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Child Labor in the Production of Cocoa

You shouldn’t have to worry that the chocolate you eat might contain cocoa cultivated or harvested by a child. Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, together, produce nearly 60% of the world’s cocoa each year, but the latest estimates found that 1.56 million children are engaged in child labor on cocoa farms in these two countries. ILAB’s work has been essential to confronting the challenge of child labor in West African cocoa. By fostering partnerships and securing commitments, we are helping to promote a global cocoa supply chain free of exploitative labor.

ILAB has been, and continues to be, a driving force in bringing people together to coordinate efforts, share ideas, and foster new collaborations to alleviate child labor in cocoa. 

We were instrumental in the formation of the Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group (CLCCG) – an innovative public-private partnership with the aim of rooting out abusive labor practices in the cocoa supply chain. The CLCCG brings together the governments of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana as well as representatives of the International Chocolate and Cocoa Industry to ensure that projects are complementary and sufficient resources are directed towards addressing priority needs.

Infographic on the dangers of child labor in cocoa

Since its establishment in 2010, the CLCCG has brought more stakeholders to the table – helping to spark dialogue and collaboration between governments, chocolate companies, civil society, and international organizations. The partnerships that have stemmed from the CLCCG have been seen as a model of coordination, collaboration, and information-sharing by governments and companies at home and abroad.

The CLCCG was formed when the governments of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, the U.S. Department of Labor, and representatives of the international chocolate and cocoa industry committed to joining together in the fight against child labor in the production of cocoa. Senator Tom Harkin, Representative Eliot Engel, and the International Labor Organization witnessed the CLCCG partners’ signing of the Declaration of Joint Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol . Accompanying the Declaration is the Framework of Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol , which lays out the activities needed to achieve the goals of the Harkin-Engel Protocol .

The CLCCG has proven essential in accelerating action, sharing knowledge, driving innovation, and leveraging resources in the fight against child labor in West African cocoa. As we look towards the future, we call on all stakeholders in the fight against child labor to learn from these efforts in cocoa. Through partnerships and alliances among all types of stakeholders – from foreign governments to civil society to corporations – we have a chance to make a real and sustained impact in addressing child labor around the world.

Dangers of child labor in cocoa infographic

CLCCG Ten Year Report 2010-2020

Previous reports...

2018 , 2017 , 2016 , 2016 (Addendum from Industry) , 2015 , 2014 , 2013 , 2012 , 2011

Further Resources

  • Survey Research on Child Labor in West African Cocoa Growing Areas

NORC 2020 Cocoa Report

clock This article was published more than  3 years ago

Supreme Court weighs child-slavery case against Nestlé USA, Cargill

Despite years of promises by the chocolate industry, child labor remains widespread on cocoa farms

child labor and slavery in the chocolate industry case study

The Supreme Court heard arguments Tuesday about whether U.S. chocolate companies should be held responsible for child slavery on the African farms from which they buy most of their cocoa.

Six African men are seeking damages from Nestlé USA and Cargill, alleging that as children they were trafficked out of Mali, forced to work long hours on Ivory Coast cocoa farms and kept at night in locked shacks. Their attorneys argue that the companies should have better monitored their cocoa suppliers in West Africa, where about two-thirds of the world’s cocoa is grown and child labor is widespread.

These “are former child slaves seeking compensation from two U.S. corporations which maintain a system of child slavery and forced labor in their Ivory Coast supply chain as a matter of corporate policy to gain a competitive advantage in the U.S. market,” the Malians’ attorney, Paul L. Hoffman, told the court. He asked the justices to “allow these former child slaves to have their day in court.”

Washington Post investigation: Child labor in the cocoa industry

Nestlé USA and Cargill have responded that they, too, deplore child slavery and trafficking, and that they have taken steps to eradicate such practices among their suppliers.

Nestlé USA “firmly believes that traffickers deserve punishment,” the company said in court filings. “This case is not about any of that.”

The companies have asked the Supreme Court to toss the lawsuit, arguing that courts in the United States are the wrong forum for the Malians’ complaint and that the applicable law permits such cases against individuals but not corporations. In the view of the companies, such cases ought to be filed not against the corporations but against the traffickers and farmers involved.

“This case is about a 15-year-old lawsuit brought against the wrong defendant, in the wrong place, and under the wrong statute,” according to the brief on behalf of Nestlé USA filed by Neal K. Katyal and other attorneys. “The true wrongdoers are the Malian and Ivorian traffickers, farmers, and overseers.”

On Tuesday, both sides faced skepticism from the justices.

“Mr. Katyal, many of your arguments lead to results that are pretty hard to take," Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr. said.

Suppose, Alito continued, a U.S. corporation surreptitiously hired agents in Africa to kidnap children to enslave them on a plantation so that the corporation can buy cheap cocoa or coffee.

“You would say that the victims ... should be thrown out of court in the United States, where this corporation is headquartered and does business?” Alito asked.

Katyal answered, among other things, that the victims could sue in African courts or Congress could pass a law specific to such abuses.

Probing the arguments of the other side, however, the justices zeroed in on whether the companies’ practices really amounted to "aiding and abetting” child slavery. Is simply buying cocoa from these farms enough?

“What counts as aiding and abetting for purposes of this statute?” Justice Stephen G. Breyer asked Hoffman, the Malians’ attorney. “When I read through your complaint, it seemed to me that all or virtually all of your complaint amounts to doing business with these people. They help pay for the farm. And that’s about it."

Hoffman answered that the companies had “crossed the line” from merely buying cocoa to facilitating the system.

The proliferation of global supply chains in recent decades has led to recurring debates over the responsibility of multinational companies to monitor the adherence of their far-flung suppliers to human rights and environmental standards.

Business groups, including the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the National Association of Manufacturers, have pushed back against lawsuits such as the one against Nestlé and Cargill, arguing they are burdensome and could discourage investment in developing economies. U.S. and foreign companies have been sued 150 times over the past 25 years under a statute that permits foreign nationals to sue in the United States for international law violations, the business groups said.

Allowing the cases imposes “heavy legal and reputational burdens on companies that are sued on the basis that they conducted business with foreign actors accused of committing torts abroad,” their attorneys argued.

There is plenty of evidence, however, that the world’s chocolate supply depends heavily on child labor and that despite two decades of industry promises, it remains widespread. While much of it occurs on family farms, some is also arranged by traffickers who ferry in children from neighboring Mali and Burkina Faso. To human rights advocates, the persistence of child labor in the world’s cocoa supply amounts to, at best, tragic negligence.

A Washington Post investigation of the use of child labor in the cocoa industry found representatives of some of the biggest and best-known brands could not guarantee that any of their chocolate was produced without child labor. It featured children from Burkina Faso working in appalling conditions on Ivory Coast cocoa farms.

More recently, a report sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor indicated that the West African cocoa industry was exploiting the aid of 1.6 million West African child laborers. Most of those laborers were involved in tasks considered hazardous such as wielding machetes, carrying heavy loads or working with pesticides, according to the report.

U.S. report: Much of the world’s chocolate supply relies on more than 1 million child workers

What makes the legal cases against the companies particularly complex is the difficulties investigators face in connecting any child laborer with a specific company. But human rights advocates say the companies should be held responsible because child labor arises in part because they refuse to pay enough for cocoa and have yet to fully institute systems for tracing cocoa beans to specific farms.

“The business practices of these companies clearly have contributed to the use of forced and child labor in West Africa,” said Charity Ryerson, an attorney for the Corporate Accountability Lab who has traveled to Africa to investigate cocoa practices.

She noted that some smaller chocolate companies such as Tony’s Chocolonely pay higher prices and take extra care to eliminate child labor from their cocoa suppliers. Those added costs can make it difficult for the producers of “ethical chocolate” to compete against the companies using cocoa produced with child labor, she said.

“As slave-free cocoa and chocolate companies, [we] are at a competitive disadvantage to companies that source cheap cocoa produced with forced child labor,” some of the companies said in a legal filing. “The higher production costs associated with compliance with international human rights norms require [us] to sell … chocolate at higher prices.”

Indeed, cocoa prices are critical to the debate. As the Supreme Court begins to consider the case, a cocoa price war appears to be breaking out between the multinational companies and the governments of Ivory Coast and Ghana, which regulate cocoa exports.

Doubts about chocolate: U.S. officials investigate whether to block critical cocoa imports

The West African governments have added a $400 cost per ton in an attempt to give farmers what they call a “living income,” a move that has been met with some reluctance from the chocolate companies.

“Unfortunately, industry steps to lower the price are going in precisely the wrong direction,” said Antonie Fountain, managing director of the Voice Network, a group that pushes for environmental and human rights reform in the cocoa industry. “Prices need to go up, not down.”

The Voice Network issued an annual report on the industry Tuesday, citing the lack of progress despite promises by the companies to eradicate child labor.

“Twenty years into rhetoric, the challenges on the ground remain as large as ever,” it said. “Poverty is still the daily reality for virtually all West African cocoa farmer families, child labour remains rife, and old growth forests continue to be cleared to make way for cocoa production.”

child labor and slavery in the chocolate industry case study

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nestle

Child labour on Nestlé farms: chocolate giant's problems continue

Auditors completing their annual report continue to find evidence of child labour on Ivory Coast farms supplying Nestlé

  • Meet Terry Collingsworth: the lawyer taking on Nestle and ExxonMobil

Children younger than 15 continue to work at cocoa farms connected to Nestlé , more than a decade after the food company promised to end the use of child labour in its supply chain.

A new report by the Fair Labor Association (FLA) , commissioned by Nestlé, saw researchers visit 260 farms used by the company in Ivory Coast from September to December 2014. The researchers found 56 workers under the age of 18, of which 27 were under 15.

At one farm in the Divo district of the country, the FLA found evidence of forced labour, with a young worker not receiving any salary for a year’s work at a farm.

Ivory Coast is the world’s largest producer of cocoa, the raw ingredient that makes chocolate. The industry is estimated to be worth close to £60 billion a year .

Researchers from the FLA, which was commissioned by Nestlé to investigate workers rights on its west African farms in 2013 amid international pressure, found child workers at 7% of the farms visited. Nestlé’s code of conduct prohibits the use of child labour in its supply chain.

Though researchers found Nestlé had made substantial efforts to inform farmers about its code of conduct, awareness of the code was low among farmers, with farmers sometimes unable to attend training sessions due to either “lack of interest or time”. The FLA also found that farms lacked any kind of age verification system for workers to stop the use of child labour.

A total of 24 children were found working on farms as “family workers”, unable to attend school, as they worked alongside their parents and siblings on plantations. On farms employing children they were expected to work in hazardous conditions and carry out dangerous tasks, including using machetes and transporting heavy loads.

Allegations of child labour and workers rights abuses have dogged Nestlé for years. In 2001 Nestlé signed the Harkin-Engel protocol , a voluntary agreement by members of the cocoa industry and politicians to work towards ending the worst forms of child labour.

But four years later, in 2005, noted human rights lawyer Terry Collingsworth filed a lawsuit against the company and Cargill and Archer Daniels Midland, alleging that the companies gave substantial assistance to plantation owners who used forced child labour.

In court documents, the three plaintiffs claim that they were trafficked from their homes in neighbouring west African countries and put to work on plantations on Ivory Coast. They describe how they were whipped, beaten and forced to work for 14 hours a day before retiring to dank, dark rooms without windows to rest. One plaintiff, referred to in the case as John Doe II recounted how guards would slice open the feet of any child worker who were caught trying to escape.

The case has been tied up in the appellate courts for years, and the companies have recently stated their intention to take the child workers’ successful appeal in the ninth circuit court of appeals to the US supreme court.

Commenting on the FLA’s findings, Collingsworth said the report challenged corporate assurances that chocolate manufacturers were dealing with the problem of child labour.

“This FLA report, and others before it, show that allowing the companies to act ‘voluntarily’ to clean up their problem has not, and will not, work. There are lots of options that would work, including rigorous monitoring by an independent monitor who has authority to take corrective action,” he said.

“Doing nothing more now will leave the child workers unprotected until the litigation we have pursued is finally before a jury. We can’t say when that will be and should not accept more delay in addressing a resolvable problem.”

The International Labour Organisation estimates there are as many as 59 million African children, aged 5-17, involved in hazardous work today. Human rights organisations like Human Rights Watch have written that Ivory Coast is yet to come to terms with its history of civil conflict.

Nestlé has repeatedly stated its commitment to tackling child labour in its supply chain, and has already taken action to address the issues raised in the FLA report. These actions include increasing access to education, stepping up systems of age verification at farms and increasing awareness of the company’s own code of conduct.

A Nestlé spokesperson told the Guardian: “To date we have identified 3,933 children working on their family farms (around 10% of the children surveyed) who were involved in hazardous tasks classified as child labour. We have included half of them in our Child Labour Monitoring and Remediation System, which includes providing school kits, obtaining birth certificates and developing income generating activities for the families of 312 identified children. Unfortunately, the scale and complexity of the issue is such that no company sourcing cocoa from Ivory Coast can guarantee that it has completely removed the risk of child labour from its supply chain.”

She added: “Where we have evidence that we’re making a difference, we will seek to scale up efforts in these areas. We are already planning to scale up the Monitoring and Remediation system to other producing countries, with a near-term priority being Ghana. We’ll continue to work with the government and our partners to improve standards across the industry.”

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Supreme Court Hears Case on Child Slavery in Cocoa Industry

via HRP blog

child labor and slavery in the chocolate industry case study

Clinic Submits  Amicus   Curiae  Brief on Behalf of Legal Historians

Dec. 1, the Supreme Court of the United States hears oral arguments in a pair of corporate human rights cases against U.S. based chocolate companies Nestlé and Cargill for their role in aiding and abetting child slavery in West Africa. The plaintiffs, six survivors of kidnapping, trafficking, and forced labor, make use of the Alien Tort Statute (ATS), a provision of the First Judiciary Act of 1789 that allows foreign nationals to pursue accountability for law of nations violations in U.S. Courts. In examining the cases, the Supreme Court will consider the question of corporate liability under the ATS for the third time – this time focusing on whether or not the ATS permits cases against U.S. domestic corporations at all.

In October, the International Human Rights Clinic  filed an  amicus  brief on behalf of legal historians  in the case against the chocolate companies. The brief includes newly uncovered historical documents from George Washington’s first administration which clearly demonstrate how the founders intended the ATS to apply to violations committed by U.S. subjects. The documents include an opinion by Thomas Jefferson and affirm that the ATS was intended for the very purpose at issue in the current cases: to provide options for redress to foreign nationals whose rights have been violated by U.S. subjects.

A clinical team – Emily Ray JD’21, Jasmine Shin JD’21, Allison Beeman JD’22, and Zarka Shabir JD’22 – under the supervision of Tyler Giannini, Clinic Co-Director worked with the  amici  on the brief.  Amici  on the brief were Professors Barbara Aronstein Black, Nikolas Bowie, William R. Casto, Martin S. Flaherty, David Golove, Eliga H. Gould, Stanley N. Katz, Samuel Moyn, and Anne-Marie Slaughter.

The International Human Rights Clinic staff have played a major role in ATS litigation for decades, including in landmark corporate cases such as  Doe v. Unocal  and  Wiwa v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co.  Since 1980, the law has been a critical means of holding perpetrators accountable for abuses such as extrajudicial killing, torture, war crimes, and crimes against humanity when redress might otherwise be unavailable elsewhere. Still, in recent years, the law has been curtailed and challenged.

You can listen to the oral argument here .

Learn more about the case in the  Nestlé & Cargill v. Doe symposium on  Just Security and the  case preview on SCOTUSblog . Read about all  eighteen amicus briefs filed in support of the survivors of child trafficking on the Corporate Accountability Lab’s blog , and dive into  Daniel Golove’s article exploring the significance of the new evidence  the Clinic relied on in its brief supporting plaintiffs.

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Tags: Allison Beeman , Anne-Marie Slaughter , Barbara Aronstein Black , David Golove , Eliga H. Gould , Emily Ray , HRP , Human Rights Program , IHRC , International Human Rights Clinic , Jasmine Shin , Martin S. Flaherty , Nikolas Bowie , Samuel Moyn , Stanley N. Katz , Tyler Giannini , William R. Casto , Zarka Shabir

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Child Slave Labor in Cadbury Chocolate Company Case Study

In Cadbury case analysis, the central issue is child slave labor that was being used in the production of chocolate. This issue led Congress to create legislation that called for the USFDA to create a “no forced labor” accreditation that could be appended to chocolate by manufacturers who could ascertain that their supply chains did not use slave labor.

The accusations of slave and child labor in the cocoa chain negative impacted the Cadbury Company significantly. In tabulated form, this paper seeks to describe each significant symptom (problem or case fact), causes of the symptoms, both surface causes and underlying ones, and recommendations for improvements and management principles used.

The majority of problems seem to have stemmed from poor leadership and communication from Cadbury. The decision to end slave or child labor would cause the least amount of harm than the most significant benefit it will reap. The companies might lose some profits by paying better wages to workers, but this will increase the rights and living conditions of people exponentially.

The children will get the rights they deserve and be free as no human should be subjected to slavery. Additionally, Legislations attempt to force cocoa companies to change the method of farming rates lie well under the core ethic of justice. Justice for the employees should be paid instead of enslavement and impartiality by Cadbury and the company should acknowledge that their products are produced through slave labor.

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IvyPanda. (2022, July 19). Child Slave Labor in Cadbury Chocolate Company. https://ivypanda.com/essays/child-slave-labor-in-cadbury-chocolate-company/

"Child Slave Labor in Cadbury Chocolate Company." IvyPanda , 19 July 2022, ivypanda.com/essays/child-slave-labor-in-cadbury-chocolate-company/.

IvyPanda . (2022) 'Child Slave Labor in Cadbury Chocolate Company'. 19 July.

IvyPanda . 2022. "Child Slave Labor in Cadbury Chocolate Company." July 19, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/child-slave-labor-in-cadbury-chocolate-company/.

1. IvyPanda . "Child Slave Labor in Cadbury Chocolate Company." July 19, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/child-slave-labor-in-cadbury-chocolate-company/.

Bibliography

IvyPanda . "Child Slave Labor in Cadbury Chocolate Company." July 19, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/child-slave-labor-in-cadbury-chocolate-company/.

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Students Combat Child Labor and Slavery in the Ivory Coast’s Chocolate Industry

Left to right: Melina Cardinal-Bradette LL.M., Kelsey Peden J.D./M.P.P. ’21, Alexandra Zaretsky ’20

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By Sarah Weld

Despite a 2001 international agreement to combat child labor and slavery in West Africa, more children than ever are working in dangerous conditions at cocoa plantations throughout the Ivory Coast. As three International Human Rights Law Clinic students documented during a recent research project, young children—often trafficked and then enslaved—still fuel the world’s lucrative chocolate industry.

“We talked to children who were clearly 7 or 8 years old max, using machetes, climbing trees, cutting open cocoa pods,” says Kelsey Peden J.D./M.P.P. ’21, who spent a week in the Ivory Coast with Melina Cardinal-Bradette LL.M. ’19 this spring. “We saw young girls walking down the street with chemical containers as big as they were strapped to their backs, a lot of shocking uses of the worst forms of child labor.”

These “worst forms” are defined by the International Labor Organization as work that jeopardizes a child’s physical, mental, or moral well-being, including child trafficking, slavery, and working with hazardous chemicals—all rampant in the Ivory Coast.

Although the international agreement was set up as a self-regulating process, the groups tasked with monitoring child labor are, in fact, influenced and controlled by major chocolate companies. As a result, there has been an increase, not a reduction, in child labor and slavery, according to a 2015 Tulane University report and chocolate industry critics.

Child with a machete in the Ivory Coast

Peden, Cardinal-Bradette, and Alexandra Zaretsky ’20 have spent the last two semesters doing research, conducting interviews, and taking photos—now evidence for two ongoing lawsuits about child labor in the Ivory Coast, the largest chocolate producer worldwide.

On their trip, Peden and Cardinal-Bradette examined the current situation in person and gathered updated and additional evidence about the worst forms of child labor and child slave labor.

The two students interviewed staff from organizations backed by the cocoa industry such as the World Cocoa Foundation and the International Cocoa Initiative, heavily influenced by companies like Nestle and Hershey. They also spoke to farmers, staff at cooperatives, and children working on plantations.

Telling revelations

Much to the students’ surprise, employees at industry-backed organizations readily acknowledged that companies are not meeting child labor industry standards—which are voluntary—and don’t know the source of most of their cocoa.

“That’s one of our findings, that these organizations are claiming to be slave labor-free, sustainable, and improving the lives of farmers while they have no clue where 80 percent of the product comes from,” Cardinal-Bradette says.

The Ivory Coast trip gave the students a chance to verify and compare their desk research with what they saw in person. Their conclusion? Self regulation is not working.

The first case, Doe v. Nestle , was originally filed in 2005 by former child slaves forced to work on cocoa farms, against large manufacturers, purchasers, processors, and retail sellers of cocoa beans. The case brings claims under the Alien Tort Statute seeking to hold Nestle and others accountable for their complicity in the widespread use of child slave labor and child labor.

According to case documents, the children allege that at age 14 or younger, “they were forced to work without pay at three cocoa plantations in the Ivory Coast, and that they were guarded, kept in a locked room at night, and beaten, among other similar abuses—all at the hands of the plantation owners or operators.”

Last year, the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed a decision by a lower court to dismiss the suit and gave the plaintiffs a chance to amend their complaint and specify what Nestle has done to aid and abet child slavery in the Ivory Coast. The defendants have petitioned the Ninth Circuit for rehearing en banc (before all judges of the court).

Misleading marketing

In April, the students worked on the second case, Walker vs. Nestle . They helped California consumer attorneys conduct background research and draft a complaint recently filed in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California against chocolate companies for advertising their chocolate as sustainable, despite using child labor to cultivate cocoa beans.

The trio, who helped write the first draft of the consumer fraud case complaint, cite their clinic experience contributing real work to meaningful litigation as a highlight of their legal educations so far.

“It’s very nonhierarchical,” Peden says of meetings with clinic visiting professor Paul Hoffman and outside attorneys Terry Collingsworth and Helen Zeldes. “They have given us absolute confidence in the work that we do. It’s more like working on a team than under someone.”

Cardinal-Bradette, an international student from Quebec, agrees. “They value our ideas and opinions,” she says. “It’s a safe space to pitch ideas and over time we have become quite comfortable.”

The three students—all of whom say they chose Berkeley Law because of the clinic—aim to publish a report this summer that enlightens consumers about issues in the cocoa industry.

“Other law schools had classes in human rights and opportunities to participate,” Peden says. “But the clinic here was the one that gave me the most hands-on experience.”

05/28/2019 Topics: Business and Startups , Constitutional and Regulatory , Experiential , International and Comparative , Social Justice and Public Interest , Student News

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  1. Child Labour: the dark truth behind chocolate production

    child labor and slavery in the chocolate industry case study

  2. Human trafficking and child labor in the chocolate industry

    child labor and slavery in the chocolate industry case study

  3. Child Labor and Slavery in the Chocolate Industry

    child labor and slavery in the chocolate industry case study

  4. Child Labor and Slavery in the Chocolate/Cocoa Industry

    child labor and slavery in the chocolate industry case study

  5. What You Need to Know About Chocolate and Child Slave Labor

    child labor and slavery in the chocolate industry case study

  6. Chocolate Story

    child labor and slavery in the chocolate industry case study

VIDEO

  1. Child labor in the chocolate industry

  2. Child Labor/Slavery in Cocoa Industry

COMMENTS

  1. Child Labor and Slavery in the Chocolate Industry

    Despite their role in contributing to child labor, slavery, and human trafficking, the chocolate industry has not taken significant steps to remedy the problem. Within their $103 billion-per-year industry, chocolate companies have the power to end the use of child labor and slave labor by paying cocoa farmers a living income for their product. [37]

  2. Mars, Nestlé and Hershey to face child slavery lawsuit in US

    Eight children who claim they were used as slave labour on cocoa plantations in Ivory Coast have launched legal action against the world's biggest chocolate companies. They accuse the ...

  3. Cadbury faces fresh accusations of child labour on cocoa farms in Ghana

    Campaigners say child labour is still endemic in the chocolate industry. A study by the social research group NORC at the University of Chicago in 2020 found 1.56 million children were involved in ...

  4. Child Labor in the Production of Cocoa

    The CLCCG was formed when the governments of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, the U.S. Department of Labor, and representatives of the international chocolate and cocoa industry committed to joining together in the fight against child labor in the production of cocoa. Senator Tom Harkin, Representative Eliot Engel, and the International Labor ...

  5. Hershey, Nestle and Mars broke their pledges to end child labor in

    According to the U.S. Labor Department, a majority of the 2 million child laborers in the cocoa industry are living on their parents' farms, doing the type of dangerous work — swinging ...

  6. What Is The Sweet Solution To The Issue Of Child Labor In ...

    AFP via Getty Images. The Sweet Solution's initiative follows failures by the cocoa industry to combat child labor. In 2001, the world's biggest chocolate companies signed the Harkin-Engel ...

  7. PDF Bitter Sweet: Child Labor in The Chocolate Industry

    Child labor in the chocolate industry I Case Study 1/26 Wittenberg Center for Global Ethics ... even working under the worst form of child labor." - Ayn Riggs, Slave Free Chocolate About Nestlé .

  8. US Supreme Court blocks child slavery lawsuit against chocolate firms

    It's estimated that 1.56m children work in the cocoa industry in Ghana and Ivory Coast The US Supreme Court has ruled food giants Nestlé USA and Cargill can't be sued for child slavery on African ...

  9. Supreme Court weighs child-slavery case against Nestlé USA, Cargill

    Supreme Court weighs child-slavery case against Nestlé USA, Cargill. Despite years of promises by the chocolate industry, child labor remains widespread on cocoa farms. By Peter Whoriskey ...

  10. Child labour on Nestlé farms: chocolate giant's problems continue

    Children younger than 15 continue to work at cocoa farms connected to Nestlé, more than a decade after the food company promised to end the use of child labour in its supply chain.. A new report ...

  11. Supreme Court Hears Case on Child Slavery in Cocoa Industry

    via HRP blog Clinic Submits Amicus Curiae Brief on Behalf of Legal Historians Dec. 1, the Supreme Court of the United States hears oral arguments in a pair of corporate human rights cases against U.S. based chocolate companies Nestlé and Cargill for their role in aiding and abetting child slavery in West Africa. The plaintiffs, six survivors of […]

  12. Modern Day Slavery: Nestlé and Cocoa Plantations

    The case against Nestlé stems from a newer interpretation under the ATS, where the former-child slaves alleged that Nestlé "aided and abetted" those who violated the law of nations. Thus, as the plaintiffs allege, Nestlé's focus on profit over human welfare helped drive the company to act with the purpose of obtaining the cheapest ...

  13. Child labour in cocoa production

    Child labour. In 2001, the report A Taste of Slavery: How Your Chocolate May be Tainted won a George Polk Award.In it were claims that traffickers promised paid work, housing, and education to children who were forced to labour and undergo severe abuse, that some children were held forcibly on farms and worked up to 100 hours per week, and that attempted escapees were beaten.

  14. Child Slave Labor in Cadbury Chocolate Company Case Study

    The accusations of slave and child labor in the cocoa chain negative impacted the Cadbury Company significantly. In tabulated form, this paper seeks to describe each significant symptom (problem or case fact), causes of the symptoms, both surface causes and underlying ones, and recommendations for improvements and management principles used.

  15. Bitter Sweet: Child labor in the chocolate industry

    Abstract. The case deals with the issue of child labor in the international cocoa supply chain using Nestle as an example. The case begins when two friends, Simon and Linda, get into a public ...

  16. PDF Cocoa DNA testing to end slavery and child labor in chocolate industry

    Cocoa DNA testing to end slavery and child labor in chocolate industry. A new method of DNA testing on cocoa beans could revolutionize the chocolate industry, offering consumers greater ...

  17. Students Combat Child Labor and Slavery in the Ivory Coast's Chocolate

    As a result, there has been an increase, not a reduction, in child labor and slavery, according to a 2015 Tulane University report and chocolate industry critics. A child rests with a machete at an Ivory Coast cocoa plantation. Children as young as 7 routinely work under dangerous conditions to harvest cocoa there.

  18. PDF Child Labor and Slavery in The Chocolate Industry

    Despite their role in contributing to child labor, slavery, and human trafficking, the chocolate industry has not taken significant steps to remedy the problem. Within their $60-billion industry, [27] chocolate companies have the power to end the use of child labor and slave labor by paying cocoa farmers a living wage for their product.

  19. "Child Labor and Slavery in the Chocolate Industry," 2017

    This article from the Food Empowerment Project highlights the dark side of the chocolate industry. The article suggests that child slave labor, and unfair compensation for farmers, are driving the industry. It also states that children are working in dangerous conditions against their will. Purchasing Fair Trade Certified chocolate would seem ...

  20. PDF Child Labor and Slavery in the Chocolate Industry, 2017

    connection to the worst forms of child labor, human trafficking, and slavery. The Worst Forms of Child Labor In Western Africa, cocoa is a commodity crop grown primarily for export; 60% of the Ivory Coast's export revenue comes from its cocoa. As the chocolate industry has grown over the years, so has the demand for cheap cocoa.

  21. Child Labor and Slavery in the Chocolate Industry

    Child labor has had found on cocoa farms in Cameroon, Guinea, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone, although since most of Rock Africa's chocolate has grown in Ghanai the one Ivory Coasts, the most of child labor cases have been documented in those two countries. ... International Labor Rights Forum Child Labor also Slavery in the Chilled Industry ...

  22. Unveiling Slave Sweatshops and Child Labor Abuses

    According to a study by Tulane University, over 2 million children work in hazardous conditions in cocoa production between the two countries. An ethical issue that I came across was that this industry is benefiting from child labor because of political instability in the region. The government is not taking child slavery seriously enough.