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Essay on Democracy in 100, 300 and 500 Words

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  • Updated on  
  • Jan 15, 2024

Essay on Democracy

The oldest account of democracy can be traced back to 508–507 BCC Athens . Today there are over 50 different types of democracy across the world. But, what is the ideal form of democracy? Why is democracy considered the epitome of freedom and rights around the globe? Let’s explore what self-governance is and how you can write a creative and informative essay on democracy and its significance. 

Today, India is the largest democracy with a population of 1.41 billion and counting. Everyone in India above the age of 18 is given the right to vote and elect their representative. Isn’t it beautiful, when people are given the option to vote for their leader, one that understands their problems and promises to end their miseries? This is just one feature of democracy , for we have a lot of samples for you in the essay on democracy. Stay tuned!

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This Blog Includes:

What is democracy , sample essay on democracy (100 words), sample essay on democracy (250 to 300 words), sample essay on democracy for upsc (500 words).

Democracy is a form of government in which the final authority to deliberate and decide the legislation for the country lies with the people, either directly or through representatives. Within a democracy, the method of decision-making, and the demarcation of citizens vary among countries. However, some fundamental principles of democracy include the rule of law, inclusivity, political deliberations, voting via elections , etc. 

Did you know: On 15th August 1947, India became the world’s largest democracy after adopting the Indian Constitution and granting fundamental rights to its citizens?

Must Explore: Human Rights Courses for Students 

Must Explore: NCERT Notes on Separation of Powers in a Democracy

Democracy where people make decisions for the country is the only known form of governance in the world that promises to inculcate principles of equality, liberty and justice. The deliberations and negotiations to form policies and make decisions for the country are the basis on which the government works, with supreme power to people to choose their representatives, delegate the country’s matters and express their dissent. The democratic system is usually of two types, the presidential system, and the parliamentary system. In India, the three pillars of democracy, namely legislature, executive and judiciary, working independently and still interconnected, along with a free press and media provide a structure for a truly functional democracy. Despite the longest-written constitution incorporating values of sovereignty, socialism, secularism etc. India, like other countries, still faces challenges like corruption, bigotry, and oppression of certain communities and thus, struggles to stay true to its democratic ideals.

essay on democracy

Did you know: Some of the richest countries in the world are democracies?

Must Read : Consumer Rights in India

Must Read: Democracy and Diversity Class 10

As Abraham Lincoln once said, “democracy is the government of the people, by the people and for the people.” There is undeniably no doubt that the core of democracies lies in making people the ultimate decision-makers. With time, the simple definition of democracy has evolved to include other principles like equality, political accountability, rights of the citizens and to an extent, values of liberty and justice. Across the globe, representative democracies are widely prevalent, however, there is a major variation in how democracies are practised. The major two types of representative democracy are presidential and parliamentary forms of democracy. Moreover, not all those who present themselves as a democratic republic follow its values.

Many countries have legally deprived some communities of living with dignity and protecting their liberty, or are practising authoritarian rule through majoritarianism or populist leaders. Despite this, one of the things that are central and basic to all is the practice of elections and voting. However, even in such a case, the principles of universal adult franchise and the practice of free and fair elections are theoretically essential but very limited in practice, for a democracy. Unlike several other nations, India is still, at least constitutionally and principally, a practitioner of an ideal democracy.

With our three organs of the government, namely legislative, executive and judiciary, the constitutional rights to citizens, a multiparty system, laws to curb discrimination and spread the virtues of equality, protection to minorities, and a space for people to discuss, debate and dissent, India has shown a commitment towards democratic values. In recent times, with challenges to freedom of speech, rights of minority groups and a conundrum between the protection of diversity and unification of the country, the debate about the preservation of democracy has become vital to public discussion.

democracy essay

Did you know: In countries like Brazil, Scotland, Switzerland, Argentina, and Austria the minimum voting age is 16 years?

Also Read: Difference Between Democracy and Dictatorship

Democracy originated from the Greek word dēmokratiā , with dēmos ‘people’ and Kratos ‘rule.’ For the first time, the term appeared in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Classical Athens, to mean “rule of the people.” It now refers to a form of governance where the people have the right to participate in the decision-making of the country. Majorly, it is either a direct democracy where citizens deliberate and make legislation while in a representative democracy, they choose government officials on their behalf, like in a parliamentary or presidential democracy.

The presidential system (like in the USA) has the President as the head of the country and the government, while the parliamentary system (like in the UK and India) has both a Prime Minister who derives its legitimacy from a parliament and even a nominal head like a monarch or a President.

The notions and principle frameworks of democracy have evolved with time. At the core, lies the idea of political discussions and negotiations. In contrast to its alternatives like monarchy, anarchy, oligarchy etc., it is the one with the most liberty to incorporate diversity. The ideas of equality, political representation to all, active public participation, the inclusion of dissent, and most importantly, the authority to the law by all make it an attractive option for citizens to prefer, and countries to follow.

The largest democracy in the world, India with the lengthiest constitution has tried and to an extent, successfully achieved incorporating the framework to be a functional democracy. It is a parliamentary democratic republic where the President is head of the state and the Prime minister is head of the government. It works on the functioning of three bodies, namely legislative, executive, and judiciary. By including the principles of a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic, and undertaking the guidelines to establish equality, liberty and justice, in the preamble itself, India shows true dedication to achieving the ideal.

It has formed a structure that allows people to enjoy their rights, fight against discrimination or any other form of suppression, and protect their rights as well. The ban on all and any form of discrimination, an independent judiciary, governmental accountability to its citizens, freedom of media and press, and secular values are some common values shared by all types of democracies.

Across the world, countries have tried rooting their constitution with the principles of democracy. However, the reality is different. Even though elections are conducted everywhere, mostly, they lack freedom of choice and fairness. Even in the world’s greatest democracies, there are challenges like political instability, suppression of dissent, corruption , and power dynamics polluting the political sphere and making it unjust for the citizens. Despite the consensus on democracy as the best form of government, the journey to achieve true democracy is both painstaking and tiresome. 


Did you know: Countries like Singapore, Peru, and Brazil have compulsory voting?

Must Read: Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes

Democracy is a process through which the government of a country is elected by and for the people.

Yes, India is a democratic country and also holds the title of the world’s largest democracy.

Direct and Representative Democracy are the two major types of Democracy.

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Democracy In India Essay

Democracy is regarded as the best type of government since it allows citizens to directly elect their leaders. They have access to a number of rights that are fundamental to anyone's ability to live freely and peacefully. There are many democratic countries in the world, but India is by far the biggest. Here are a few sample essays on the topic ‘Democracy In India’.

100 Words Essay On Democracy

200 words essay on democracy, 500 words essay on democracy.

Democracy In India Essay

Democracy is a term used to describe a form of government in which the people have a voice by voting. Democracy is an essential part of any society, and India is no exception. After years of suffering under British colonial control, India attained democracy in 1947. India places a great emphasis on democracy. India is also without a doubt the largest democracy in the world.

The spirit of justice, liberty, and equality has permeated Indian democracy ever since the country attained independence. As the world’s largest democracy, India has been a shining example of how democracy can foster progress and ensure rights for all its citizens.

In a democracy, the people have the ultimate say in how their government is run. They elect representatives to represent them in government, and they can hold those representatives accountable through regular elections. And finally, the rule of law is important in a democracy to ensure that everyone is treated equally before the law and that the government operates within its proper bounds. Democracy has been a recent phenomena in human history, only really taking root in the last few centuries. But it has quickly become one of the most popular forms of government around the world. India is one of the world’s largest democracies, with over 1 billion people living within its borders.

India's constitution serves as the foundation for its democracy. The Indian Constitution guarantees equality for all citizens regardless of caste, creed, or religion. It also establishes a system of representative government, with elected officials at the national, state, and local levels. And finally, it enshrines the rule of law by establishing an independent judiciary to interpret and uphold the Constitution.

There are many different types of democracy, but most modern democracies are based on the principles of popular sovereignty, representative government, and rule of law and public opinion.

There are two main types of democracies—direct and representative. Direct democracy allows citizens to participate directly in the decision-making process, while representative democracy allows citizens to elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf. The advantages of democracy in India include the fact that it allows for greater participation of citizens in the political process, and it also provides checks and balances on the government. The disadvantages of democracy in India include the fact that it can be slow to make decisions and that it can be difficult to hold people accountable for their actions.

Features Of Indian Democracy

Sovereignty | One important aspect of Indian democracy is sovereignty. The absolute control a governing body has over itself without external influence is referred to as sovereignty. In India's democracy, people can also exert their power. The fact that Indians choose their representatives is remarkable. Furthermore, these officials continue to be accountable to the general public.

Political Equality | It is the foundation of Indian democracy. It also simply means that everyone is treated equally under the law. The fact that there is no discrimination based on caste, religion, race, creed, or sect is particularly notable. As a result, all Indian citizens have equal political rights.

Rule Of Majority | A key component of Indian democracy is the rule of the majority. Furthermore, the winning party creates and governs the government. In addition, the party with the most seats creates and governs the country. Most importantly, no one can object to majority support.

Socialist | Being socialist implies that the country continuously prioritises the needs of its citizens. The poor person should be offered numerous incentives, and their fundamental needs should be met by any means necessary.

Secular | There is no such thing as a "state religion," and there is no discrimination based on religion in this nation. In the eyes of the law, all religions must be equal; it is not acceptable to discriminate against anyone based on their religion. Everyone has the right to practise and spread any religion, and they are free to do so at any moment.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Democracy In India

There are many advantages and disadvantages of democracy in India. On the one hand, democracy gives everyone an equal say in how the country is run. This is particularly important in a country as large and diverse as India. On the other hand, democracy can also be slow and chaotic, and it can be difficult to get things done. One advantage of democracy in India is that it ensures that everyone has a say in how the country is run. This is especially important in a country as large and diverse as India.

There are many different languages spoken in India, and democracy ensures that everyone has a voice. Another advantage of democracy in India is that it leads to more stability than other forms of government. In a dictatorship, for example, one person has all the power. This can lead to them making decisions that are not in the best interests of the country. In a democracy, there are checks and balances in place so that no one person has too much power.

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Essay on democracy (100, 200, 300, & 500 Words)

Essay on democracy (100 words), essay on democracy (200 words), essay on democracy (300 words), what is democracy, the origins of democracy, key principles of democracy.

  • Popular Sovereignty: Democracy places power in the hands of the people, ensuring that their consent and approval are essential for any decision-making process.
  • Rule of Law: Democracy upholds the principle that everyone, including those in positions of authority, is subject to the law. This promotes fairness, justice, and accountability.
  • Political Pluralism: Democracy allows for multiple political parties and various ideologies to coexist, promoting healthy competition and diversity of thought.
  • Equality and Human Rights: Democracy emphasizes the protection of individual rights and equality for all citizens, regardless of their gender, race, religion, or social status.
  • Free and Fair Elections: Democracy ensures that elections are conducted transparently, with equal opportunities for all candidates to participate. This allows citizens to choose their representatives freely.

The Advantages of Democracy

  • Protection of Individual Rights: Democracy guarantees the protection of fundamental human rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and assembly. It provides a platform for citizens to voice their concerns and hold the government accountable.
  • Stability and Peace: Democracies tend to be more stable and peaceful compared to authoritarian regimes. By allowing citizens to have a say in decision-making, it reduces the likelihood of political upheaval and violent conflicts.
  • Economic Growth and Development: Democracy fosters an environment that encourages innovation, entrepreneurship, and economic growth. By providing citizens with a voice, it enables them to demand policies that promote economic development and social welfare.
  • Transparency and Accountability: Democracy requires governments to be transparent in their actions and be accountable to the people. This helps prevent corruption and ensures that public officials act in the best interest of the citizens.
  • Social Progress and Inclusion: Democracy promotes social progress by allowing marginalized groups to have a voice in shaping policies. It ensures that the needs and concerns of all citizens, regardless of their background, are considered.

Challenges and Criticisms of Democracy

  • Political Polarization: Democracies often face the challenge of increasing polarization, where political parties and individuals become divided along ideological lines. This can hinder effective decision-making and lead to gridlock.
  • Inequality: Despite its principles of equality, democracy can struggle to address deep-rooted social and economic inequalities. Disparities in wealth and power can affect the fairness of elections and the representation of marginalized groups.
  • Slow Decision-Making: The democratic process, with its emphasis on consensus-building and deliberation, can sometimes result in slow decision-making. Urgent issues may require prompt action, which can be hindered by bureaucratic procedures.
  • Manipulation and Populism: Democracy is susceptible to manipulation by charismatic leaders who exploit public sentiment for personal gain. Populist movements can undermine democratic institutions and promote divisive policies.
  • Voter Apathy: Low voter turnout and citizen apathy can weaken the effectiveness of democracy. When individuals disengage from the political process, it undermines the legitimacy of elected representatives and reduces public participation.

The Future of Democracy

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essay on democracy in 200 words pdf

essay on democracy in 200 words pdf

By the People: Essays on Democracy

Harvard Kennedy School faculty explore aspects of democracy in their own words—from increasing civic participation and decreasing extreme partisanship to strengthening democratic institutions and making them more fair.

Winter 2020

By Archon Fung , Nancy Gibbs , Tarek Masoud , Julia Minson , Cornell William Brooks , Jane Mansbridge , Arthur Brooks , Pippa Norris , Benjamin Schneer

Series of essays on democracy.

The basic terms of democratic governance are shifting before our eyes, and we don’t know what the future holds. Some fear the rise of hateful populism and the collapse of democratic norms and practices. Others see opportunities for marginalized people and groups to exercise greater voice and influence. At the Kennedy School, we are striving to produce ideas and insights to meet these great uncertainties and to help make democratic governance successful in the future. In the pages that follow, you can read about the varied ways our faculty members think about facets of democracy and democratic institutions and making democracy better in practice.

Explore essays on democracy

Archon fung: we voted, nancy gibbs: truth and trust, tarek masoud: a fragile state, julia minson: just listen, cornell william brooks: democracy behind bars, jane mansbridge: a teachable skill, arthur brooks: healthy competition, pippa norris: kicking the sandcastle, benjamin schneer: drawing a line.

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  • Democracy Essay for Students in English


Essay on Democracy


Democracy is mainly a Greek word which means people and their rules, here peoples have the to select their own government as per their choice. Greece was the first democratic country in the world. India is a democratic country where people select their government of their own choice, also people have the rights to do the work of their choice. There are two types of democracy: direct and representative and hybrid or semi-direct democracy. There are many decisions which are made under democracies. People enjoy few rights which are very essential for human beings to live happily. 

Our country has the largest democracy. In a democracy, each person has equal rights to fight for development. After the independence, India has adopted democracy, where the people vote those who are above 18 years of age, but these votes do not vary by any caste; people from every caste have equal rights to select their government. Democracy, also called as a rule of the majority, means whatever the majority of people decide, it has to be followed or implemented, the representative winning with the most number of votes will have the power. We can say the place where literacy people are more there shows the success of the democracy even lack of consciousness is also dangerous in a democracy. Democracy is associated with higher human accumulation and higher economic freedom. Democracy is closely tied with the economic source of growth like education and quality of life as well as health care. The constituent assembly in India was adopted by Dr B.R. Ambedkar on 26 th November 1949 and became sovereign democratic after its constitution came into effect on 26 January 1950.

What are the Challenges:

There are many challenges for democracy like- corruption here, many political leaders and officers who don’t do work with integrity everywhere they demand bribes, resulting in the lack of trust on the citizens which affects the country very badly. Anti-social elements- which are seen during elections where people are given bribes and they are forced to vote for a particular candidate. Caste and community- where a large number of people give importance to their caste and community, therefore, the political party also selects the candidate on the majority caste. We see wherever the particular caste people win the elections whether they do good for the society or not, and in some cases, good leaders lose because of less count of the vote.

India is considered to be the largest democracy around the globe, with a population of 1.3 billion. Even though being the biggest democratic nation, India still has a long way to becoming the best democratic system. The caste system still prevails in some parts, which hurts the socialist principle of democracy. Communalism is on the rise throughout the globe and also in India, which interferes with the secular principle of democracy. All these differences need to be set aside to ensure a thriving democracy.

Principles of Democracy:

There are mainly five principles like- republic, socialist, sovereign, democratic and secular, with all these quality political parties will contest for elections. There will be many bribes given to the needy person who require food, money, shelter and ask them to vote whom they want. But we can say that democracy in India is still better than the other countries.

Basically, any country needs democracy for development and better functioning of the government. In some countries, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, are considered to ensure that voters are well informed, enabling them to vote according to their own interests.

Let us Discuss These Five Principles in Further Detail

Sovereign: In short, being sovereign or sovereignty means the independent authority of a state. The country has the authority to make all the decisions whether it be on internal issues or external issues, without the interference of any third party.

Socialist: Being socialist means the country (and the Govt.), always works for the welfare of the people, who live in that country. There should be many bribes offered to the needy person, basic requirements of them should be fulfilled by any means. No one should starve in such a country.

Secular: There will be no such thing as a state religion, the country does not make any bias on the basis of religion. Every religion must be the same in front of the law, no discrimination on the basis of someone’s religion is tolerated. Everyone is allowed to practice and propagate any religion, they can change their religion at any time.

Republic: In a republic form of Government, the head of the state is elected, directly or indirectly by the people and is not a hereditary monarch. This elected head is also there for a fixed tenure. In India, the head of the state is the president, who is indirectly elected and has a fixed term of office (5 years).

Democratic: By a democratic form of government, means the country’s government is elected by the people via the process of voting. All the adult citizens in the country have the right to vote to elect the government they want, only if they meet a certain age limit of voting.

Merits of Democracy:

better government forms because it is more accountable and in the interest of the people.

improves the quality of decision making and enhances the dignity of the citizens.

provide a method to deal with differences and conflicts.

A democratic system of government is a form of government in which supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodic free elections. It permits citizens to participate in making laws and public policies by choosing their leaders, therefore citizens should be educated so that they can select the right candidate for the ruling government. Also, there are some concerns regarding democracy- leaders always keep changing in democracy with the interest of citizens and on the count of votes which leads to instability. It is all about political competition and power, no scope for morality.

Factors Affect Democracy:

capital and civil society

economic development


Norway and Iceland are the best democratic countries in the world. India is standing at fifty-one position.

India is a parliamentary democratic republic where the President is head of the state and Prime minister is head of the government. The guiding principles of democracy such as protected rights and freedoms, free and fair elections, accountability and transparency of government officials, citizens have a responsibility to uphold and support their principles. Democracy was first practised in the 6 th century BCE, in the city-state of Athens. One basic principle of democracy is that people are the source of all the political power, in a democracy people rule themselves and also respect given to diverse groups of citizens, so democracy is required to select the government of their own interest and make the nation developed by electing good leaders.


FAQs on Democracy Essay for Students in English

1. What are the Features of Democracy?

Features of Democracy are as follows

Equality: Democracy provides equal rights to everyone, regardless of their gender, caste, colour, religion or creed.

Individual Freedom: Everybody has the right to do anything they want until it does not affect another person’s liberty.

Majority Rules: In a democracy, things are decided by the majority rule, if the majority agrees to something, it will be done.

Free Election: Everyone has the right to vote or to become a candidate to fight the elections.

2. Define Democracy?

Democracy means where people have the right to choose the rulers and also people have freedom to express views, freedom to organise and freedom to protest. Protesting and showing Dissent is a major part of a healthy democracy. Democracy is the most successful and popular form of government throughout the globe.

Democracy holds a special place in India, also India is still the largest democracy in existence around the world.

3. What are the Benefits of Democracy?

Let us discuss some of the benefits received by the use of democracy to form a government. Benefits of democracy are: 

It is more accountable

Improves the quality of decision as the decision is taken after a long time of discussion and consultation.

It provides a better method to deal with differences and conflicts.

It safeguards the fundamental rights of people and brings a sense of equality and freedom.

It works for the welfare of both the people and the state.

4. Which country is the largest democracy in the World?

India is considered the largest democracy, all around the world. India decided to have a democratic Govt. from the very first day of its independence after the rule of the British. In India, everyone above the age of 18 years can go to vote to select the Government, without any kind of discrimination on the basis of caste, colour, religion, gender or more. But India, even being the largest democracy, still has a long way to become perfect.

5. Write about the five principles of Democracy?

There are five key principles that are followed in a democracy. These Five Principles of Democracy of India are -  secular, sovereign, republic, socialist, and democratic. These five principles have to be respected by every political party, participating in the general elections in India. The party which got the most votes forms the government which represents the democratic principle. No discrimination is done on the basis of religion which represents the secular nature of democracy. The govt. formed after the election has to work for the welfare of common people which shows socialism in play.

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Essays on Democracy

Democracy essay topics and outline examples, essay title 1: the evolution of democracy: historical origins, principles, and contemporary challenges.

Thesis Statement: This essay explores the historical roots of democracy, its foundational principles, and the contemporary challenges it faces in the context of modern societies.

  • Introduction
  • Origins of Democracy: Ancient Greece and Beyond
  • Democratic Principles: Rule of Law, Freedom, and Participation
  • Democracy in Practice: Case Studies of Democratic Nations
  • Challenges to Democracy: Populism, Authoritarianism, and Erosion of Institutions
  • Electoral Systems: Voting Methods and Representation
  • Media and Democracy: The Role of Information and Misinformation
  • Conclusion: Safeguarding Democracy in the 21st Century

Essay Title 2: The Democratic Experiment: Comparative Analysis of Democratic Systems Worldwide

Thesis Statement: This essay conducts a comparative analysis of democratic systems in different countries, highlighting variations in practices, governance structures, and outcomes.

  • Democratic Models: Presidential vs. Parliamentary Systems
  • Democratic Variations: Federalism and Unitarism
  • Elections and Representation: Proportional vs. First-Past-the-Post Systems
  • Citizen Participation: Direct Democracy and Referendums
  • Case Studies: Analyzing Democracies in Europe, Asia, and the Americas
  • Democratic Challenges: Corruption, Voter Suppression, and Civic Engagement
  • Conclusion: Lessons Learned from Global Democratic Experiences

Essay Title 3: The Digital Age and Democracy: Technology, Social Media, and the Shaping of Political Discourse

Thesis Statement: This essay examines the influence of technology and social media on democratic processes, including their impact on political communication, public opinion, and election outcomes.

  • The Digital Revolution: Internet Access and Political Engagement
  • Social Media Platforms: Their Role in Disseminating Information and Disinformation
  • Filter Bubbles and Echo Chambers: The Polarization of Political Discourse
  • Online Activism: Grassroots Movements and Their Impact
  • Regulation and Ethics: Balancing Free Speech and Accountability Online
  • Case Studies: Examining Elections and Political Campaigns in the Digital Age
  • Conclusion: Navigating the Intersection of Technology and Democracy

Shaping Law Enforcement: Democracy's Public Role

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The Importance of We The People

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The Importance of Participation for Democracy

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The Government’s Right to Rule and Citizens’ Duty to Obey in a Democracy

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essay on democracy in 200 words pdf

Essay on Democracy in India for Students and Children

500+ words essay on democracy in india.

Essay on Democracy in India – First of all, democracy refers to a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. Democracy holds a special place in India. Furthermore, India without a doubt is the biggest democracy in the world. Also, the democracy of India is derived from the constitution of India. After suffering at the hands of British colonial rule, India finally became a democratic nation in 1947 . Most noteworthy, Indian democracy since independence is infused with the spirit of justice, liberty, and equality.

essay on democracy in 200 words pdf

Features of Indian Democracy

Sovereignty is a vital feature of Indian democracy. Sovereignty refers to the full power of a governing body over itself without outside interference. Moreover, people can exercise power in Indian democracy . Most noteworthy, people of India elect their representatives. Moreover, these representatives remain responsible for common people.

The democracy in India works on the principle of political equality. Furthermore, it essentially means all citizens are equal before the law. Most noteworthy, there is no discrimination on the basis of religion , caste, creed, race, sect, etc. Hence, every Indian citizen enjoys equal political rights.

Rule of the majority is an essential feature of Indian democracy. Moreover, the party which wins the most seats forms and runs the government. Most noteworthy, no-one can object to support of the majority.

essay on democracy in 200 words pdf

Another feature of Indian democracy is federal. Most noteworthy, India is a union of states. Furthermore, the states are somewhat autonomous. Moreover, the states enjoy freedom in certain matters.

Collective responsibility is a notable feature of Indian democracy. The council of Ministers in India is collectively responsible to their respective legislatures. Therefore, no minister alone is responsible for any act of their government.

Indian democracy works on the principle of formation of opinion. Furthermore, the government and its institutions must work on the basis of public opinion. Most noteworthy, public opinion must be formed on various matters in India. Moreover, the Legislature of India provides an appropriate platform to express public opinion.

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Ways to Strengthen Democracy in India

First of all, people must stop having a blind belief in the media. Many times the news reported by media is out of context and exaggerated. Most noteworthy, some media outlets may propagate the propaganda of a particular political party. Therefore, people must be careful and cautious when accepting media news.

Another important way to strengthen the Indian democracy is to reject the consumer mentality in elections. Several Indians view national elections like consumers buying a product. Most noteworthy, elections should make Indians feel like participants rather than separatists.

People in India should make their voices heard. Furthermore, people must try to communicate with their elected official all year-round instead of just during elections. Therefore, citizens must write, call, email, or attend community forums to communicate with their elected official. This would surely strengthen Indian democracy.

Huge voter turnouts is really an efficient way to strengthen democracy in India. People must avoid hesitation and come out to vote. Most noteworthy, large voter turnout would signify a substantial involvement of the common people in Indian politics.

In conclusion, the democracy in India is something very precious. Furthermore, it is a gift of the patriotic national leaders to the citizens of India. Most noteworthy, the citizens of this country must realize and appreciate the great value of democracy. The democracy in India is certainly unique in the world.

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Election and Democracy Essay in English for Children and Students

essay on democracy in 200 words pdf

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Elections are the backbone of a democratic nation. The electoral system gives people the right to choose their own government by casting vote to the candidate they deem suitable. There are different forms of democracy but elections form an integral part of each of these. The procedure and purpose of elections may however vary based on the form of democracy.

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Long and Short Essay on Election and Democracy in English

Here are long and short essay on Election and Democracy to help you with the topic in your exam or during any school function/competition.

After going through these Election and Democracy essay you will be able to know what is election, what is democracy, what is the role of election in a democracy, what are the rights in a democratic country, what is the form and role of the election commission of India, what are different forms of democracy etc.

You can go through all the essay written below to get the best one for you as per your need:

Short Essay on Election and Democracy (200 words) – Essay 1

A democratic nation is one in which the citizens have the right to express their views and give their opinions publically regarding any situation/ condition in the country. This can be the country’s social, economic, political or any other condition.

Citizens in a democratic government are also given the right to elect their government. They can cast votes through secret ballot and state their opinion about whom they find suitable to run their country. The candidate/ party that gets majority of votes comes into power. So, the collective opinion of the citizens of a democratic country determines as to who would rule the country. Elections are held at regular intervals to ensure a fair play.

India is considered to be the largest democracy in the world. An autonomous body called the Election Commission of India has especially been formed to oversee the humongous task of conducting, managing and overseeing the election process. The Election Commission of India addresses several issues and puts in immense efforts to ensure free and fair elections in the country.

Any citizen of India who is 25 years of above (with few exceptions such as those involved in criminal activities, etc) can contest elections to come into power and give new direction to the country.

Also Read: How to Vote in India?

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Essay on the Role of Elections in a Democracy (300 words) – Essay 2


Democracy is the type of government in which the citizens of a country get the right to choose their representatives. These representatives come into power and form the government. These representatives are chosen by way of elections. The candidates and political parties that get the maximum number of votes during elections come into power. Elections are thus a significant part of democracy.

Elections Form the Basis of Democracy

Elections form the basis of democracy. Here is a look at how the election process works to give shape to a democratic government:

  • Elections are held at regular intervals. In India, the elections are held every five years.
  • People cast vote for bringing the candidate to power, they feel can best handle the position.
  • People cast their vote through secret ballot. This ensures a fair game as they are not answerable to anyone for the choice made by them.
  • The Election Commission of India administers the election process.
  • The process of election is bigger and much more complicated than you can imagine. There is a lot of work that needs to be taken care of. This is the reason why a separate body has been formed to manage the whole election process.
  • Many political parties participate in elections. They share their agendas with the common man. They also highlight all the tasks undertaken by them for the benefit of their citizens and the development of the nation to convince the general public to vote for them.
  • At times, some notorious people try to disrupt the process of elections by indulging in malpractices such booth capturing, vote rigging, etc. The Election Commission takes necessary action against them to ensure smooth completion of the election process.

Fair and regular elections are an essential part of a democratic country. They empower the common man of the country to elect government and change it every few years.

Essay on Elections – An Integral Part of Democracy (400 words) – Essay 3

Democracy is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people. A democratic nation allows its citizens to elect their government. The government remains in power mostly for a period of five years. Once the tenure is completed elections are held again to allow the citizens to cast vote and choose their government yet again. Elections are thus an integral part of a democracy.

Rights in a Democratic Country

Unlike monarchy and dictatorship government, the citizens in a democratic set up are empowered with many rights that are crucial for their development as well as the overall growth and development of the country. Here is a brief look at the rights given to the citizens in a democratic set up:

  • Freedom of Speech and Expression

This is the fundamental right given to every citizen in a democratic nation. The citizens of a democratic country have complete right to express their opinion on any matter including the economic, social, cultural and political issues.

  • Right to Vote

The right to vote is given to the citizens of every democratic nation. They elect the government of their country by exercising this right.

  • Right to Fair Trial

The citizens of a democratic country have the right to free and just legal processes. They can sue anyone who has done wrong to them as per the Indian Penal Code. The decision is taken by the judiciary after listening to both the parties. It is the responsibility of the democratic nation to build a judicial system that people can trust.

  • Right to Free Media

Democracy can function effectively if there is transparency. People in a democratic set up have complete right to information. This information about the working of the government and political parties is provided to them by media. This information helps them assess and understand if they have elected the right candidates or should they reconsider their decision in the next elections.

  • Right to Worship

The citizens of a democratic country can choose the religion they wish to follow without any interference from the state or any political party. They can worship in a free setting without any fear. Any kind of communal riots are condemned and the government takes strict action against people involved in the same.

The right to elect government is one of the fundamentals rights of the citizens of a democratic nation. This right must be exercised with great responsibility to bring the most deserving candidate to power.

Essay on India as the Largest Democracy in the World (500 words) – Essay 4

India is considered to be the largest democracy in the world. It is one of the best examples of representative democracy where people exercise their right to vote to elect representatives. These representatives take major decisions pertaining to the country including those related to policy-making. Citizens of India cast their votes via secret ballot and this forms the basis of fair elections in the country. Indian democracy is appreciated for its free and fair electoral system.

The Election Commission of India

The union government in India is elected for a period of five years. Elections in the country are therefore held every five years. The Election Commission of India conducts and manages the entire election process in the country. The Election Commission came into form in the year 1950. Initially, it consisted of just one member. Two more commissioners were appointed for the Election Commission of India in 1989. A subsidiary of the Election Commission is formed in every state to ensure smooth and successful completion of the election process.

The main responsibility of the Election Commission is to administer the election process. The task is humongous and a lot of things need to be taken care of in order to accomplish it. This includes planning election schedules, assessing new political parties and validating them, watching the behaviour of the political parties contesting elections, providing election related updates to the media, overseeing the election process, taking action against any malpractice and conducting by-elections (if needed). EC has been working hard ever since its inception and has brought about many changes in the electoral system of India to improve the election process.

EC administers Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha elections, State Legislative Councils and State Legislative Assemblies elections and the elections of the President and Vice President of India. It is thus said to be the backbone of Indian democracy.

Countries with Democratic Government

Many countries around the world have democratic form of government. Just like India, the citizens of these countries have the right to vote and elect government. Some of the countries with democratic set up include Australia, New Zealand, Norway, Denmark, Switzerland, Canada, Sweden, Bhutan, Germany, United States of America and Finland.

While these are all democratic nations, they do not follow the same set of rules when it comes to conducting elections and setting public policies. Democracy has been categorised into various forms including direct democracy, representative democracy, Islamic democracy, social democracy, parliamentary democracy, presidential democracy, participatory democracy and authoritarian democracy. Different democratic countries practice different forms of democracy.

Elections are an inseparable part of a democratic government. The citizens of a democratic country elect the government by voting for the candidate they deem suitable to run the government. The government bears the interest of the common man in mind while making or amending any law or policy.

In a democratic country, people have the right to question the government for its decisions. They have the power to overthrow the current government and bring another political party into power in the next elections. This drives the ruling government to work with dedication and take fair decisions considering public interest.

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Essay on Different Forms of Democracy and their Election Process (600 words) – Essay 5

Democracy is a set up in which the citizens of a country exercise their right to vote in order to elect the government of their choice. This type of government works for the benefit of the citizens and ensures a fair play. The citizens of a democratic nation have the right to question the decisions of their government and express their views on the same. Several political parties contest elections in a democratic nation and the one that majority of people deem suitable comes into power. People cast their votes through secret ballot.

Different Forms of Democracy

Democracy is divided into various forms. Different forms of democratic governments work differently. They have their own unique style of working and handling matters. The rights given to the citizens may also vary based on the type of democracy. Here is a look at the different forms of democracy:

  • Direct Democracy

The citizens of a nation with direct democracy have the right to vote directly for the making of various policies and for taking important decisions. They vote each time there is a need to take an important decision. They do not vote for representatives who take decisions on their behalf. So, every decision in a direct democracy is taken collectively by the citizens. This type of democracy works well for nations with less population. Switzerland is an example of successful direct democracy.

  • Representative Democracy

In representative democracy people elect representatives by using their right to vote. These representatives come into power and take all the decisions. People vote for the candidates they feel are responsible and can be trusted. Citizens can voice their grievances and seek action on them. They also have the right to express their opinion and question the government’s decision. This is the most common type of democracy followed in countries like India and USA.

  • Parliamentary Democracy

In this type of democracy the legislature has greater power over the president. The president is merely an official head or a weak monarch in the parliamentary democracy. The head of state in such a set up is different from the head of government and both of them have their own set of responsibilities.

  • Presidential Democracy

In this type of democracy, the president of the country has considerable power over the government. Elected either directly or indirectly by the citizens, the president in such a set up is not liable to the legislature or does he has the power to remove the legislature. Similarly, the legislature is not empowered to remove the president unless it is an extreme case.

  • Participatory Democracy

Participatory democracy gives opportunity to every citizen of the country to come up with unanimous decisions on important matters related to the country. This type of democracy encourages greater participation from the citizens.

  • Authoritarian Democracy

Authoritarian democracy is one in which only the elite class of the country has the right to be a part of the parliamentary process. The common people of the country are not allowed to cast vote. So, it is the elites in power who take various decisions related to the country. Modern day Russia is an example of authoritarian democracy.

  • Islamic Democracy

This type of democracy applies Islamic law to policies. The leaders here are elected by the citizens of the country and everyone here is subject to the Sharia law. The leaders in this type of democracy need to strictly practice Shura which is a special type of consultation practiced by Prophet Muhammad. Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran are examples of Islamic democracy.

This clearly shows that even democratic form of government varies from region to region. Different forms of democratic governments are formed in different countries. The rules to elect the government and run the country differ as per the democratic government formed.

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Essay on Democracy in Pakistan

Democracy in Pakistan Essay with Quotations

by Pakiology | Apr 24, 2024 | Essay | 1 comment

Explore the evolution, challenges, and progress of democracy in Pakistan in this in-depth essay . Gain insights into the nation’s rich history, the influence of the military, the pervasive issue of corruption, and the role of civil society in shaping Pakistan’s democratic landscape.

Title: The Evolution of Democracy in Pakistan: Challenges, Progress, and Prospects for the Future


Pakistan, a country characterized by its rich and diverse history, has embarked on a tumultuous journey in pursuit of democracy. Overcoming numerous obstacles, its citizens have tenaciously defended their democratic rights and worked diligently to forge a more equitable society. In this comprehensive essay, we delve into the current state of democracy in Pakistan, recognizing its historical context, addressing the persistent challenges it confronts, highlighting the progress made, and considering the prospects for the future.

The Historical Landscape

Democracy, at its core, is a system of government grounded in the principle of representation, allowing citizens to actively participate in decision-making processes that impact their lives. Regrettably, the implementation of democracy in Pakistan has been marred by a series of military coups and periods of martial law, intermittently disrupting its democratic trajectory. Despite these adversities, Pakistan now operates as a federal parliamentary republic with a president and prime minister at the helm.

The Military’s Influence: A Persistent Challenge

A major impediment to democracy in Pakistan has been the enduring influence of the military on the political landscape. Pakistan’s history is replete with instances of military interventions in civilian governance, including several coups and martial law declarations. This persistent interference not only undermines democratic principles but also erodes public trust in the democratic system. Additionally, intelligence agencies have faced accusations of wielding substantial influence in the political sphere, further eroding democratic institutions and processes.

Corruption as a Hindrance: A Deep-Seated Issue

Another significant challenge is the pervasiveness of corruption within Pakistan. Corruption has become deeply ingrained in the country, with numerous politicians and government officials implicated in embezzlement and bribery. This deeply rooted issue corrodes the legitimacy of the democratic process and erodes public trust in the government. The adverse effects of corruption are most acutely felt by marginalized communities, who suffer from a lack of essential public services and resources.

The Resilience of Democratic Aspirations: Signs of Progress

Despite these formidable challenges, the citizens of Pakistan persistently strive to defend their democratic rights and fortify democratic institutions. In recent years, the country has seen a notable rise in the number of civil society organizations dedicated to advocating for transparency, accountability, and the promotion of awareness regarding democratic rights and freedoms. Additionally, the media has played a pivotal role in promoting democratic values and holding the government accountable for its actions.

The Role of Civil Society

Civil society organizations have emerged as vital agents of change in Pakistan’s democratic landscape. They tirelessly work to bridge the gap between the government and the governed, acting as watchdogs for accountability and transparency. Through advocacy, awareness campaigns, and public mobilization, these organizations have managed to shine a spotlight on the pressing issues of democracy and governance in Pakistan. Their activities range from monitoring elections to exposing corruption and advocating for the rule of law.

Media as the Fourth Estate

The media in Pakistan has undergone a transformational journey, evolving into a vibrant fourth estate that plays a crucial role in promoting democratic values. While media outlets often grapple with challenges such as censorship and intimidation, they continue to serve as a check on government power and a forum for diverse voices. Investigative journalism has uncovered corruption scandals, challenged authoritarianism, and provided a platform for citizens to engage in political discourse.

In conclusion, democracy in Pakistan remains an imperfect yet indispensable system, despite the numerous setbacks and challenges it has encountered. The people of Pakistan ardently safeguard their democratic rights, and the fortification of democratic institutions and processes is pivotal for the nation’s future. The enduring challenges posed by military influence, corruption, and public mistrust can only be surmounted through persistent efforts and sustained citizen engagement in the democratic process. As Pakistan continues its journey towards a more robust democracy, the world watches with hope and anticipation, recognizing the nation’s potential to overcome its challenges and achieve democratic excellence. The path may be long and arduous, but the resilience and determination of Pakistan’s people offer a promising outlook for the future of democracy in the country.

Quotes Related to Democracy

Here are a few quotes related to democracy and its challenges in Pakistan:

“A society that puts equality before freedom will get neither. A society that puts freedom before equality will get a high degree of both.” – Milton Friedman, Economist
“The greatest threat to democracy is not the enemies from without, but the enemies from within.” – Thomas Jefferson, Third President of the United States
“I believe that the real solution to the problems facing Pakistan lies in true democracy and the rule of law.” – Imran Khan, Former Prime Minister of Pakistan
“The price of freedom is eternal vigilance.” – John Philpot Curran, Irish Orator and Statesman.

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Sir you have used a lot of bitter words in this essay which are enough to awake a nation.😭😭😭😭 But It’s reality I think inshallah one day we will achieve that original democracy which will prevent our basic rights and our motherland…..

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Democracy Essay

Democracy is derived from the Greek word demos or people. It is defined as a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people. Democracy is exercised directly by the people; in large societies, it is by the people through their elected agents. In the phrase of President Abraham Lincoln, democracy is the “Government of the people, by the people, and for the people.” There are various democratic countries, but India has the largest democracy in the world. This Democracy Essay will help you know all about India’s democracy. Students can also get a list of CBSE Essays on different topics to boost their essay-writing skills.

500+ Words Democracy Essay

India is a very large country full of diversities – linguistically, culturally and religiously. At the time of independence, it was economically underdeveloped. There were enormous regional disparities, widespread poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, and a shortage of almost all public welfare means. Since independence, India has been functioning as a responsible democracy. The same has been appreciated by the international community. It has successfully adapted to challenging situations. There have been free and fair periodic elections for all political offices, from the panchayats to the President. There has been a smooth transfer of political power from one political party or set of political parties to others, both at national and state levels, on many occasions.

India: A Democratic Country

Democracy is of two, i.e. direct and representative. In a direct democracy, all citizens, without the intermediary of elected or appointed officials, can participate in making public decisions. Such a system is only practical with relatively small numbers of people in a community organisation or tribal council. Whereas in representative democracy, every citizen has the right to vote for their representative. People elect their representatives to all levels, from Panchayats, Municipal Boards, State Assemblies and Parliament. In India, we have a representative democracy.

Democracy is a form of government in which rulers elected by the people take all the major decisions. Elections offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers. This choice and opportunity are available to all people on an equal basis. The exercise of this choice leads to a government limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens’ rights.

Democracy is the Best Form of Government

A democratic government is a better government because it is a more accountable form of government. Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts. Thus, democracy improves the quality of decision-making. The advantage of a democracy is that mistakes cannot be hidden for long. There is a space for public discussion, and there is room for correction. Either the rulers have to change their decisions, or the rulers can be changed. Democracy offers better chances of a good decision. It respects people’s own wishes and allows different kinds of people to live together. Even when it fails to do some of these things, it allows a way of correcting its mistakes and offers more dignity to all citizens. That is why democracy is considered the best form of government.

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essay on democracy in 200 words pdf

Essay on Democracy for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

Here, you will read Essay on Democracy for Students and Children in 1000+ Words. It will include meaning, importance of democracy in India.

Table of Contents

Introduction (Essay on Democracy)

This is a very simple word known by all nowadays. Mostly in all countries democracy system is available. Public administration is called a democracy because the election of the people forms it.

Therefore, there is no system without an election. Democracy is the representative system of the people. It shows the goodwill of the entire community.

Meaning of democracy 

Democracy is a governance system under which the people have the right to choose their own ruler on their own.

Under this, every adult citizen, using his vote, chooses a ruler who will help in the development of the country. Along with it, it will maintain the unity and integrity of the country, and protect it from all wars. 

Under which every citizen of India was given the right to choose his ruler on his own free will, while under democracy, permission to use his vote by removing the feeling of inequality spread on caste, religion, gender, color, sects etc. 

Democracy in India

India is one of the world’s largest democratic countries, where people have the right to choose their favorite representatives.

In a democratic system, the people hand over the reins of the country for the benefit of their country and for the development of the country in the hands of a person who deserves it and helps in maintaining the unity and integrity of the country.

At the same time, India’s democracy works on five main principles, such as sovereign, that there is no interference of any foreign power in India; it is completely free. Socialists, vote is to provide social and economic equality to all citizens.

Secularism, whose vote ball is the freedom to adopt or refuse to adopt any religion. Democratic, which means the citizens of the country elect the government of India. Republic, which means the head of the country, is not a single hereditary king or queen.

There are many types of political parties in the country that stand to contest elections at the state and national levels every five years. But only that political party is ruled by the people who get the maximum vote of the people.

Role of democracy in election and voting system of India

Elections are an essential and important system in India’s universal, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. The election is an important system to form a government and to elect a representative.

Elections to the Lok Sabha or to the Legislative Assembly, in which all citizens of the country unite and exercise their franchise and elect their representative, every citizen over 18 years of age in the country can use his vote. 

The citizens of the country are also made aware of giving their votes from time to time. Let us tell you that elections are held every five years in our country, in which the citizens of the country use their votes to elect their representatives for the country’s development and progress.

India is a democratic country with 29 states and seven union territories in which elections are held every five years. At the same time, in these elections, political parties form their government by getting more votes of the people in the center and the state.

As we know, during elections, political parties make many promises to the people and encourage them to vote for their party. In such a situation, it is a challenge to choose the right and deserving candidate in front of the public. This is the fact that there are many political parties in India.

Democratic Principles of India

India is a democratic country that primarily works on five democratic principles – such as sovereign, socialist, secularism and democratic which are below –

The Democratic Republic of India operates on the sovereign’s principle, which means that India is free from interference by any foreign power, its rules, and regulations.

Socialists are also a democratic principle of India, whose vote is to provide economic equality and sociality to every citizen of our country by ignoring caste, religion, sect., gender, color, and creed.

India is a secular republic whose vote is that all citizens of India have the freedom to adopt and practice any religion as per their choice and choice, as there is no official religion in India.

India is a democratic republic, which means that India’s government is elected by the citizens of India without any caste discrimination and economic inequality.

Here, all citizens are given the right to vote in the same manner so that they choose the government of choice so that the country’s development can be strengthened and the country can become financially strong.

Ever since our country’s constitution came into force, India has been declared a secular and democratic republic; that is, the head of our country is not a hereditary king or queen, but it is elected by the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha, which is decided by the people of Janardan, Is in hand.

10 Lines on Democracy

  • Abraham Lincoln has told the meaning of democracy – for the people only- the people’s rule.
  • Democracy consists of folk loyalty and folk spirit.
  • In this, the importance of elections is first and foremost. This reflects public welfare.
  • The Constitution has given place to democratic governance.
  • The parliamentary system has been adopted in India and UK.
  • In this, the elected representatives of the people run the country’s rule, keeping the public interest in view.
  • There is a kind of representative democracy, in which clean and fair elections take place.
  • It is difficult to give a completely correct and acceptable definition of democracy.
  • Our Country India is well known in the world as the biggest democracy
  • The age of casting a vote, and using its democratic right is 18 years.

At last, we can say that democracy system is the most popular and accepted of governance. Our country India’s democratic system is appreciated all over the country.

However, in India’s democracy, all the factors like illiteracy, poverty, and unemployment need to be eradicated to strengthen the country’s democracy and strengthen the country’s development.

But, still there a need for the improvement in the current democratic system of India. I hope you liked this informative essay on democracy.

Thanks for reading.

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essay on democracy in 200 words pdf


Essay on “Democracy in Pakistan” for CSS, and PMS


  • January 24, 2022
  • Essay for CSS PMS and Judiciary Exam

This is an Essay on “Democracy in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and Judiciary Examinations. Democracy is a form of government in which the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation, or to choose governing officials to do so.” Democracy is a system of government in which power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or through freely elected representatives. As Democracy is a very popular topic so, here is a complete Essay on “Democracy in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and judiciary examinations.

What is democracy? Essentials of democracy Democracy in Pakistan

A brief history

  • The early period from 1947-58
  • Period of General Ayub and General Zia
  • Political turmoil and General Pervaiz Musharraf

Causes of failure of democracy in Pakistan

  • Delayed Framing of the Constitution
  • Leadership Crisis
  • Lack of education
  • No independence of the judiciary
  • Weak political parties and their infighting
  • Delayed elections and rigging
  • Corruption and nepotism
  • Quasi-Federalism and Conflict between Eastern and Western Wings
  • Terrorism and extremism

Pakistani Democracy Vs. Western Democracy


  • Effective accountability of the politicians
  •  Reforming judiciary
  • Abolish feudalism
  • Eliminate corruption
  • Two parties system on the pattern of the USA, UK
  • Amendment in the constitution
  • Fair and free election
  • Increase the education budget to educate people
  • Uninterrupted democratic process
  • Strengthening the institutions

Essay on “Democracy in Pakistan” for CSS, PMS, and Judiciary Examinations

“You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice, and the equality of manhood in your own native soil.” -Muhammad Ali Jinnah,

To acquire immunity to eloquence is of the utmost importance to the citizens of a democracy. – Bertrand Russell

Democracy is a form of government in which all citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal (and more or less direct) participation in the proposal, development, and passage of legislation into law. It can also encompass social, economic, and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination. While there is no specific, universally accepted definition of ‘democracy’, equality and freedom have both been identified as important characteristics of democracy since ancient times. These principles are reflected in all citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes.

For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no unreasonable restrictions can apply to anyone seeking to become a representative, and the freedom of its citizens is secured by legitimized rights and liberties which are generally protected by a constitution.

Many people use the term “democracy” as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include elements such as political pluralism; equality before the Jaw; the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances; due process; civil liberties; human rights ; and elements of civil society outside the government. In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a central attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty (though in practice judicial independence is generally maintained).

In other cases, “democracy” is used to mean direct democracy. Though the term “democracy” is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are applicable to private organizations and other groups as well.

Democracy in Pakistan

Democracy in its true spirit has never been allowed to take root in Pakistan. Since its independence in 1947, a military-bureaucratic establishment has always governed the country. Army generals usurp power at their own convenience and quit only when they are forced to quit by mass political movements or by sudden unexpected death. When forced by external or internal pressures, democracy is given a chance but in reality, a group of army generals keeps controlling the decision-making.

This direct or indirect military influence is the greatest impediment to the evolution of a stable governing system in Pakistan. Besides, the army is not solely responsible for this mass but it is our inefficient politicians who provide an opportunity for to army to take over.

A brief history of Democracy in Pakistan

Recalling the last 62 years of Pakistan, democracy is found only as an interval before the next military general comes to the scene. The future of democracy was doomed from the start when Liaquat Ali Khan, the first elected Prime Minister, was shot at a public gathering. Nobody knows to this day who did it and why. From now on, the balance of power was to shift in the favor of the military. A comparison tells us how this shift came up. From 1951-57 India had one Prime Minister and several army chiefs while during the same period Pakistan had one army chief and several Prime ministers.

The same army chief, the Sandhurst-trained general, Ayub Khan was to announce the first martial law in the country in 1958 and then a series of military rules were to follow.

General Ayub Khan could not withstand a popular national movement against him and transferred power to General Yahya Khan in March 1969. Under him, Pakistan lost its half which is now Bangladesh. Power was then transferred to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as the first civilian martial law administrator. Bhutto pursued an independent policy, which was against what generals and the US wanted, and he had to pay with his life.

Charged for compliance in murder, Bhutto was hanged by the next martial law administrator, General Zia ul Haq. The hanging of an elected Prime Minister was shocking news to the world and Pakistan was to have the effects years later. The general died in a mysterious plane crash.

Then came a ten years gap of experimentation with democracy and every two years each elected government was ousted by the special discretionary powers of the president . An end to this ten-year spell came with a new general coming to power ousting the incumbent elected government of Mian Nawaz Sharif. This time the Prime Minister was charged with conspiring against the state and was ousted from the country.

The immediate and foremost requirement of the Constituent Assembly was to frame a democratic constitution for the country. The constitution had to lay down the form of government, and the role of the judiciary, military, and bureaucracy. It had to decide the basic issues about provincial autonomy, religion and the state, the joint or separate electorate, representation of minorities and women in assemblies, fundamental rights, and civil liberties.

The debate over the representation of eastern and western wings of the country and religion versus secularism were the two main hindrances in the way of framing the constitution. As against India, which was able to frame the constitution of the country within two years of independence in 1949, Pakistan took nine years to finalize the constitution in 1956, which did not work for more than two years and was abrogated.

The second constitution was framed by a military ruler General Ayub in 1962 which could last as long as he was in power. Finally, it was after the separation of East Pakistan and a lapse of more than a quarter of a century (1947-1973) that the elected representatives of the people under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto framed a consensus constitution envisaging a  federal, democratic structure for the country and a parliamentary form of government.

This constitution has survived in spite of the breakdown of democracy twice in 1978 and 1999 and hopefully has come to stay. But the delay in framing the constitution harmed the growth of political democracy, as it allowed the authoritarian rule of the Governor-General to continue for seven long years (1947-56), which set this inglorious tradition in the country.

The second obstacle in the way of democracy is the culture of feudalism. Democracy cannot develop in the suffocating atmosphere of feudalism. The history of feudalism in the subcontinent is not very old. It owes its origin to the war of independence in 1857 when different people were awarded large swathes of land by the British government because of their treacherous cooperation with the latter. Those feudal families joined Muslim League when they saw that Pakistan was going to be a reality and inherited power after the death of the founding father. Feudalism has now become a severe migraine for the nation. Democracy and feudalism are incompatible.

Change of faces at the wheel has not served any purpose. Even these feudal lords occupy more than 70 % of our land leaving the people to lead a miserable life. They are senators, ministers, MPAs, MNAs, and also the owners of major industries in Pakistan. There is a crying need to bring some structural changes in order to strengthen the political system. Industrialization has also played a significant role in the strengthening of democracy across the world. Great Britain is considered the mother of democracies on this planet.

Some analysts are of the view that democracy has its origin in the Magna Carta, Bill of Rights and Habeas Corpus, etc. But even after these developments very mighty rulers have ruled Great Britain. In fact, the invention of the steam engine led to the industrial revolution which eradicated the roots of feudalism and the evil of absolute monarchy. All this resulted in the development of democracy. In Pakistan, there is everything from adult franchises to the separation of powers between the three organs of government but no plan for that kind of industrial revolution.

Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the father of the nation and the first Governor-General, died just one year after the establishment of Pakistan on September 11, 1948, and his right-hand lieutenant Liaquat Ali Khan, who was the first Prime Minister, was assassinated on October 16, 1951. About the capability of other leaders of the Pakistan Muslim League (PML), the party which had successfully piloted the movement for Pakistan, Jinnah had ruefully remarked that “he had false coins in his pocket”.

Consequently, several ministers appointed initially were not politicians and did not have a seat in the Assembly. Similarly, in 1954, there were several members of the Prime Minister’s cabinet without a seat in Parliament. “The cabinet and other high political appointments reflected a paucity of talent among the politicians.”

It is indeed a sad commentary on the elected members of the first Legislature and Constituent Assembly of Pakistan that they could not find a suitable head of state from among their own ranks. Most of them came from the civil bureaucracy or the military. The civil-military bureaucracy did not have a favorable opinion about the competence of political leaders and often took decisions without consulting them. This adversely affected their political training, development, and growth.

The inability to control the Anti-Ahmadiya Movement in Punjab in 1953 was blamed on inept political leadership. This religious movement was spearheaded by the religious Ahrar Party which had opposed the establishment of Pakistan and now wanted again to come into the limelight. They were supported by other religious parties, i.e., Jamaat-i-Islami, JamiatuiUlema-i-Pakistan, and JamiatulUlerna-i-Islam. The movement was exploited by politicians in their own political interests.

But the civil-military bureaucracy was against the religious parties dominating the power structure either in the provinces or the center. To rescue the city of Lahore where Ahmadis were in a “virtual state of siege” and their properties were being “burned or looted”, General Azam Khan, the Area Commander, was ordered by the Defense Secretary, to impose martial law in Lahore. It was met with the general approval of the people.

It was demonstrated that the civil-military bureaucracy “would not let politicians or religious ideologues lead the country to anarchy”. This also laid down the foundations of the supremacy of the military and orchestrated the initial rehearsal for the recurring imposition of Martial Law in the country and its acceptance by the people.

Lack of education has remained an important impediment to the democratization of countries. This is not just a problem for Pakistan but of the whole Third world. Laski, a famous political thinker said that education is the backbone of democracy. Democracy is a system of governance in which the people choose their representatives through elections. Their strength lies in the ballot box. If people are not vigilant and educated enough to make a better choice, democracy will not flourish in that country.

This is the main reason that even in the countries apparently practicing democracy but the majority of uneducated people are among the under-developed nations. Masses in Pakistan have not found ways of compelling their rulers to be mindful of their duty. Their failures in this regard result from insufficiency of experience and training in operating modem democratic politics. Democracy puts the highest premium on constitutionalism, which is possible only with the predominant majority of people. Pakistan’s democracy can neither improve nor become viable as long as the majority of the population remains uneducated.

Judiciary is one of the most important pillars of a state and in a country where the judiciary is not imparting justice , democracy cannot develop. During the Second World War, someone asked British Prime Minister Winston Churchill whether the British would win the war. The Prime Minister laughed and replied that if the British courts were dispensing justice, no one would trounce the United Kingdom. In Pakistan since 1954 judiciary has remained docile to the wishes of the executive. As Shelley says, “If the winter comes; can spring be far behind”.

In fact, since its birth, Pakistan has been governed by bureaucratic, military, and political elites. The bureaucratic elite generally became more assertive, steadily increasing their power at the expense of the political elite. Ayub’s term of office (1958-69) was the golden era for the bureaucracy, which exercised its powers, unbridled by any political interference. The weakness of political elites can be demonstrated by the fact that during seven years from 1951 to 1958, as many as seven Prime Ministers had been changed.

From 1988 to 1999, four democratically elected governments were replaced on charges of corruption, inefficiency, security risk, etc. The civil-military bureaucracy has dominated governance owing to the inherent weakness of the political parties and their incompetent leadership, resulting in the derailment of democracy thrice in the history of Pakistan, i.e., in 1958, 1977, and 1999.

Pakistan was not created as a theocracy but as a place where an economically marginalized minority could operate a democracy independently. It was to save the people from religious discrimination and domination by an overwhelming religious majority. Moreover, it emerged as a territorial state in the Muslim majority areas of the subcontinent. But the religious and secular groups soon started making conflicting demands while formulating the constitution of Pakistan.

The speech of Mr. Jinnah on August 11, 1947, addressed to the first legislative and constituent assembly of Pakistan, advocated political pluralism and declared that the “religion or caste or creed has nothing to do with the business of the State”. This has not adhered to the Objectives Resolution passed by the Constituent Assembly in 1949, which pacified the demands of Muslim religious parties and elements but was not supported by religious minorities.

The compromise solution attempted to balance the values and the spirit of Islam with the requirements of secularism. Due to a lack of competent and visionary political leadership , and the fact that Muslims constituted 98 percent of the population, the conservative religious leaders, partly due to their conviction and partly owing to their parochial interests, advocated and preached the establishment of a religiopolitical system based on Al-Quran and Sunnah.

They were skeptical of the politico-social development of modem times and western political institutions and forms of government. Their dogmatic theology clashed with the democratic culture envisioned by the founding fathers. Another adverse impact of the adoption of religion as a guiding principle in the constitution, was the promotion of religious sectarianism, especially between the two major sects inhabiting Pakistan, i.e., Sunnis and Shi’as. Some sections of these sects, instead of peaceful negotiations to overcome their differences, often resort to violence, which is against the spirit of both Islam and democracy. These rivalries fostered reliance on the security forces for the maintenance of law and order, which eroded the hold of democratic institutions in governance.

For any healthy constitutional and political system to function smoothly, strong and well-entrenched political parties are essential. Unfortunately, political parties in Pakistan have failed to develop into strong vehicles of national political will. The main responsibility for safeguarding democracy in a country falls on political parties. Pakistan, since its inception, was lacking well-organized and well-established political parties that could carry the representative system of governance forward.

The All-India Muslim League, which had piloted the movement of Pakistan from 1940 to 47, was not a well-organized political party, but it was primarily a movement. Leading a movement and organizing a political party are two different things. Most of its leaders belonged to areas that became part of the Indian Union and their majority did not come to Pakistan. Those who were in Pakistan, barring a few exceptions, belonged to feudal and landowning classes that in their nature were in conflict with the democratic dispensation. In fact “the leadership of the Pakistan movement had few roots in the land that became Pakistan.”

Their incompetence and constant wrangling for power in the initial nine years (1947-1956) were also responsible for the delay in constitution-making. Instead of cooperation and mutual accommodation, there was ceaseless infighting. For instance, as early as 1953, a clash between the leadership of Punjab and the central government led to intense communal riots and the imposition of Martial Law in Lahore, the provincial capital. Even as late as the decade 1988-99 of civil supremacy, the fight between the PML and the PPP led to the repeated dissolution of national and provincial assemblies and the dismissal of prime ministers and their cabinets. Finally, it ended with the military takeover in 1999.

The representative character of the civilian parliamentary government during the first decade of Pakistan’s existence was eroded because the country was governed under the Government of India Act of 1935. The purpose of the Act was “to make the appointed governor-general exert dominance over the elected prime minister.” The Act introduced a representative and centralized system of bureaucratic governance, which was an imperative requirement of the colonial government but not of democratic governance. The first general elections in the country should have been held in 1951, i.e., five years after the previous elections in 1946, but this could not happen till 1970.

The reasons for the delay were that the ruling elite, i.e., civil bureaucrats, migrant political leadership, and weak political parties, had few roots in the masses. As a consequence, general elections could not be held for 23 years (1947-1970) of the country’s initial history. On the expiry of the five years term of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (1972-1977), the second general elections on the basis of the adult franchise were held on March 7, 1977, which the PPP won with a vast majority.

The opposition parties alleged that the elections had been “rigged on a massive scale”. It has been commented: Elections in Pakistan had been rigged before, notably the presidential election in 1965 and the Provincial Assembly,y elections in the early 1950s, but rigging in these instances did not arouse the mass uprising as it did in 1977. The people of Pakistan were evidently not of the same mind now as they were in those earlier periods.

Corruption in bureaucracy and among political leaders poses a grave threat to good democratic governance. Quaid-i-Azam had termed corruption as “poison” and asked to put that down with an “iron hand”. Now that the international Reconciliation Ordinance, .vnich had withdrawn from prosecution any person “falsely involved for political reasons or through political victimization” between 1986 and 1999, has lapsed on November 28, 2009, the concerned individuals should get themselves cleared in a court of law in a transparent manner. The tribal nature of society in Pakistan is susceptible to nepotism. As an antidote, accountability and transparency are necessary. It is a challenge to the people to reject those leaders and political parties which indulge in corruption and nepotism.

One of the main bottlenecks in constitutional development in Pakistan was that its two wings were separated by about 1000 miles of hostile territory. The eastern wing consisted of one province but was more populous’ than the western wing which was much larger in the area and had as many as four provinces.

The western wing was not prepared to concede majority representation to the eastern wing in the parliament. After a confrontation of nine years between the two wings, the solution was evolved in the l956 constitution in the shape of parity of representation in a quasi-federal structure, neutralizing the majority of the eastern wing and paving the way for the manipulated domination of the western wing.

The domination of the western wing in governance led to an insurgency in the eastern wing which culminated in the separation and independence of Bangladesh in 1971. In post-1971 Pakistan, it came to be realized that ideological moorings alone could not easily overcome ethnic and economic differences. Yet the anti-ethnic attitude and anti-modem thinking prevalent in certain segments of society lean toward a unitary or quasi-federal state as against a true federation.

The latest threat is emanating from extremism and terrorism, especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and the Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA). This is the spillover effect of the conflict in Afghanistan and is spreading to Pakistan. It is likely to continue as long as there is no peace and stability in that country. However, the military enjoying the support of the nation is successfully combating the extremists and terrorists under the supremacy of the civilian democratic government. It is hoped that the process would continue to its logical conclusion.

Due to the migration of literate Hindus and Sikhs to India, the literacy rate in Pakistan sharply declined. There was about 95 percent illiteracy in Pakistan in 1947, which acted as a hindrance to the growth of civil and democratic society. Feudalism and economic constraint did not permit any Pakistani government to launch a “crash course to expand literacy and grow higher standards.

The national economy has gone bankrupt and the national budget has become all foreign aid-dependent. Islam was the ideology that gave life to the Pakistan movement and later Pakistan itself but is now infested with sectarianism. Military policies gifted the country with cross-border terrorism and three million internally displaced people. Despite having the largest chunk of the national budget and being the seventh-largest army in the world, the Pakistan army is now in a mess of its own creation with little of its hard-earned prestige left to its credit.

The distorted face of the national system as a whole and the failure of the judiciary to guard the constitution of Pakistan are the major factors contributing to the change in the national mindset. The events of the last two years have clearly shown the preference of the people of Pakistan. The masses want democracy as a political and governing system for the country and a judiciary that guard the rights of the people. The military would be respected more if it stays in the barracks or guarded the national borders. The murder of Benazir Bhutto has taught new lessons.

If one compares Pakistani democracy with Western democracy it is said that for over 50 years, Pakistan remains occupied by three major interest groups in the time, opportunities, and resources of the besieged nation. The army, civil service, and the neo-colonial appointed landlords. If there was any rational tolerance scale, the Pakistani nation would certainly secure high marks on its standard of tolerance and survival under most unfavorable circumstances.

One of the pivotal factors supporting the notion of Western liberal democracies is that it provides opportunities for participation to ordinary citizens, right or wrong to culminate a sense of legitimacy for the election exercise and chose people of their interest to manage public affairs for a specified term. But the principles and standards for evil and good vary between the West and the Islamic world . Strange as is, in Pakistan, those who come to occupy the political offices never intend to quit the political power on their own except implication of military force through a coup.

Comparatively, on occasions, western democracies do” encourage educated and competent citizens to strive for their high ideas and ideals and come to the front stage and demonstrate their intentions and will power to seek the goal of ideal public service agendas. E.H. Carr defines the teaching-learning role of history and its value must not be ignored but preserved. Recall the Pakistani military dictators for the last forty-plus years, they each consumed a decade or more to relinquish power, that was not theirs in any systematic and logical context. Ayub Khan was ousted by Yahya Khan.

General Yahya with the complacency of Z.A. Bhutto surrendered East Pakistan to India (now Bangladesh) to share power with Bhutto but was put under house arrest as Bhutto assumed the power that did not belong to him based on the verdict of the people. Rightfully, it was Sheikh MujiburRehman, leader of the East Pakistan Awami League who should have been sworn in as the new leader of united Pakistan but it was treacherously undone by Yahya and Bhutto.

Both should have been tried as traitors in a court of law and punished. Not so, they were rewarded and Bhutto became the first civilian martial law administrator and self-made president of defeated Pakistan in December 1971. Dr.Ishtiaq Qureshi, editor of the Urdu Digest recorded for the history (“Sukoot-e-Dacca seyPurdhautha Hay”- Facts are revealed after the Dacca Surrender) that “in the quest for its survival Pakistan lost its destiny. Yahya and Mujib stabbed the body of Pakistan with one dagger and Bhutto will stab Pakistan with another dagger.”

Suggestions for Democracy in Pakistan

Fo1lowing are the suggestions for improving democracy in Pakistan:

An impartial system of accountability enhances public trust in the political system. It provides enormous strength to the democratic process. Moreover, it compels thousand who are charged with governance, to transparently discharge their official responsibilities. It ensures good governance and strengthens the political setup. In spite of facing innumerable challenges and showing unsatisfactory performance, Pakistanis have the capability to emerge as a democratic and progressive nation. Pakistan can road to democracy with the dedication, determination, commitment, courage, and patriotism of its political leaders.

Reforming the judiciary and incorporating Islamic laws can also soothe the deprived and poor masses who have been manipulated by the extremists due to the sheer negligence of the elected governments and ruling elite. This natura11y causes bitterness toward the present form of political setup.

Moving on, corruption and selfish attitudes are eating away at the institutional structure of our country and such practices never allow democracy to flourish. There is also a need for mature political leadership, which can think above its own gains. All this can only emerge after the formulation and implementation of strict accountability.

On the contrary, weak public institutions can be made strong and productive if the power and authority seep down. The example of many European countries is in front of us, where institutions are powerful and not politicians. Democracy in actuality can only be achieved through such measures.

Our constitution has been a source of constant controversy. Be it the realization of Islamic laws or the concentration of power in the head of the state, the constitution has served as a tool for the legitimization of alien changes and policies. Keeping the constitution intact has been long overdue. No one in power should be allowed to change it for prolongation of rule or appeasing any particular section. The Pakistani movement envisaged a democratic country with a federal structure.

In all Constitutions of Pakistan (1956, 1962, and 1973) the objectives of governance, in the words of Dr. Ainslie T. Embree, Professor Emeritus of Columbia University, are democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance, and social justice as enunciated by Islam, giving Muslims freedom to live their lives in accordance with the teachings of Islam, but with minorities having full freedom to profess their own religions.

Islam lays emphasis on the concept of Shura, i.e., consultation among people, which is the essence of democratic culture. Quaid-i-Azam, the founder of Pakistan had stated:

“We leamed democracy 1300 years ago. Democracy is i11 our blood. It is ill our marrows. Dilly centuries of adverse circumstances have made the circulation of that blood cold. It has got frozen, and our arteries are not functioning. But thank God, the blood is circulating again, thanks to the Muslim League’s efforts. It will be a People’s government. Culturally, ill the region of Pakistan, there is a concept of Jirga or Panchayat, i.e., an assembly of elders, to settle issues and disputes involving two or more two persons. This system has, been prevalent for ages, much before the advent of Islam. Thus, both religion and age-old tradition advocate the concept of consultation in decision-making through all assembly of people, which is the essence of democracy.”

During the period of British supremacy in the subcontinent, the practice of elections to assemblies (local, provincial and central) was introduced through various enactments. Finally, it was the Government of India Act 1935 under which the dominions of India and Pakistan functioned after independence till they framed their own constitutions. These enactments provided the groundwork for democratic governance. It may be of interest to note that even when the democratic rule was suspended by the armed forces, the military rulers always came with the promise to restore democratic governance .

For instance, in 1970, General Yahya Khan is credited with organizing the first-ever general elections in the country, which led to the establishment of democratic governments both in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Besides holding general elections in 2002 and 2007, General Musharraf’s introduction of a local government system introduced in 2001 is considered a “laudable model of governance” because of its principle that whatever can be done at the local level should not be done at a higher tier of governance.

The country is on the path to achieving full literacy and progress towards a higher standard of education in important disciplines. This is strengthening the civil society in ensuring the prevalence of democratic culture at the lower and higher level of governance. Secondly, the print and electronic media in Pakistan are vibrant and independent. A responsible media educates the masses, raises political consciousness, and thus promotes democratic values, norms, and culture. In addition, a number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are playing an active role in the field of education and contributing to the growth of a vibrant civil society and good governance.

The essential step seems to stop interruption in the democratic process so that we may see more than promos. To judge something, it has to be allowed a chance to survive and act. The elected government must be allowed to complete its tenure in any case. The military has to play a positive role here and not interfere in the smooth democratic process.

As mentioned before, a part of the population wants greater Islamic character in the Govt. and laws. If we analyze this demand, it will be apparent that the enforcement of Sharia is more related to lawmaking. Therefore, what is immediately required is a change in the judicial setup, which has been unable to gain the trust of people until recently. Encouraging steps have already started in this case, but much more needs to be done.

Sadly, the same corrupted pool of thought keeps appearing with new faces and the deceived masses blindly follow them. This is due to the absence of any kind of accountability. Political compromises enhance this trend. Such practices are against moral, democratic as well as Islamic principles and should end immediately.

Next, the all-powerful bureaucracy and feudal politicians should be stripped of their unwarranted authority. It has been a slow evil that has weakened the country like nothing else. They are elected for serving people not to control them. The criteria of merit; the right to freedom and equal progress for common people have become a joke due to such an autocratic setup.

The people of Pakistan in general lack political psyche and consciousness. This is largely due to poor literacy and a never-ending feudalistic rule over 60% of the country. Therefore, it is necessary to educate the masses and make them aware of their political rights. This can begin with greater political socialization by political parties and media.

In a democratic state, media has rightly been called the fourth pillar of the state. It can play a most important role in the present age for creating awareness. Our media has risen from the ashes like a phoenix. It, however, needs to play a positive constructive role and not become another compromised institution as well.

Finally, the strategic position and now the war against terror call forth unwanted attention from the international community sometimes. In the past, military rule has been covertly or openly supported by many countries to gain their own benefits in this region. The international powers must stop interfering in the democratic process and for that to happen, our own government, people and media need to be equally strong.

Politicians may have learned lessons from their past mistakes and are more mature politically. Consensus politics seem to be emerging in the country. In the past, the constant infighting amongst political parties had often led to interference and take-over by the armed forces.

Now a culture of reconciliation, accommodation, and dialogue is emerging. The ideological polarization is diminishing. After the general elections of February 2008, four major political parties, i.e., Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), PML – Nawaz (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), Jamiat-ulUlema-i-Islam – Fazalur Rahman (JUI-Fl and MuttahidaQaumi Movement (MQM) have joined hands to govern the country and re-establish the supremacy of the Parliament in accordance with the Constitution of 1973.

Our youth constitute 30% of the society they are representative of a new generation. Their participation may ensure structural improvements in the national paradigm. It has been witnessed that during the Pakistan movement youth played a vital role in opinion formation and mass awareness and so is the time now. There is a need to guide our youth to take responsibility for our tomorrow.

To sum up, it is the political leadership that can ensure the permanence of democratic governance. The prospects are, however, not as dismal as sometimes portrayed. Already, the literacy rate in Pakistan has increased to more than fifty-five percent. Efforts are afoot to improve the standard of higher education. Economic growth and industrialization have given birth to a vocal urban society and middle class, which is growing. and gradually lessening the influence of the feudal class.

The vibrant electronic and print media is playing an effective role in constructive criticism of the government and in educating the masses. Elections are being held regularly, representative political leadership and political parties are getting stronger and a peaceful mode of transfer of power is becoming the norm. The bureaucracy (both civil and military), though still powerful, may retreat gradually and submit to the people’s power and will and concede to democratic governance. The democratic process is progressing and, hopefully, will be obstructed and derailed, as in the past.

Expected question about this Essay:

  • Why has democracy failed in Pakistan?
  • What practical measures do you suggest for strengthening democracy in Pakistan?

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Democracy of Pakistan (English Essay With Outlines in 1200 Words)

English Essay on Democracy of Pakistan For College Students Democracy of Pakistan has suffered through several setbacks and challenges, but recent developments in the country have sparked a sense of optimism for change in the future.

Pakistan is a vibrant and resilient country. Democracy, despite its many flaws, has brought a lot of changes to the society and it is the only option for Pakistan. There are many positive changes being brought by democracy but one of the most significant problems is the lack of political awareness.

Pakistan is one of the largest Muslim countries in the world, but has recently faced serious internal issues and political instability. This essay explores the history of democracy in Pakistan and the challenges it faces.

Democracy of Pakistan (English Essay With Outlines in 1200 Words)

Table of Contents

What is Democracy?

Democracy is the political system in which the people have the power to choose their own leaders.

Types of Democracy

Democracy is a system of government in which the people are sovereign, that is to say they have the power to rule. It is usually assumed that all modern democracies are liberal democracies. This is true in the sense that most democracies claim to be liberal and many are in fact liberal in their practice. However, there are a number of different types of democracy. Some of these are more liberal than others, and some are more authoritarian than others.

Pros & Cons of Democracy

There are many pros and cons to democracy. On the positive side, it allows for a high degree of public participation in government, which can lead to better policy decisions. Additionally, democracies often have low levels of corruption, because elected officials are held accountable by their constituents.

However, democracies also have their fair share of problems. For example, they can be more volatile and prone to political instability than other types of governments. And while they may offer citizens a greater level of freedom and civil rights than some other systems, they can also be less efficient in delivering these benefits.

Democracy Vs Dictatorship

Democracy is a system of government where citizens have the power to make decisions about their own lives. This system is based on the principle that all people have the right to participate in the political process and have their voices heard.

Dictatorship is a system of government in which one person or group has total control over all aspects of society. This system is based on the principle that one person or group can be trusted to protect the interests of the population and make wise decisions for them.

Democracy of Pakistan

The current form of democracy in Pakistan is a parliamentary democracy. The Parliament is bicameral and consists of the Senate and the National Assembly. The Senate is made up of 100 members, who are elected for six-year terms.

The Prime Minister is the head of government and is appointed by the National Assembly. The Cabinet is the executive branch of the government and is responsible for the day-to-day running of the country. The judiciary is independent and consists of the Supreme Court, High Courts, and District Courts.  The head of the executive branch is the President.

According to the theory, democracy in Pakistan consists of three layers of government: federal, provincial and local. The central layer is represented by the federal government, while the provincial governments are the regional counterparts. The local governments are the last layer, and represent the community or the people.

Challenges For Democracy in Pakistan

Democracy of Pakistan in facing following challenges;

1. How can the government protect the rights of its citizens and ensure that they are able to express their views freely?

2. How can the government ensure that all eligible citizens can participate in the political process and have their voices heard?

The government can try to ensure that all eligible citizens can participate in the political process by providing information about the relevant candidates and the voting process. Additionally, the government can try to create a conducive environment in which citizens can freely express their views.

History of Democracy of Pakistan

Pakistan is one of the most diverse countries in the world, with a population that spans all social and economic strata. The country’s complex history has led to a variety of political systems and ideologies. Democracy has been an official policy of the government since 1973, but prior to that, various forms of government had operated in Pakistan. The first democratic system was established during the British Raj, when elected representatives from each province convened a legislative assembly to draft a constitution. However, this assembly was dissolved by the British authorities just four years after its establishment. The second attempt at establishing democracy took place following independence in 1947. However, due to disagreements between Prime Ministers and Presidents, democracy was not fully established until 1973. Since then, successive governments have enacted various constitutional amendments to expand the rights of citizens and form a more democratic system. Pakistan has a long and tumultuous history of democracy. The first democratic elections in the country were held in 1979. However, the country has had a number of periods of military rule, which have been followed by periods of democracy.

Future of Democracy in Pakistan

Pakistani democracy is in a state of flux. The country has been through multiple transitions, including from military dictatorship to parliamentary democracy and then to an elected civilian government in 2008. However, the country faces several challenges that could undermine its future as a democracy.

The most pressing issue facing Pakistani democracy is the lack of trust in institutions. According to a 2018 poll by the Pew Research Center, only 22 percent of Pakistanis say they have a great deal or fair amount of trust in the government to do what is right, down from 53 percent in 2006. This dwindling trust is likely due to years of instability and corruption – both within institutions and among politicians – which has led to disillusionment among citizens. To make matters worse, this lack of faith has created an environment where extremist groups can thrive.

Despite these challenges, Pakistani democracy is still in relatively good shape overall. The current government – which was elected in 2018 after years of political instability and corruption – is considered to be relatively stable, and there have been no major crises or violence linked to the democratic process so far. In addition, the country’s judiciary is considered to be independent and effective, which helps to ensure that the rule of law is upheld.

Key Features of Democracy of Pakistan

1. The Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956.

2. Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic.

3. The Head of State is the President, who is elected by the Parliament for a five-year term.

4. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in Pakistan.

5. There are three branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial.

Final Thoughts on Democracy in Pakistan

In short although Pakistan is a democratic country, still democracy is in cradle here in Pakistan. Now a days there is a controlled democracy in Pakistan. Deep state is very strong in Pakistan. Concept of hybrid democracy, basic democracy, and non parties democracy were introduced in Pakistan. Creation of Pakistan was a result of democratic process, but as a nation we could never defend democracy of Pakistan . There is need of strengthening the democracy in Pakistan.

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I am a professional content writer and have experience of 10 years. I also launched first ever English monthly magazine of human rights in Pakistan. Majority of content on this website is written by me.


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