declining moral values is the root cause of corruption in any society.

Not all poor people are corrupt because they have a moral sense. They can differentiate legal ways of obtaining money from illegal ways. But those who commit corruption are morally corrupt. Their love and lust for wealth have made them blind.

As discussed earlier, poverty can be a reason for corruption but that is too conditioned by a lack of morality. A poor person can be honest. Similarly, a rich person can be corrupt. Thus moral values and ethics play a greater role.

Political Influence

Another major reason for corruption can be external pressure or political influence. Such sort of corruption is done during the selection of candidates for limited seats.

Those with a strong political background successfully influence the selection process and grab seats; while the deserving candidates remain deprived. It leads to a lack of merit and a drain of real talent from the country. Furthermore, such corruption further promotes corruption and the chain goes on.

Lack of Rule of Law

Last but not least, the lack of rule of law and poor checks and balances are also major reasons behind rampant corruption in a country.

According to the ‘Classical School in Criminology’, strict punishments always deter individuals from committing crimes. Societies where punishments are missing always suffer from crimes.

Without a robust judicial system in place, no country can uproot corruption. Thus, across-the-board accountability can only deter and uproot corruption or white-collar crimes from the country.

Impacts of Corruption on Society

Having discussed a few major factors behind corruption, it is pertinent to shed light on the impacts of widespread corruption on a country.

A major impact of corruption is the widening gap between rich and poor. Corruption stops the flow of wealth from rich to poor. Consequently, the rich are getting richer while the poor are becoming poorer.

Moreover, corruption results in anxiety among individuals which leads to brain drain. When talented and deserving people fail to get an allocation in their desired seats, they leave the country in search of better opportunities.

Furthermore, corruption spoils the image of the country at the global level. It further leads to a decline in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), because investors do not invest in countries with high corruption rates.

Apart from it, when corruption exists at higher echelons of society i.e. in the judiciary and executive institutions, it automatically permeates to the lower levels making the entire society corrupt.

Also, corruption erodes the trust of the public in institutions.

Lastly, corruption leads to the wastage of taxes and overall economic downfall.

Suggestions to Curb Corruption

Given the dire consequences of corruption, a state must take pragmatic measures to nip this evil.

Corruption can be curbed by making stringent laws and awarding punishments to corrupt people. There should be across-the-board accountability in a country. From Prime Minister to the clerk, everyone should be punished in the court of law for corruption.

A system of checks and balances should be instituted to stop embezzlement and money laundering.

Furthermore, the government should promote meritocracy. Jobs must be awarded on pure merit.

Moreover, the government should increase the salaries of employees. Also, the government must take pragmatic steps to eliminate poverty.

In addition, special attention should be laid on inculcating moral values and ethics in students. An education system devoid of it is good for nothing.

Last but not least, whistleblowing is one of the most effective ways to detect and prevent corruption and other malpractice. It must be instituted in all the departments at every level.

In a nutshell, corruption hollows out society as termites do to wood.

Currently, most developing countries are at the top of the corruption index. This is the reason why they are unable to make any socioeconomic progress.

In order to curb corruption, a state must make stringent laws and policies. It must take all the above-mentioned steps in letter and spirit to fight corruption. Once successful, a state can be able to stand among the comity of the most developed nations.

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Corruption Essay

Corruption is an act of indulging in illegal practices in order to gain monetary or material benefits. Corruption compromises the genuine rights of someone else and is a huge deterrent to the growth of the nation. It also results in poverty, unemployment and lowers the quality of life of its people.

Short and Long Essay on Corruption in English

Some short and long essays on Corruption in different words limit are given here to help students of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12.

Corruption Essay 10 Lines (100 – 150 Words)

1) Corruption is the illegal and dishonest practice performed by a person or organization.

2) It refers to the illegal use of power and position to earn personal profit.

3) Corruption is harmful to the development of the country.

4) Corruption can lead to more unemployment and poverty, thus degrading the quality of life.

5) The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) has been constituted to monitor corruption.

6) Corruption is a part of both government and non-government sectors.

7) Corruption majorly affects the life of common people.

8) Today corruption can be found in the department of Education, healthcare, etc.

9) Bribery, graft, and embezzlement are the common methods of corruption.

10) Whistle Blowers Protection Act (2011), Prevention of Corruption Act (1988), etc have been passed by the Government to reduce corruption.

Essay 1 (250 Words) – Measures to Control Corruption


Corruption refers to a situation when to get a particular job that you rightfully deserve, done only by offering a favor to the person authorized for the act. Unfortunately, corruption is so prevalent that it is today being accepted by the people as an unavoidable truth.

Corruption Control Measures

There are several measures to control corruption, most of them affected by the government and law enforcement agencies. Some of the significant measures taken by the Government of India to check corruption are listed below-

  • Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988

This Act aims to check corruption in government agencies and also the public sector businesses throughout India. It proposes the appointment of special judges and speedy trials among other measures.

  • The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013

Commonly known as the Lokpal Act, this Act proposes the appointment of a Lokpal to inquire into corruption allegations against important politicians and senior government officials such as the Prime Minister, Ministers of Cabinet, Members of Parliament, Chief Secretaries, Cabinet Secretaries, etc.

  • Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2011

This Act proposes to inquire about alleged wrongdoings in government departments, offices, and projects and penalize the corrupt officials and office-bearers. It also seeks to protect the person who exposes the corruption, in this case referred to as the ‘whistle blower’.

  • Central Vigilance Commission

Central Vigilance Commission is a governmental body instituted in 1964 with the objective of addressing corruption in the government and concern departments. It functions as an autonomous body free from the control of any executive body.

There are several agencies established for the sole purpose of controlling corruption, yet the most potent weapon to fight corruption is a collective effort by the people to stop and raise voice against corrupt practices.

Essay 2 (400 Words) – Factors of Corruption

Corruption is a term used to describe illegal practices of favoritism and financial fraud, undertaken primarily with the objective of personal gains. Corruption is the most glaring problem that degrades the quality of life and also the trust of the public in the government machinery.

Factors Fuelling Corruption

There are several factors that act to promote corruption in some way or the other. Some of the most significant of such factors are described below.

  • General Greed

This is primarily the most important factor responsible for corruption. Human beings are greedy about their possessions, money, and assets. For this very basic reason, people with authority in certain matters, tend to misuse the power to increase their own personal wealth. To satisfy their individual greed, several people may also conceive a devious plan together.

  • Degrading Moral Values

We are living in a world that has been over-saturated with the competition. Everyone, not only wants to perform better than others but also to be richer and have more assets. This desire to illogically compete probably emerges from shallow moral values. A child, who has always been told that success means cars, houses, and bank balance, will naturally tend to prefer corrupt practices to be successful and to be above others.

  • Underpayment

Often the employers don’t pay the employees enough to live a decent life with the justifiable standard of living. Most of the time employees are paid just enough to meet their daily requirement of food. The total amount paid to the employees is too low as compared to the company’s turnover, due to their collective effort. This in appropriation and unjust remuneration causes the employees to look for corrupt means to gain wealth or little more money at the least.

  • Slack Laws and Poor Implementation

Laws are made to dissuade people from involving in illegal practices and to instill fear of punishment on them. What if the people find out loopholes in the system and using them to escape penalization? This is exactly what’s happening in case of corruption. First of all, nobody pays any heed to such practices, even the affected take it as a matter of fact. In case the corruption goes reported, there are several loose knots in the inquiry system to help the accused. Free of corruption charges despite being guilty only make the accused emerged more corrupt and confident.

Whatever the causes of corruption maybe, finally it affects the overall progress of the nation and the general well being of its people. To deal with corruption effectively, we must take cognizance of the factors that fuel it.

Corruption Essay

Essay 3 (500 – 600 Words) – Methods and Types of Corruption

Corruption refers to a dishonest act by an individual or a group, which compromises the rightful privileges of others. Corruption degrades the economic and infrastructural growth of a country and is by far the most potential hindrance to the well being of its people.

Methods of Corruption

There are two very common methods of corruption – bribery, embezzlement, and graft.

  • Money, gifts and other benefits offered in exchange for an undue favor is termed as a bribe and the act on a whole is called ‘bribery’.
  • There is a wide range of favors that could be offered as a bribe. For example, money, land, loans, company shares, employment, house, car, jewelry, etc.
  • Embezzlement, on the other hand, is an act of misusing money or assets that the beholder is entrusted with. It is a kind of financial fraud undertaken by the individuals or groups of people who have been entrusted with the money/asset.

Graft is a kind of political corruption. The term is widely used in America to refer to misuse of the fund intended to the public, for personal benefits.

Types/Examples of Corruption

Below given are some of the examples of corruption in various departments/sectors related to our everyday life.

  • Corruption in Public Sector

This includes corruption within the agencies responsible to implement public welfare and other development schemes by the government. This is by far the most prevalent type of corruption that affects the interests of a large number of general populations.

  • Judicial Corruption

Judicial corruption refers to an act of misconduct by the judges, wherein they give a biased judgment, ignoring facts and evidence, in exchange for personal gains offered.

  • Corruption in Education

Since the last couple of decades, the education department in some of the states of India was considered as the most corrupt department. The reasons to substantiate this claim were many – unfair and illegal appointments of teachers and staff, manipulation of results/grades, embezzlement of funds for students’ welfare schemes, etc. Corruption in education is also responsible for a rise in illiteracy and school dropout rates, mainly in the remote rural locations of the country.

  • Corruption in Policing

Police have the responsibility of upholding the law and order situation and ensuring that every individual gets equal right to justice as enshrined in the constitution. Police are duty-bound and morally obliged to not discriminate against people on the basis of caste, creed, religion, age, gender or other divisions. Police largely function in a way that it should; though, sometimes serious charges of favoritism are leveled against its officers. It is very necessary to make the policing system independent from political interferences if it has to function effectively and in an unbiased way.

  • Corruption in Healthcare

The healthcare system is an essential sector that impacts the lives of millions of common citizens. A corruption-free healthcare system only ensures that the benefits of healthcare reach the poorest of the poor and no one remains without medical help in case of any eventuality. Unfortunately, it is not all that good as it sounds. This sector has been a victim of fund embezzlement, wherein, funds allotted for infrastructure and facilities for the patients are siphoned off by corrupt officials, doctors and other office bearers for personal gains. Also, not all the free medicine and other facilities reach to the beneficiary at the ground level.

Corruption is the most potential impediment in the growth of a nation and the welfare of its people. It is not limited only to a specific sector and covers a wide range of offices, departments, sectors, etc. It could only be dealt with effectively by making people aware of its effects and also by implementing strict anti-corruption laws.

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions on Corruption

Ans . Corruption means showing dishonest conduct by people who are sitting in a powerful position.

Ans . Yes, it is a crime and it slows down the development of the society and nation.

Ans . South Sudan is stated as the most corrupt country in the world.

Ans . Denmark is the country in the world that has the least corruption.

Ans . It is an Act passed by the government of India in 1988 to minimize corruption in government offices and public sector businesses.

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TikTok Star Is Killed in Third Death of Social Media Influencer in Iraq

The shooting of Ghufran Mahdi Sawadi, known online as Um Fahad, comes amid tightening laws and increasingly conservative attitudes in the country.

A smiling woman wearing a green coat and red head scarf.

By Alissa J. Rubin

Reporting from Baghdad.

It took less than 46 seconds for the helmeted assassin to pull over his motorcycle, walk to the driver’s side of the S.U.V., yank open the door and fire his handgun four times, killing one of Iraq’s most prominent TikTok personalities, a 30-year-old woman whose name on social media was Um Fahad.

The security camera footage of the killing in front of a Baghdad home on Friday evening is startlingly explicit but sheds little light on either the killer’s identity or the reason Um Fahad was targeted. The Iraqi Interior Ministry, which released the video, said it had formed a committee to investigate her death.

The victim, whose real name was Ghufran Mahdi Sawadi, had become popular on social media sites, especially TikTok and Instagram , where her videos showed her wearing tight or revealing clothing, or singing and cuddling her young son. They won her some 460,000 followers, but also drew the ire of conservatives in Iraqi society and in the government.

At one point, officials ordered Ms. Sawadi jailed for 90 days, reprimanding her for a post that showed her dancing at her 6-year old son’s birthday party.

At her sparsely attended funeral, her brother, Ameer Mehdi Sawadi, said he had little faith that her killer would be caught.

“I can name many innocents who have been killed,” Mr. Sawadi said. “Have you heard anything about their case? Did they find the killer? No.”

Given his sister’s prominence, the government might be expected to take action, but no official has come to see him since her death, he said.

“No one sat down with me and interrogated me,” Mr. Sawadi said. “I only told them that she was my sister, and I gave the authorities my name, and that’s it.”

Ms. Sawadi’s killing was the third in less than a year in Iraq of a young social media personality.

The killings appear to have been an outgrowth of an Iraqi clampdown on criticism of the government and on the public display of behaviors regarded as secular and Western, according to human rights groups .

The stricter social media regulations came in the wake of youth uprisings that began in 2019 and challenged corruption in the Iraqi government and the influence of Iran. Today, the Iraqi government is dominated by parties with links to Iran, and many have a strong religious orientation.

The most recent addition to the list of prohibited activities was contained in legislation approved by the Parliament over the weekend. The country’s anti-prostitution law now targets gay, bisexual and transgender Iraqis, making it a crime to have homosexual relations, punishable by 10 to 15 years in prison. Assisting in gender transition treatment would also be a crime.

The Parliament’s acting speaker, Mohsen al-Mandalawi, described the law as “a necessary step to protect the value structure of society, and in the higher interest of protecting our children from calls to immorality and homosexuality that are now invading countries.”

The new law was sharply criticized by Foreign Minister David Cameron of Britain and by a spokesman for the U.S. State Department, Matthew Miller, who said that “limiting the rights of certain individuals in a society undermines the rights of all.”

Mr. Miller also said that the newly amended law could be used “to hamper free speech and expression and inhibit the operations of NGOs across Iraq.”

Ms. Sawadi was jailed after running afoul of an expanded definition of laws in the Iraqi penal code aimed at speech viewed as harming public order and morality.

In 2023, the Interior Ministry issued new regulations restricting social media content deemed “indecent” or “immoral.” Ms. Sawadi was one of a handful of social media influencers tried and sentenced for violating the regulations. She told The New York Times then that she could not understand what she was being punished for.

“The judge asked me why I was dancing and showing part of my breast,” she said.

In September, in a killing that was also caught on a surveillance camera, an assassin using a gun with a silencer shot another TikTok personality, Noor Alsaffar, 23, a man who posted videos of himself wearing women’s clothes and makeup. The killer has not been caught.

And about two months ago, a transgender social media personality known as Simsim was stabbed to death in Diwaniyah, a city in southern Iraq. A suspect has been arrested in that case and remains in custody.

Women’s rights activists and researchers say they are distressed at the impunity and the apparent lack of interest by the police and government leaders in women’s sense of safety.

“The streets of Baghdad are filled with surveillance cameras, and it is not difficult to find the criminals,” said Fatin al-Hilfi, a former member of Iraq’s Human Rights Commission. “In neighboring countries, the police can find the criminals within hours.”

Ms. al-Hilfi said she worried that critics of Ms. Sawadi were too ready to move on and reluctant to see the larger implications if her death goes unsolved.

“How can it be that here it is so easy to commit such an attack?” she asked.

Falih Hassan and Jaafar Thamer contributed reporting.

Alissa J. Rubin covers climate change and conflict in the Middle East. She previously reported for more than a decade from Baghdad and Kabul, Afghanistan, and was the Paris bureau chief. More about Alissa J. Rubin


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