Home » What is a Hypothesis – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

## What is a Hypothesis – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

Definition:

Hypothesis is an educated guess or proposed explanation for a phenomenon, based on some initial observations or data. It is a tentative statement that can be tested and potentially proven or disproven through further investigation and experimentation.

Hypothesis is often used in scientific research to guide the design of experiments and the collection and analysis of data. It is an essential element of the scientific method, as it allows researchers to make predictions about the outcome of their experiments and to test those predictions to determine their accuracy.

## Types of Hypothesis

Types of Hypothesis are as follows:

## Research Hypothesis

A research hypothesis is a statement that predicts a relationship between variables. It is usually formulated as a specific statement that can be tested through research, and it is often used in scientific research to guide the design of experiments.

## Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is a statement that assumes there is no significant difference or relationship between variables. It is often used as a starting point for testing the research hypothesis, and if the results of the study reject the null hypothesis, it suggests that there is a significant difference or relationship between variables.

## Alternative Hypothesis

An alternative hypothesis is a statement that assumes there is a significant difference or relationship between variables. It is often used as an alternative to the null hypothesis and is tested against the null hypothesis to determine which statement is more accurate.

## Directional Hypothesis

A directional hypothesis is a statement that predicts the direction of the relationship between variables. For example, a researcher might predict that increasing the amount of exercise will result in a decrease in body weight.

## Non-directional Hypothesis

A non-directional hypothesis is a statement that predicts the relationship between variables but does not specify the direction. For example, a researcher might predict that there is a relationship between the amount of exercise and body weight, but they do not specify whether increasing or decreasing exercise will affect body weight.

## Statistical Hypothesis

A statistical hypothesis is a statement that assumes a particular statistical model or distribution for the data. It is often used in statistical analysis to test the significance of a particular result.

## Composite Hypothesis

A composite hypothesis is a statement that assumes more than one condition or outcome. It can be divided into several sub-hypotheses, each of which represents a different possible outcome.

## Empirical Hypothesis

An empirical hypothesis is a statement that is based on observed phenomena or data. It is often used in scientific research to develop theories or models that explain the observed phenomena.

## Simple Hypothesis

A simple hypothesis is a statement that assumes only one outcome or condition. It is often used in scientific research to test a single variable or factor.

## Complex Hypothesis

A complex hypothesis is a statement that assumes multiple outcomes or conditions. It is often used in scientific research to test the effects of multiple variables or factors on a particular outcome.

## Applications of Hypothesis

Hypotheses are used in various fields to guide research and make predictions about the outcomes of experiments or observations. Here are some examples of how hypotheses are applied in different fields:

• Science : In scientific research, hypotheses are used to test the validity of theories and models that explain natural phenomena. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a particular variable on a natural system, such as the effects of climate change on an ecosystem.
• Medicine : In medical research, hypotheses are used to test the effectiveness of treatments and therapies for specific conditions. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a new drug on a particular disease.
• Psychology : In psychology, hypotheses are used to test theories and models of human behavior and cognition. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a particular stimulus on the brain or behavior.
• Sociology : In sociology, hypotheses are used to test theories and models of social phenomena, such as the effects of social structures or institutions on human behavior. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of income inequality on crime rates.
• Business : In business research, hypotheses are used to test the validity of theories and models that explain business phenomena, such as consumer behavior or market trends. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a new marketing campaign on consumer buying behavior.
• Engineering : In engineering, hypotheses are used to test the effectiveness of new technologies or designs. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the efficiency of a new solar panel design.

## How to write a Hypothesis

Here are the steps to follow when writing a hypothesis:

## Identify the Research Question

The first step is to identify the research question that you want to answer through your study. This question should be clear, specific, and focused. It should be something that can be investigated empirically and that has some relevance or significance in the field.

## Conduct a Literature Review

Before writing your hypothesis, it’s essential to conduct a thorough literature review to understand what is already known about the topic. This will help you to identify the research gap and formulate a hypothesis that builds on existing knowledge.

## Determine the Variables

The next step is to identify the variables involved in the research question. A variable is any characteristic or factor that can vary or change. There are two types of variables: independent and dependent. The independent variable is the one that is manipulated or changed by the researcher, while the dependent variable is the one that is measured or observed as a result of the independent variable.

## Formulate the Hypothesis

Based on the research question and the variables involved, you can now formulate your hypothesis. A hypothesis should be a clear and concise statement that predicts the relationship between the variables. It should be testable through empirical research and based on existing theory or evidence.

## Write the Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is the opposite of the alternative hypothesis, which is the hypothesis that you are testing. The null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference or relationship between the variables. It is important to write the null hypothesis because it allows you to compare your results with what would be expected by chance.

## Refine the Hypothesis

After formulating the hypothesis, it’s important to refine it and make it more precise. This may involve clarifying the variables, specifying the direction of the relationship, or making the hypothesis more testable.

## Examples of Hypothesis

Here are a few examples of hypotheses in different fields:

• Psychology : “Increased exposure to violent video games leads to increased aggressive behavior in adolescents.”
• Biology : “Higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will lead to increased plant growth.”
• Sociology : “Individuals who grow up in households with higher socioeconomic status will have higher levels of education and income as adults.”
• Education : “Implementing a new teaching method will result in higher student achievement scores.”
• Marketing : “Customers who receive a personalized email will be more likely to make a purchase than those who receive a generic email.”
• Physics : “An increase in temperature will cause an increase in the volume of a gas, assuming all other variables remain constant.”
• Medicine : “Consuming a diet high in saturated fats will increase the risk of developing heart disease.”

## Purpose of Hypothesis

The purpose of a hypothesis is to provide a testable explanation for an observed phenomenon or a prediction of a future outcome based on existing knowledge or theories. A hypothesis is an essential part of the scientific method and helps to guide the research process by providing a clear focus for investigation. It enables scientists to design experiments or studies to gather evidence and data that can support or refute the proposed explanation or prediction.

The formulation of a hypothesis is based on existing knowledge, observations, and theories, and it should be specific, testable, and falsifiable. A specific hypothesis helps to define the research question, which is important in the research process as it guides the selection of an appropriate research design and methodology. Testability of the hypothesis means that it can be proven or disproven through empirical data collection and analysis. Falsifiability means that the hypothesis should be formulated in such a way that it can be proven wrong if it is incorrect.

In addition to guiding the research process, the testing of hypotheses can lead to new discoveries and advancements in scientific knowledge. When a hypothesis is supported by the data, it can be used to develop new theories or models to explain the observed phenomenon. When a hypothesis is not supported by the data, it can help to refine existing theories or prompt the development of new hypotheses to explain the phenomenon.

## When to use Hypothesis

Here are some common situations in which hypotheses are used:

• In scientific research , hypotheses are used to guide the design of experiments and to help researchers make predictions about the outcomes of those experiments.
• In social science research , hypotheses are used to test theories about human behavior, social relationships, and other phenomena.
• I n business , hypotheses can be used to guide decisions about marketing, product development, and other areas. For example, a hypothesis might be that a new product will sell well in a particular market, and this hypothesis can be tested through market research.

## Characteristics of Hypothesis

Here are some common characteristics of a hypothesis:

• Testable : A hypothesis must be able to be tested through observation or experimentation. This means that it must be possible to collect data that will either support or refute the hypothesis.
• Falsifiable : A hypothesis must be able to be proven false if it is not supported by the data. If a hypothesis cannot be falsified, then it is not a scientific hypothesis.
• Clear and concise : A hypothesis should be stated in a clear and concise manner so that it can be easily understood and tested.
• Based on existing knowledge : A hypothesis should be based on existing knowledge and research in the field. It should not be based on personal beliefs or opinions.
• Specific : A hypothesis should be specific in terms of the variables being tested and the predicted outcome. This will help to ensure that the research is focused and well-designed.
• Tentative: A hypothesis is a tentative statement or assumption that requires further testing and evidence to be confirmed or refuted. It is not a final conclusion or assertion.
• Relevant : A hypothesis should be relevant to the research question or problem being studied. It should address a gap in knowledge or provide a new perspective on the issue.

Hypotheses have several advantages in scientific research and experimentation:

• Guides research: A hypothesis provides a clear and specific direction for research. It helps to focus the research question, select appropriate methods and variables, and interpret the results.
• Predictive powe r: A hypothesis makes predictions about the outcome of research, which can be tested through experimentation. This allows researchers to evaluate the validity of the hypothesis and make new discoveries.
• Facilitates communication: A hypothesis provides a common language and framework for scientists to communicate with one another about their research. This helps to facilitate the exchange of ideas and promotes collaboration.
• Efficient use of resources: A hypothesis helps researchers to use their time, resources, and funding efficiently by directing them towards specific research questions and methods that are most likely to yield results.
• Provides a basis for further research: A hypothesis that is supported by data provides a basis for further research and exploration. It can lead to new hypotheses, theories, and discoveries.
• Increases objectivity: A hypothesis can help to increase objectivity in research by providing a clear and specific framework for testing and interpreting results. This can reduce bias and increase the reliability of research findings.

## Limitations of Hypothesis

Some Limitations of the Hypothesis are as follows:

• Limited to observable phenomena: Hypotheses are limited to observable phenomena and cannot account for unobservable or intangible factors. This means that some research questions may not be amenable to hypothesis testing.
• May be inaccurate or incomplete: Hypotheses are based on existing knowledge and research, which may be incomplete or inaccurate. This can lead to flawed hypotheses and erroneous conclusions.
• May be biased: Hypotheses may be biased by the researcher’s own beliefs, values, or assumptions. This can lead to selective interpretation of data and a lack of objectivity in research.
• Cannot prove causation: A hypothesis can only show a correlation between variables, but it cannot prove causation. This requires further experimentation and analysis.
• Limited to specific contexts: Hypotheses are limited to specific contexts and may not be generalizable to other situations or populations. This means that results may not be applicable in other contexts or may require further testing.
• May be affected by chance : Hypotheses may be affected by chance or random variation, which can obscure or distort the true relationship between variables.

## Research Approach – Types Methods and Examples

• Bipolar Disorder
• Therapy Center
• When To See a Therapist
• Types of Therapy
• Best Online Therapy
• Best Couples Therapy
• Best Family Therapy
• Managing Stress
• Sleep and Dreaming
• Understanding Emotions
• Self-Improvement
• Healthy Relationships
• Student Resources
• Personality Types
• Guided Meditations
• Verywell Mind Insights
• 2024 Verywell Mind 25
• Mental Health in the Classroom
• Editorial Process
• Meet Our Review Board
• Crisis Support

## How to Write a Great Hypothesis

Hypothesis Definition, Format, Examples, and Tips

Verywell / Alex Dos Diaz

• The Scientific Method

## Hypothesis Format

Falsifiability of a hypothesis.

• Operationalization

## Hypothesis Types

Hypotheses examples.

• Collecting Data

A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. It is a preliminary answer to your question that helps guide the research process.

Consider a study designed to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance. The hypothesis might be: "This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleep-deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who are not sleep-deprived."

## At a Glance

A hypothesis is crucial to scientific research because it offers a clear direction for what the researchers are looking to find. This allows them to design experiments to test their predictions and add to our scientific knowledge about the world. This article explores how a hypothesis is used in psychology research, how to write a good hypothesis, and the different types of hypotheses you might use.

## The Hypothesis in the Scientific Method

In the scientific method , whether it involves research in psychology, biology, or some other area, a hypothesis represents what the researchers think will happen in an experiment. The scientific method involves the following steps:

• Forming a question
• Performing background research
• Creating a hypothesis
• Designing an experiment
• Collecting data
• Analyzing the results
• Drawing conclusions
• Communicating the results

The hypothesis is a prediction, but it involves more than a guess. Most of the time, the hypothesis begins with a question which is then explored through background research. At this point, researchers then begin to develop a testable hypothesis.

Unless you are creating an exploratory study, your hypothesis should always explain what you  expect  to happen.

In a study exploring the effects of a particular drug, the hypothesis might be that researchers expect the drug to have some type of effect on the symptoms of a specific illness. In psychology, the hypothesis might focus on how a certain aspect of the environment might influence a particular behavior.

Remember, a hypothesis does not have to be correct. While the hypothesis predicts what the researchers expect to see, the goal of the research is to determine whether this guess is right or wrong. When conducting an experiment, researchers might explore numerous factors to determine which ones might contribute to the ultimate outcome.

In many cases, researchers may find that the results of an experiment  do not  support the original hypothesis. When writing up these results, the researchers might suggest other options that should be explored in future studies.

In many cases, researchers might draw a hypothesis from a specific theory or build on previous research. For example, prior research has shown that stress can impact the immune system. So a researcher might hypothesize: "People with high-stress levels will be more likely to contract a common cold after being exposed to the virus than people who have low-stress levels."

In other instances, researchers might look at commonly held beliefs or folk wisdom. "Birds of a feather flock together" is one example of folk adage that a psychologist might try to investigate. The researcher might pose a specific hypothesis that "People tend to select romantic partners who are similar to them in interests and educational level."

## Elements of a Good Hypothesis

So how do you write a good hypothesis? When trying to come up with a hypothesis for your research or experiments, ask yourself the following questions:

• Can your hypothesis be tested?
• Does your hypothesis include independent and dependent variables?

Before you come up with a specific hypothesis, spend some time doing background research. Once you have completed a literature review, start thinking about potential questions you still have. Pay attention to the discussion section in the  journal articles you read . Many authors will suggest questions that still need to be explored.

## How to Formulate a Good Hypothesis

To form a hypothesis, you should take these steps:

• Collect as many observations about a topic or problem as you can.
• Evaluate these observations and look for possible causes of the problem.
• Create a list of possible explanations that you might want to explore.
• After you have developed some possible hypotheses, think of ways that you could confirm or disprove each hypothesis through experimentation. This is known as falsifiability.

In the scientific method ,  falsifiability is an important part of any valid hypothesis. In order to test a claim scientifically, it must be possible that the claim could be proven false.

Students sometimes confuse the idea of falsifiability with the idea that it means that something is false, which is not the case. What falsifiability means is that  if  something was false, then it is possible to demonstrate that it is false.

One of the hallmarks of pseudoscience is that it makes claims that cannot be refuted or proven false.

## The Importance of Operational Definitions

A variable is a factor or element that can be changed and manipulated in ways that are observable and measurable. However, the researcher must also define how the variable will be manipulated and measured in the study.

Operational definitions are specific definitions for all relevant factors in a study. This process helps make vague or ambiguous concepts detailed and measurable.

For example, a researcher might operationally define the variable " test anxiety " as the results of a self-report measure of anxiety experienced during an exam. A "study habits" variable might be defined by the amount of studying that actually occurs as measured by time.

These precise descriptions are important because many things can be measured in various ways. Clearly defining these variables and how they are measured helps ensure that other researchers can replicate your results.

## Replicability

One of the basic principles of any type of scientific research is that the results must be replicable.

Replication means repeating an experiment in the same way to produce the same results. By clearly detailing the specifics of how the variables were measured and manipulated, other researchers can better understand the results and repeat the study if needed.

Some variables are more difficult than others to define. For example, how would you operationally define a variable such as aggression ? For obvious ethical reasons, researchers cannot create a situation in which a person behaves aggressively toward others.

To measure this variable, the researcher must devise a measurement that assesses aggressive behavior without harming others. The researcher might utilize a simulated task to measure aggressiveness in this situation.

## Hypothesis Checklist

• Does your hypothesis focus on something that you can actually test?
• Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
• Can you manipulate the variables?
• Can your hypothesis be tested without violating ethical standards?

The hypothesis you use will depend on what you are investigating and hoping to find. Some of the main types of hypotheses that you might use include:

• Simple hypothesis : This type of hypothesis suggests there is a relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable.
• Complex hypothesis : This type suggests a relationship between three or more variables, such as two independent and dependent variables.
• Null hypothesis : This hypothesis suggests no relationship exists between two or more variables.
• Alternative hypothesis : This hypothesis states the opposite of the null hypothesis.
• Statistical hypothesis : This hypothesis uses statistical analysis to evaluate a representative population sample and then generalizes the findings to the larger group.
• Logical hypothesis : This hypothesis assumes a relationship between variables without collecting data or evidence.

A hypothesis often follows a basic format of "If {this happens} then {this will happen}." One way to structure your hypothesis is to describe what will happen to the  dependent variable  if you change the  independent variable .

The basic format might be: "If {these changes are made to a certain independent variable}, then we will observe {a change in a specific dependent variable}."

## A few examples of simple hypotheses:

• "Students who eat breakfast will perform better on a math exam than students who do not eat breakfast."
• "Students who experience test anxiety before an English exam will get lower scores than students who do not experience test anxiety."​
• "Motorists who talk on the phone while driving will be more likely to make errors on a driving course than those who do not talk on the phone."

## Examples of a complex hypothesis include:

• "People with high-sugar diets and sedentary activity levels are more likely to develop depression."
• "Younger people who are regularly exposed to green, outdoor areas have better subjective well-being than older adults who have limited exposure to green spaces."

## Examples of a null hypothesis include:

• "There is no difference in anxiety levels between people who take St. John's wort supplements and those who do not."
• "There is no difference in scores on a memory recall task between children and adults."
• "There is no difference in aggression levels between children who play first-person shooter games and those who do not."

## Examples of an alternative hypothesis:

• "People who take St. John's wort supplements will have less anxiety than those who do not."
• "Children who play first-person shooter games will show higher levels of aggression than children who do not."

## Collecting Data on Your Hypothesis

Once a researcher has formed a testable hypothesis, the next step is to select a research design and start collecting data. The research method depends largely on exactly what they are studying. There are two basic types of research methods: descriptive research and experimental research.

## Descriptive Research Methods

Descriptive research such as  case studies ,  naturalistic observations , and surveys are often used when  conducting an experiment is difficult or impossible. These methods are best used to describe different aspects of a behavior or psychological phenomenon.

Once a researcher has collected data using descriptive methods, a  correlational study  can examine how the variables are related. This research method might be used to investigate a hypothesis that is difficult to test experimentally.

## Experimental Research Methods

Experimental methods  are used to demonstrate causal relationships between variables. In an experiment, the researcher systematically manipulates a variable of interest (known as the independent variable) and measures the effect on another variable (known as the dependent variable).

Unlike correlational studies, which can only be used to determine if there is a relationship between two variables, experimental methods can be used to determine the actual nature of the relationship—whether changes in one variable actually  cause  another to change.

The hypothesis is a critical part of any scientific exploration. It represents what researchers expect to find in a study or experiment. In situations where the hypothesis is unsupported by the research, the research still has value. Such research helps us better understand how different aspects of the natural world relate to one another. It also helps us develop new hypotheses that can then be tested in the future.

Thompson WH, Skau S. On the scope of scientific hypotheses .  R Soc Open Sci . 2023;10(8):230607. doi:10.1098/rsos.230607

Taran S, Adhikari NKJ, Fan E. Falsifiability in medicine: what clinicians can learn from Karl Popper [published correction appears in Intensive Care Med. 2021 Jun 17;:].  Intensive Care Med . 2021;47(9):1054-1056. doi:10.1007/s00134-021-06432-z

Eyler AA. Research Methods for Public Health . 1st ed. Springer Publishing Company; 2020. doi:10.1891/9780826182067.0004

Nosek BA, Errington TM. What is replication ?  PLoS Biol . 2020;18(3):e3000691. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000691

Aggarwal R, Ranganathan P. Study designs: Part 2 - Descriptive studies .  Perspect Clin Res . 2019;10(1):34-36. doi:10.4103/picr.PICR_154_18

Nevid J. Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Wadworth, 2013.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

Educational resources and simple solutions for your research journey

## What is a Research Hypothesis: How to Write it, Types, and Examples

Any research begins with a research question and a research hypothesis . A research question alone may not suffice to design the experiment(s) needed to answer it. A hypothesis is central to the scientific method. But what is a hypothesis ? A hypothesis is a testable statement that proposes a possible explanation to a phenomenon, and it may include a prediction. Next, you may ask what is a research hypothesis ? Simply put, a research hypothesis is a prediction or educated guess about the relationship between the variables that you want to investigate.

It is important to be thorough when developing your research hypothesis. Shortcomings in the framing of a hypothesis can affect the study design and the results. A better understanding of the research hypothesis definition and characteristics of a good hypothesis will make it easier for you to develop your own hypothesis for your research. Let’s dive in to know more about the types of research hypothesis , how to write a research hypothesis , and some research hypothesis examples .

## What is a hypothesis ?

A hypothesis is based on the existing body of knowledge in a study area. Framed before the data are collected, a hypothesis states the tentative relationship between independent and dependent variables, along with a prediction of the outcome.

## What is a research hypothesis ?

Young researchers starting out their journey are usually brimming with questions like “ What is a hypothesis ?” “ What is a research hypothesis ?” “How can I write a good research hypothesis ?”

A research hypothesis is a statement that proposes a possible explanation for an observable phenomenon or pattern. It guides the direction of a study and predicts the outcome of the investigation. A research hypothesis is testable, i.e., it can be supported or disproven through experimentation or observation.

## Characteristics of a good hypothesis

Here are the characteristics of a good hypothesis :

• Clearly formulated and free of language errors and ambiguity
• Concise and not unnecessarily verbose
• Has clearly defined variables
• Testable and stated in a way that allows for it to be disproven
• Can be tested using a research design that is feasible, ethical, and practical
• Specific and relevant to the research problem
• Rooted in a thorough literature search
• Can generate new knowledge or understanding.

## How to create an effective research hypothesis

A study begins with the formulation of a research question. A researcher then performs background research. This background information forms the basis for building a good research hypothesis . The researcher then performs experiments, collects, and analyzes the data, interprets the findings, and ultimately, determines if the findings support or negate the original hypothesis.

Let’s look at each step for creating an effective, testable, and good research hypothesis :

• Identify a research problem or question: Start by identifying a specific research problem.
• Review the literature: Conduct an in-depth review of the existing literature related to the research problem to grasp the current knowledge and gaps in the field.
• Formulate a clear and testable hypothesis : Based on the research question, use existing knowledge to form a clear and testable hypothesis . The hypothesis should state a predicted relationship between two or more variables that can be measured and manipulated. Improve the original draft till it is clear and meaningful.
• State the null hypothesis: The null hypothesis is a statement that there is no relationship between the variables you are studying.
• Define the population and sample: Clearly define the population you are studying and the sample you will be using for your research.
• Select appropriate methods for testing the hypothesis: Select appropriate research methods, such as experiments, surveys, or observational studies, which will allow you to test your research hypothesis .

Remember that creating a research hypothesis is an iterative process, i.e., you might have to revise it based on the data you collect. You may need to test and reject several hypotheses before answering the research problem.

## How to write a research hypothesis

When you start writing a research hypothesis , you use an “if–then” statement format, which states the predicted relationship between two or more variables. Clearly identify the independent variables (the variables being changed) and the dependent variables (the variables being measured), as well as the population you are studying. Review and revise your hypothesis as needed.

An example of a research hypothesis in this format is as follows:

“ If [athletes] follow [cold water showers daily], then their [endurance] increases.”

Population: athletes

Independent variable: daily cold water showers

Dependent variable: endurance

You may have understood the characteristics of a good hypothesis . But note that a research hypothesis is not always confirmed; a researcher should be prepared to accept or reject the hypothesis based on the study findings.

## Research hypothesis checklist

Following from above, here is a 10-point checklist for a good research hypothesis :

• Testable: A research hypothesis should be able to be tested via experimentation or observation.
• Specific: A research hypothesis should clearly state the relationship between the variables being studied.
• Based on prior research: A research hypothesis should be based on existing knowledge and previous research in the field.
• Falsifiable: A research hypothesis should be able to be disproven through testing.
• Clear and concise: A research hypothesis should be stated in a clear and concise manner.
• Logical: A research hypothesis should be logical and consistent with current understanding of the subject.
• Relevant: A research hypothesis should be relevant to the research question and objectives.
• Feasible: A research hypothesis should be feasible to test within the scope of the study.
• Reflects the population: A research hypothesis should consider the population or sample being studied.
• Uncomplicated: A good research hypothesis is written in a way that is easy for the target audience to understand.

By following this research hypothesis checklist , you will be able to create a research hypothesis that is strong, well-constructed, and more likely to yield meaningful results.

## Types of research hypothesis

Different types of research hypothesis are used in scientific research:

## 1. Null hypothesis:

A null hypothesis states that there is no change in the dependent variable due to changes to the independent variable. This means that the results are due to chance and are not significant. A null hypothesis is denoted as H0 and is stated as the opposite of what the alternative hypothesis states.

Example: “ The newly identified virus is not zoonotic .”

## 2. Alternative hypothesis:

This states that there is a significant difference or relationship between the variables being studied. It is denoted as H1 or Ha and is usually accepted or rejected in favor of the null hypothesis.

Example: “ The newly identified virus is zoonotic .”

## 3. Directional hypothesis :

This specifies the direction of the relationship or difference between variables; therefore, it tends to use terms like increase, decrease, positive, negative, more, or less.

Example: “ The inclusion of intervention X decreases infant mortality compared to the original treatment .”

## 4. Non-directional hypothesis:

While it does not predict the exact direction or nature of the relationship between the two variables, a non-directional hypothesis states the existence of a relationship or difference between variables but not the direction, nature, or magnitude of the relationship. A non-directional hypothesis may be used when there is no underlying theory or when findings contradict previous research.

Example, “ Cats and dogs differ in the amount of affection they express .”

## 5. Simple hypothesis :

A simple hypothesis only predicts the relationship between one independent and another independent variable.

Example: “ Applying sunscreen every day slows skin aging .”

## 6 . Complex hypothesis :

A complex hypothesis states the relationship or difference between two or more independent and dependent variables.

Example: “ Applying sunscreen every day slows skin aging, reduces sun burn, and reduces the chances of skin cancer .” (Here, the three dependent variables are slowing skin aging, reducing sun burn, and reducing the chances of skin cancer.)

## 7. Associative hypothesis:

An associative hypothesis states that a change in one variable results in the change of the other variable. The associative hypothesis defines interdependency between variables.

Example: “ There is a positive association between physical activity levels and overall health .”

## 8 . Causal hypothesis:

A causal hypothesis proposes a cause-and-effect interaction between variables.

Example: “ Long-term alcohol use causes liver damage .”

Note that some of the types of research hypothesis mentioned above might overlap. The types of hypothesis chosen will depend on the research question and the objective of the study.

## Research hypothesis examples

Here are some good research hypothesis examples :

“The use of a specific type of therapy will lead to a reduction in symptoms of depression in individuals with a history of major depressive disorder.”

“Providing educational interventions on healthy eating habits will result in weight loss in overweight individuals.”

“Plants that are exposed to certain types of music will grow taller than those that are not exposed to music.”

“The use of the plant growth regulator X will lead to an increase in the number of flowers produced by plants.”

Characteristics that make a research hypothesis weak are unclear variables, unoriginality, being too general or too vague, and being untestable. A weak hypothesis leads to weak research and improper methods.

Some bad research hypothesis examples (and the reasons why they are “bad”) are as follows:

“This study will show that treatment X is better than any other treatment . ” (This statement is not testable, too broad, and does not consider other treatments that may be effective.)

“This study will prove that this type of therapy is effective for all mental disorders . ” (This statement is too broad and not testable as mental disorders are complex and different disorders may respond differently to different types of therapy.)

“Plants can communicate with each other through telepathy . ” (This statement is not testable and lacks a scientific basis.)

## Importance of testable hypothesis

If a research hypothesis is not testable, the results will not prove or disprove anything meaningful. The conclusions will be vague at best. A testable hypothesis helps a researcher focus on the study outcome and understand the implication of the question and the different variables involved. A testable hypothesis helps a researcher make precise predictions based on prior research.

To be considered testable, there must be a way to prove that the hypothesis is true or false; further, the results of the hypothesis must be reproducible.

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on research hypothesis

1. What is the difference between research question and research hypothesis ?

A research question defines the problem and helps outline the study objective(s). It is an open-ended statement that is exploratory or probing in nature. Therefore, it does not make predictions or assumptions. It helps a researcher identify what information to collect. A research hypothesis , however, is a specific, testable prediction about the relationship between variables. Accordingly, it guides the study design and data analysis approach.

2. When to reject null hypothesis ?

A null hypothesis should be rejected when the evidence from a statistical test shows that it is unlikely to be true. This happens when the test statistic (e.g., p -value) is less than the defined significance level (e.g., 0.05). Rejecting the null hypothesis does not necessarily mean that the alternative hypothesis is true; it simply means that the evidence found is not compatible with the null hypothesis.

3. How can I be sure my hypothesis is testable?

A testable hypothesis should be specific and measurable, and it should state a clear relationship between variables that can be tested with data. To ensure that your hypothesis is testable, consider the following:

• Clearly define the key variables in your hypothesis. You should be able to measure and manipulate these variables in a way that allows you to test the hypothesis.
• The hypothesis should predict a specific outcome or relationship between variables that can be measured or quantified.
• You should be able to collect the necessary data within the constraints of your study.
• It should be possible for other researchers to replicate your study, using the same methods and variables.
• Your hypothesis should be testable by using appropriate statistical analysis techniques, so you can draw conclusions, and make inferences about the population from the sample data.
• The hypothesis should be able to be disproven or rejected through the collection of data.

4. How do I revise my research hypothesis if my data does not support it?

If your data does not support your research hypothesis , you will need to revise it or develop a new one. You should examine your data carefully and identify any patterns or anomalies, re-examine your research question, and/or revisit your theory to look for any alternative explanations for your results. Based on your review of the data, literature, and theories, modify your research hypothesis to better align it with the results you obtained. Use your revised hypothesis to guide your research design and data collection. It is important to remain objective throughout the process.

5. I am performing exploratory research. Do I need to formulate a research hypothesis?

As opposed to “confirmatory” research, where a researcher has some idea about the relationship between the variables under investigation, exploratory research (or hypothesis-generating research) looks into a completely new topic about which limited information is available. Therefore, the researcher will not have any prior hypotheses. In such cases, a researcher will need to develop a post-hoc hypothesis. A post-hoc research hypothesis is generated after these results are known.

6. How is a research hypothesis different from a research question?

A research question is an inquiry about a specific topic or phenomenon, typically expressed as a question. It seeks to explore and understand a particular aspect of the research subject. In contrast, a research hypothesis is a specific statement or prediction that suggests an expected relationship between variables. It is formulated based on existing knowledge or theories and guides the research design and data analysis.

7. Can a research hypothesis change during the research process?

Yes, research hypotheses can change during the research process. As researchers collect and analyze data, new insights and information may emerge that require modification or refinement of the initial hypotheses. This can be due to unexpected findings, limitations in the original hypotheses, or the need to explore additional dimensions of the research topic. Flexibility is crucial in research, allowing for adaptation and adjustment of hypotheses to align with the evolving understanding of the subject matter.

8. How many hypotheses should be included in a research study?

The number of research hypotheses in a research study varies depending on the nature and scope of the research. It is not necessary to have multiple hypotheses in every study. Some studies may have only one primary hypothesis, while others may have several related hypotheses. The number of hypotheses should be determined based on the research objectives, research questions, and the complexity of the research topic. It is important to ensure that the hypotheses are focused, testable, and directly related to the research aims.

9. Can research hypotheses be used in qualitative research?

Yes, research hypotheses can be used in qualitative research, although they are more commonly associated with quantitative research. In qualitative research, hypotheses may be formulated as tentative or exploratory statements that guide the investigation. Instead of testing hypotheses through statistical analysis, qualitative researchers may use the hypotheses to guide data collection and analysis, seeking to uncover patterns, themes, or relationships within the qualitative data. The emphasis in qualitative research is often on generating insights and understanding rather than confirming or rejecting specific research hypotheses through statistical testing.

Editage All Access is a subscription-based platform that unifies the best AI tools and services designed to speed up, simplify, and streamline every step of a researcher’s journey. The Editage All Access Pack is a one-of-a-kind subscription that unlocks full access to an AI writing assistant, literature recommender, journal finder, scientific illustration tool, and exclusive discounts on professional publication services from Editage.

Based on 22+ years of experience in academia, Editage All Access empowers researchers to put their best research forward and move closer to success. Explore our top AI Tools pack, AI Tools + Publication Services pack, or Build Your Own Plan. Find everything a researcher needs to succeed, all in one place –  Get All Access now starting at just \$14 a month !

## Research Hypothesis In Psychology: Types, & Examples

Saul Mcleod, PhD

Editor-in-Chief for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Saul Mcleod, PhD., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years of experience in further and higher education. He has been published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Olivia Guy-Evans, MSc

Associate Editor for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MSc Psychology of Education

Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor for Simply Psychology. She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors.

A research hypothesis, in its plural form “hypotheses,” is a specific, testable prediction about the anticipated results of a study, established at its outset. It is a key component of the scientific method .

Hypotheses connect theory to data and guide the research process towards expanding scientific understanding

## Some key points about hypotheses:

• A hypothesis expresses an expected pattern or relationship. It connects the variables under investigation.
• It is stated in clear, precise terms before any data collection or analysis occurs. This makes the hypothesis testable.
• A hypothesis must be falsifiable. It should be possible, even if unlikely in practice, to collect data that disconfirms rather than supports the hypothesis.
• Hypotheses guide research. Scientists design studies to explicitly evaluate hypotheses about how nature works.
• For a hypothesis to be valid, it must be testable against empirical evidence. The evidence can then confirm or disprove the testable predictions.
• Hypotheses are informed by background knowledge and observation, but go beyond what is already known to propose an explanation of how or why something occurs.
Predictions typically arise from a thorough knowledge of the research literature, curiosity about real-world problems or implications, and integrating this to advance theory. They build on existing literature while providing new insight.

## Types of Research Hypotheses

Alternative hypothesis.

The research hypothesis is often called the alternative or experimental hypothesis in experimental research.

It typically suggests a potential relationship between two key variables: the independent variable, which the researcher manipulates, and the dependent variable, which is measured based on those changes.

The alternative hypothesis states a relationship exists between the two variables being studied (one variable affects the other).

A hypothesis is a testable statement or prediction about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a key component of the scientific method. Some key points about hypotheses:

• Important hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested empirically. The evidence can then confirm or disprove the testable predictions.

In summary, a hypothesis is a precise, testable statement of what researchers expect to happen in a study and why. Hypotheses connect theory to data and guide the research process towards expanding scientific understanding.

An experimental hypothesis predicts what change(s) will occur in the dependent variable when the independent variable is manipulated.

It states that the results are not due to chance and are significant in supporting the theory being investigated.

The alternative hypothesis can be directional, indicating a specific direction of the effect, or non-directional, suggesting a difference without specifying its nature. It’s what researchers aim to support or demonstrate through their study.

## Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis states no relationship exists between the two variables being studied (one variable does not affect the other). There will be no changes in the dependent variable due to manipulating the independent variable.

It states results are due to chance and are not significant in supporting the idea being investigated.

The null hypothesis, positing no effect or relationship, is a foundational contrast to the research hypothesis in scientific inquiry. It establishes a baseline for statistical testing, promoting objectivity by initiating research from a neutral stance.

Many statistical methods are tailored to test the null hypothesis, determining the likelihood of observed results if no true effect exists.

This dual-hypothesis approach provides clarity, ensuring that research intentions are explicit, and fosters consistency across scientific studies, enhancing the standardization and interpretability of research outcomes.

## Nondirectional Hypothesis

A non-directional hypothesis, also known as a two-tailed hypothesis, predicts that there is a difference or relationship between two variables but does not specify the direction of this relationship.

It merely indicates that a change or effect will occur without predicting which group will have higher or lower values.

For example, “There is a difference in performance between Group A and Group B” is a non-directional hypothesis.

## Directional Hypothesis

A directional (one-tailed) hypothesis predicts the nature of the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. It predicts in which direction the change will take place. (i.e., greater, smaller, less, more)

It specifies whether one variable is greater, lesser, or different from another, rather than just indicating that there’s a difference without specifying its nature.

For example, “Exercise increases weight loss” is a directional hypothesis.

## Falsifiability

The Falsification Principle, proposed by Karl Popper , is a way of demarcating science from non-science. It suggests that for a theory or hypothesis to be considered scientific, it must be testable and irrefutable.

Falsifiability emphasizes that scientific claims shouldn’t just be confirmable but should also have the potential to be proven wrong.

It means that there should exist some potential evidence or experiment that could prove the proposition false.

However many confirming instances exist for a theory, it only takes one counter observation to falsify it. For example, the hypothesis that “all swans are white,” can be falsified by observing a black swan.

For Popper, science should attempt to disprove a theory rather than attempt to continually provide evidence to support a research hypothesis.

## Can a Hypothesis be Proven?

Hypotheses make probabilistic predictions. They state the expected outcome if a particular relationship exists. However, a study result supporting a hypothesis does not definitively prove it is true.

All studies have limitations. There may be unknown confounding factors or issues that limit the certainty of conclusions. Additional studies may yield different results.

In science, hypotheses can realistically only be supported with some degree of confidence, not proven. The process of science is to incrementally accumulate evidence for and against hypothesized relationships in an ongoing pursuit of better models and explanations that best fit the empirical data. But hypotheses remain open to revision and rejection if that is where the evidence leads.
• Disproving a hypothesis is definitive. Solid disconfirmatory evidence will falsify a hypothesis and require altering or discarding it based on the evidence.
• However, confirming evidence is always open to revision. Other explanations may account for the same results, and additional or contradictory evidence may emerge over time.

We can never 100% prove the alternative hypothesis. Instead, we see if we can disprove, or reject the null hypothesis.

If we reject the null hypothesis, this doesn’t mean that our alternative hypothesis is correct but does support the alternative/experimental hypothesis.

Upon analysis of the results, an alternative hypothesis can be rejected or supported, but it can never be proven to be correct. We must avoid any reference to results proving a theory as this implies 100% certainty, and there is always a chance that evidence may exist which could refute a theory.

## How to Write a Hypothesis

• Identify variables . The researcher manipulates the independent variable and the dependent variable is the measured outcome.
• Operationalized the variables being investigated . Operationalization of a hypothesis refers to the process of making the variables physically measurable or testable, e.g. if you are about to study aggression, you might count the number of punches given by participants.
• Decide on a direction for your prediction . If there is evidence in the literature to support a specific effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a directional (one-tailed) hypothesis. If there are limited or ambiguous findings in the literature regarding the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a non-directional (two-tailed) hypothesis.
• Make it Testable : Ensure your hypothesis can be tested through experimentation or observation. It should be possible to prove it false (principle of falsifiability).
• Clear & concise language . A strong hypothesis is concise (typically one to two sentences long), and formulated using clear and straightforward language, ensuring it’s easily understood and testable.

Consider a hypothesis many teachers might subscribe to: students work better on Monday morning than on Friday afternoon (IV=Day, DV= Standard of work).

Now, if we decide to study this by giving the same group of students a lesson on a Monday morning and a Friday afternoon and then measuring their immediate recall of the material covered in each session, we would end up with the following:

• The alternative hypothesis states that students will recall significantly more information on a Monday morning than on a Friday afternoon.
• The null hypothesis states that there will be no significant difference in the amount recalled on a Monday morning compared to a Friday afternoon. Any difference will be due to chance or confounding factors.

## More Examples

• Memory : Participants exposed to classical music during study sessions will recall more items from a list than those who studied in silence.
• Social Psychology : Individuals who frequently engage in social media use will report higher levels of perceived social isolation compared to those who use it infrequently.
• Developmental Psychology : Children who engage in regular imaginative play have better problem-solving skills than those who don’t.
• Clinical Psychology : Cognitive-behavioral therapy will be more effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety over a 6-month period compared to traditional talk therapy.
• Cognitive Psychology : Individuals who multitask between various electronic devices will have shorter attention spans on focused tasks than those who single-task.
• Health Psychology : Patients who practice mindfulness meditation will experience lower levels of chronic pain compared to those who don’t meditate.
• Organizational Psychology : Employees in open-plan offices will report higher levels of stress than those in private offices.
• Behavioral Psychology : Rats rewarded with food after pressing a lever will press it more frequently than rats who receive no reward.

## Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, automatically generate references for free.

• Knowledge Base
• Methodology
• How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

## How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

Published on 6 May 2022 by Shona McCombes .

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection.

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

## Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more variables . An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

## Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

## Step 2: Do some preliminary research

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalise more complex constructs.

## Step 3: Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

## Step 4: Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

• The relevant variables
• The specific group being studied
• The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

## Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

## Step 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

Research question Hypothesis Null hypothesis
What are the health benefits of eating an apple a day? Increasing apple consumption in over-60s will result in decreasing frequency of doctor’s visits. Increasing apple consumption in over-60s will have no effect on frequency of doctor’s visits.
Which airlines have the most delays? Low-cost airlines are more likely to have delays than premium airlines. Low-cost and premium airlines are equally likely to have delays.
Can flexible work arrangements improve job satisfaction? Employees who have flexible working hours will report greater job satisfaction than employees who work fixed hours. There is no relationship between working hour flexibility and job satisfaction.
How effective is secondary school sex education at reducing teen pregnancies? Teenagers who received sex education lessons throughout secondary school will have lower rates of unplanned pregnancy than teenagers who did not receive any sex education. Secondary school sex education has no effect on teen pregnancy rates.
What effect does daily use of social media have on the attention span of under-16s? There is a negative correlation between time spent on social media and attention span in under-16s. There is no relationship between social media use and attention span in under-16s.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis is not just a guess. It should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

## Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

McCombes, S. (2022, May 06). How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 17 July 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/research-methods/hypothesis-writing/

## Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, operationalisation | a guide with examples, pros & cons, what is a conceptual framework | tips & examples, a quick guide to experimental design | 5 steps & examples.

• History & Society
• Science & Tech
• Biographies
• Animals & Nature
• Geography & Travel
• Arts & Culture
• Games & Quizzes
• On This Day
• One Good Fact
• New Articles
• Lifestyles & Social Issues
• Philosophy & Religion
• Politics, Law & Government
• World History
• Health & Medicine
• Browse Biographies
• Birds, Reptiles & Other Vertebrates
• Bugs, Mollusks & Other Invertebrates
• Environment
• Fossils & Geologic Time
• Entertainment & Pop Culture
• Sports & Recreation
• Visual Arts
• Demystified
• Image Galleries
• Infographics
• Top Questions
• Britannica Kids
• Saving Earth
• Space Next 50
• Student Center

• When did science begin?
• Where was science invented?

## scientific hypothesis

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

• National Center for Biotechnology Information - PubMed Central - On the scope of scientific hypotheses
• LiveScience - What is a scientific hypothesis?
• The Royal Society - Open Science - On the scope of scientific hypotheses

scientific hypothesis , an idea that proposes a tentative explanation about a phenomenon or a narrow set of phenomena observed in the natural world. The two primary features of a scientific hypothesis are falsifiability and testability, which are reflected in an “If…then” statement summarizing the idea and in the ability to be supported or refuted through observation and experimentation. The notion of the scientific hypothesis as both falsifiable and testable was advanced in the mid-20th century by Austrian-born British philosopher Karl Popper .

The formulation and testing of a hypothesis is part of the scientific method , the approach scientists use when attempting to understand and test ideas about natural phenomena. The generation of a hypothesis frequently is described as a creative process and is based on existing scientific knowledge, intuition , or experience. Therefore, although scientific hypotheses commonly are described as educated guesses, they actually are more informed than a guess. In addition, scientists generally strive to develop simple hypotheses, since these are easier to test relative to hypotheses that involve many different variables and potential outcomes. Such complex hypotheses may be developed as scientific models ( see scientific modeling ).

Depending on the results of scientific evaluation, a hypothesis typically is either rejected as false or accepted as true. However, because a hypothesis inherently is falsifiable, even hypotheses supported by scientific evidence and accepted as true are susceptible to rejection later, when new evidence has become available. In some instances, rather than rejecting a hypothesis because it has been falsified by new evidence, scientists simply adapt the existing idea to accommodate the new information. In this sense a hypothesis is never incorrect but only incomplete.

The investigation of scientific hypotheses is an important component in the development of scientific theory . Hence, hypotheses differ fundamentally from theories; whereas the former is a specific tentative explanation and serves as the main tool by which scientists gather data, the latter is a broad general explanation that incorporates data from many different scientific investigations undertaken to explore hypotheses.

Countless hypotheses have been developed and tested throughout the history of science . Several examples include the idea that living organisms develop from nonliving matter, which formed the basis of spontaneous generation , a hypothesis that ultimately was disproved (first in 1668, with the experiments of Italian physician Francesco Redi , and later in 1859, with the experiments of French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur ); the concept proposed in the late 19th century that microorganisms cause certain diseases (now known as germ theory ); and the notion that oceanic crust forms along submarine mountain zones and spreads laterally away from them ( seafloor spreading hypothesis ).

## Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

• Knowledge Base

## Hypothesis Testing | A Step-by-Step Guide with Easy Examples

Published on November 8, 2019 by Rebecca Bevans . Revised on June 22, 2023.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics . It is most often used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses, that arise from theories.

There are 5 main steps in hypothesis testing:

• State your research hypothesis as a null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis (H o ) and (H a  or H 1 ).
• Collect data in a way designed to test the hypothesis.
• Perform an appropriate statistical test .
• Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.
• Present the findings in your results and discussion section.

Though the specific details might vary, the procedure you will use when testing a hypothesis will always follow some version of these steps.

Step 1: state your null and alternate hypothesis, step 2: collect data, step 3: perform a statistical test, step 4: decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis, step 5: present your findings, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about hypothesis testing.

After developing your initial research hypothesis (the prediction that you want to investigate), it is important to restate it as a null (H o ) and alternate (H a ) hypothesis so that you can test it mathematically.

The alternate hypothesis is usually your initial hypothesis that predicts a relationship between variables. The null hypothesis is a prediction of no relationship between the variables you are interested in.

• H 0 : Men are, on average, not taller than women. H a : Men are, on average, taller than women.

## Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

• Vague sentences
• Style consistency

See an example

For a statistical test to be valid , it is important to perform sampling and collect data in a way that is designed to test your hypothesis. If your data are not representative, then you cannot make statistical inferences about the population you are interested in.

There are a variety of statistical tests available, but they are all based on the comparison of within-group variance (how spread out the data is within a category) versus between-group variance (how different the categories are from one another).

If the between-group variance is large enough that there is little or no overlap between groups, then your statistical test will reflect that by showing a low p -value . This means it is unlikely that the differences between these groups came about by chance.

Alternatively, if there is high within-group variance and low between-group variance, then your statistical test will reflect that with a high p -value. This means it is likely that any difference you measure between groups is due to chance.

Your choice of statistical test will be based on the type of variables and the level of measurement of your collected data .

• an estimate of the difference in average height between the two groups.
• a p -value showing how likely you are to see this difference if the null hypothesis of no difference is true.

Based on the outcome of your statistical test, you will have to decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis.

In most cases you will use the p -value generated by your statistical test to guide your decision. And in most cases, your predetermined level of significance for rejecting the null hypothesis will be 0.05 – that is, when there is a less than 5% chance that you would see these results if the null hypothesis were true.

In some cases, researchers choose a more conservative level of significance, such as 0.01 (1%). This minimizes the risk of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis ( Type I error ).

## Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

The results of hypothesis testing will be presented in the results and discussion sections of your research paper , dissertation or thesis .

In the results section you should give a brief summary of the data and a summary of the results of your statistical test (for example, the estimated difference between group means and associated p -value). In the discussion , you can discuss whether your initial hypothesis was supported by your results or not.

In the formal language of hypothesis testing, we talk about rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis. You will probably be asked to do this in your statistics assignments.

However, when presenting research results in academic papers we rarely talk this way. Instead, we go back to our alternate hypothesis (in this case, the hypothesis that men are on average taller than women) and state whether the result of our test did or did not support the alternate hypothesis.

If your null hypothesis was rejected, this result is interpreted as “supported the alternate hypothesis.”

These are superficial differences; you can see that they mean the same thing.

You might notice that we don’t say that we reject or fail to reject the alternate hypothesis . This is because hypothesis testing is not designed to prove or disprove anything. It is only designed to test whether a pattern we measure could have arisen spuriously, or by chance.

If we reject the null hypothesis based on our research (i.e., we find that it is unlikely that the pattern arose by chance), then we can say our test lends support to our hypothesis . But if the pattern does not pass our decision rule, meaning that it could have arisen by chance, then we say the test is inconsistent with our hypothesis .

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

• Normal distribution
• Descriptive statistics
• Measures of central tendency
• Correlation coefficient

Methodology

• Cluster sampling
• Stratified sampling
• Types of interviews
• Cohort study
• Thematic analysis

Research bias

• Implicit bias
• Cognitive bias
• Survivorship bias
• Availability heuristic
• Nonresponse bias
• Regression to the mean

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

## Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Bevans, R. (2023, June 22). Hypothesis Testing | A Step-by-Step Guide with Easy Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved July 18, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/hypothesis-testing/

## Rebecca Bevans

Other students also liked, choosing the right statistical test | types & examples, understanding p values | definition and examples, what is your plagiarism score.

## What Is a Hypothesis? (Science)

If...,Then...

Angela Lumsden/Getty Images

• Scientific Method
• Chemical Laws
• Periodic Table
• Projects & Experiments
• Biochemistry
• Physical Chemistry
• Medical Chemistry
• Chemistry In Everyday Life
• Famous Chemists
• Activities for Kids
• Abbreviations & Acronyms
• Weather & Climate
• Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville
• B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College

A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for an observation. The definition depends on the subject.

In science, a hypothesis is part of the scientific method. It is a prediction or explanation that is tested by an experiment. Observations and experiments may disprove a scientific hypothesis, but can never entirely prove one.

In the study of logic, a hypothesis is an if-then proposition, typically written in the form, "If X , then Y ."

In common usage, a hypothesis is simply a proposed explanation or prediction, which may or may not be tested.

## Writing a Hypothesis

Most scientific hypotheses are proposed in the if-then format because it's easy to design an experiment to see whether or not a cause and effect relationship exists between the independent variable and the dependent variable . The hypothesis is written as a prediction of the outcome of the experiment.

## Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

Statistically, it's easier to show there is no relationship between two variables than to support their connection. So, scientists often propose the null hypothesis . The null hypothesis assumes changing the independent variable will have no effect on the dependent variable.

In contrast, the alternative hypothesis suggests changing the independent variable will have an effect on the dependent variable. Designing an experiment to test this hypothesis can be trickier because there are many ways to state an alternative hypothesis.

For example, consider a possible relationship between getting a good night's sleep and getting good grades. The null hypothesis might be stated: "The number of hours of sleep students get is unrelated to their grades" or "There is no correlation between hours of sleep and grades."

An experiment to test this hypothesis might involve collecting data, recording average hours of sleep for each student and grades. If a student who gets eight hours of sleep generally does better than students who get four hours of sleep or 10 hours of sleep, the hypothesis might be rejected.

But the alternative hypothesis is harder to propose and test. The most general statement would be: "The amount of sleep students get affects their grades." The hypothesis might also be stated as "If you get more sleep, your grades will improve" or "Students who get nine hours of sleep have better grades than those who get more or less sleep."

In an experiment, you can collect the same data, but the statistical analysis is less likely to give you a high confidence limit.

Usually, a scientist starts out with the null hypothesis. From there, it may be possible to propose and test an alternative hypothesis, to narrow down the relationship between the variables.

## Example of a Hypothesis

Examples of a hypothesis include:

• If you drop a rock and a feather, (then) they will fall at the same rate.
• Plants need sunlight in order to live. (if sunlight, then life)
• Eating sugar gives you energy. (if sugar, then energy)
• White, Jay D.  Research in Public Administration . Conn., 1998.
• Schick, Theodore, and Lewis Vaughn.  How to Think about Weird Things: Critical Thinking for a New Age . McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002.
• Null Hypothesis Examples
• Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables
• Difference Between Independent and Dependent Variables
• The Difference Between Control Group and Experimental Group
• What Is a Dependent Variable?
• What Is a Variable in Science?
• Null Hypothesis Definition and Examples
• Definition of a Hypothesis
• Example of a Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test
• What Are the Elements of a Good Hypothesis?
• Six Steps of the Scientific Method
• Independent Variable Definition and Examples
• What Are Examples of a Hypothesis?
• Understanding Simple vs Controlled Experiments
• The Role of a Controlled Variable in an Experiment
• Scientific Method Flow Chart

If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

## Biology archive

Course: biology archive   >   unit 1, the scientific method.

• Controlled experiments
• The scientific method and experimental design

## Introduction

• Make an observation.
• Form a hypothesis , or testable explanation.
• Make a prediction based on the hypothesis.
• Test the prediction.
• Iterate: use the results to make new hypotheses or predictions.

## Scientific method example: Failure to toast

1. make an observation., 2. ask a question., 3. propose a hypothesis., 4. make predictions., 5. test the predictions..

• If the toaster does toast, then the hypothesis is supported—likely correct.
• If the toaster doesn't toast, then the hypothesis is not supported—likely wrong.

## Logical possibility

Practical possibility, building a body of evidence, 6. iterate..

• If the hypothesis was supported, we might do additional tests to confirm it, or revise it to be more specific. For instance, we might investigate why the outlet is broken.
• If the hypothesis was not supported, we would come up with a new hypothesis. For instance, the next hypothesis might be that there's a broken wire in the toaster.

## Want to join the conversation?

• Upvote Button navigates to signup page
• Downvote Button navigates to signup page
• Flag Button navigates to signup page

## What is a scientific hypothesis?

It's the initial building block in the scientific method.

## Hypothesis basics

What makes a hypothesis testable.

• Types of hypotheses
• Hypothesis versus theory

Bibliography.

A scientific hypothesis is a tentative, testable explanation for a phenomenon in the natural world. It's the initial building block in the scientific method . Many describe it as an "educated guess" based on prior knowledge and observation. While this is true, a hypothesis is more informed than a guess. While an "educated guess" suggests a random prediction based on a person's expertise, developing a hypothesis requires active observation and background research.

The basic idea of a hypothesis is that there is no predetermined outcome. For a solution to be termed a scientific hypothesis, it has to be an idea that can be supported or refuted through carefully crafted experimentation or observation. This concept, called falsifiability and testability, was advanced in the mid-20th century by Austrian-British philosopher Karl Popper in his famous book "The Logic of Scientific Discovery" (Routledge, 1959).

A key function of a hypothesis is to derive predictions about the results of future experiments and then perform those experiments to see whether they support the predictions.

A hypothesis is usually written in the form of an if-then statement, which gives a possibility (if) and explains what may happen because of the possibility (then). The statement could also include "may," according to California State University, Bakersfield .

Here are some examples of hypothesis statements:

• If garlic repels fleas, then a dog that is given garlic every day will not get fleas.
• If sugar causes cavities, then people who eat a lot of candy may be more prone to cavities.
• If ultraviolet light can damage the eyes, then maybe this light can cause blindness.

A useful hypothesis should be testable and falsifiable. That means that it should be possible to prove it wrong. A theory that can't be proved wrong is nonscientific, according to Karl Popper's 1963 book " Conjectures and Refutations ."

An example of an untestable statement is, "Dogs are better than cats." That's because the definition of "better" is vague and subjective. However, an untestable statement can be reworded to make it testable. For example, the previous statement could be changed to this: "Owning a dog is associated with higher levels of physical fitness than owning a cat." With this statement, the researcher can take measures of physical fitness from dog and cat owners and compare the two.

## Types of scientific hypotheses

In an experiment, researchers generally state their hypotheses in two ways. The null hypothesis predicts that there will be no relationship between the variables tested, or no difference between the experimental groups. The alternative hypothesis predicts the opposite: that there will be a difference between the experimental groups. This is usually the hypothesis scientists are most interested in, according to the University of Miami .

For example, a null hypothesis might state, "There will be no difference in the rate of muscle growth between people who take a protein supplement and people who don't." The alternative hypothesis would state, "There will be a difference in the rate of muscle growth between people who take a protein supplement and people who don't."

If the results of the experiment show a relationship between the variables, then the null hypothesis has been rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis, according to the book " Research Methods in Psychology " (​​BCcampus, 2015).

There are other ways to describe an alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis above does not specify a direction of the effect, only that there will be a difference between the two groups. That type of prediction is called a two-tailed hypothesis. If a hypothesis specifies a certain direction — for example, that people who take a protein supplement will gain more muscle than people who don't — it is called a one-tailed hypothesis, according to William M. K. Trochim , a professor of Policy Analysis and Management at Cornell University.

Sometimes, errors take place during an experiment. These errors can happen in one of two ways. A type I error is when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true. This is also known as a false positive. A type II error occurs when the null hypothesis is not rejected when it is false. This is also known as a false negative, according to the University of California, Berkeley .

A hypothesis can be rejected or modified, but it can never be proved correct 100% of the time. For example, a scientist can form a hypothesis stating that if a certain type of tomato has a gene for red pigment, that type of tomato will be red. During research, the scientist then finds that each tomato of this type is red. Though the findings confirm the hypothesis, there may be a tomato of that type somewhere in the world that isn't red. Thus, the hypothesis is true, but it may not be true 100% of the time.

## Scientific theory vs. scientific hypothesis

The best hypotheses are simple. They deal with a relatively narrow set of phenomena. But theories are broader; they generally combine multiple hypotheses into a general explanation for a wide range of phenomena, according to the University of California, Berkeley . For example, a hypothesis might state, "If animals adapt to suit their environments, then birds that live on islands with lots of seeds to eat will have differently shaped beaks than birds that live on islands with lots of insects to eat." After testing many hypotheses like these, Charles Darwin formulated an overarching theory: the theory of evolution by natural selection.

"Theories are the ways that we make sense of what we observe in the natural world," Tanner said. "Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts."

• Read more about writing a hypothesis, from the American Medical Writers Association.
• Find out why a hypothesis isn't always necessary in science, from The American Biology Teacher.
• Learn about null and alternative hypotheses, from Prof. Essa on YouTube .

Encyclopedia Britannica. Scientific Hypothesis. Jan. 13, 2022. https://www.britannica.com/science/scientific-hypothesis

Karl Popper, "The Logic of Scientific Discovery," Routledge, 1959.

California State University, Bakersfield, "Formatting a testable hypothesis." https://www.csub.edu/~ddodenhoff/Bio100/Bio100sp04/formattingahypothesis.htm

Karl Popper, "Conjectures and Refutations," Routledge, 1963.

Price, P., Jhangiani, R., & Chiang, I., "Research Methods of Psychology — 2nd Canadian Edition," BCcampus, 2015.‌

University of Miami, "The Scientific Method" http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/161/evolution/161app1_scimethod.pdf

William M.K. Trochim, "Research Methods Knowledge Base," https://conjointly.com/kb/hypotheses-explained/

University of California, Berkeley, "Multiple Hypothesis Testing and False Discovery Rate" https://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~hhuang/STAT141/Lecture-FDR.pdf

University of California, Berkeley, "Science at multiple levels" https://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/0_0_0/howscienceworks_19

Get the world’s most fascinating discoveries delivered straight to your inbox.

Last Chance Lake: The unusual 'soda lake' with conditions that may have given rise to life on Earth

See stunning photos of the Atacama Desert — the driest on Earth — blooming in winter for 1st time in a decade

Red handfish: A tiny, moody fish with hands for fins and an extravagant mohawk

## Most Popular

• 2 No, NASA hasn't warned of an impending asteroid strike in 2038. Here's what really happened.
• 3 James Webb Space Telescope spies strange shapes above Jupiter's Great Red Spot
• 4 What defines a species? Inside the fierce debate that's rocking biology to its core
• 5 Newly discovered asteroid larger than the Great Pyramid of Giza will zoom between Earth and the moon on Saturday
• 2 Newly discovered asteroid larger than the Great Pyramid of Giza will zoom between Earth and the moon on Saturday
• 3 2,000 years ago, a bridge in Switzerland collapsed on top of Celtic sacrifice victims, new study suggests
• 4 Self-healing 'living skin' can make robots more humanlike — and it looks just as creepy as you'd expect
• 5 Tasselled wobbegong: The master of disguise that can eat a shark almost as big as itself

In order to continue enjoying our site, we ask that you confirm your identity as a human. Thank you very much for your cooperation.

## How to Develop a Good Research Hypothesis

The story of a research study begins by asking a question. Researchers all around the globe are asking curious questions and formulating research hypothesis. However, whether the research study provides an effective conclusion depends on how well one develops a good research hypothesis. Research hypothesis examples could help researchers get an idea as to how to write a good research hypothesis.

This blog will help you understand what is a research hypothesis, its characteristics and, how to formulate a research hypothesis

## What is Hypothesis?

Hypothesis is an assumption or an idea proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested. It is a precise, testable statement of what the researchers predict will be outcome of the study.  Hypothesis usually involves proposing a relationship between two variables: the independent variable (what the researchers change) and the dependent variable (what the research measures).

## What is a Research Hypothesis?

Research hypothesis is a statement that introduces a research question and proposes an expected result. It is an integral part of the scientific method that forms the basis of scientific experiments. Therefore, you need to be careful and thorough when building your research hypothesis. A minor flaw in the construction of your hypothesis could have an adverse effect on your experiment. In research, there is a convention that the hypothesis is written in two forms, the null hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis (called the experimental hypothesis when the method of investigation is an experiment).

## Characteristics of a Good Research Hypothesis

As the hypothesis is specific, there is a testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. You may consider drawing hypothesis from previously published research based on the theory.

A good research hypothesis involves more effort than just a guess. In particular, your hypothesis may begin with a question that could be further explored through background research.

• Is the language clear and focused?
• What is the relationship between your hypothesis and your research topic?
• Is your hypothesis testable? If yes, then how?
• What are the possible explanations that you might want to explore?
• Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
• Can you manipulate your variables without hampering the ethical standards?
• Does your research predict the relationship and outcome?
• Is your research simple and concise (avoids wordiness)?
• Is it clear with no ambiguity or assumptions about the readers’ knowledge
• Is your research observable and testable results?
• Is it relevant and specific to the research question or problem?

The questions listed above can be used as a checklist to make sure your hypothesis is based on a solid foundation. Furthermore, it can help you identify weaknesses in your hypothesis and revise it if necessary.

## Source: Educational Hub

How to formulate a research hypothesis.

A testable hypothesis is not a simple statement. It is rather an intricate statement that needs to offer a clear introduction to a scientific experiment, its intentions, and the possible outcomes. However, there are some important things to consider when building a compelling hypothesis.

## 1. State the problem that you are trying to solve.

Make sure that the hypothesis clearly defines the topic and the focus of the experiment.

## 2. Try to write the hypothesis as an if-then statement.

Follow this template: If a specific action is taken, then a certain outcome is expected.

## 3. Define the variables

Independent variables are the ones that are manipulated, controlled, or changed. Independent variables are isolated from other factors of the study.

Dependent variables , as the name suggests are dependent on other factors of the study. They are influenced by the change in independent variable.

## 4. Scrutinize the hypothesis

Evaluate assumptions, predictions, and evidence rigorously to refine your understanding.

## Types of Research Hypothesis

The types of research hypothesis are stated below:

## 1. Simple Hypothesis

It predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable.

## 2. Complex Hypothesis

It predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables.

## 3. Directional Hypothesis

It specifies the expected direction to be followed to determine the relationship between variables and is derived from theory. Furthermore, it implies the researcher’s intellectual commitment to a particular outcome.

## 4. Non-directional Hypothesis

It does not predict the exact direction or nature of the relationship between the two variables. The non-directional hypothesis is used when there is no theory involved or when findings contradict previous research.

## 5. Associative and Causal Hypothesis

The associative hypothesis defines interdependency between variables. A change in one variable results in the change of the other variable. On the other hand, the causal hypothesis proposes an effect on the dependent due to manipulation of the independent variable.

## 6. Null Hypothesis

Null hypothesis states a negative statement to support the researcher’s findings that there is no relationship between two variables. There will be no changes in the dependent variable due the manipulation of the independent variable. Furthermore, it states results are due to chance and are not significant in terms of supporting the idea being investigated.

## 7. Alternative Hypothesis

It states that there is a relationship between the two variables of the study and that the results are significant to the research topic. An experimental hypothesis predicts what changes will take place in the dependent variable when the independent variable is manipulated. Also, it states that the results are not due to chance and that they are significant in terms of supporting the theory being investigated.

## Research Hypothesis Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables

Research Hypothesis Example 1 The greater number of coal plants in a region (independent variable) increases water pollution (dependent variable). If you change the independent variable (building more coal factories), it will change the dependent variable (amount of water pollution).
Research Hypothesis Example 2 What is the effect of diet or regular soda (independent variable) on blood sugar levels (dependent variable)? If you change the independent variable (the type of soda you consume), it will change the dependent variable (blood sugar levels)

You should not ignore the importance of the above steps. The validity of your experiment and its results rely on a robust testable hypothesis. Developing a strong testable hypothesis has few advantages, it compels us to think intensely and specifically about the outcomes of a study. Consequently, it enables us to understand the implication of the question and the different variables involved in the study. Furthermore, it helps us to make precise predictions based on prior research. Hence, forming a hypothesis would be of great value to the research. Here are some good examples of testable hypotheses.

More importantly, you need to build a robust testable research hypothesis for your scientific experiments. A testable hypothesis is a hypothesis that can be proved or disproved as a result of experimentation.

## Importance of a Testable Hypothesis

To devise and perform an experiment using scientific method, you need to make sure that your hypothesis is testable. To be considered testable, some essential criteria must be met:

• There must be a possibility to prove that the hypothesis is true.
• There must be a possibility to prove that the hypothesis is false.
• The results of the hypothesis must be reproducible.

Without these criteria, the hypothesis and the results will be vague. As a result, the experiment will not prove or disprove anything significant.

What are your experiences with building hypotheses for scientific experiments? What challenges did you face? How did you overcome these challenges? Please share your thoughts with us in the comments section.

The steps to write a research hypothesis are: 1. Stating the problem: Ensure that the hypothesis defines the research problem 2. Writing a hypothesis as an 'if-then' statement: Include the action and the expected outcome of your study by following a ‘if-then’ structure. 3. Defining the variables: Define the variables as Dependent or Independent based on their dependency to other factors. 4. Scrutinizing the hypothesis: Identify the type of your hypothesis

Hypothesis testing is a statistical tool which is used to make inferences about a population data to draw conclusions for a particular hypothesis.

Hypothesis in statistics is a formal statement about the nature of a population within a structured framework of a statistical model. It is used to test an existing hypothesis by studying a population.

Research hypothesis is a statement that introduces a research question and proposes an expected result. It forms the basis of scientific experiments.

The different types of hypothesis in research are: • Null hypothesis: Null hypothesis is a negative statement to support the researcher’s findings that there is no relationship between two variables. • Alternate hypothesis: Alternate hypothesis predicts the relationship between the two variables of the study. • Directional hypothesis: Directional hypothesis specifies the expected direction to be followed to determine the relationship between variables. • Non-directional hypothesis: Non-directional hypothesis does not predict the exact direction or nature of the relationship between the two variables. • Simple hypothesis: Simple hypothesis predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable. • Complex hypothesis: Complex hypothesis predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables. • Associative and casual hypothesis: Associative and casual hypothesis predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables. • Empirical hypothesis: Empirical hypothesis can be tested via experiments and observation. • Statistical hypothesis: A statistical hypothesis utilizes statistical models to draw conclusions about broader populations.

Wow! You really simplified your explanation that even dummies would find it easy to comprehend. Thank you so much.

Thanks a lot for your valuable guidance.

I enjoy reading the post. Hypotheses are actually an intrinsic part in a study. It bridges the research question and the methodology of the study.

Useful piece!

This is awesome.Wow.

It very interesting to read the topic, can you guide me any specific example of hypothesis process establish throw the Demand and supply of the specific product in market

Nicely explained

It is really a useful for me Kindly give some examples of hypothesis

It was a well explained content ,can you please give me an example with the null and alternative hypothesis illustrated

clear and concise. thanks.

So Good so Amazing

Good to learn

Thanks a lot for explaining to my level of understanding

Explained well and in simple terms. Quick read! Thank you

It awesome. It has really positioned me in my research project

## Enago Academy's Most Popular Articles

• Reporting Research

## Choosing the Right Analytical Approach: Thematic analysis vs. content analysis for data interpretation

In research, choosing the right approach to understand data is crucial for deriving meaningful insights.…

## Comparing Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Studies: 5 steps for choosing the right approach

The process of choosing the right research design can put ourselves at the crossroads of…

• Industry News

## COPE Forum Discussion Highlights Challenges and Urges Clarity in Institutional Authorship Standards

The COPE forum discussion held in December 2023 initiated with a fundamental question — is…

• Career Corner

## Unlocking the Power of Networking in Academic Conferences

Research Recommendations – Guiding policy-makers for evidence-based decision making

Research recommendations play a crucial role in guiding scholars and researchers toward fruitful avenues of…

Choosing the Right Analytical Approach: Thematic analysis vs. content analysis for…

Comparing Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Studies: 5 steps for choosing the right…

How to Design Effective Research Questionnaires for Robust Findings

• 2000+ blog articles
• 50+ Webinars
• 10+ Expert podcasts
• 50+ Infographics
• 10+ Checklists
• Research Guides

We hate spam too. We promise to protect your privacy and never spam you.

I am looking for Editing/ Proofreading services for my manuscript Tentative date of next journal submission:

In your opinion, what is the most effective way to improve integrity in the peer review process?

## Tim van Gelder

Epistemology is everywhere.

ACH , Analysis of Competing Hypotheses , Hypothesis mapping , Hypothesis Testing

## Hypothesis Investigation – overview

Hypothesis investigation (short for “hypothesis-based investigation”) is simply attempting to determine “what is going on” in some situation by assessing various hypotheses or “guesses”.  The goal is to determine which hypothesis is most likely to be true.

Hypothesis investigation can concern

• Factual situations – e.g. what are current Saudi oil reserves?
• Causes – e.g. what killed the dinosaurs?
• Functions or roles – e.g. what was the Antikythera mechanism for?
• Future events – e.g. how will the economy be affected by Peak Oil?
• States of mind – e.g. what are the enemy planning to do?
• Perpetrators – e.g. Who murdered Professor Plum?

Most investigation is to some extent hypothesis-based.  The exception is situations where the outcome is pre-determined in some way (e.g., a political show trial) and the point of the investigation is simply to amass evidence supporting that determination.

A related, though subtly different notion is that of “hypothesis driven investigation” (Rasiel, 1999), in which a single hypothesis is selected relatively early in the process, and most effort is then devoted to substantiating this hypothesis.   It is hypothesis-based investigation with all attention focused on one guess, at least while not forced to reject it and consider another.

Hypothesis investigation is comprised of three main activities

• Hypothesis generation  – coming up with hypotheses;
• Hypothesis evaluation – assessing relative plausibility of hypotheses given the available evidence; and
• Hypothesis testing – seeking further evidence.

## Traps in Hypothesis Investigation

Hypothesis investigation fails, at its simplest, when we get (take as true) the wrong hypothesis.  This can have dismal consequences if costly actions are then taken.  Hypothesis investigation also fails when

• there is misplaced or excessive confidence in a hypothesis (even if it happens to be correct);
•  no conclusion is reached, when more careful investigation might have revealed that one hypothesis was most plausible.

There are three main traps leading to these failures.

## Tunnel vision

Not considering the full range of reasonable hypotheses.   Lots of effort is put into investigating one or a few hypotheses, usually obvious ones, while other possibilities are not considered at all.  All too often one of those others is in fact the right one.

## Abusing the evidence

Here the evidence already at hand is not evaluated properly, leading to erroneous assessments of the plausibility of hypotheses.

A particular item of evidence might be regarded as stronger or more significant than it really is, especially if it appears to support your preferred hypothesis.  Conversely, a “negative” piece of evidence – one that directly undercuts your preferred hypothesis, or appears to strongly support another – is regarded as weak or worthless.

Further, the whole body of evidence bearing upon a hypothesis might be mis-rated.  A few scraps of dismal evidence might be taken as collectively amounting to a strong case.

## Looking in the wrong places

When seeking additional evidence, you instinctively look for information that in fact is useless or at least not very helpful in terms of helping you determine the truth.

In particular we are prone to “confirmation bias,” which is seeking information that would lend weight to our favoured hypothesis.  We tend to think that by accumulating lots of such supporting evidence, we’re rigorously testing the hypothesis.  But this is a classic mistake. We need to know not only that there’s lots of evidence consistent with our favoured hypothesis, but also that there is evidence inconsistent with alternatives.   You need to seek the right kind of evidence in relation to your whole hypothesis set, rather than just lots of evidence consistent with one hypothesis.

This can have two unfortunate consequences.  The search may be

• Ineffective – you never find evidnce which could have very strongly ruled one or more hypotheses “in” or “out”.
• Inefficient – the hypothesis testing process may take much more time and resources than it really should have.

We fall for these traps because of basic facts of human psychology, hard-wired “features” of our thinking tracing back to our evolutionary origins as hunter-gatherers in small tribal units:

• We dislike disorder, confusion and uncertainty.  Our brains strive to find the simple pattern that makes sense of a complex or noisy reality.
• We don’t like changing our minds.  We find it easier to stick with our current opinion than to upend things and take  Further, we have undue preference for hypotheses that are consistent with our general background beliefs, and so don’t force us to question or modify those beliefs.
• We become emotionally engaged in the issues, and build affection for one hypothesis and loathing for others.   Hypothesis investigation becomes a matter of protecting one’s young rather than culling the pack (Chamberlin, 1965).
• Social pressure.  We become publicly committed to a position, and feel that changing our minds would mean losing face.

And of course we are frequently under time pressure, exacerbating the above tendencies.

## General Guidelines for Good Hypothesis Investigation

Canvass a wide range of hypotheses.

Our natural tendency is to grab hold of the first plausible hypothesis that comes to mind and start shaking it hard.  This should be resisted.  From the outset you should canvass as wide a range of hypotheses as you reasonably can.  It is impossible to canvass all hypotheses and absurd to even try ( Maybe 9/11 was the work of the Jasper County Beekeepers! ).   But you can and should keep in mind a broad selection of hypotheses, including at least some “long shots.”   In generating this hypothesis set, diversity is at least as important as quantity.

You should continue seeking additional hypotheses throughout the investigation.   Incoming information can suggest interesting new possibilities, but only if you’re in a suitably “suggestible” state of mind.

## Actively investigate multiple hypotheses

At any given time you should keep a number of hypotheses “in play”.   In hypothesis testing, i.e. seeking new information, you should seek information which discriminates which will be “telling” in relation to multiple hypotheses at once.

## Seek disconfirming evidence       Instead of trying to prove that some hypothesis is correct, you should be trying to prove that it is false.   As philosopher Karl Popper famously observed, the best hypotheses are those that survive numerous attempts at refutation.   Ideally, you should seek to disconfirm multiple hypotheses at the same.   This can be easier if your hypothesis set is hierarchically organised, allowing you to seek evidence knocking out whole groups of hypotheses at a time.

Instead of trying to prove that some hypothesis is correct, you should be trying to prove that it is false.   As philosopher Karl Popper famously observed, the best hypotheses are those that survive numerous attempts at refutation.

Ideally, you should seek to disconfirm multiple hypotheses at the same.   This can be easier if your hypothesis set is hierarchically organised, allowing you to seek evidence knocking out whole groups of hypotheses at a time.

## Structured methodologies.

Some methodologies have been developed to help with hypothesis investigation.  The methodologies have some important advantages over proceeding in an “intuitive” or spontaneous fashion.

• They are designed to help us avoid the traps, and do so by building in, to some extent, the general guidelines above.
• They provide distinctive external representations which help us organize and comprehend the hypothesis sets and the evidence.   These external representations reduce the cognitive load involved in keeping lots of information related in complex ways in our heads.

Some structured methodologies are:

• Analysis of Competing Hypotheses (Heuer, 1999), designed especially for intelligence analysis
• Hypothesis Mapping
• Root Cause Analysis

## 4 thoughts on “ Hypothesis Investigation – overview ”

The point there is misplaced or excessive confidence in a hypothesis (even if it happens to be correct) could do with a little extra explication–why is excessive confidence in a correct hypothesis a problem?

‘evidence’ is misspelled.

There are some words missing from We find it easier to stick with our current opinion than to upend things and take Further,

But it seems nice and clear otherwise.

It’s only peripherally related, but you might be interested in this latest twist on second-guessing yourself.

I like the title too: “You know more than you think” http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=you-know-more-than-you-think

cheers, RdR

I would argue for a activity between 2 and 3 above – “hypothesis framing”, in which the hypothesis is expressed in such a way that it can be tested.

Hi, nice job! Like the lack of jargon :)

Hope my comment does not lead you the other direction, but you may want to take a look at the literature on “abduction,” a term coined by philosopher Charles Pierce, if you have not already.

Abduction is defined by most as the process of generating hypotheses or generating and evaluating hypotheses.

There is a diverse set of academic literature that touches on abduction, including philosophy, the history of science (e.g., scientific discovery), management (e.g., product development), and healthcare (e.g., medical diagnosis).

I dug into this pretty deep so if you have any follow up questions, pls feel free to ping me.

Regards, Michael

• Subscribe Subscribed
• Report this content
• Manage subscriptions
• Collapse this bar
• Scientific Methods

## What is Hypothesis?

We have heard of many hypotheses which have led to great inventions in science. Assumptions that are made on the basis of some evidence are known as hypotheses. In this article, let us learn in detail about the hypothesis and the type of hypothesis with examples.

A hypothesis is an assumption that is made based on some evidence. This is the initial point of any investigation that translates the research questions into predictions. It includes components like variables, population and the relation between the variables. A research hypothesis is a hypothesis that is used to test the relationship between two or more variables.

## Characteristics of Hypothesis

Following are the characteristics of the hypothesis:

• The hypothesis should be clear and precise to consider it to be reliable.
• If the hypothesis is a relational hypothesis, then it should be stating the relationship between variables.
• The hypothesis must be specific and should have scope for conducting more tests.
• The way of explanation of the hypothesis must be very simple and it should also be understood that the simplicity of the hypothesis is not related to its significance.

## Sources of Hypothesis

Following are the sources of hypothesis:

• The resemblance between the phenomenon.
• Observations from past studies, present-day experiences and from the competitors.
• Scientific theories.
• General patterns that influence the thinking process of people.

## Types of Hypothesis

There are six forms of hypothesis and they are:

• Simple hypothesis
• Complex hypothesis
• Directional hypothesis
• Non-directional hypothesis
• Null hypothesis
• Associative and casual hypothesis

## Simple Hypothesis

It shows a relationship between one dependent variable and a single independent variable. For example – If you eat more vegetables, you will lose weight faster. Here, eating more vegetables is an independent variable, while losing weight is the dependent variable.

## Complex Hypothesis

It shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more independent variables. Eating more vegetables and fruits leads to weight loss, glowing skin, and reduces the risk of many diseases such as heart disease.

## Directional Hypothesis

It shows how a researcher is intellectual and committed to a particular outcome. The relationship between the variables can also predict its nature. For example- children aged four years eating proper food over a five-year period are having higher IQ levels than children not having a proper meal. This shows the effect and direction of the effect.

## Non-directional Hypothesis

It is used when there is no theory involved. It is a statement that a relationship exists between two variables, without predicting the exact nature (direction) of the relationship.

## Null Hypothesis

It provides a statement which is contrary to the hypothesis. It’s a negative statement, and there is no relationship between independent and dependent variables. The symbol is denoted by “H O ”.

## Associative and Causal Hypothesis

Associative hypothesis occurs when there is a change in one variable resulting in a change in the other variable. Whereas, the causal hypothesis proposes a cause and effect interaction between two or more variables.

## Examples of Hypothesis

Following are the examples of hypotheses based on their types:

• Consumption of sugary drinks every day leads to obesity is an example of a simple hypothesis.
• All lilies have the same number of petals is an example of a null hypothesis.
• If a person gets 7 hours of sleep, then he will feel less fatigue than if he sleeps less. It is an example of a directional hypothesis.

## Functions of Hypothesis

Following are the functions performed by the hypothesis:

• Hypothesis helps in making an observation and experiments possible.
• It becomes the start point for the investigation.
• Hypothesis helps in verifying the observations.
• It helps in directing the inquiries in the right direction.

## How will Hypothesis help in the Scientific Method?

Researchers use hypotheses to put down their thoughts directing how the experiment would take place. Following are the steps that are involved in the scientific method:

• Formation of question
• Doing background research
• Creation of hypothesis
• Designing an experiment
• Collection of data
• Result analysis
• Summarizing the experiment
• Communicating the results

## Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

What is hypothesis.

A hypothesis is an assumption made based on some evidence.

## Give an example of simple hypothesis?

What are the types of hypothesis.

Types of hypothesis are:

• Associative and Casual hypothesis

## State true or false: Hypothesis is the initial point of any investigation that translates the research questions into a prediction.

Define complex hypothesis..

A complex hypothesis shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more independent variables.

Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin!

Select the correct answer and click on the “Finish” button Check your score and answers at the end of the quiz

Visit BYJU’S for all Physics related queries and study materials

Request OTP on Voice Call

Post My Comment

Register with byju's & watch live videos.

• Publications
• Conferences & Events
• Professional Learning
• Science Standards
• Awards & Competitions
• Instructional Materials
• Free Resources
• American Rescue Plan
• For Preservice Teachers
• NCCSTS Case Collection
• Science and STEM Education Jobs
• Interactive eBooks+
• Digital Catalog
• Regional Product Representatives
• Bestselling Books
• Latest Books
• Popular Book Series
• Submit Book Proposal
• Web Seminars
• National Conference • New Orleans 24
• Leaders Institute • New Orleans 24
• Submit a Proposal
• Conference Reviewers
• Past Conferences
• Latest Resources
• Professional Learning Units & Courses
• For Districts
• Online Course Providers
• Schools & Districts
• College Professors & Students
• The Standards
• eCYBERMISSION
• Toshiba/NSTA ExploraVision
• Junior Science & Humanities Symposium
• Teaching Awards
• Climate Change
• Earth & Space Science
• New Science Teachers
• Early Childhood
• Middle School
• High School
• Postsecondary
• Informal Education
• Journal Articles
• Lesson Plans
• Science & Children
• Science Scope
• The Science Teacher
• Journal of College Sci. Teaching
• Connected Science Learning
• NSTA Reports
• Next-Gen Navigator
• Science Update
• Teacher Tip Tuesday
• Trans. Sci. Learning

## MyNSTA Community

• My Collections

Formative Assessment Probe

## What Is a Hypothesis?

By Page Keeley

Uncovering Student Ideas in Science, Volume 3: Another 25 Formative Assessment Probes

Share Discuss

This is the new updated edition of the first book in the bestselling  Uncovering Student Ideas in Science  series. Like the first edition of volume 1, this book helps pinpoint what your students know (or think they know) so you can monitor their learning and adjust your teaching accordingly. Loaded with classroom-friendly features you can use immediately, the book includes 25 “probes”—brief, easily administered formative assessments designed to understand your students’ thinking about 60 core science concepts.

Access this probe as a Google form:  English

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students’ ideas about hypotheses. The probe is designed to find out if students understand what a hypothesis is, when it is used, and how it is developed.

Justified List

## Related Concepts

hypothesis, nature of science, scientific inquiry, scientific method

## Explanation

The best choices are A, B, G, K, L, and M. However, other possible answers open up discussions to contrast with the provided definition. A hypothesis is a tentative explanation that can be tested and is based on observation and/or scientific knowledge such as that that has been gained from doing background research. Hypotheses are used to investigate a scientific question. Hypotheses can be tested through experimentation or further observation, but contrary to how some students are taught to use the “scientific method,” hypotheses are not proved true or correct. Students will often state their conclusions as “My hypothesis is correct because my data prove…,” thereby equating positive results with proof (McLaughlin 2006, p. 61). In essence, experimentation as well as other means of scientific investigation never prove a hypothesis—the hypothesis gains credibility from the evidence obtained from data that support it. Data either support or negate a hypothesis but never prove something to be 100% true or correct.

Hypotheses are often confused with questions. A hypothesis is not framed as a question but rather provides a tentative explanation in response to the scientific question that leads the investigation. Sometimes the word hypothesis is oversimplified by being defined as “an educated guess.” This terminology fails to convey the explanatory or predictive nature of scientific hypotheses and omits what is most important about hypotheses: their purpose. Hypotheses are developed to explain observations, such as notable patterns in nature; predict the outcome of an experiment based on observations or prior scientific knowledge; and guide the investigator in seeking and paying attention to the right data. Calling a hypothesis a “guess” undermines the explanation that underscores a hypothesis.

Predictions and hypotheses are not the same. A hypothesis, which is a tentative explanation, can lead to a prediction. Predictions forecast the outcome of an experiment but do not include an explanation. Predictions often use if-then statements, just as hypotheses do, but this does not make a prediction a hypothesis. For example, a prediction might take the form of, “If I do [X], then [Y] will happen.” The prediction describes the outcome but it does not provide an explanation of why that outcome might result or describe any relationship between variables.

Sometimes the words hypothesis , theory , and law are inaccurately portrayed in science textbooks as a hierarchy of scientific knowledge, with the hypothesis being the first step on the way to becoming a theory and then a law. These concepts do not form a sequence for the development of scientific knowledge because each represents a different type of knowledge.

Not every investigation requires a hypothesis. Some types of investigations do not lend themselves to hypothesis testing through experimentation. A good deal of science is observational and descriptive—the study of biodiversity, for example, usually involves looking at a wide variety of specimens and maybe sketching and recording their unique characteristics. A biologist studying biodiversity might wonder, “What types of birds are found on island X?” The biologist would observe sightings of birds and perhaps sketch them and record their bird calls but would not be guided by a specific hypothesis. Many of the great discoveries in science did not begin with a hypothesis in mind. For example, Charles Darwin did not begin his observations of species in the Galapagos with a hypothesis in mind.

Contrary to the way hypotheses are often stated by students as an unimaginative response to a question posed at the beginning of an experiment, particularly those of the “cookbook” type, the generation of hypotheses by scientists is actually a creative and imaginative process, combined with the logic of scientific thought. “The process of formulating and testing hypotheses is one of the core activities of scientists. To be useful, a hypothesis should suggest what evidence would support it and what evidence would refute it. A hypothesis that cannot in principle be put to the test of evidence may be interesting, but it is not likely to be scientifically useful” (AAAS 1988, p. 5).

## Curricular and Instructional Considerations

Elementary Students

In the elementary school grades, students typically engage in inquiry to begin to construct an understanding of the natural world. Their inquiries are initiated by a question. If students have a great deal of knowledge or have made prior observations, they might propose a hypothesis; in most cases, however, their knowledge and observations are too incomplete for them to hypothesize. If elementary school students are required to develop a hypothesis, it is often just a guess, which does little to contribute to an understanding of the purpose of a hypothesis. At this grade level, it is usually sufficient for students to focus on their questions, instead of hypotheses (Pine 1999).

Middle School Students

At the middle school level, students develop an understanding of what a hypothesis is and when one is used. The notion of a testable hypothesis through experimentation that involves variables is introduced and practiced at this grade level. However, there is a danger that students will think every investigation must include a hypothesis. Hypothesizing as a skill is important to develop at this grade level but it is also important to develop the understandings of what a hypothesis is and why and how it is developed.

High School Students

At this level, students have acquired more scientific knowledge and experiences and so are able to propose tentative explanations. They can formulate a testable hypothesis and demonstrate the logical connections between the scientific concepts guiding a hypothesis and the design of an experiment (NRC 1996).

This probe is best used as is at the middle school and high school levels, particularly if students have been previously exposed to the word hypothesis or its use. Remove any answer choices students might not be familiar with. For example, if they have not encountered if-then reasoning, eliminate this distracter. The probe can also be modified as a simpler version for students in grades 3–5 by leaving out some of the choices and simplifying the descriptions.

• Scientists develop explanations using observations (evidence) and what they already know about the world (scientific knowledge).

• Different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of investigations. Some investigations involve observing and describing objects, organisms, or events; some involve collecting specimens; some involve experiments; some involve seeking more information; some involve discovery of new objects and phenomena; and some involve making models.
• Current scientific knowledge and understanding guide scientific investigations. Different scientific domains employ different methods, core theories, and standards to advance scientific knowledge and understanding.

5–8 Science as a Human Endeavor

• Science is very much a human endeavor, and the work of science relies on basic human qualities such as reasoning, insight, energy, skill, and creativity.

9–12 Abilities Necessary to Do Scientific Inquiry

• Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations.*

• Scientists usually inquire about how physical, living, or designed systems function. Conceptual principles and knowledge guide scientific inquiries. Historical and current scientific knowledge influence the design and interpretation of investigations and the evaluation of proposed explanations made by other scientists.

*Indicates a strong match between the ideas elicited by the probe and a national standard’s learning goal.

K–2 Scientific Inquiry

• People can often learn about things around them by just observing those things carefully, but sometimes they can learn more by doing something to the things and noting what happens.

3–5 Scientific Inquiry

• Scientists’ explanations about what happens in the world come partly from what they observe and partly from what they think. Sometimes scientists have different explanations for the same set of observations. That usually leads to their making more observations to resolve the differences.

6–8 Scientific Inquiry

• Scientists differ greatly in what phenomena they study and how they go about their work. Although there is no fixed set of steps that all scientists follow, scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected evidence.*

6–8 Values and Attitudes

• Even if they turn out not to be true, hypotheses are valuable if they lead to fruitful investigations.*

9–12 Scientific Inquiry

• Hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek and for guiding the interpretation of the data (both new and previously available).*

## Related Research

• Students generally have difficulty with explaining how science is conducted because they have had little contact with real scientists. Their familiarity with doing science, even at older ages, is “school science,” which is often not how science is generally conducted in the scientific community (Driver et al. 1996).
• Despite over 10 years of reform efforts in science education, research still shows that students typically have inadequate conceptions of what science is and what scientists do (Schwartz 2007).
• Upper elementary school and middle school students may not understand experimentation as a method of testing ideas, but rather as a method of trying things out or producing a desired outcome (AAAS 1993).
• Middle school students tend to invoke personal experiences as evidence to justify their hypothesis. They seem to think of evidence as selected from what is already known or from personal experience or secondhand sources, not as information produced through experiment (AAAS 1993).

## Related NSTA Resources

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 1993. Benchmarks for science literacy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Keeley, P. 2005. Science curriculum topic study: Bridging the gap between standards and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

McLaughlin, J. 2006. A gentle reminder that a hypothesis is never proven correct, nor is a theory ever proven true. Journal of College Science Teaching 36 (1): 60–62.

National Research Council (NRC). 1996. National science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Schwartz, R. 2007. What’s in a word? How word choice can develop (mis)conceptions about the nature of science. Science Scope 31 (2): 42–47.

VanDorn, K., M. Mavita, L. Montes, B. Ackerson, and M. Rockley. 2004. Hypothesis-based learning. Science Scope 27: 24–25.

## Suggestions for Instruction and Assessment

• The “scientific method” is often the first topic students encounter when using textbooks and this can erroneously imply that there is a rigid set of steps that all scientists follow, including the development of a hypothesis. Often the scientific method described in textbooks applies to experimentation, which is only one of many ways scientists conduct their work. Embedding explicit instruction of the various ways to do science in the actual investigations students do throughout the year as well as in their studies of investigations done by scientists is a better approach to understanding how science is done than starting off the year with the scientific method in a way that is devoid of a context through which students can learn the content and process of science.
• Students often participate in science fairs that may follow a textbook scientific method of posing a question, developing a hypothesis, and so on, that incorrectly results in students “proving” their hypothesis. Make sure students understand that a hypothesis can be disproven, but it is never proven, which implies 100% certainty.
• Help students understand that science begins with a question. The structure of some school lab reports may lead students to believe that all investigations begin with a hypothesis. While some investigations do begin with a hypothesis, in most cases, they begin with a question. Sometimes it is just a general question.
• A technique to help students maintain a consistent image of science as inquiry throughout the year by paying more careful attention to the words they use is to create a “caution words” poster or bulletin board (Schwartz 2007). Important words that have specific meanings in science but are often used inappropriately in the science classroom and through everyday language can be posted in the room as a reminder to pay careful attention to how students are using these words. For example, words like hypothesis and scientific method can be posted here. Words that are banned when referring to hypotheses include prove, correct, and true.
• Use caution when asking students to write lab reports that use the same format regardless of the type of investigation conducted. The format used in writing about an investigation may imply a rigid, fixed process or erroneously misrepresent aspects of science, such as that hypotheses are developed for every scientific investigation.
• Avoid using hypotheses with younger children when they result in guesses. It is better to start with a question and have students make a prediction about what they think will happen and why. As they acquire more conceptual understanding and experience a variety of observations, they will be better prepared to develop hypotheses that reflect the way science is done.
• Avoid using “educated guess” as a description for hypothesis. The common meaning of the word guess implies no prior knowledge, experience, or observations.
• Scaffold hypothesis writing for students by initially having them use words like may in their statements and then formalizing them with if-then statements. For example, students may start with the statement, “The growth of algae may be affected by temperature.” The next step would be to extend this statement to include a testable relationship, such as, “If the temperature of the water increases, then the algae population will increase.” Encourage students to propose a tentative explanation and then consider how they would go about testing the statement.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 1988. Science for all Americans. New York: Oxford University Press.

Driver, R., J. Leach, R. Millar, and P. Scott. 1996. Young people’s images of science. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.

Pine, J. 1999. To hypothesize or not to hypothesize. In Foundations: A monograph for professionals in science, mathematics, and technology education. Vol. 2. Inquiry: Thoughts, views, and strategies for the K–5 classroom. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

Reports Article

Journal Article

Supported by

Guest Essay

## All the Alzheimer’s Research We Didn’t Do

By Charles Piller

Mr. Piller is an investigative journalist for Science magazine and the author of a forthcoming book on fraud in Alzheimer’s research.

What if a preposterous failed treatment for Covid-19 — the arthritis drug hydroxychloroquine — could successfully treat another dreaded disease, Alzheimer’s?

Dr. Madhav Thambisetty, a neurologist at the National Institute on Aging, thinks the drug’s suppression of inflammation, commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, might provide surprising benefits for dementia.

It’s an intriguing idea. Unfortunately, we won’t know for quite a while, if ever, whether Dr. Thambisetty is right. That’s because unconventional ideas that do not offer fealty to the dominant approach to study and treat Alzheimer’s — what’s known as the amyloid hypothesis — often find themselves starved for funds and scientific mind share.

Such shortsighted rigidity may have slowed progress toward a cure — a tragedy for a disease projected to affect more than 11 million people in the United States by 2040.

The amyloid hypothesis holds that sticky plaques and other so-called amyloid-beta proteins build up in the brain and prompt changes that cause Alzheimer’s disease’s cruel decline, gradually stealing a person’s mastery of everyday life, cherished memories and, finally, their sense of self.

In the early 1990s, legions of researchers began to sign on to the idea that removing amyloid from the brain could stop or reverse that process. But anti-amyloid drugs failed time and again. Then, in 2006, an animal experiment published in the journal Nature identified a specific type of amyloid protein as the first substance found in brain tissue to directly cause symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s. Top scientists called it a breakthrough that provided a key target for treatments. The paper became one of the most cited in the field, and funds to explore similar proteins skyrocketed.

We are having trouble retrieving the article content.

Thank you for your patience while we verify access.

Want all of The Times?  Subscribe .

## Computer Science > Computation and Language

Title: explainable biomedical hypothesis generation via retrieval augmented generation enabled large language models.

Abstract: The vast amount of biomedical information available today presents a significant challenge for investigators seeking to digest, process, and understand these findings effectively. Large Language Models (LLMs) have emerged as powerful tools to navigate this complex and challenging data landscape. However, LLMs may lead to hallucinatory responses, making Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) crucial for achieving accurate information. In this protocol, we present RUGGED (Retrieval Under Graph-Guided Explainable disease Distinction), a comprehensive workflow designed to support investigators with knowledge integration and hypothesis generation, identifying validated paths forward. Relevant biomedical information from publications and knowledge bases are reviewed, integrated, and extracted via text-mining association analysis and explainable graph prediction models on disease nodes, forecasting potential links among drugs and diseases. These analyses, along with biomedical texts, are integrated into a framework that facilitates user-directed mechanism elucidation as well as hypothesis exploration through RAG-enabled LLMs. A clinical use-case demonstrates RUGGED's ability to evaluate and recommend therapeutics for Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy (ACM) and Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM), analyzing prescribed drugs for molecular interactions and unexplored uses. The platform minimizes LLM hallucinations, offers actionable insights, and improves the investigation of novel therapeutics.
 Subjects: Computation and Language (cs.CL); Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI) Cite as: [cs.CL] (or [cs.CL] for this version)

## Submission history

Access paper:.

• Other Formats

## References & Citations

• Semantic Scholar

## Bibliographic and Citation Tools

Code, data and media associated with this article, recommenders and search tools.

• Institution

## arXivLabs: experimental projects with community collaborators

arXivLabs is a framework that allows collaborators to develop and share new arXiv features directly on our website.

Both individuals and organizations that work with arXivLabs have embraced and accepted our values of openness, community, excellence, and user data privacy. arXiv is committed to these values and only works with partners that adhere to them.

## Bangkok hotel horror: culprit among 6 foreigners killed by cyanide poisoning, police say

• Thailand has been left reeling after six Vietnamese were found dead in a luxury hotel suite – with a seventh guest missing

Police said on Wednesday that blood tests had found evidence of cyanide in all six of the deceased, and that one of them was responsible for the deaths.

“We would like to confirm that one of the six dead caused this incident using cyanide,” Noppasil Poonsawas, deputy commander of investigations at Bangkok’s Metropolitan Police Bureau said at a press conference. “We are confident one of the six conducted the crime.”

The disturbing case unfolded the night before at the five-star Grand Hyatt Erawan hotel, a popular destination for upscale tourists, celebrities, and dignitaries.

According to authorities, the six Vietnamese victims – three men and three women, two of whom also held American passports – had been dead for roughly 24 hours before a maid stumbled upon the grisly scene on Tuesday afternoon.

Six foreigners killed in suspected poisoning in Thailand hotel

Cyanide was discovered on glasses, a water container and in coffee shared by the victims, police revealed. Meanwhile, relatives of the deceased divulged there had been a money dispute preceding the killings.

“Someone wanted these people dead,” said Thiti Saengsawang, chief of Bangkok’s Metropolitan Police Bureau, noting the suspicious “residues” found in six of the tea cups. “But we are waiting for forensics to prove how.”

The locked hotel room, the untouched room service, and the missing seventh guest have only added to the mystery, sparking a frenzy of speculation on social media – only heightened by erroneous early reports that the six had died in a shoot-out.

Srettha was quick to address the nation as the news broke, reassuring visitors of their safety and characterising the incident as an isolated event. “There were no signs of a struggle,” Srettha earlier told a late-night press conference at the hotel in Pathum Wan district.

Our working hypothesis is there was a seventh Vietnamese person

“Our working hypothesis is there was a seventh Vietnamese person” and the victims were poisoned, he said.

Police revealed that five rooms had been booked for a group of seven Vietnamese guests, but only six bodies were found in the fifth-floor suite – leaving one person unaccounted for and potentially a suspect.

The crime scene’s appearance has fuelled a flurry of conjecture over the motive, from business disputes to outlandish conspiracies. Weerachai Phutdhawong, an assistant professor of chemistry at Bangkok’s Kasetsart University, earlier suggested the evidence pointed to cyanide poisoning.

“The only thing that was fully consumed was the tea, and for whatever liquid substance is in the flask to kick off this fast, it must be cyanide,” Phutdhawong said.

While both Vietnamese and American travellers can visit Thailand without a visa, unconfirmed social media reports suggest one of the deceased had made multiple recent trips to Bangkok. This has only amplified worries about the reputational fallout Thailand may face from a scandal involving the mysterious deaths of foreigners on its soil.

“It is too soon for tourists to be concerned about this, in my opinion,” Chan Holland, a travel agent with Bangkok-based Canary Travel, told This Week in Asia on Wednesday.

“Will this impact tourism of Thailand? Maybe to some degree, but if it is only a one-off it will not affect much because, from what I can see, it is not random. It must have been premeditated and targeted a person or groups.”

Another travel agency based in Bangkok told This Week in Asia that he had received a number of inquiries from travellers late last year following a mass shooting in Bangkok’s Siam Paragon mall in October.

“So far I have received no question about [last night’s] incident. But there were some questions in October about the gun safety. That kind of random shooting can scare tourists.”

As the investigation into the hotel deaths continues, the Thai government finds itself navigating a delicate balancing act – between courting much-needed international tourism and ensuring the safety and security of its visitors.

Additional reporting by Amy Sood, Reuters, Bloomberg and Agence France-Presse

## Information

• Author Services

## Initiatives

All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited. For more information, please refer to https://www.mdpi.com/openaccess .

Feature papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. A Feature Paper should be a substantial original Article that involves several techniques or approaches, provides an outlook for future research directions and describes possible research applications.

Feature papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and must receive positive feedback from the reviewers.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

• Active Journals
• Find a Journal
• Proceedings Series
• For Authors
• For Reviewers
• For Editors
• For Librarians
• For Publishers
• For Societies
• For Conference Organizers
• Open Access Policy
• Institutional Open Access Program
• Special Issues Guidelines
• Editorial Process
• Research and Publication Ethics
• Article Processing Charges
• Testimonials
• Preprints.org
• SciProfiles
• Encyclopedia

• Subscribe SciFeed
• Recommended Articles

Find support for a specific problem in the support section of our website.

Please let us know what you think of our products and services.

## JSmol Viewer

Investigation of the deformation behavior of baffle structures impacted by debris flow based on physical modelling.

## Share and Cite

Chen, W.; Zhang, B.; Xu, N.; Huang, Y. Investigation of the Deformation Behavior of Baffle Structures Impacted by Debris Flow Based on Physical Modelling. Water 2024 , 16 , 2046. https://doi.org/10.3390/w16142046

Chen W, Zhang B, Xu N, Huang Y. Investigation of the Deformation Behavior of Baffle Structures Impacted by Debris Flow Based on Physical Modelling. Water . 2024; 16(14):2046. https://doi.org/10.3390/w16142046

Chen, Weizhi, Bei Zhang, Na Xu, and Yu Huang. 2024. "Investigation of the Deformation Behavior of Baffle Structures Impacted by Debris Flow Based on Physical Modelling" Water 16, no. 14: 2046. https://doi.org/10.3390/w16142046

## Article Metrics

Article access statistics, further information, mdpi initiatives, follow mdpi.

• History Classics
• Find History on Facebook (Opens in a new window)
• Find History on Twitter (Opens in a new window)
• Find History on YouTube (Opens in a new window)
• Find History on Instagram (Opens in a new window)
• Find History on TikTok (Opens in a new window)
• This Day In History
• History Podcasts
• History Vault

## A Volcanic Eruption Wasn’t the Only Disaster That Destroyed Pompeii

By: Dave Roos

Updated: July 17, 2024 | Original: July 18, 2024

Pliny the Younger was just a teenager when he witnessed the total destruction of Pompeii by the devastating eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in A.D. 79. His uncle died in the historic eruption, and Pliny’s descriptions of the event in letters to the Roman historian Tacitus are the only surviving eyewitness accounts of one of the largest and deadliest volcanic eruptions of the ancient world.

Most of the estimated 2,000 deaths at Pompeii occurred on the second day of the eruption, when the top of Vesuvius collapsed and an avalanche of raging-hot volcanic material tore through the city. This fast-moving wall of hot rock and ash, known as pyroclastic flow, killed with both heat and sheer force. The famous plaster casts of Pompeii’s victims are so lifelike because they were buried and killed almost instantly.

But it’s also likely that some of the victims at Pompeii weren’t killed by the volcano itself. According to Pliny, the eruption of Vesuvius was also accompanied by earthquakes—and now evidence confirms that powerful earthquakes did, in fact, rattle Pompeii following the eruption.

## Pliny Reported Earthquakes—Now Confirmed

Pliny was 18 miles away from Vesuvius and he describes violent earthquakes that struck overnight and again at dawn of the second day. “[The] earthquakes… that night became so intense that everything seemed not only to be shaken but overturning,” wrote Pliny. “It was the first hour of the day, but the light was still faint and weak.…the chariots we had ordered to be brought out, though on a level ground, were shaken back and forth and did not remain steady in their places even wedged with stones.”

Until now, there’s been no clear archeological evidence at Pompeii of deaths caused by Vesuvian earthquakes alone, because the devastation of the pyroclastic flow made it nearly impossible to distinguish between seismological and volcanic damage.

But a team of scientists in Italy found compelling evidence at Pompeii of deaths from an earthquake-induced building collapse, not heat or asphyxiation. The discovery not only confirms Pliny’s 2,000-year-old account, but may rewrite the story of why so many people perished at Pompeii.

## Three Phases of Destruction

Until this discovery, published in Frontiers in Earth Science , the conventional archeological account of the deadly Vesuvius eruption was that it occurred in two distinct phases.

Around 1 p.m. on the first day, Vesuvius erupted with a massive explosion, ejecting a column of volcanic material nearly 20 miles into the sky. (This particular type of eruption is called a “Plinian” eruption, named after Pliny the Younger’s detailed description of the volcanic event.) During the first phase of the eruption, material rained down on Pompeii in the form of pumice lapilli, tiny lightweight stones formed from bits of expelled lava rapidly cooling in the air.

“Pumice lapilli isn’t very hot, but it rained down for 18 hours straight and accumulated to depths of up to three meters (nine feet),” says Domenico Sparice, an Italian volcanologist and co-author of the Frontiers paper. “The weight of the pumice lapilli deposits caused roofs in Pompeii to collapse and many people died as a consequence during that first phase.”

For those who survived the long night, there was a brief respite shortly before dawn on the second day. For about half an hour, the storm of pumice stones stopped. Some of the survivors of the first phase may have crawled out their second-floor windows onto streets covered in loose rock and ash, and attempted to flee the city. Others hunkered down in their homes waiting to be rescued.

“They may have thought that the worst was over,” says Sparice, “but it was not.”

With another earth-shaking eruption, the second phase began. This time, it wasn’t a shower of lightweight rocks, but a searing wall of death moving at the speed of a freight train. Whether in the streets or in their homes, the unwitting citizens of Pompeii had no chance of surviving the pyroclastic flow.

“It’s like a hot avalanche of volcanic material,” says Sparice. “It’s a mixture of gas and volcanic particles moving at a high speed and high temperature on the ground.”

In as quickly as 15 minutes, thousands of Pompeii’s residents died from a mixture of heat, asphyxiation from ash inhalation, and the brute force of the pyroclastic avalanche, which toppled walls and collapsed entire buildings.

Sparice and his fellow scientists don’t dispute the claim that the majority of Pompeii’s victims died during the pyroclastic flow phase. But now they have evidence pointing to an important third phase of destruction. Sandwiched between the shower of pumice stones and the pyroclastic flow was a powerful earthquake registering as high as 5.8 on the Richter scale.

## Walls Came Tumbling Down

Pliny described powerful earthquakes striking overnight and in the early hours of the second day, but there was never any clear evidence from the archaeological record that these quakes constituted a third, independent phase of destruction at Pompeii. That’s exactly what Sparice and his team believe they’ve found.

The evidence comes in the form of two sets of human remains discovered in the ruins of Pompeii. The two skeletons were found under a collapsed wall of a home. They appear to be two men in their 50s who suffered multiple severe compression fractures to the rib cage, pelvis, limbs and skull.

According to anthropologists, the men’s injuries aren’t consistent with death from asphyxiation or heat, but from blunt force trauma. In fact, Sparice says, the type of compression trauma that killed both men is almost identical to that of victims found in the wreckage of modern earthquakes.

In most cases where buildings collapsed in Pompeii, they were knocked down by the crushing force of the pyroclastic flow, but the home where the two men died strays from the expected pattern of destruction.

“When a pyroclastic current hits a wall, it completely destroys the wall, or results in overturning or toppling,” says Sparice. “Here, this was not the case.”

By reconstructing the scene, it appears that the heavy wall that killed the men was first horizontally displaced by seismic activity—violent, side-to-side shaking—and then slipped down on top of the victims, crushing them. Another clue is that the collapsed wall was covered with a layer of pumice lapilli. That means that the wall fell while the lightweight rocks were still raining down.

The proposed timing of the wall collapse aligns perfectly with Pliny’s description of the worst shaking around dawn of the second day. The earthquake hit at the tail end of the first eruption phase, when light debris was still falling. That was at least 30 minutes before the arrival of the pyroclastic flow, meaning that these two deaths were caused by an earthquake, not the volcano.

“This is the first time that we found a building collapse that we can confidently associate with earthquakes,” says Sparice, whose team is already looking for more clues of earthquake damage in the historic ruins of Pompeii.

The discovery has led to a new hypothesis about the fate of the 2,000 victims in Pompeii. A number of people likely survived the initial “Plinian” phase, when Vesuvius blew its top and rained down debris on the city below. But their chances of escaping the city before the arrival of the deadly pyroclastic flow were all but erased by a major earthquake that likely toppled untold numbers of buildings across Pompeii.

## HISTORY Vault: Ancient History

From Egypt to Greece, explore fascinating documentaries about the ancient world.

Get HISTORY’s most fascinating stories delivered to your inbox three times a week.

By submitting your information, you agree to receive emails from HISTORY and A+E Networks. You can opt out at any time. You must be 16 years or older and a resident of the United States.

Solicitor General (SG) Tushar Mehta, appearing for the NTA and Centre, contended that there was "no leak" that took place, but a "breach" had happened at “a particular centre, between 8.02 AM to 9.23 AM.” He said, "A person goes in, photographs the paper and comes out," Live Law reported.

To this, the CJI said, "Assuming that happens, according to you that students got papers at 10.15 AM [during exams]. There are 180 questions. Is it possible that between 9.30 and 10.15 there were problem solvers and send them to students in 45 minutes?

CJI: if students got the papers after 10 am.. is it possible that from 9:30 to 10:15 they can solve the paper in 45 minutes and send it to students.. SG: there were 7 paper solvers and they demarcated 25 questions each. CJI: the whole hypothesis that within 45 mins there was… — Bar and Bench (@barandbench) July 18, 2024

The SG claimed that there were seven solvers, and they divided 25 students each. "The questions were jumbled, so students were made to memorise," he added.

"The whole hypothesis that the entire paper was solved in 45 minutes and given to students is too far-fetched," the CJI said. He said even one hour "seem far fetched" after the SG interrupted.

The CJI further observed, "What is worrying us is, how much was the period between the breach occurred and the exam? If the time period is 3 days, obviously there is a greater danger."

"Does somebody pay 75,000 for 45 minutes?," the CJI said

## The scenarios

During the hearing on Thursday, the petitioner's counsel Hooda said the NTA's case is that the question papers were dispatched to the exam centres on April 24 through a private courier company. It reached the State Bank of India (SBI) and Canara banks on May 3.

Chief Justice of India DY Chandrachud said these question papers were sent to the SBI/Canara bank branches in 571 cities.

CJI Chandrachud added there are two possibilities of paper leak. "If it was leaked before it was in the banks...then the leak may have happened before May 3...or the leak happened after the papers were disseminated from banks and is bound for centres...so going by NTA hypothesis...from 8:15 to 10:15 unlikely that leak happened, solved and students memorised it," he said.

## CBI to probe…

The CJI later said that an investigation by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) will reveal as to us when the accused received the question paper. "It will show the time period of leak," he said.

The CJI further noted that "shorter it [the time period is] is, the lesser the chance of widespread leak... like paying 75 lakhs for such a paper leaked 45 minutes ago..."

## Most Active Stocks

Bharat electronics, oil & natural gas corporation, zee entertainment enterprises, market snapshot.

• Top Gainers
• 52 Week High

## India Cements

Endurance technologies, gillette india, trending in market.

• Quarterly Results Calendar
• Petrol Prices
• Diesel Prices
• MCX Gold Price
• Election Results 2024
• Assembly Election Results 2024
• MCX Silver Price
• Silver Price
• NSE TOP Gainers
• NSE TOP Losers
• BSE TOP Gainers
• BSE TOP Losers
• Bank Holidays 2024
• Upcoming IPO 2024
• BSE Q3 Results 2023
• Income Tax Calculator

## Recommended For You

Gold prices, popular in education, neet-ug 2024 paper ’leaked’, solved in 45 min sc flags nta’s ’hypothesis’, neet-ug 24 exam results to be published by july 20 noon, rules supreme court, wait for it….

## Six Colorado workers contracted bird flu, the most human cases in a state

Excessive heat made it hard for poultry workers to wear goggles and masks while culling chickens on a farm with an H5N1 outbreak.

Bird flu has infected six farmworkers in Colorado this month — the most in any state — as health officials stressed the importance of preparedness to contain the H5N1 virus spreading in dairy herds and poultry flocks across the country.

Five of the workers were culling poultry at the same commercial egg-laying farm experiencing an outbreak affecting nearly 2 million chickens, according to Colorado officials.

During a news briefing Tuesday, federal officials said temperatures soaring above 104 degrees made it difficult for workers to wear the required full-body suits, goggles and N95 masks to protect them from the virus.

“The barns in which the culling operations occur were no doubt even hotter,” said Nirav Shah, principal deputy director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Large-scale industrial fans were used to help cool the barns, but they also spread feathers around, which are known to carry virus, he said. The culling method involved extensive interaction with infected birds, requiring workers to put chickens in carts that kill them with carbon dioxide gas.

“The workers were finding it hard to maintain a good seal or a good fit, either between the mask or with eye protection,” Shah said. “This confluence of factors may play a role in explaining why this outbreak occurred, where it did, and when it did.”

The culling on the poultry farm in Weld County involves 160 workers and will continue for another 10 to 14 days to prevent further spread among the flock, said Eric Deeble, a senior official at the U.S. agriculture department overseeing the bird flu response. About 55 poultry workers with symptoms have been tested, Shah said. All were negative for bird flu except for the five workers. Four have been confirmed by the CDC; one presumed positive case is pending confirmation.

An additional 16 symptomatic poultry workers were tested Monday and are awaiting results, according to Colorado health officials.

While more cases may be detected, the risk to the general public remains low, officials said.

Human infection is rare. All U.S. human cases have been linked to direct contact with infected cows or poultry — not spread person to person, officials have said.

H5N1 bird flu is widespread in wild birds worldwide and caused outbreaks in U.S. dairy cows for the first time this spring. Nearly 160 dairy herds have been infected in 13 states, according to the U.S. agriculture department. This strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza is deadly to domestic poultry and can wipe out entire flocks in days. But it causes less severe illness in cows.

Colorado is among the states hit hardest by the virus, with outbreaks in at least 37 dairy herds, including several in Weld County where the poultry workers were infected. Genetic sampling of the virus from chickens at the farm shows the same type of virus found in nearby infected dairy herds, said USDA’s Deeble.

Earlier in July, a Colorado dairy worker was sickened with bird flu after being exposed to cattle infected with the virus. Officials are investigating links between that dairy worker and the five poultry workers.

Across the United States, a total of nine people, including three other dairy workers — two in Michigan and one in Texas — have been infected with H5N1 this year.

Direct exposure to infected birds increases the risk of contracting the disease because birds shed flu viruses in their saliva, mucous and feces. Dairy workers can contract the virus through contaminated milk or equipment.

The genetic sequence of the virus from one of the infected poultry workers may offer more clues about how the virus is spreading, officials said. One part of the virus is the same as that found in the Texas worker and the first Michigan worker, Shah said. One hypothesis is that infected dairy cows from Texas were transported to Michigan and Colorado.

“What may be happening in some limited instances is spread within those very, very tight regional or local areas,” Shah said. “And that would also explain why the virus that we’ve seen is largely the same one, even though it’s popped up in disparate geographies from Michigan to Colorado.”

The CDC is not recommending livestock workers be vaccinated against bird flu because all workers who have contracted the disease reported mild symptoms. The poultry workers experienced eye inflammation and watery eyes along with typical flu symptoms including fever, chills, coughing, sore throat and runny nose, the CDC said. None were hospitalized.

The CDC has not identified any unusual flu trends in laboratory data or emergency department visits at the national, state or local levels, Shah said.

Preliminary analysis of the virus’ genetic sequence from the poultry worker in Colorado does not show any changes in the virus that would increase the severity of illness, ease person-to-person transmission or lessen the effectiveness of Tamiflu treatment, Shah said.

Federal health and agriculture officials have repeatedly emphasized the importance of precautions — such as wearing personal protective equipment — when working with infected animals. Federal and state officials have made supplies available to dairy farm owners but have not required their use.

Federal officials on Tuesday praised Colorado for its planning and response to the outbreak. In May, as dairy herds in the state became infected, the state had requested 5,000 goggles, 300,000 pairs of gloves and 150,000 N95 masks from the federal stockpile. Over the weekend, after testing indicated that the virus had infected the five poultry workers, the state requested 500 courses of Tamiflu. More than 150 workers who had potential exposure to the infected poultry received antiviral medication. State health officials also notified the CDC of worker infections in real time, allowing the agency to send a 10-person bilingual team to assist in the investigation.

Nahid Bhadelia, director of Boston University’s Center on Emerging Infectious Diseases and a former senior adviser on the Biden administration’s White House coronavirus response team, said infectious-disease experts are concerned about what could happen as the virus infects more people, increasing the chances for it to mutate to become more transmissible person-to-person and cause more serious illness.

“So far, yes, the illnesses have not been that severe,” she said. “But it’s only a matter of time before the disease may find somebody who may have medical conditions that could make this a tougher course.”

The Colorado workers are the first cases of H5N1 infection in poultry workers since April 2022, when a prison inmate culling poultry as part of a prerelease employment program became infected with the same strain causing the bird flu outbreak among dairy cows. That worker reported fatigue as the only symptom, was treated with Tamiflu, and recovered.

A previous version of this article misspelled the name of Nahid Bhadelia, director of Boston University’s Center on Emerging Infectious Diseases. The article has been corrected.

1. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

Developing a hypothesis (with example) Step 1. Ask a question. Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project. Example: Research question.

2. What is a Hypothesis

Definition: Hypothesis is an educated guess or proposed explanation for a phenomenon, based on some initial observations or data. It is a tentative statement that can be tested and potentially proven or disproven through further investigation and experimentation. Hypothesis is often used in scientific research to guide the design of experiments ...

3. Hypothesis: Definition, Examples, and Types

A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. It is a preliminary answer to your question that helps guide the research process. Consider a study designed to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and test ...

4. What is a Research Hypothesis: How to Write it, Types, and Examples

It guides the direction of a study and predicts the outcome of the investigation. A research hypothesis is testable, i.e., it can be supported or disproven through experimentation or observation. Characteristics of a good hypothesis Here are the characteristics of a good hypothesis: Clearly formulated and free of language errors and ambiguity

5. Research Hypothesis In Psychology: Types, & Examples

Examples. A research hypothesis, in its plural form "hypotheses," is a specific, testable prediction about the anticipated results of a study, established at its outset. It is a key component of the scientific method. Hypotheses connect theory to data and guide the research process towards expanding scientific understanding.

6. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways. To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable. If a first-year student starts attending more lectures, then their exam scores will improve.

7. Scientific hypothesis

The investigation of scientific hypotheses is an important component in the development of scientific theory.Hence, hypotheses differ fundamentally from theories; whereas the former is a specific tentative explanation and serves as the main tool by which scientists gather data, the latter is a broad general explanation that incorporates data from many different scientific investigations ...

8. Research Hypothesis: Definition, Types, Examples and Quick Tips

3. Simple hypothesis. A simple hypothesis is a statement made to reflect the relation between exactly two variables. One independent and one dependent. Consider the example, "Smoking is a prominent cause of lung cancer." The dependent variable, lung cancer, is dependent on the independent variable, smoking. 4.

9. Hypothesis Testing

There are 5 main steps in hypothesis testing: State your research hypothesis as a null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis (H o) and (H a or H 1 ). Collect data in a way designed to test the hypothesis. Perform an appropriate statistical test. Decide whether to reject or fail to reject your null hypothesis. Present the findings in your results ...

10. What Is a Hypothesis? The Scientific Method

A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for an observation. The definition depends on the subject. In science, a hypothesis is part of the scientific method. It is a prediction or explanation that is tested by an experiment. Observations and experiments may disprove a scientific hypothesis, but can never entirely prove one.

11. How to Write a Hypothesis w/ Strong Examples

It is a starting point for investigation. The value of a hypothesis lies in its ability to be tested. The results of that test are what can potentially contribute to the existing body of scientific knowledge, regardless of whether the hypothesis is supported or refuted by the resulting data.

12. 1.1: Scientific Investigation

Forming a Hypothesis. The next step in a scientific investigation is forming a hypothesis.A hypothesis is a possible answer to a scientific question, but it isn't just any answer. A hypothesis must be based on scientific knowledge, and it must be logical. A hypothesis also must be falsifiable. In other words, it must be possible to make observations that would disprove the hypothesis if it ...

13. The scientific method (article)

The scientific method. At the core of biology and other sciences lies a problem-solving approach called the scientific method. The scientific method has five basic steps, plus one feedback step: Make an observation. Ask a question. Form a hypothesis, or testable explanation. Make a prediction based on the hypothesis.

14. Hypothesis

In statistical hypothesis testing, two hypotheses are compared. These are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the hypothesis that states that there is no relation between the phenomena whose relation is under investigation, or at least not of the form given by the alternative hypothesis.

15. What is a scientific hypothesis?

A scientific hypothesis is a tentative, testable explanation for a phenomenon in the natural world. It's the initial building block in the scientific method. Many describe it as an "educated guess ...

16. Scientific Investigation

The steps in scientific investigation, defined as the scientific method, are: Ask a question. Form a hypothesis. Test the hypothesis. Analyze and interpret data. Draw conclusions.

17. What is a Research Hypothesis and How to Write a Hypothesis

A minor flaw in the construction of your hypothesis could have an adverse effect on your experiment. In research, there is a convention that the hypothesis is written in two forms, the null hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis (called the experimental hypothesis when the method of investigation is an experiment).

18. Hypothesis Examples: Different Types in Science and Research

To form a solid theory, the vital first step is creating a hypothesis. See the various types of hypotheses and how they can lead you on the path to discovery.

19. Hypothesis Investigation

Hypothesis investigation (short for "hypothesis-based investigation") is simply attempting to determine "what is going on" in some situation by assessing various hypotheses or "guesses". The goal is to determine which hypothesis is most likely to be true. Hypothesis investigation can concern.

20. What is Hypothesis

Functions of Hypothesis. Following are the functions performed by the hypothesis: Hypothesis helps in making an observation and experiments possible. It becomes the start point for the investigation. Hypothesis helps in verifying the observations. It helps in directing the inquiries in the right direction.

21. What Is a Hypothesis?

A hypothesis, which is a tentative explanation, can lead to a prediction. Predictions forecast the outcome of an experiment but do not include an explanation. Predictions often use if-then statements, just as hypotheses do, but this does not make a prediction a hypothesis. For example, a prediction might take the form of, "If I do [X], then ...

22. Dark forest hypothesis

The dark forest hypothesis is the conjecture that many alien civilizations exist throughout the universe, but they are both silent and hostile, maintaining their undetectability for fear of being destroyed by another hostile and undetected civilization. It is one of many possible explanations of the Fermi paradox, which contrasts the lack of contact with alien life with the potential for such ...

23. Opinion

The amyloid hypothesis holds that sticky plaques and other so-called amyloid-beta proteins build up in the brain and prompt changes that cause Alzheimer's disease's cruel decline, gradually ...

24. Explainable Biomedical Hypothesis Generation via Retrieval Augmented

The vast amount of biomedical information available today presents a significant challenge for investigators seeking to digest, process, and understand these findings effectively. Large Language Models (LLMs) have emerged as powerful tools to navigate this complex and challenging data landscape. However, LLMs may lead to hallucinatory responses, making Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG ...

25. Bangkok hotel horror: culprit among 6 foreigners killed by cyanide

"Our working hypothesis is there was a seventh Vietnamese person" and the victims were poisoned, he said. ... As the investigation into the hotel deaths continues, the Thai government finds ...

26. Comparing, competing, and the good mum ideology—Maternal well-being in

Hypothesis 1: Social comparison would predict Instagram investment, which would affect well-being. Internalization of the good mother ideology would also mediate a relationship between Instagram investment and parenting well-being. ... Natalie Wolf served as lead for investigation, data curation, writing-original draft, and writing-review ...

27. Water

The utilization of baffle structures as a highly effective strategy for mitigating debris flow has attracted significant scholarly attention in recent years. Although the predominant focus of existing research has been on augmenting the energy dissipation capabilities of baffle structures, their deformation behavior under impact load has not been extensively investigated. Addressing this ...

28. A Volcanic Eruption Wasn't the Only Disaster That Destroyed Pompeii

The discovery has led to a new hypothesis about the fate of the 2,000 victims in Pompeii. A number of people likely survived the initial "Plinian" phase, when Vesuvius blew its top and rained ...

29. NEET-UG 2024 'paper leak': Entire paper solved in 45 minutes? CJI

NEET-UG 2024 exam: Chief Justice of India DY Chandrachud said there were two scenarios for the paper leak and that "the whole hypothesis that the entire paper was solved in 45 minutes and given ...

30. Six Colorado workers contracted bird flu, the most human cases in a

One hypothesis is that infected dairy cows from Texas were transported to Michigan and Colorado. ... allowing the agency to send a 10-person bilingual team to assist in the investigation.