The HTML Handbook – Learn HTML for Beginners


Welcome! I wrote this book to help you quickly learn HTML and get familiar with the advanced HTML topics.

HTML, a shorthand for Hyper Text Markup Language, is one of the most fundamental building blocks of the Web.

HTML was officially born in 1993 and since then it evolved into its current state, moving from simple text documents to powering rich Web Applications.

This handbook is aimed at a vast audience.

First, the beginner. I explain HTML from zero in a succinct but comprehensive way, so you can use this book to learn HTML from the basics.

Then, the professional. HTML is often considered like a secondary thing to learn. It might be given for granted.

Yet lots of things are obscure to many people. Me included. I wrote this handbook to help my understanding of the topic, because when I need to explain something, I better make sure I first know the thing inside out.

Even if you don't write HTML in your day to day work, knowing how HTML works can help save you some headaches when you need to understand it from time to time, for example while tweaking a web page.

You can reach me on Twitter @flaviocopes .

My website is .

Note: you can download a PDF / ePub / Mobi version of this book so you can read it offline.

  • HTML Basics
  • The document heading
  • The document body
  • Tags that interact with text
  • Container tags and page structure HTML
  • Multimedia tags: audio and video
  • Accessibility

HTML is the foundation of the marvel called the Web.

There is an incredible power underneath this rather simple and limited set of rules, which lets us -- developers, makers, designers, writers, and tinkerers -- craft documents, apps, and experiences for people all around the globe.

My first HTML book came out in 1997 and was called "HTML Unleashed". A big, lots-of-pages, long tome.

20+ years have passed, and HTML is still the foundation of the Web, with minimal changes from back then.

Sure, we got more semantic tags, presentational HTML is no longer a thing, and CSS has taken care of the design of things.

HTML's success is based on one thing: simplicity .

It resisted being hijacked into an XML dialect via XHTML, when eventually people realized that thing was way, way too complex.

It did so because of another feature it provides us: forgiveness . There are some rules, right, but after you learn those, you have a lot of freedom.

Browsers learned to be resilient and to always try to do their best when parsing and presenting HTML to the users.

And the whole Web platform did one thing right: it never broke backward compatibility. Pretty incredibly, we can go back to HTML documents written in 1991, and they look pretty much as they looked back then.

We even know what the first web page was. It's this:

And you can see the source of the page, thanks to another big feature of the Web and HTML: we can inspect the HTML of any web page .

Don't take this for granted. I don't know any other platform that gives us this ability.

The exceptional Developer Tools built into any browser let us inspect and take inspiration from HTML written by anyone in the world.

If you are new to HTML this book aims to help you get started. If you are a seasoned Web Developer this book will improve your knowledge.

I learned so much while writing it, even though I've been working with the Web for 20+ years, and I'm sure you'll find something new, too.

Or you'll re-learn something old you forgot.

In any case, the goal of the book is to be useful to you, and I hope it succeeds.


HTML is a standard defined by the WHATWG , an acronym for Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, an organization formed by people working on the most popular web browser. This means it's basically controlled by Google, Mozilla, Apple and Microsoft.

In the past the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) was the organization in charge of creating the HTML standard.

The control informally moved from W3C to WHATWG when it became clear that the W3C push towards XHTML was not a good idea.

If you've never heard of XHTML, here's a short story. In the early 2000s, we all believed the future of the Web was XML (seriously). So HTML moved from being an SGML-based authoring language to an XML markup language.

It was a big change. We had to know, and respect, more rules. Stricter rules.

Eventually browser vendors realized this was not the right path for the Web, and they pushed back, creating what is now known as HTML5.

W3C did not really agree on giving up control of HTML, and for years we had 2 competing standards, each one aiming to be the official one. Eventually on 28 May 2019 it was made official by W3C that the "true" HTML version was the one published by WHATWG.

I mentioned HTML5. Let me explain this little story. I know, it's kind of confusing up to now, as with many things in life when many actors are involved, yet it's also fascinating.

We had HTML version 1 in 1993. Here's the original RFC .

HTML 2 followed in 1995.

We got HTML 3 in January 1997, and HTML 4 in December 1997.

Busy times!

20+ years went by, we had this entire XHTML thing, and eventually we got to this HTML5 "thing", which is not really just HTML any more.

HTML5 is a term that now defines a whole set of technologies, which includes HTML but adds a lot of APIs and standards like WebGL, SVG and more.

The key thing to understand here is this: there is no such thing (any more) as an HTML version now. It's a living standard. Like CSS, which is called "3", but in reality is a bunch of independent modules developed separately. Like JavaScript, where we have one new edition each year, but nowadays, the only thing that matters is which individual features are implemented by the engine.

Yes we call it HTML5, but HTML4 is from 1997. That's a long time for anything, let alone for the web.

This is where the standard now "lives": .

HTML is the markup language we use to structure content that we consume on the Web.

HTML is served to the browser in different ways.

  • It can be generated by a server-side application that builds it depending on the request or the session data, for example a Rails or Laravel or Django application.
  • It can be generated by a JavaScript client-side application that generates HTML on the fly.
  • In the simplest case, it can be stored in a file and served to the browser by a Web server.

Let's dive into this last case. Although in practice it's probably the least popular way to generate HTML, it's still essential to know the basic building blocks.

By convention, an HTML file is saved with a .html or .htm extension.

Inside this file, we organize the content using tags .

Tags wrap the content, and each tag gives a special meaning to the text it wraps.

Let's make a few examples.

This HTML snippet creates a paragraph using the p tag:

This HTML snippet creates a list of items using the ul tag, which means unordered list , and the li tags, which mean list item :

When an HTML page is served by the browser, the tags are interpreted, and the browser renders the elements according to the rules that define their visual appearance.

Some of those rules are built-in, such as how a list renders or how a link is underlined in blue.

Some other rules are set by you with CSS.

HTML is not presentational. It's not concerned with how things look . Instead, it's concerned with what things mean .

It's up to the browser to determine how things look, with the directives defined by who builds the page, with the CSS language.

Now, those two examples I made are HTML snippets taken outside of a page context.

HTML page structure

Let's make an example of a proper HTML page.

Things start with the Document Type Declaration (aka doctype ), a way to tell the browser this is an HTML page, and which version of HTML we are using.

Modern HTML uses this doctype:

Then we have the html element, which has an opening and closing tag:

Most tags come in pairs with an opening tag and a closing tag. The closing tag is written the same as the opening tag, but with a / :

There are a few self-closing tags, which means they don't need a separate closing tag as they don't contain anything in them .

The html starting tag is used at the beginning of the document, right after the document type declaration.

The html ending tag is the last thing present in an HTML document.

Inside the html element we have 2 elements: head and body :

Inside head we will have tags that are essential to creating a web page, like the title, the metadata, and internal or external CSS and JavaScript. Mostly things that do not directly appear on the page, but only help the browser (or bots like the Google search bot) display it properly.

Inside body we will have the content of the page. The visible stuff .

Tags vs elements

I mentioned tags and elements. What's the difference?

Elements have a starting tag and a closing tag. In this example, we use the p starting and closing tags to create a p element:

So, an element constitutes the whole package :

  • starting tag
  • text content (and possibly other elements)
  • closing tag

If an element has doesn't have a closing tag, it is only written with the starting tag, and it cannot contain any text content.

That said, I might use the tag or element term in the book meaning the same thing, except if I explicitly mention starting tag or ending tag.

The starting tag of an element can have special snippets of information we can attach, called attributes .

Attributes have the key="value" syntax:

You can also use single quotes, but using double quotes in HTML is a nice convention.

We can have many of them:

and some attributes are boolean, meaning you only need the key:

The class and id attributes are two of the most common you will find used.

They have a special meaning, and they are useful both in CSS and JavaScript.

The difference between the two is that an id is unique in the context of a web page; it cannot be duplicated.

Classes, on the other hand, can appear multiple times on multiple elements.

Plus, an id is just one value. class can hold multiple values, separated by a space:

It's common to use the dash - to separate words in a class value, but it's just a convention.

Those are just two of the possible attributes you can have. Some attributes are only used for one tag. They are highly specialized.

Other attributes can be used in a more general way. You just saw id and class , but we have other ones too, like style which can be used to insert inline CSS rules on an element.

Case insensitive

HTML is case insensitive. Tags can be written in all caps, or lowercase. In the early days, caps were the norm. Today lowercase is the norm. It is a convention.

You usually write like this:

not like this:

White space

Pretty important. In HTML, even if you add multiple white spaces into a line, it's collapsed by the browser's CSS engine.

For example the rendering of this paragraph:

is the same as this:

and the same as this:

> Using the white-space CSS property you can change how things behave. You can find more information on how CSS processes white space in the CSS Spec

I typically favor

Nested tags should be indented with 2 or 4 characters, depending on your preference:

Note: this "white space is not relevant" feature means that if you want to add additional space, it can make you pretty mad. I suggest you use CSS to make more space when needed.

Note: in special cases, you can use the   HTML entity (an acronym that means non-breaking space ) - more on HTML entities later on. I think this should not be abused. CSS is always preferred to alter the visual presentation.


The head tag contains special tags that define the document properties.

It's always written before the body tag, right after the opening html tag:

We never use attributes on this tag. And we don't write content in it.

It's just a container for other tags. Inside it we can have a wide variety of tags, depending on what you need to do:

The title tag

The title tag determines the page title. The title is displayed in the browser, and it's especially important as it's one of the key factors for Search Engine Optimization (SEO).

The script tag

This tag is used to add JavaScript into the page.

You can include it inline, using an opening tag, the JavaScript code and then the closing tag:

Or you can load an external JavaScript file by using the src attribute:

The type attribute by default is set to text/javascript , so it's completely optional.

There is something pretty important to know about this tag.

Sometimes this tag is used at the bottom of the page, just before the closing </body> tag. Why? For performance reasons.

Loading scripts by default blocks the rendering of the page until the script is parsed and loaded.

By putting it at the bottom of the page, the script is loaded and executed after the whole page is already parsed and loaded, giving a better experience to the user over keeping it in the head tag.

My opinion is that this is now bad practice. Let script live in the head tag.

In modern JavaScript we have an alternative this is more performant than keeping the script at the bottom of the page -- the defer attribute. This is an example that loads a file.js file, relative to the current URL:

This is the scenario that triggers the faster path to a fast-loading page, and fast-loading JavaScript.

Note: the async attribute is similar, but in my opinion a worse option than defer . I describe why, in more detail, on page

The noscript tag

This tag is used to detect when scripts are disabled in the browser.

Note: users can choose to disable JavaScript scripts in the browser settings. Or the browser might not support them by default.

It is used differently depending on whether it's put in the document head or in the document body.

We're talking about the document head now, so let's first introduce this usage.

In this case, the noscript tag can only contain other tags:

to alter the resources served by the page, or the meta information, if scripts are disabled.

In this example I set an element with the no-script-alert class to display if scripts are disabled, as it was display: none by default:

Let's solve the other case: if put in the body, it can contain content, like paragraphs and other tags, which are rendered in the UI.

The link tag

The link tag is used to set relationships between a document and other resources.

It's mainly used to link an external CSS file to be loaded.

This element has no closing tag.

The media attribute allows the loading of different stylesheets depending on the device capabilities:

We can also link to resources other than stylesheets.

For example we can associate an RSS feed using

Or we can associate a favicon using:

This tag was also used for multi-page content, to indicate the previous and next page using rel="prev" and rel="next" . Mostly for Google. As of 2019, Google announced it does not use this tag any more because it can find the correct page structure without it.

The style tag

This tag can be used to add styles into the document, rather than loading an external stylesheet.

As with the link tag, you can use the media attribute to use that CSS only on the specified medium:

The base tag

This tag is used to set a base URL for all relative URLs contained in the page.

The meta tag

Meta tags perform a variety of tasks and they are very, very important.

Especially for SEO.

meta elements only have the starting tag.

The most basic one is the description meta tag:

This might be used by Google to generate the page description in its result pages, if it finds it better describes the page than the on-page content (don't ask me how).

The charset meta tag is used to set the page character encoding. utf-8 in most cases:

The robots meta tag instructs the Search Engine bots whether to index a page or not:

Or if they should follow links or not:

You can set nofollow on individual links, too. This is how you can set nofollow globally.

You can combine them:

The default behavior is index, follow .

You can use other properties, including nosnippet , noarchive , noimageindex and more.

You can also just tell Google instead of targeting all search engines:

And other search engines might have their own meta tag, too.

Speaking of which, we can tell Google to disable some features. This prevents the translate functionality in the search engine results:

The viewport meta tag is used to tell the browser to set the page width based on the device width.

See more about this tag .

Another rather popular meta tag is the http-equiv="refresh" one. This line tells the browser to wait 3 seconds, then redirect to that other page:

Using 0 instead of 3 will redirect as soon as possible.

This is not a full reference; Other less-used meta tags exist.

After this document heading introduction, we can start diving into the document body.


After the closing head tag, we can only have one thing in an HTML document: the body element.

Just like the head and html tags, we can only have one body tag in one page.

Inside the body tag we have all the tags that define the content of the page.

Technically, the start and ending tags are optional. But I consider it a good practice to add them. Just for clarity.

In the next chapters we'll define the variety of tags you can use inside the page body.

But before, we must introduce a difference between block elements and inline elements.

Block elements vs inline elements

Visual elements, the ones defined in the page body, can be generally classified in 2 categories:

  • block elements ( p , div , heading elements, lists and list items, ...)
  • inline elements ( a , span , img , ...)

What is the difference?

Block elements, when positioned in the page, do not allow other elements next to them. To the left, or to the right.

Inline elements instead can sit next to other inline elements.

The difference also lies in the visual properties we can edit using CSS. We can alter the width/height, margin, padding and border of block elements. We can't do that for inline elements.

Note that using CSS we can change the default for each element, setting a p tag to be inline, for example, or a span to be a block element.

Another difference is that inline elements can be contained in block elements. The reverse is not true.

Some block elements can contain other block elements, but it depends. The p tag for example does not allow such option.


This tag defines a paragraph of text.

It's a block element.

Inside it, we can add any inline element we like, like span or a .

We cannot add block elements.

We cannot nest a p element into another one.

By default browsers style a paragraph with a margin on top and at the bottom. 16px in Chrome, but the exact value might vary between browsers.

This causes two consecutive paragraphs to be spaced, replicating what we think of a "paragraph" in printed text.

The span tag

This is an inline tag that can be used to create a section in a paragraph that can be targeted using CSS:

This tag represents a line break. It's an inline element, and does not need a closing tag.

We use it to create a new line inside a p tag, without creating a new paragraph.

And compared to creating a new paragraph, it does not add additional spacing.

The heading tags

HTML provides us 6 heading tags. From most important to least important, we have h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 , h5 , h6 .

Typically a page will have one h1 element, which is the page title. Then you might have one or more h2 elements depending on the page content.

Headings, especially the heading organization, are also essential for SEO, and search engines use them in various ways.

The browser by default will render the h1 tag bigger, and will make the elements size smaller as the number near h increases:


All headings are block elements. They cannot contain other elements, just text.

The strong tag

This tag is used to mark the text inside it as strong . This is pretty important, it's not a visual hint, but a semantic hint. Depending on the medium used, its interpretation will vary.

Browsers by default make the text in this tag bold .

This tag is used to mark the text inside it as emphasized . Like with strong , it's not a visual hint but a semantic hint.

Browsers by default make the text in this italic .

The blockquote HTML tag is useful to insert citations in the text.

Browsers by default apply a margin to the blockquote element. Chrome applies a 40px left and right margin, and a 10px top and bottom margin.

The q HTML tag is used for inline quotes.

Horizontal line

Not really based on text, but the hr tag is often used inside a page. It means horizontal rule , and it adds a horizontal line in the page.

Useful to separate sections in the page.

Code blocks

The code tag is especially useful to show code, because browsers give it a monospaced font.

That's typically the only thing that browsers do. This is the CSS applied by Chrome:

This tag is typically wrapped in a pre tag, because the code element ignores whitespace and line breaks. Like the p tag.

Chrome gives pre this default styling:

which prevents white space collapsing and makes it a block element.

We have 3 types of lists:

  • unordered lists
  • ordered lists
  • definition lists

Unordered lists are created using the ul tag. Each item in the list is created with the li tag:

Ordered lists are similar, just made with the ol tag:

The difference between the two is that ordered lists have a number before each item:


Definition lists are a bit different. You have a term, and its definition:

This is how browsers typically render them:


I must say you rarely see them in the wild, for sure not much as ul and ol , but sometimes they might be useful.

Other text tags

There is a number of tags with presentational purposes:

  • the mark tag
  • the ins tag
  • the del tag
  • the sup tag
  • the sub tag
  • the small tag

This is an example of the visual rendering of them which is applied by default by browsers:


You might wonder, how is b different than strong ? And how i is different than em ?

The difference lies in the semantic meaning. While b and i are a direct hint at the browser to make a piece of text bold or italic, strong and em give the text a special meaning, and it's up to the browser to give the styling. Which happens to be exactly the same as b and i , by default. Although you can change that using CSS.

There are a number of other, less used tags related to text. I just mentioned the ones that I see used the most.

Links are defined using the a tag. The link destination is set via its href attribute.

Between the starting and closing tag we have the link text.

The above example is an absolute URL. Links also work with relative URLs:

In this case, when clicking the link the user is moved to the /test URL on the current origin.

Be careful with the / character. If omitted, instead of starting from the origin, the browser will just add the test string to the current URL.

Example, I'm on the page and I have these links:

  • /test once clicked brings me to
  • test once clicked brings me to

Link tags can include other things inside them, not just text. For example, images:

or any other elements, except other <a> tags.

If you want to open the link in a new tab, you can use the target attribute:


Container tags.

HTML provides a set of container tags. Those tags can contain an unspecified set of other tags.

and it can be confusing to understand the difference between them.

Let's see when to use each one of them.

The article tag identifies a thing that can be independent from other things in a page.

For example a list of blog posts in the homepage.

Or a list of links.

We're not limited to lists: an article can be the main element in a page.

Inside an article tag we should have a title ( h1 - h6 ) and

Represents a section of a document. Each section has a heading tag ( h1 - h6 ), then the section body .

It's useful to break a long article into different sections .

Shouldn't be used as a generic container element. div is made for this.

div is the generic container element:

You often add a class or id attribute to this element, to allow it to be styled using CSS.

We use div in any place where we need a container but the existing tags are not suited.

Tags related to page

This tag is used to create the markup that defines the page navigation. Into this we typically add an ul or ol list:

The aside tag is used to add a piece of content that is related to the main content.

A box where to add a quote, for example. Or a sidebar.

Using aside is a signal that the things it contains are not part of the regular flow of the section it lives into.

The header tag represents a part of the page that is the introduction. It can for example contain one or more heading tag ( h1 - h6 ), the tagline for the article, an image.

The main tag represents the main part of a page:

The footer tag is used to determine the footer of an article, or the footer of the page:

Forms are the way you can interact with a page, or an app, built with Web technologies.

You have a set of controls, and when you submit the form, either with a click to a "submit" button or programmatically, the browser will send the data to the server.

By default this data sending causes the page to reload after the data is sent, but using JavaScript you can alter this behavior (not going to explain how in this book).

A form is created using the form tag:

By default forms are submitted using the GET HTTP method. Which has its drawbacks, and usually you want to use POST.

You can set the form to use POST when submitted by using the method attribute:

The form is submitted, either using GET or POST, to the same URL where it resides.

So if the form is in the page, pressing the "submit" button will make a request to that same URL.

Which might result in nothing happening.

You need something server-side to handle the request, and typically you "listen" for those form submit events on a dedicated URL.

You can specify the URL via the action parameter:

This will cause the browser to submit the form data using POST to the /new-contact URL on the same origin.

If the origin (protocol + domain + port) is (port 80 is the default), this means the form data will be sent to .

I talked about data. Which data?

Data is provided by users via the set of controls that are available on the Web platform:

  • input boxes (single line text)
  • text areas (multiline text)
  • select boxes (choose one option from a drop-down menu)
  • radio buttons (choose one option from a list always visible)
  • checkboxes (choose zero, one or more option)
  • file uploads

Let's introduce each one of them in the following form fields overview.

The input tag

The input field is one of the most widely used form elements. It's also a very versatile element, and it can completely change behavior based on the type attribute.

The default behavior is to be a single-line text input control:

Equivalent to using:

As with all the other fields that follow, you need to give the field a name in order for its content to be sent to the server when the form is submitted:

The placeholder attribute is used to have some text showing up, in light gray, when the field is empty. Useful to add a hint to the user for what to type in:

Using type="email" will validate client-side (in the browser) an email for correctness (semantic correctness, not ensuring the email address is existing) before submitting.

Using type="password" will make every key entered appear as an asterisk (*) or dot, useful for fields that host a password.

You can have an input element accept only numbers:

You can specify a minimum and maximum value accepted:

The step attribute helps identify the steps between different values. For example this accepts a value between 10 and 50, at steps of 5:

Hidden field

Fields can be hidden from the user. They will still be sent to the server upon the form submit:

This is commonly used to store values like a CSRF token, used for security and user identification, or even to detect robots sending spam, using special techniques.

It can also just be used to identify a form and its action.

Setting a default value

All those fields accept a predefined value. If the user does not change it, this will be the value sent to the server:

If you set a placeholder, that value will appear if the user clears the input field value:

Form submit

The type="submit" field is a button that, once pressed by the user, submits the form:

The value attribute sets the text on the button, which if missing shows the "Submit" text:

Form validation

Browsers provide client-side validation functionality to forms.

You can set fields as required, ensuring they are filled, and enforce a specific format for the input of each field.

Let's see both options.

Set fields as required

The required attribute helps you with validation. If the field is not set, client-side validation fails and the browser does not submit the form:

Enforce a specific format

I described the type="email" field above. It automatically validates the email address according to a format set in the specification.

In the type="number" field, I mentioned the min and max attribute to limit values entered to an interval.

You can do more.

You can enforce a specific format on any field.

The pattern attribute gives you the ability to set a regular expression to validate the value against.

I recommend reading my Regular Expressions Guide at .

pattern=" https://.* "

Other fields

File uploads.

You can load files from your local computer and send them to the server using a type="file" input element:

You can attach multiple files:

You can specify one or more file types allowed using the accept attribute. This accepts images:

You can use a specific MIME type, like application/json or set a file extension like .pdf . Or set multiple file extensions, like this:

The type="button" input fields can be used to add additional buttons to the form, that are not submit buttons:

They are used to programmatically do something, using JavaScript.

There is a special field rendered as a button, whose special action is to clear the entire form and bring back the state of the fields to the initial one:

Radio buttons

Radio buttons are used to create a set of choices, of which one is pressed and all the others are disabled.

The name comes from old car radios that had this kind of interface.

You define a set of type="radio" inputs, all with the same name attribute, and different value attribute:

Once the form is submitted, the color data property will have one single value.

There's always one element checked. The first item is the one checked by default.

You can set the value that's pre-selected using the checked attribute. You can use it only once per radio inputs group.

Similar to radio boxes, but they allow multiple values to be chosen, or none at all.

You define a set of type="checkbox" inputs, all with the same name attribute, and different value attribute:

All those checkboxes will be unchecked by default. Use the checked attribute to enable them on page load.

Since this input field allows multiple values, upon form submit the value(s) will be sent to the server as an array.

Date and time

We have a few input types to accept date values.

The type="date" input field allows the user to enter a date, and shows a date picker if needed:

The type="time" input field allows the user to enter a time, and shows a time picker if needed:

The type="month" input field allows the user to enter a month and a year:

The type="week" input field allows the user to enter a week and a year:

All those fields allow to limit the range and the step between each value. I recommend checking MDN for the little details on their usage.

The type="datetime-local" field lets you choose a date and a time.

Here is a page to test them all:

Color picker

You can let users pick a color using the type="color" element:

You set a default value using the value attribute:

The browser will take care of showing a color picker to the user.

This input element shows a slider element. People can use it to move from a starting value to an ending value:

You can provide an optional step:

The type="tel" input field is used to enter a phone number:

The main selling point for using tel over text is on mobile, where the device can choose to show a numeric keyboard.

Specify a pattern attribute for additional validation:

The type="url" field is used to enter a URL.

You can validate it using the pattern attribute:

The textarea tag

The textarea element allows users to enter multi-line text. Compared to input , it requires an ending tag:

You can set the dimensions using CSS, but also using the rows and cols attributes:

As with the other form tags, the name attribute determines the name in the data sent to the server:

The select tag

This tag is used to create a drop-down menu.

The user can choose one of the options available.

Each option is created using the option tag. You add a name to the select, and a value to each option:

You can set an option disabled:

You can have one empty option:

Options can be grouped using the optgroup tag. Each option group has a label attribute:

In the early days of the web tables were a very important part of building layouts.

Later on they were replaced by CSS and its layout capabilities, and today we have powerful tools like CSS Flexbox and CSS Grid to build layouts. Tables are now used just for, guess what, building tables!

The table tag

You define a table using the table tag:

Inside the table we'll define the data. We reason in terms of rows, which means we add rows into a table (not columns). We'll define columns inside a row.

A row is added using the tr tag, and that's the only thing we can add into a table element:

This is a table with 3 rows.

The first row can take the role of the header.

Column headers

The table header contains the name of a column, typically in a bold font.

Think about an Excel / Google Sheets document. The top A-B-C-D... header.


We define the header using the th tag:

The table content

The content of the table is defined using td tags, inside the other tr elements:

This is how browsers render it, if you don't add any CSS styling:


Adding this CSS:

makes the table look more like a proper table:


Span columns and rows

A row can decide to span over 2 or more columns, using the colspan attribute:


Or it can span over 2 or more rows, using the rowspan attribute:


Row headings

Before I explained how you can have column headings, using the th tag inside the first tr tag of the table.

You can add a th tag as the first element inside a tr that's not the first tr of the table, to have row headings:


More tags to organize the table

You can add 3 more tags into a table, to have it more organized.

This is best when using big tables. And to properly define a header and a footer, too.

Those tags are

They wrap the tr tags to clearly define the different sections of the table. Here's an example:


Table caption

A table should have a caption tag that describes its content. That tag should be put immediately after the opening table tag:


In this section I want to show you the audio and video tags.

The audio tag

This tag allows you to embed audio content in your HTML pages.

This element can stream audio, maybe using a microphone via getUserMedia() , or it can play an audio source which you reference using the src attribute:

By default the browser does not show any controls for this element. Which means the audio will play only if set to autoplay (more on this later) and the user can't see how to stop it or control the volume or move through the track.

To show the built-in controls, you can add the controls attribute:

Controls can have a custom skin.

You can specify the MIME type of the audio file using the type attribute. If not set, the browser will try to automatically determine it:

An audio file by default does not play automatically. Add the autoplay attribute to play the audio automatically:

Note: mobile browsers don't allow autoplay

The loop attribute restarts the audio playing at 0:00 if set; otherwise, if not present, the audio stops at the end of the file:

You can also play an audio file muted using the muted attribute (not really sure what's the usefulness of this):

Using JavaScript you can listen for various events happening on an audio element, the most basic of which are:

  • play when the file starts playing
  • pause when the audio playing was paused
  • playing when the audio is resumed from a pause
  • ended when the end of the audio file was reached

The video tag

This tag allows you to embed video content in your HTML pages.

This element can stream video, using a webcam via getUserMedia() or WebRTC , or it can play a video source which you reference using the src attribute:

By default the browser does not show any controls for this element, just the video.

Which means the video will play only if set to autoplay (more on this later) and the user can't see how to stop it, pause it, control the volume or skip to a specific position in the video.

You can specify the MIME type of the video file using the type attribute. If not set, the browser will try to automatically determine it:

A video file by default does not play automatically. Add the autoplay attribute to play the video automatically:

Some browsers also require the muted attribute to autoplay. The video autoplays only if muted:

The loop attribute restarts the video playing at 0:00 if set; otherwise, if not present, the video stops at the end of the file:

You can set an image to be the poster image:

If not present, the browser will display the first frame of the video as soon as it's available.

You can set the width and height attributes to set the space that the element will take so that the browser can account for it and it does not change the layout when it's finally loaded. It takes a numeric value, expressed in pixels.

Using JavaScript you can listen for various events happening on an video element, the most basic of which are:

  • pause when the video was paused
  • playing when the video is resumed from a pause
  • ended when the end of the video file was reached

The iframe tag allows us to embed content coming from other origins (other sites) into our web page.

Technically, an iframe creates a new nested browsing context. This means that anything in the iframe does not interfere with the parent page, and vice versa. JavaScript and CSS do not "leak" to/from iframes.

Many sites use iframes to perform various things. You might be familiar with Codepen, Glitch or other sites that allow you to code in one part of the page, and you see the result in a box. That's an iframe.

You create one this way:

You can load an absolute URL, too:

You can set a set of width and height parameters (or set them using CSS) otherwise the iframe will use the defaults, a 300x150 pixels box:

The srcdoc attribute lets you specify some inline HTML to show. It's an alternative to src , but recent and not supported in Edge 18 and lower, and in IE:

The sandbox attribute allows us to limit the operations allowed in the iframes.

If we omit it, everything is allowed:

If we set it to "", nothing is allowed:

We can select what to allow by adding options in the sandbox attribute. You can allow multiple ones by adding a space in between. Here's an incomplete list of the options you can use:

  • allow-forms : allow to submit forms
  • allow-modals allow to open modals windows, including calling alert() in JavaScript
  • allow-orientation-lock allow to lock the screen orientation
  • allow-popups allow popups, using and target="_blank" links
  • allow-same-origin treat the resource being loaded as same origin
  • allow-scripts lets the loaded iframe run scripts (but not create popups).
  • allow-top-navigation gives access to the iframe to the top level browsing context

Currently experimental and only supported by Chromium-based browsers, this is the future of resource sharing between the parent window and the iframe.

It's similar to the sandbox attribute, but lets us allow specific features, including:

  • accelerometer gives access to the Sensors API Accelerometer interface
  • ambient-light-sensor gives access to the Sensors API AmbientLightSensor interface
  • autoplay allows to autoplay video and audio files
  • camera allows to access the camera from the getUserMedia API
  • display-capture allows to access the screen content using the getDisplayMedia API
  • fullscreen allows to access fullscreen mode
  • geolocation allows to access the Geolocation API
  • gyroscope gives access to the Sensors API Gyroscope interface
  • magnetometer gives access to the Sensors API Magnetometer interface
  • microphone gives access to the device microphone using the getUserMedia API
  • midi allows access to the Web MIDI API
  • payment gives access to the Payment Request API
  • speaker allows access to playing audio through the device speakers
  • usb gives access to the WebUSB API.
  • vibrate gives access to the Vibration API
  • vr gives access to the WebVR API

When loading an iframe, the browser sends it important information about who is loading it in the Referer header (notice the single r , a typo we must live with).

The misspelling of referrer originated in the original proposal by computer scientist Phillip Hallam-Baker to incorporate the field into the HTTP specification. The misspelling was set in stone by the time of its incorporation into the Request for Comments standards document RFC 1945

The referrerpolicy attribute lets us set the referrer to send to the iframe when loading it. The referrer is an HTTP header that lets the page know who is loading it. These are the allowed values:

  • no-referrer-when-downgrade it's the default, and does not send the referrer when the current page is loaded over HTTPS and the iframe loads on the HTTP protocol
  • no-referrer does not send the referrer header
  • origin the referrer is sent, and only contains the origin (port, protocol, domain), not the origin + path which is the default
  • origin-when-cross-origin when loading from the same origin (port, protocol, domain) in the iframe, the referrer is sent in its complete form (origin + path). Otherwise only the origin is sent
  • same-origin the referrer is sent only when loading from the same origin (port, protocol, domain) in the iframe
  • strict-origin sends the origin as the referrer if the current page is loaded over HTTPS and the iframe also loads on the HTTPS protocol. Sends nothing if the iframe is loaded over HTTP
  • strict-origin-when-cross-origin sends the origin + path as the referrer when working on the same origin. Sends the origin as the referrer if the current page is loaded over HTTPS and the iframe also loads on the HTTPS protocol. Sends nothing if the iframe is loaded over HTTP
  • unsafe-url : sends the origin + path as the referrer even when loading resources from HTTP and the current page is loaded over HTTPS

Images can be displayed using the img tag.

This tag accepts a src attribute, which we use to set the image source:

We can use a wide set of images. The most common ones are PNG, JPEG, GIF, SVG and more recently WebP.

The HTML standard requires an alt attribute to be present, to describe the image. This is used by screen readers and also by search engine bots:

You can set the width and height attributes to set the space that the element will take, so that the browser can account for it and it does not change the layout when it's fully loaded. It takes a numeric value, expressed in pixels.

The figure tag

The figure tag is often used along with the img tag.

figure is a semantic tag often used when you want to display an image with a caption. You use it like this:

The figcaption tag wraps the caption text.

Responsive images using srcset

The srcset attribute allows you to set responsive images that the browser can use depending on the pixel density or window width, according to your preferences. This way, it can only download the resources it needs to render the page, without downloading a bigger image if it's on a mobile device, for example.

Here's an example, where we give 4 additional images for 4 different screen sizes:

In the srcset we use the w measure to indicate the window width.

Since we do so, we also need to use the sizes attribute:

In this example the (max-width: 500px) 100vw, (max-width: 900px) 50vw, 800px string in the sizes attribute describes the size of the image in relation to the viewport, with multiple conditions separated by a semicolon.

The media condition max-width: 500px sets the size of the image in correlation to the viewport width. In short, if the window size is < 500px, it renders the image at 100% of the window size.

If the window size is bigger but < 900px , it renders the image at 50% of the window size.

And if even bigger, it renders the image at 800px.

The vw unit of measure can be new to you, and in short we can say that 1 vw is 1% of the window width, so 100vw is 100% of the window width.

A useful website to generate the srcset and progressively smaller images is .

The picture tag

HTML also gives us the picture tag, which does a very similar job to srcset , and the differences are very subtle.

You use picture when instead of just serving a smaller version of a file, you completely want to change it. Or serve a different image format.

The best use case I found is when serving a WebP image, which is a format still not widely supported. In the picture tag you specify a list of images, and they will be used in order, so in the next example, browsers that support WebP will use the first image, and fallback to JPG if not:

The source tag defines one (or more) formats for the images. The img tag is the fallback in case the browser is very old and does not support the picture tag.

In the source tag inside picture you can add a media attribute to set media queries.

The example that follows kind of works like the above example with srcset :

But that's not its use case, because as you can see it's much more verbose.

The picture tag is recent but is now supported by all the major browsers except Opera Mini and IE (all versions).


It's important we design our HTML with accessibility in mind.

Having accessible HTML means that people with disabilities can use the Web. There are totally blind or visually impaired users, people with hearing loss issues and a multitude of other different disabilities.

Unfortunately this topic does not take the importance it needs, and it doesn't seem as cool as others.

What if a person can't see your page, but still wants to consume its content? First, how do they do that? They can't use the mouse, they use something called a screen reader . You don't have to imagine that. You can try one now: Google provides the free ChromeVox Chrome Extension . Accessibility must also take care of allowing tools to easily select elements or navigate through the pages.

Web pages and Web apps are not always built with accessibility as one of their first goals, and maybe version 1 is released not accessible but it's possible to make a web page accessible after the fact. Sooner is better, but it's never too late.

It's important and in my country, websites built by the government or other public organizations must be accessible.

What does this mean to make an HTML accessible? Let me illustrate the main things you need to think about.

Note: there are several other things to take care about, which might go in the CSS topic, like colors, contrast and fonts. Or how to make SVG images accessible . I don't talk about them here.

Use semantic HTML

Semantic HTML is very important and it's one of the main things you need to take care of. Let me illustrate a few common scenarios.

It's important to use the correct structure for heading tags. The most important is h1 , and you use higher numbers for less important ones, but all the same-level headings should have the same meaning (think about it like a tree structure)

Use strong and em instead of b and i . Visually they look the same, but the first 2 have more meaning associated with them. b and i are more visual elements.

Lists are important. A screen reader can detect a list and provide an overview, then let the user choose to get into the list or not.

A table should have a caption tag that describes its content:

Use alt attributes for images

All images must have an alt tag describing the image content. It's not just a good practice, it's required by the HTML standard and your HTML without it is not validated.

It's also good for search engines, if that's an incentive for you to add it.

Use the role attribute

The role attribute lets you assign specific roles to the various elements in your page.

You can assign lots of different roles: complementary, list, listitem, main, navigation, region, tab, alert, application, article, banner, button, cell, checkbox, contentinfo, dialog, document, feed, figure, form, grid, gridcell, heading, img, listbox, row, rowgroup, search, switch, table, tabpanel, textbox, timer.

It's a lot and for the full reference of each of them I give you this MDN link . But you don't need to assign a role to every element in the page. Screen readers can infer from the HTML tag in most cases. For example you don't need to add a role tag to semantic tags like nav , button , form .

Let's take the nav tag example. You can use it to define the page navigation like this:

If you were forced to use a div tag instead of nav , you'd use the navigation role:

So here you got a practical example: role is used to assign a meaningful value when the tag does not convey the meaning already.

Use the tabindex attribute

The tabindex attribute allows you to change the order of how pressing the Tab key selects "selectable" elements. By defaults only links and form elements are "selectable" by navigation using the Tab key (and you don't need to set tabindex on them).

Adding tabindex="0" makes an element selectable:

Using tabindex="-1" instead removes an element from this tab-based navigation, and it can be pretty useful.

Use the aria attributes

ARIA is an acronym that means Accessible Rich Internet Applications and defines semantics that can be applied to elements.

This attribute is used to add a string to describe an element.

I use this attribute on my blog sidebar, where I have an input box for search without an explicit label, as it has a placeholder attribute.


This attribute sets a correlation between the current element and the one that labels it.

If you know how an input element can be associated to a label element, that's similar.

We pass the item id that describes the current element.


This attribute lets us associate an element with another element that serves as description.

Use aria-hidden to hide content

I like a minimalistic design in my sites. My blog for example is mostly just content, with some links in the sidebar. But some things in the sidebar are just visual elements that don't add up to the experience of a person that can't see the page. Like my logo picture, or the dark/bright theme selector.

Adding the aria-hidden="true" attribute will tell screen readers to ignore that element.

Where to learn more

This is just an introduction to the topic. To learn more, I recommend these resources:


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15 Best HTML Books for Beginners and Advanced Coders

Lucero del Alba

In this article, we’ll review the best books for learning HTML.

HTML is a fundamental building block of the Web, and familiarity with HTML a must-have skill for any aspiring web developer. And we’re talking a lot more than simply structuring documents, as there’s no limit to the amount of interactivity you can create with APIs in HTML5.

We’ve rounded up the best HTML books for beginners and advanced coders. Get ready to dive into the language of the Web ! 🤓

We’ve also recently reviewed the best books for learning CSS , JavaScript , PHP , Python , Node.js and SQL .

What Is HTML? A Short Explanation

How to choose the best html books, html5 pocket reference: quick, comprehensive, indispensable, html in easy steps: an indispensable guide for html newbies, html5: up and running: dive into the future of web development, html for babies, get coding: learn html, css, and javascript and build a website, app and game, html5 for masterminds: how to take advantage of html5 to create responsive websites and revolutionary applications, web development & design foundations with html5, html and css quickstart guide: the simplified beginner’s guide to developing a strong coding foundation, building responsive websites, and mastering the fundamentals of modern web design, html & css: design and build websites, murach’s html5 and css3: training & reference, html, css, and javascript: all in one, html5 and css3: all-in-one for dummies: 8 books in 1, web design playground: html + css the interactive way, responsive web design with html 5 & css, learning web design: a beginner’s guide to html, css, javascript, and web graphics, extra: cheat sheets, extra: the sitepoint library.

HTML stands for “HyperText Markup Language”. It’s a language for describing web pages using plain text.

HTML is the primary language used to create web pages , and it’s a very easy language to learn. It’s easy to read and understand, and it’s also easy to write. HTML is the only language that web browsers can understand and use to create web pages.

HTML is used to create the structure of a web page , including forms, embedding of videos and images, and creating links to other web pages.

HTML is an essential language for web developers to learn , as it’s used to create the structure of web pages. If you’re looking to get started in web development, a great place to start is learning HTML.

Note: you can explore a wide variety of HTML topics through the HTML articles on SitePoint . And if you’re stuck on an HTML issue, our friendly forum experts will help you get it sorted in no time.

HTML might be easy to learn, but as the foundation of the Web, it’s also a vast and ever-evolving technology.

Here are some things to consider when picking an HTML book:

  • How well is the content explained?
  • Do you find the writing style compelling?
  • Is there an emphasis on coding best practices?
  • Does it cover topics like accessibility, SEO, and more?
  • Do you want to be a web designer or a developer of web applications?

Also consider that, while HTML5 was released in 2008, companion technologies like JavaScript and Web APIs have progressed a lot since then. So if you’re looking to find a book covering multiple disciplines, keep in mind to look for ones that are up to date in all respects.

Best HTML Books for Beginners

Let’s first look at books for HTML beginners.

Please note: as an Amazon Associate, SitePoint will earn commissions from qualifying purchases made through links in this article.

HTML5 Pocket Reference - cover image

  • Publishing : fifth edition (September 10, 2013)
  • Paperback : 182 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.6/5 (221 ratings)

With over 30 years of experience, best-selling author Jennifer Robbins is one of the first professional designers of the Web, and the co-founder of the Artifact Conference for web designers and developers.

In HTML5 Pocket Reference she presents an alphabetical listing of every HTML element and attribute, markup examples, notes indicating the differences between HTML5 and HTML 4.01, and an overview of HTML5 APIs. Not bad for one of the shortest books in this list!

The HTML5 Pocket Reference is part of O’Reilly’s Pocket Reference series of over 34 books, and this fifth edition includes updates regarding the HTML5.1 Working Draft , and the WHATWG standards .

HTML in Easy Steps - cover image

  • Author : Mike McGrath ( profile )
  • Publishing : ninth edition (June 24, 2020)
  • Paperback : 192 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.8/5 (35 ratings)

Prolific author Mike McGrath covers all of the basics of HTML in this extremely fun , concise, and accessible book that’s on its ninth edition, and counting! 👏

Why do I say HTML in Easy Steps — the highest rated book in this list — is fun?

  • it’s written in plain English
  • it’s easy to follow
  • it’s fully illustrated
  • it’s in full color

You can get a taste of the book’s layout in an online sample .

HTML in Easy Steps is part of the In Easy Steps series, which includes over 200 titles. If you find you like this introduction to HTML, you can take your skills further and see HTML in context with HTML, CSS & JavaScript in Easy Steps from the same series and by the same author (480 pages, 4.6/5, July 2020).

HTML5 Up and Running - cover image

  • Publishing : first edition (September 7, 2010)
  • Paperback : 222 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 3.9/5 (111 ratings)

Mark Pilgrim is a developer advocate, a former Google employee, and an author who wrote the acclaimed Dive into HTML5 , which is a free online book.

Part of O’Reilly’s Up and Running series, HTML5: Up and Running is essentially the printed version of Dive into HTML5 , which also happens to be a relatively short read.

It must be noted that HTML5: Up and Running has some lower ratings, partly because it’s a bit outdated — the author having abandoned the project some time ago. That said, you can still check out the online version first before you decide whether or not it’s your cup of tea.

Best HTML Books for Children

Let’s now look at some books that are particularly appropriate for children who want to learn HTML.

HTML for Babies - cover image

  • Publishing : independent (July 19, 2016)
  • Paperback : 16 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 3.9/5 (158 ratings)

A unique offering from Union Square & Co., HTML for Babies is a board book that introduces the fundamentals of HTML to youngsters while making extensive use of colors and huge fonts to overemphasize HTML syntax.

And while 16 pages surely is too short for adults (many of the bad reviews are about that), for babies and toddlers it may be just right.

If this sounds like a book you might be interested in, check out the other offerings in this five-book Code Babies series.

Get Coding - cover image

  • Publishing : first edition (August 1, 2017)
  • Paperback : 208 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.6/5 (2,672 ratings)

Get Coding! is a series of two books for children between nine and 12 years old, written by the Young Rewired State , a non-profit that helps young people to become digital makers.

The first book, Get Coding! , is a full-color introduction to HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It includes a step-by-step guide to building a website, an app and a game. It currently ranks #10 best seller in CSS , and it has over 2,600 ratings, making it the second most popular book in this list!

Young Rewired State’s YouTube channel also has plenty of videos that serve a companion content to the book.

Best Intermediate and Advanced HTML Books

Let’s now look at some books for intermediate to advanced users of HTML.

HTML5 for Masterminds - cover image

  • Publishing : third edition (February 9, 2017)
  • Paperback : 624 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.5/5 (98 ratings)

J.D Gauchat is a writer, programmer and entrepreneur, and his books are popular among web developers and tech professionals.

In HTML5 for Masterminds , he covers HTML5 in depth and provides step-by-step instructions on how to create responsive websites and applications with HTML5.

Besides all the fundamentals, the book covers a number of modern Web APIs , such as:

  • Drag and Drop API
  • Fullscreen API
  • Geolocation API
  • History API
  • IndexedDB API

… and many more

HTML5 for Masterminds is part of the four-book series For Masterminds , and it’s one of the longest books in this list.

Web Development & Design Foundations with HTML5 - cover image

  • Author : Terry Felke-Morris ( profile )
  • Publishing : ninth edition (February 2, 2018)
  • Paperback : 720 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.5/5 (287 ratings)

Terry Felke-Morris is a college professor emerita of web design and development, the author of multiple web development books, and the author of this comprehensive book on web development and design.

In Web Development & Design Foundations with HTML5 , she teaches the basics and more of HTML5 and its related technologies, such as CSS3 and JavaScript, to help readers create websites — all while having a somewhat academic yet approachable angle to it.

The book is also the largest HTML book in our list, and in its ninth edition (wow! 👏). It also includes updates on HTML5.1 and HTML5.2. It’s a best seller, standing at #2 in XHTML , and you can safely consider it an indispensable guide for web development and design newbies.

All-in-one: HTML with CSS and JavaScript

Some readers will prefer to learn HTML, CSS and/or JavaScript at once. There’s good reason for this, because most of the time these three technologies go hand in hand with one another. So next few books we’ll look at present two or more of these languages in tandem.

HTML and CSS QuickStart Guide - cover image

  • Publishing : first edition (January 22, 2021)
  • Paperback : 359 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.5/5 (440 ratings)

Web design instructor David DuRocher presents a comprehensive yet simplified guide in HTML and CSS QuickStart Guide .

As described on the back cover, you’ll learn the following:

Modern web design fundamentals, how to use the powerful combination of HTML5 and CSS3 Site structure and responsive design principles, how to format HTML and CSS for all devices How to incorporate forms, multimedia elements, and captivating animations into your projects How to effectively produce HTML documents using industry-standard tools such as GitHub HTML and CSS elements, formatting, padding, gradients, menus, testing, debugging, and more

HTML and CSS QuickStart Guide is a best seller #4 in XHTML and #9 in CSS . It’s labeled as “Great on Kindle” (a distinction very few technical books get), and it even has an audiobook version !

Design and Build Websites - cover image

  • Publishing : first edition (November 8, 2011)
  • Paperback : 490 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.7/5 (4,260 ratings)

Jon Duckett is a well-known author of books about web design and programming. His book HTML & CSS: Design and Build Websites is the most rated HTML/CSS books in this list by quite a margin, and also one of the best rated.

This book is over ten years old, and yet its content is still relevant today. It’s also beautifully designed , with full-color illustrations and screen captures. (See a sample chapter .)

It’s a #1 best seller in CSS , #2 in Web Design , and #2 in Computer Programming , and has a companion website with code samples for every chapter , and plenty of extras .

If you like this book, there’s also JavaScript and jQuery and PHP & MySQL by the same author and in the same style, both with fantastic reviews.

Murach's HTML5 and CSS3 - cover image

  • Publishing : fifth edition (December 14, 2021)
  • Paperback : 602 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.7/5 (40 ratings)

The Murach’s series is well known for its lengthy and well written books for learning programming and software development, and Murach’s HTML5 and CSS3 is no exception.

With one of the highest ratings on this list, this fifth-edition book is a best seller #9 in CSS . It’s an update to the fourth edition , which has over 400 ratings.

Aside from reference aids, the main sections include:

  • the essential concepts and skills
  • responsive web design
  • more HTML and CSS skills as you need them
  • web design, deployment, and JavaScript

Zak also has a few courses on Udemy that you might find useful.

HTML, CSS, and JavaScript All in One - cover image

  • Publishing : third edition (November 30, 2018)
  • Paperback : 800 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.5/5 (281 ratings)

In HTML, CSS, and JavaScript , heavyweight authors Julie Meloni and Jennifer Kyrnin integrate these languages with examples that you can use as a reference, or use as a starting point for your own projects.

Part of the Sams Teach Yourself series — which boasts over 200 books — this third edition includes recent updates to the HTML5 and CSS3 standards.

A relatively large book, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript is also one of the most comprehensive, providing plentiful illustrations.

HTML5 and CSS3 All-in-One for Dummies - cover image

  • Publishing : third edition (January 7, 2014)
  • Paperback : 1,104 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.6/5 (501 ratings)

In HTML5 and CSS3: All-in-One for Dummies , bestselling author Andy Harris covers a lot of ground in web development. As is typical of the For Dummies series, the subject is presented in a very approachable and down-to-earth manner.

Here’s a list of eight “books” contained in this #5 best seller in XHTML :

  • Creating the HTML foundation
  • Styling with CSS
  • Building layout with CSS
  • Client-side programming with JavaScript
  • Server-side programming with PHP
  • Managing data with MySQL
  • Integrating the client and server with Ajax
  • Moving from pages to sites

To be honest, this series is little too legacy for my taste, as it focuses strongly on technologies like PHP and MySQL, which have been losing ground for quite some time against NoSQL databases and pure JavaScript frameworks such as React, Angular, or Vue. But hey, to each their own!

By the way, Andy also has a handful of courses on Udemy .

Web Design Playground - cover image

  • Publishing : first edition (May 19, 2019)
  • Paperback : 440 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.6/5 (114 ratings)

Paul McFedries is an author, serial technical writer, and trainer who specializes in Windows, web development, and programming. His books have sold over four million copies, and he has written over 90 titles for Microsoft Press, Wiley, and other publishers.

In Web Design Playground , Paul McFedries takes the reader on a journey into HTML and CSS, and the book is full of interactive exercises and full-color illustrations to help the reader learn — covering basics like creating web pages, to more advanced topics like styling with CSS and deploying web pages.

Responsive Web Design with HTML 5 & CSS - cover image

  • Author : Jessica Minnick
  • Publishing : ninth edition (February 6, 2020)
  • Paperback : 640 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.6/5 (24 ratings)

In Responsive Web Design with HTML 5 & CSS , author Jessica Minnick (an IT instructor at Pasco-Hernando State College in New Port Richey, Florida) makes a thorough review of responsive web design best practices, as well as covering HTML5 and CSS3, thus providing a comprehensive introduction to web development.

This is one of the books in the Shelly Cashman series, and it’s on its ninth edition! It’s also the #6 best seller in CSS category on Amazon. So it’s a pretty safe bet.

Learning Web Design - cover image

  • Publishing : fifth edition (June 19, 2018)
  • Paperback : 808 pages
  • Ranking on Amazon : 4.6/5 (597 ratings)

Veteran designer and co-founder of the Artifact Conference , Jennifer Robbins hits us with a #1 best seller in XHTML , #2 in JavaScript , and #2 in CSS .

Learning Web Design is an amazingly comprehensive, full-color book that covers HTML5, CSS3, web graphics, and JavaScript.

New in the fifth edition:

  • Flexbox and Grid layout for sophisticated and flexible page layout
  • responsive web design to make web pages work great on all screen sizes
  • an introduction to the command line, Git, and other modern web developer tools
  • a new chapter on SVG and how to use it in responsive layouts

The companion website includes exercise materials for working along with the book, supplemental articles for further reading, links with resources listed on the book, and even instructor support !

Cheat sheet - cover image

If you want to look for a quick reference guide that covers the very basics of HTML5 in the most concise way, the HTML5 Pamphlet , by BarCharts, is the most rated resource in this list (4.6/5, 375 ratings).

Part of the Quick Study Computer series (which offers over 60 charts), this fold-out guide provides an overview of HTML5, including the major elements, attributes, and the newest HTML5 features. It also provides brief yet accurate context for the HTML5 document structure.

SitePoint Premium home page screenshot

SitePoint Premium gives you access to the SitePoint Library, with a whole section dedicated to HTML and CSS books and courses , including HTML5 & CSS3 for the Real World: second Edition , by Alexis Goldstein, Louis Lazaris, and Estelle Weyl.

There’s also the following series by Jens Oliver Meiert:

  • Upgrade Your HTML (April 2020)
  • Upgrade Your HTML II (November 2020)
  • Upgrade Your HTML III (May 2021)
  • Upgrade Your HTML IV (November 2022)

Final Thoughts

As the building block of the modern Web, it’s important to understand HTML’s syntax and how it works in order to create the best possible user experience. With the basics of HTML under your belt, you can start to create web pages, and then go on to build upon that foundation with other technologies.

Hopefully this list of HTML books will help you to get started, and help you along the road to your design and developing goals. 💻🕸

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about HTML Books

What are the key factors to consider when choosing an html book.

When choosing an HTML book, consider your level of expertise. Beginners should look for books that cover the basics in a simple, easy-to-understand language. Intermediate and advanced users may prefer books that delve into more complex topics. The book’s reviews and ratings can also provide insight into its quality and usefulness. Additionally, consider the book’s publication date. HTML is constantly evolving, so a more recent book is likely to provide up-to-date information.

Are online resources sufficient for learning HTML or do I need a book?

Online resources can be a great starting point for learning HTML. They offer interactive tutorials and immediate feedback. However, books provide a structured learning path and often delve deeper into topics. They can also be used as a reference guide. Ultimately, the choice between online resources and books depends on your personal learning style.

How can I practice what I learn from an HTML book?

Most HTML books include exercises and projects that allow you to apply what you’ve learned. You can also practice by creating your own projects, such as a personal website or a simple web application. Additionally, there are online platforms that provide coding challenges to help you improve your skills.

Can I learn HTML without any prior coding experience?

Yes, HTML is a great language for beginners. It’s relatively simple to learn and provides a solid foundation for other web development languages like CSS and JavaScript. There are many books available that are designed for individuals with no prior coding experience.

How long does it typically take to learn HTML from a book?

The time it takes to learn HTML from a book can vary greatly depending on your prior experience, the complexity of the book, and the amount of time you dedicate to studying. However, with consistent study, most people can grasp the basics of HTML within a few weeks.

Are there HTML books specifically for kids?

Yes, there are HTML books designed specifically for kids. These books typically use simple language, colorful illustrations, and fun projects to make learning HTML engaging for young learners.

Can I use an HTML book to prepare for a web development job?

Absolutely. Many HTML books cover topics that are relevant to web development jobs, such as responsive design, accessibility, and SEO. They can also help you build a portfolio of projects to showcase to potential employers.

Are there HTML books that also cover CSS and JavaScript?

Yes, there are many books that cover HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. These books provide a comprehensive introduction to web development, making them a great choice for beginners.

How often should I update my HTML book collection?

As HTML is constantly evolving, it’s a good idea to update your book collection every few years. This ensures you stay up-to-date with the latest best practices and features.

Are there HTML books available in other languages?

Yes, many popular HTML books have been translated into various languages. You can usually find these by searching for the book’s title along with the desired language.

41 Free HTML And CSS Books

C ollection of free HTML and CSS books. Download (pdf, epub, mobi) and read online. Update of June 2018 collection. 7 new books.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language.

Table of Contents:

Html and css books, related articles.

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Book image: Twitter Bootstrap 4 Succinctly

  • read online

About the book

Twitter bootstrap 4 succinctly.

In Twitter Bootstrap 4 Succinctly, you’ll learn the essentials of what has changed in the five years since the last version of the framework was released, and how to immediately put it to good use. Learn all about grids, tables, buttons, forms, cards, and many more tools that make designing a UI easier than ever before.

Book image: W3.CSS Succinctly

  • Joseph D. Booth

W3.CSS Succinctly

W3.CSS is a free, no-license CSS framework you can use to produce responsive websites that work across all common browsers and devices. W3.CSS is small and simple to learn, and is a worthwhile contender to consider when deciding on a CSS framework. In W3.CSS Succinctly, Joseph Booth will take you through using features such as containers and helper classes, visual elements and animations.

Book image: HTML & CSS Is Hard

  • Oliver James

HTML & CSS Is Hard. But It Doesn’t Have To Be.

A friendly web development tutorial for complete beginners.

Cover Image: Front-End Developer Handbook 2017

Front-End Developer Handbook 2017

This is a guide that anyone could use to learn about the practice of front-end development. It broadly outlines and discusses the practice of front-end engineering: how to learn it and what tools are used when practicing it in 2017. It is specifically written with the intention of being a professional resource for potential and currently practicing front-end developers to equip themselves with learning materials and development tools. Secondarily, it can be used by managers, CTOs, instructors, and head hunters to gain insights into the practice of front-end development. The content of the handbook favors web technologies (HTML, CSS, DOM, and JavaScript) and those solutions that are directly built on top of these open technologies. The materials referenced and discussed in the book are either best in class or the current offering to a problem. The book should not be considered a comprehensive outline of all resources available to a front-end developer. The value of the book is tied up in a terse, focused, and timely curation of just enough categorical information so as not to overwhelm anyone on any one particular subject matter. Author: Cody Lindley Date: 2017

Cover Image: Bootstrap: A SitePoint Anthology 1

Bootstrap: A SitePoint Anthology #1

Bootstrap: A SitePoint Anthology is a collection of the most useful and interesting articles on Bootstrap, the popular front-end framework, recently published on SitePoint. Now nearly five years’ old, Bootstrap is firmly entrenched in many developers’ toolboxes. In this time it’s grown from an internal tool at Twitter to the most used UI/front-end framework on the Web, with more than 7 million websites using it to som degree. This book is a collection of Bootstrap-related articles, covering a wide range of topics: from making Bootstrap more accessible, to using Sass to semantically extend Bootstrap, there’s something here for everyone. Beginners will find a wealth of knowledge to help them start on this new and fascinating road. Advanced developers will find useful tricks and tips that will make their lives easier. This book assumes familiarity with HTML, CSS, and some JavaScript. Author: Sitepoint Date: 2016

Cover Image: How To Code In HTML5 And CSS3

How To Code In HTML5 And CSS3

"How to Code in HTML5 and CSS3" is a free e-book about making websites in HTML5 and CSS for absolute beginners. It doesn't require any experience in IT to start. The aim of this book is to show the art of making websites using a plain language which is full of practical analogies. After reading over 100 pages you will get to know basic concepts and techniques of web development and be able to build your first website ever! Author: Damian Wielgosik Date: 2016

Cover Image: HTML5 & CSS3 for the Real World: 2nd Edition

HTML5 & CSS3 for the Real World: 2nd Edition

HTML5 & CSS3 for the Real World is your perfect introduction to the latest generation of web development technologies. This easy-to-follow guide covers everything you need to get started. You’ll master the semantic markup available in HTML5, and discover how to use CSS3 to create amazing-looking websites without resorting to complex workarounds. Author: Alexis Goldstein, Louis Lazaris, Estelle Weyl Date: 2015

Cover Image: The Little Book Of HTML/CSS Coding Guidelines

The Little Book Of HTML/CSS Coding Guidelines

A proper plan can improve your code, including your HTML documents and CSS style sheets. Jens Oliver Meiert explores the theory and practice of coding guidelines and shows, using Google’s HTML and CSS standards as a particular example, how consistency and care can make the code base you create today much easier to deal with when you—or someone else—work on it later. Jens Oliver Meiert is a former senior developer and tech lead at Google, Aperto, and GMX, where he architected internal frameworks that married fast development with high quality code. Author: Jens Oliver Meiert Date: 2015

Cover Image: The Little Book Of HTML/CSS Frameworks

The Little Book Of HTML/CSS Frameworks

With the speed of web development today, it’s little wonder that so many frameworks are available, since they come with a promise of saving development and design time. But using the wrong framework, or wrongly using the right framework, can be costly. This concise book shares higher-level ideas around web development frameworks that govern HTML and CSS code, whether you’re looking at an external option or planning to build your own. Author Jens Meiert outlines various principles, methods, and practices that you can use to make sure your framework has the functionality you need without bloated code to slow you down. Author: Jens Oliver Meiert Date: 2015

Cover Image: MarkSheet

A free HTML and CSS tutorial. Author: Jeremy Thomas Date: 2015-2017

Cover Image: Learn To Code HTML & CSS. Develop & Style Websites

Learn To Code HTML & CSS. Develop & Style Websites

Learn to Code HTML & CSS is a simple and comprehensive guide dedicated to helping beginners learn HTML and CSS. Outlining the fundamentals, this guide works through all common elements of front-end design and development. Author: Shay Howe Date: 2014-2017

html books for beginners pdf

Learn To Code Advanced HTML & CSS. Develop & Style Websites

Learn to Code Advanced HTML & CSS takes a deeper look at front-end design and development, expanding on what is covered in the beginner’s guide. Studying modern front-end development, this guide teaches the latest for any designer looking to round out their front-end skills. Author: Shay Howe Date: 2014-2017

Cover Image: Adaptive Web Design: Crafting Rich Experiences With Progressive Enhancement

Adaptive Web Design: Crafting Rich Experiences With Progressive Enhancement

In this brief book, Aaron Gustafson chronicles the origins of progressive enhancement, its philosophy, and mechanisms, and reveals the countless practical ways that you can apply progressive enhancement principles using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. By understanding progressive enhancement and how to apply it properly, web practitioners can craft experiences that serve users (rather than browsers), giving them access to content without technological restrictions. Author: Aaron Gustafson Date: 2011

Book image: HTML5 Notes for Professionals


HTML5 Notes for Professionals

The HTML5 Notes for Professionals book is compiled from Stack Overflow Documentation, the content is written by the beautiful people at Stack Overflow.

Book image: HTML5 Graphing and Data Visualization Cookbook

HTML5 Graphing and Data Visualization Cookbook

Get a complete grounding in the exciting visual world of Canvas and HTML5 using this recipe-packed cookbook. Learn to create charts and graphs, draw complex shapes, add interactivity, work with Google maps, and much more.

Book image: HTML5 Canvas Notes for Professionals

HTML5 Canvas Notes for Professionals

This HTML5 Canvas Notes for Professionals book is compiled from Stack Overflow Documentation, the content is written by the beautiful people at Stack Overflow.

Cover Image: Thinking in HTML

Thinking in HTML

For anyone who wants to understand the web and how it works, HTML is an essential place to start. This free eBook provides you with everything you need to know to get to grips with HTML and to begin building your own web pages. Explore how HTML code structures a web page and use and adapt the examples for yourself to begin building your own web pages today. Author: Aravind Shenoy Date: 2014

Cover Image: Jump Start HTML5

Jump Start HTML5

Everything you need to know about HTML5 in one place! This book is the perfect primer to get to grips with HTML5, and start to take advantage of its power in your projects. Author: Tiffany Brown, Kerry Butters, Sandeep Panda Date: 2014

Cover Image: HTML 5 Shoot 'em Up In An Afternoon

HTML 5 Shoot 'em Up In An Afternoon

Learn (or teach) the basics of Game Programming with this free Phaser tutorial. Author: Bryan Bibat Date: 2014

Cover Image: HTML Canvas. Native Interactivity And Animation For The Web

HTML Canvas. Native Interactivity And Animation For The Web

The second edition of this popular book gets you started with HTML5 Canvas. Learn how to draw, render text, manipulate images, and create animation—all in the course of building several interactive web games throughout the book. This online version of HTML5 Canvas includes 53 interactive examples and exercises. Author: Steve Fulton and Jeff Fulton Date: 2013

Cover Image: HTML5 For Publishers

HTML5 For Publishers

HTML5 is revolutionizing the Web, and now it’s coming to your ebook reader! HTML5 for Publishers introduces to all the modern Web technologies you’ll need to add rich media and interactivity to your ebook content. Author: Sanders Kleinfeld Date: 2011

Cover Image: HTML Canvas Deep Dive. A Travelogue

HTML Canvas Deep Dive. A Travelogue

HTML Canvas Deep Dive is a hands on introduction to Canvas. Code along with the book and play with interactive examples. When you finish reading this short tome you will have the skills to make charts, effects, diagrams, and games that integrate into your existing web content. Author: Josh Marinacci Date: 2011

Cover Image: Pro HTML5 Programming. Powerful APIs For Richer Internet Application Development

Pro HTML5 Programming. Powerful APIs For Richer Internet Application Development

HTML5 is here, and with it, web applications have acquired power, ease, scalability, and responsiveness like never before. With this book, developers will learn how to use the latest cutting-edge HTML5 web technology—available in the most recent versions of modern browsers—to build web applications with unparalleled functionality, speed, and responsiveness. This new edition includes major revisions for WebSockets functionality, reflecting the new W3C specification. It also features new chapters covering the drag-and-drop API as well as SVG. Author: Peter Lubbers Date: 2011

Cover Image: HTML5 For Web Designers

HTML5 For Web Designers

HTML5 isn’t as confusing as it once was, but it still isn’t straightforward. It’s an evolutionary, rather than revolutionary, change in the ongoing story of markup—and if you’re currently creating websites with any version of HTML, you’re already using HTML5. Harness the power of this essential evolving spec with help from Jeremy Keith and Rachel Andrew. Brush up on syntax and updated elements, and get ready to work with responsive images, microformats, and microdata. Through clear, practical examples, you’ll be up to speed in no time. Author: Jeremy Keith Date: 2010

Cover Image: Dive Into HTML5

Dive Into HTML5

Author: Mark Pilgrim Date: 2010

Book image: CSS Animation 101

  • Donovan Hutchinson

CSS Animation 101

Animation using CSS can be overwhelming to learn all at once. This book gives you a solid introduction to the topic, combining theory with practical lessons. You’ll learn how, and why to use animation on your web pages and hopefully be inspired to try it on your own projects!

Book image: CSS Notes for Professionals

CSS Notes for Professionals

The CSS Notes for Professionals book is compiled from Stack Overflow Documentation, the content is written by the beautiful people at Stack Overflow.

Book image: CSS Optimization Basics

  • Jens Oliver Meiert

CSS Optimization Basics

Are you unsure about your style sheets’ quality, or whether you’ve maxed out your options? CSS Optimization Basics covers the necessary mindsets, discusses the main optimization methods, and presents useful resources to write higher quality CSS.

Book image: Web Visual Effects With CSS3

Web Visual Effects With CSS3

Quick take away of different CSS effects by using different combinations of most common CSS3 properties.

Cover Image: CSS Guidelines

CSS Guidelines

High-level advice and guidelines for writing sane, manageable, scalable CSS. Author: Harry Roberts Date: 2017

Cover Image: Understanding Flexbox - Everything you need to know

Understanding Flexbox. Everything you need to know

Learning Flexbox can be a pain in the butt. For most persons, it’s not particularly fun at first. It challenges you to rethink how you’ve dealt with layouts in css. Don’t fret. I will really walk you through all you need to know. That’s the aim of this book. Author: Ohans Emmanuel Date: 2016

Cover Image: MaintainableCSS


Write CSS without worrying that overzealous, pre-existing styles will cause problems. MaintainableCSS is an approach to writing modular, scalable and of course, maintainable CSS. Author: Adam Silver Date: 2016

Cover Image: CSS Master

This book will show you how to write better, more efficient CSS, and to take advantage of the plethora of the new cutting-edge CSS features available to the front-end developer. You’ll also learn to master tools that will improve your workflow. Author: Tiffany Brown Date: 2015

Cover Image: Transforms In CSS: Revamp The Way You Design

Transforms In CSS: Revamp The Way You Design

Present information in stunning new ways by transforming CSS elements in two- and three-dimensional space. Whether you’re rotating a photo, doing some interesting perspective tricks, or creating an interface that lets you reveal information on an element’s backside, this practical guide shows you how to use them to great effect. Short and sweet, this book is an excerpt from the upcoming fourth edition of CSS: The Definitive Guide. Why wait? Learn how to bring life to your web pages now. Author: Eric A. Meyer Date: 2015

Cover Image: Enduring CSS

Enduring CSS

A guide to writing style sheets for large scale, rapidly changing, long-lived web projects. Author: Ben Frain Date: 2015

Cover Image: CSS3 Succinctly

CSS3 Succinctly

In CSS3 Succinctly, author Peter Shaw provides an overview of the latest features available for custom cascading style sheets. You’ll learn to style several components of an HTML document, including color, size, layout, font, position, and more. Basic content generation, gradients, and calculations are also covered. Author: Peter Shaw Date: 2015

Cover Image: Learn CSS Layout. The Pedantic Way

Learn CSS Layout. The Pedantic Way

Author: Mikito Takada Date: 2015

Cover Image: The Magic Of CSS

The Magic Of CSS

A CSS course for web developers who want to be magicians. Author: Adam Schwartz Date: 2014-2017

Cover Image: Thinking in CSS

Thinking in CSS

Start using CSS and get to grips with one of the most foundational but important languages in web design. Use this free eBook to explore how to code and build websites, following the examples and tips for an accessible but essential learning experience. Author: Aravind Shenoy Date: 2014

Cover Image: A Pocket Guide To CSS Animations

A Pocket Guide To CSS Animations

CSS animations open up a whole new way to look at and use CSS to bring motion to the web in creative ways. This Pocket Guide is designed to help you jump into using CSS animations in your own projects, providing a strong foundation on which to start experimenting and creating. In this book Val covers the basics of CSS animations, walking you through a series of examples, and discussing practical considerations for dealing with browsers and fallbacks. You'll have everything you need to start playing with CSS animations in just a couple of hours. Author: Val Head Date: 2013

Cover Image: Scalable And Modular Architecture For CSS

Scalable And Modular Architecture For CSS

SMACSS (pronounced “smacks”) is more style guide than rigid framework. There is no library within here for you to download or install. SMACSS is a way to examine your design process and as a way to fit those rigid frameworks into a flexible thought process. It is an attempt to document a consistent approach to site development when using CSS. And really, who isn’t building a site with CSS these days?! Author: Jonathan Snook Date: 2012

FE Mag Logo

10 Best Books for HTML and CSS [2023]: Beginners to Advanced

Best Books for HTML and CSS

If you’re eager to learn HTML and CSS or want to enhance your existing skills, you’ve come to the right place. In this post, I’ll share with you the 10 best books for HTML and CSS in 2023. These books are carefully selected to provide you with valuable knowledge, practical examples, and insights into the latest trends in web development.

Every website relies on HTML and CSS as the fundamental building blocks that lay the groundwork for its structure and design. HTML structures the content of web pages, while CSS controls their presentation and layout. Mastering these two languages is essential for creating visually appealing and responsive websites that engage and captivate users.

No matter your level of experience in web development , whether you’re just starting out or seeking to broaden your expertise, these books are excellent resources that will effectively guide you throughout your learning journey. Each book offers a unique perspective, practical exercises, and real-world examples to help you grasp the concepts and apply them in your projects.

In this curated list, you’ll find a mix of beginner-friendly and advanced books, ensuring there’s something for everyone, regardless of your current skill level. But before we delve into the list, let’s explore why learning HTML and CSS using books is a valuable approach.

Table of Contents

Exploring the Benefits of Learning HTML and CSS with Books

In the digital age, where online tutorials, video courses, and interactive platforms abound, you might wonder why anyone would still opt for learning HTML and CSS through books. While digital resources certainly have their merits, there are several compelling reasons why books remain a valuable and effective learning tool for aspiring web developers. Let’s explore some of these reasons:

  • Comprehensive Learning Experience : Books provide an extensive and structured learning experience. They often cover the core concepts, principles, and best practices of HTML and CSS in a logical and organized manner. With books, you can follow a step-by-step progression, ensuring you grasp each topic before moving on to the next. This systematic approach lays a strong foundation and helps you develop a deeper understanding of the subject matter.
  • In-Depth Explanations : Books offer in-depth explanations that go beyond the surface-level understanding of HTML and CSS. Authors have the space to explore concepts thoroughly, provide detailed examples, and offer valuable insights gained through their experience. This depth of information allows you to gain a holistic understanding of the languages and their applications, empowering you to tackle complex web design challenges.
  • Accessible Reference Material : Books serve as reliable and accessible reference materials for learning HTML and CSS. Unlike online tutorials or videos that may require an internet connection or specific platforms, books are readily available offline. This accessibility allows you to refer to the content whenever you encounter doubts or need a quick refresher, regardless of your internet connectivity.
  • Reduced Distractions : Learning through books can help minimize distractions that are often present in online learning environments. While online resources may be interactive and engaging, they can also lead to constant interruptions, such as notifications, ads, or links to unrelated content. In contrast, books allow you to focus solely on the content at hand, providing a more immersive and uninterrupted learning experience.
  • Personalized Pace : Books give you the opportunity to learn at a pace that suits you. You can take your time absorbing the material, going back to review sections, and advancing based on your comfort level. With books, there’s no pressure to keep up with the pace of a video tutorial or an online course. You have the freedom to invest as much time as necessary in each concept, ensuring a solid understanding before moving forward.
  • Engaged Learning : Reading a book requires active engagement and concentration. As you read through the text, your mind visualizes the concepts, allowing you to create mental models and reinforce your understanding. This active reading process enhances retention and comprehension, making it easier to recall and apply what you’ve learned in practical scenarios.
  • Supplemental Exercises and Projects : Many books on HTML and CSS include practical exercises, coding challenges, and real-world projects. These exercises provide hands-on opportunities to apply the knowledge gained from the book. By completing these activities, you reinforce your learning, develop problem-solving skills, and gain confidence in your ability to create web designs from scratch.

Now that we understand the advantages of learning through books, let’s delve into our carefully curated list of the 10 best books for HTML and CSS in 2023.

1. Responsive Web Design with HTML5 and CSS

Responsive Web Design with HTML5 and CSS

The 4th Edition of Responsive Web Design with HTML5 and CSS by Ben Frain is a comprehensive guide that will empower you to create stunning, future-proof websites using the latest techniques in HTML5 and CSS. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced web developer, this book is your key to unlocking the potential of responsive web design.

In an era of rapid mobile device growth and diverse screen sizes, it becomes crucial to guarantee the flawless appearance and functionality of your websites across all devices. This book acts as your guide through the realm of responsive web design, teaching you how to construct a unified user interface that seamlessly adapts to mobile phones, tablets, and desktops.

Unlike other technical books, Ben Frain’s writing style is clear, concise, and beginner-friendly. He cuts through the complexity and explains responsive web design concepts in a way that anyone can understand. By focusing on the practical benefits of each technique, rather than overwhelming you with technical jargon, Frain empowers you to create visually appealing and user-friendly websites.

Inside this book, you’ll find up-to-date content on the latest advancements in responsive web design. Explore CSS layout with Grid and Subgrid, CSS Cascade Layers, Wide Gamut colors, and CSS Functions. Discover the art of utilizing these new features to create flexible and dynamic layouts, stunning color schemes, and optimized images that load quickly on any device.

To enhance your learning experience, this edition includes full-color images. These visuals provide real-world examples and inspiration to help you design beautiful websites. Additionally, when you purchase the print or Kindle edition, you’ll receive a free eBook in PDF format, allowing you to access the content on multiple devices.

Responsive Web Design with HTML5 and CSS is published by Packt Publishing, a trusted name in technical publications. With 498 pages of expert guidance, this book empowers you with the knowledge and skills necessary to thrive in the ever-evolving realm of web development.

Latest Edition: 2022

Ratings: 4.7/5 on Amazon, 4.7/5 on GoodReads

View on Amazon

2. HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites

HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites

HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites by Jon Duckett is perfect for both beginners and experienced individuals looking to enhance their coding skills . Step into the captivating world of HTML and CSS, where you’ll discover a realm of boundless possibilities to create awe-inspiring websites that truly captivate your audience.

With this book, Jon Duckett presents an innovative approach to teaching HTML and CSS. Unlike traditional programming books, this guide focuses on accessibility, making it suitable for hobbyists, students, and professionals. The full-color design and visual illustrations throughout the book bring the concepts to life, making it easy to grasp even for those with no prior coding experience.

Whether you’re a web designer, programmer, or someone seeking to spruce up your personal blog, this book has got you covered. You’ll learn the fundamentals of HTML and CSS, gaining the skills necessary to update content management systems, e-commerce stores, and more. The step-by-step instructions and practical examples empower you to create attractive, user-friendly web content with confidence.

Instead of overwhelming you with technical jargon, Jon Duckett highlights how these coding languages can make your websites more appealing and functional. You’ll discover how to structure web pages, control typography, layout designs, and prepare media elements like images, audio, and video.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites has received widespread acclaim and is a #1 bestseller in computer programming languages. The book’s 490 pages are packed with valuable insights, making it a comprehensive resource for anyone venturing into the world of web design.

Don’t worry if you’re unsure about delving into coding. Jon Duckett’s approach is beginner-friendly, providing clear explanations and engaging examples. As you progress through the book, you’ll develop a solid foundation in HTML and CSS that can be applied to various web projects. Whether you’re building websites from scratch or seeking to enhance existing sites, this book equips you with the necessary knowledge and skills.

Latest Edition: 2011

Ratings: 4.7/5 on Amazon, 4.3/5 on GoodReads

3. Murach’s HTML and CSS

Murach's HTML and CSS

Murach’s HTML and CSS is an invaluable resource for anyone looking to create visually stunning websites with a professional touch. Written by Anne Boehm and Zak Ruvalcaba, this book provides an in-depth guide to mastering the essential skills of HTML and CSS.

With its updated and improved content, the 5th Edition of Murach’s HTML and CSS is designed to make learning easier than ever before. The book is presented in full color, offering a visually engaging experience that enhances the learning process.

No matter your level of expertise, his book has something for everyone. It begins with the basics, covering the essential concepts of HTML and CSS, laying a strong foundation for website development. Moving forward, it explores more advanced topics such as responsive design, forms , video integration, and CSS animations.

What sets Murach’s HTML and CSS apart is its emphasis on usability and efficient deployment. Beyond teaching you how to create visually appealing websites, it underscores the significance of user-friendly design and effective deployment strategies. You’ll gain insights on developing websites that not only look good but also function seamlessly and cater to users’ needs.

Once you’ve mastered the HTML and CSS skills presented in the book, it becomes an invaluable on-the-job reference. Whether you need a quick reminder of a particular code snippet or a comprehensive guide to solving a web design challenge, this book has got you covered.

Authored by industry experts with years of experience, Anne Boehm and Zak Ruvalcaba, this book offers insights and techniques that are relevant to the current web development landscape. Their expertise and passion for the subject shine through, making Murach’s HTML and CSS an indispensable resource for web designers and developers.

In short, Murach’s HTML and CSS is a game changer for anyone looking to elevate their web design skills. From the basics to advanced concepts, this book provides a comprehensive and practical approach to mastering HTML and CSS.

Latest Edition: 2021

Ratings: 4.6/5 on Amazon, 4.8/5 on GoodReads

4. HTML and CSS QuickStart Guide

HTML & CSS QuickStart Guide

If you’re eager to master the fundamentals of web development and create awe-inspiring websites, the HTML and CSS QuickStart Guide is your go-to resource. Authored by David DuRocher, this guide is an excellent choice for beginners and aspiring web developers.

Unlock the power of HTML and CSS to bring your web design ideas to life. With this book, you’ll gain a strong coding foundation that will set you on the path to success in the dynamic world of web development. Unlike other complex technical guides, this book is written in a simplified manner, making it approachable for beginners without compromising on the depth of knowledge provided.

Why settle for templated websites and limited design options when you can create customized, responsive websites that stand out from the crowd? By mastering HTML and CSS, you’ll have the freedom to build websites that adapt seamlessly to different devices and screen sizes. No matter if you aspire to launch a business website, showcase your portfolio, or enhance your career prospects, this book will equip you with the necessary skills to achieve your ambitions.

Praised for its practical approach and ease of understanding, this book has received rave reviews from readers. Join the millions of web developers who have used this book to learn HTML and CSS, the fundamental building blocks of web design. With over 4 billion web pages online today utilizing HTML, it’s clear that mastery of these coding languages is essential for anyone venturing into the world of web development.

The HTML and CSS QuickStart Guide offers a hands-on learning experience with numerous examples and exercises that reinforce your understanding. As you progress through the book, you’ll gain confidence in your coding abilities and be able to create professional-looking websites.

Ratings: 4.5/5 on Amazon, 4.0/5 on GoodReads

5. Head First HTML and CSS

Head First HTML and CSS

Discover the power of creating stunning web pages with Head First HTML and CSS . Written by Elisabeth Robson and Eric Freeman, this book is a great resource designed for beginners seeking a practical journey into learning HTML and CSS.

Tired of slogging through HTML books that assume you’re already an expert? Head First HTML and CSS breaks the mold by providing a learner-friendly approach. Whether you’re building web pages for personal use or looking to communicate effectively with friends, family, fans, or customers, this guide will empower you to create standards-based web pages that work seamlessly across browsers and mobile devices.

In this book, you’ll go beyond surface-level knowledge and truly understand the secrets of web page creation. Say goodbye to outdated practices like using HTML tables and web-safe colors. Instead, delve into the real techniques that make modern web design stand out. From mastering HTML basics to gaining a deep understanding of CSS and its role in external style sheets, this book covers all the essential knowledge required to build impressive and functional web pages.

What sets Head First HTML and CSS apart is its unique approach to learning. With a visually-rich format that leverages modern research in learning theory, this book engages your brain and ensures that the concepts stick. You’ll find colorful graphics, diagrams, and examples on almost every page, making it easier than ever to grasp the core concepts and apply them in real-world scenarios.

Head First HTML and CSS isn’t just about memorizing code snippets or following step-by-step instructions. Its goal is to give you a solid understanding of HTML and CSS, empowering you to create visually appealing and technically sound web pages. Whether you’re a student, professional, or simply passionate about web development, this book will provide you with the skills to build your own impressive online presence.

Latest Edition: 2012

Ratings: 4.6/5 on Amazon, 4.3/5 on GoodReads

6. A Smarter Way to Learn HTML & CSS

A Smarter Way to Learn HTML & CSS

A Smarter Way to Learn HTML & CSS  by Mark Myers offers a more intelligent and effective way to learn HTML and CSS, enabling you to grasp these fundamental languages faster and retain the knowledge for longer.

Unlike traditional learning methods, this book follows an innovative learn-by-doing approach. It pairs short chapters with free interactive online exercises, allowing you to immediately apply what you’ve learned. By taking a hands-on approach, this book ensures that you grasp the core principles of HTML and CSS through practical exercises and real-world examples.

This book covers the basics in a beginner-friendly manner and also prepares you to build moderately complex websites. By emphasizing hands-on practice over excessive reading, you reinforce your understanding and remember the concepts more effectively.

Based on cognitive research, this approach maximizes your learning potential. Research has revealed a striking 400 percent increase in information retention when learners are actively engaged in retrieving the knowledge immediately after reading it. With this book, you’ll experience this effective learning technique firsthand.

The explanations are presented in plain, nontechnical English, making it accessible to individuals from all backgrounds. Mark Myers ensures that anyone, regardless of their prior knowledge, can readily understand and apply the concepts. The book is filled with ample coding examples and illustrations, enhancing your learning experience.

No matter if you’re starting from scratch or already an experienced developer, A Smarter Way to Learn HTML & CSS offers a comprehensive and engaging learning journey. By taking advantage of the interactive exercises and applying the learn-by-doing approach, you’ll build a solid foundation in HTML and CSS.

Latest Edition: 2015

7. New Perspectives on HTML 5 and CSS

New Perspectives on HTML and CSS

New Perspectives on HTML 5 and CSS by Patrick M. Carey equips you with the necessary skills to thrive in today’s high-tech workforce. Discover the power of HTML5 and CSS3 as you embark on a journey of real-world web design.

Build websites with confidence using the fundamental design concepts you’ll learn from this book. Through hands-on labs and engaging activities, you’ll strengthen your logic, design, troubleshooting, and creativity. Best of all, the projects you complete can be showcased in your professional portfolio, demonstrating your expertise to potential employers.

Short Coding Challenges and Debugging Challenges help you solidify your understanding of key concepts and sharpen your problem-solving skills. You’ll learn how to fix syntax errors in existing web pages and apply your knowledge in a professional environment. The educational integrated development environment (IDE) provided by MindTap offers immediate feedback and tutorials based on realistic case problems, ensuring that you refine your skills effectively.

New Perspectives on HTML5 and CSS equips you with the skills to master HTML5 and CSS3, empowering you to craft visually captivating and responsive websites. Stay ahead of the constantly evolving realm of web design and gain a competitive advantage in the dynamic high-tech job market .

Latest Edition: 2020

Ratings: 4.6/5 on Amazon, 4.0/5 on GoodReads

8. Basics of Web Design: HTML5 & CSS

Basic of Web Design: HTML5 & CSS

Basics of Web Design: HTML5 & CSS is a beginner guide in the world of web design and development. Whether you’re a budding web professional or looking to enhance your existing skills, this book provides a strong foundation and equips you with the essential knowledge to excel in this dynamic field.

Written by Terry Felke-Morris, an experienced author and web development expert, this 5th edition offers a balanced approach by covering both technical skills, such as HTML5 and CSS, and the creative aspects of web design.

One of the key strengths of Basics of Web Design is its emphasis on hands-on practice. Throughout the book, you’ll find numerous exercises and case studies that allow you to apply your learning in real-world scenarios. By working through these practical examples, you’ll develop the skills needed to create visually appealing and user-friendly websites.

In addition to HTML5 and CSS, this book explores essential topics like web graphics, publishing to the web, and web development. By providing a well-rounded education, Basics of Web Design ensures that you have a comprehensive understanding of the field, empowering you to pursue a successful career as a web professional.

Whether you’re taking an introductory web design course or self-studying, this book serves as your trusted companion. It covers the HTML5.2 elements and attributes, CSS properties, and responsive layout techniques. With updated code samples, web resources, and reference sections, you’ll have everything you need to stay up-to-date with industry standards.

With its comprehensive coverage, practical approach, and focus on building solid foundations, Basics of Web Design: HTML5 & CSS is the perfect resource for aspiring web designers and developers.

Latest Edition: 2019

Ratings: 4.4/5 on Amazon, 4.3/5 on GoodReads

9. HTML5 and CSS3 All-in-One For Dummies

HTML5 and CSS3 All-in-One For Dummies

If you’re looking to master the art of web development and create dynamic, effective, and unique websites, then HTML5 and CSS3 All-in-One For Dummies is a must-have. Packed with the updates and enhanced features of HTML5 and CSS3, this book equips you with the knowledge and skills to build websites that truly stand out.

Unlike other technical books, this user-friendly guide focuses on the benefits these technologies bring to your web development projects. With clear and concise explanations, you’ll quickly grasp the fundamentals of HTML5 and CSS3, enabling you to create visually stunning and interactive websites.

This book goes beyond the basics and shows you how to integrate HTML5 and CSS3 with JavaScript , MySQL, and Ajax. By combining these technologies, you’ll be able to develop websites that not only look great but also deliver superior functionality and user experiences. From building the foundation of HTML web pages to managing data with databases, this guide covers it all.

Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced developer, HTML5 and CSS3 All-in-One For Dummies caters to all skill levels. The step-by-step instructions and practical examples ensure that you can apply what you learn immediately. You’ll gain a deep understanding of web development concepts and techniques, allowing you to unleash your creativity and bring your website ideas to life.

Written by Andy Harris, an experienced author and lecturer in computer science, this book provides a comprehensive resource for anyone interested in web development.

Latest Edition: 2014

Ratings: 4.6/5 on Amazon, 4.2/5 on GoodReads

10. Web Design Playground: HTML & CSS the Interactive Way

Web Design Playground

Web Design Playground: HTML & CSS the Interactive Way by Paul McFedries is an engaging resource that will take you on an exciting journey into the world of web design. Whether you’re a beginner or have some experience, this book will equip you with the knowledge and skills to create captivating web pages using HTML and CSS.

With a focus on practical learning, Web Design Playground guides you step by step, starting from writing your very first line of HTML code. You’ll explore the foundations of web design and gradually progress to more advanced concepts. What sets this book apart is its interactive approach. You’ll have access to a custom online workspace, the companion Playground, which allows you to apply what you learn in real time.

Through the Playground, you’ll have the opportunity to design websites, create product pages, showcase photo galleries, and much more. It’s a hands-on experience that ensures you grasp the concepts and gain practical proficiency. The book’s project-based approach enables you to apply your newfound skills to real-world scenarios, fostering creativity and problem-solving abilities.

Web Design Playground doesn’t just focus on theory; it also provides you with valuable resources. When you purchase the print book, you’ll receive a free eBook in PDF, Kindle, and ePub formats from Manning Publications. This allows you to access the material on multiple devices and learn at your own convenience.

Authored by Paul McFedries, an experienced technical writer and web design expert, this book combines his deep knowledge of HTML and CSS with his passion for teaching. With nearly 100 books to his credit, Paul has a knack for presenting complex concepts in a clear and accessible manner.

Web Design Playground: HTML & CSS the Interactive Way has received praise for its engaging content and practical approach. Readers appreciate the book’s real-world examples, which make learning enjoyable and relevant. The well-crafted lessons, accompanied by the Playground exercises, offer a well-rounded learning experience.

Best Books for HTML and CSS: Conclusion

Congratulations on reaching the end of my list of the 10 best books for HTML and CSS in 2023! I hope you found this compilation helpful and inspiring as you embark on your journey to become a proficient web developer.

By delving into these carefully selected books, you’ll gain a solid foundation in HTML and CSS, enabling you to create well-designed, responsive, and user-friendly websites. Remember, continuous learning and practice are key to mastering these languages and staying up-to-date with the latest industry trends.

Whether you choose to start with HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites or prefer a more interactive approach with Web Design Playground , each book on this list offers unique insights and valuable knowledge. Explore the ones that resonate with you, experiment with the code examples, and apply what you learn to real-world projects.

Don’t forget to leverage online resources, coding communities, and practical exercises alongside your book reading. Engage in hands-on coding experiences, seek help from fellow developers, and stay curious about emerging technologies and best practices in the web development field.

Remember, Rome wasn’t built in a day, and neither will your mastery of HTML and CSS. Be patient, persistent, and enjoy the learning process. With time and practice, you’ll soon be crafting beautiful websites that leave a lasting impact.

So, grab a book, fire up your text editor, and let your creativity flow. The world of web development awaits, and with the knowledge gained from these top picks, you’ll be well on your way to becoming a proficient HTML and CSS developer.

Happy coding and best of luck on your web development journey!

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out of 10 books, which one is first preference

Hi Sudhanshu, I would highly recommend checking out the first book on this list: “Responsive Web Design with HTML5 and CSS” by Ben Frain. It provides comprehensive coverage of the latest updates in HTML and CSS, making it suitable for readers of all skill levels.

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html books for beginners pdf

Top 15 Best HTML/CSS Books in 2024 | Beginner to Pro

With legacies that date back to the early 1990s, it’s really impressive that in today's digital world, HTML/CSS books are still essential for anyone interested in learning about web development and design.

As the language of the Internet, HTML allows you to structure web content via elements, while learning CSS allows you to enhance the visual presentation of HTML elements, including customization via layouts, colors, and styles. 

By mastering HTML and CSS, you’ll be learning essential web development skills that are highly sought after by employers. And with average annual salaries exceeding $80K , learning HTML and CSS can be highly lucrative.

To help you on your learning journey, we’ve found the 15 best HTML/CSS books you need to read in 2024. Plus, with the constant evolution of web development, we’ve included a blend of evergreen resources and new releases to help you stay current.

So whether you’re an aspiring web developer that’s just starting out or a seasoned pro that wants to level up their CSS skills before trying out some of the best CSS frameworks , there’s something for you on this list. Let’s dive in!

  • Top 15 Best HTML/CSS Books in 2024

1. HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites

HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites

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Why we chose this book

When looking for the best books on HTML and CSS, our research showed this to be the #1 best seller for CSS programming on Amazon. This is unsurprising as the content is simple and engaging, with lots of infographics and high-quality photos, making it ideal for visual learners.

We should point out that while this is one of the older books on our list, the content is as relevant today as ever. It’s also a great way to refresh your CSS skills when preparing for CSS interview questions.

Expect to begin with an introduction to how the web works before diving into HTML topics like structure, lists, links, images, tables, forms, and more. The CSS sections of the book cover topics such as color, tables and forms, layout, images, and more. 

Overall, the explanations are concise and clear, with many code examples, not to mention a download link for all the code examples. Plus, you benefit from having an author with more than 15 years of professional experience working on web and mobile projects for companies like Phillips, Nike, and Xerox.

  • #1 best seller in CSS programming
  • Includes many infographics for visual learners
  • Concise and clear explanations
  • Includes download link for code snippets

2. HTML & CSS QuickStart Guide

HTML & CSS QuickStart Guide

As one of the best books for HTML and CSS, this is also the top seller for XHTML programming on Amazon. Based on our observations, this book’s popularity is well-deserved as it offers a well-organized and visually-rich learning experience featuring numerous examples and practice assignments.

Readers can expect comprehensive coverage of HTML and CSS topics, including HTML elements, typography, incorporating multimedia, the CSS box model, tables and lists, and responsive design. The book presents these concepts in a structured manner, allowing readers to progress smoothly through the material.

One notable advantage of purchasing this book is the accompanying lifetime access to valuable digital assets. This includes a website project for hands-on practice, a GitHub code repository for further exploration, cheat sheets for reference, and more..

  • #1 best seller in XHTML Software Programming Computer
  • Ranked #2 best seller in CSS programming
  • Includes many practice exercises

3. HTML and CSS: The Comprehensive Guide

HTML and CSS: The Comprehensive Guide

Ranked as the #1 new release in CSS programming on Amazon, expect to start with the basics of HTML syntax and document structure before covering semantic HTML, tables, hyperlinks, forms, interactive elements, and more. 

When you get to this book’s CSS section, the author begins with a concise history of CSS before covering the different types of CSS . He also explores essential topics like selectors, the box model, positioning, and responsive design using Flexbox and Grid. 

The inclusion of a section on the SASS (Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets) and SCSS (Sassy CSS) CSS preprocessors also demonstrates the author's dedication to equipping you with practical and efficient tools for CSS development. This is a solid option if you want the best book for HTML and CSS in 2024.

Near the end of the book, the author introduces you to JavaScript to provide a well-rounded learning experience for modern web development. Expect to learn about the Document Object Model (DOM), arrays, functions, objects, and more. This JavaScript intro complements your newly gained HTML and CSS knowledge, empowering you to create interactive and dynamic web experiences.

  • Ranked #1 new release in CSS programming
  • Includes a section on CSS preprocessors
  • Covers the latest features in HTML and CSS
  • Includes a brief introduction to JavaScript

4. Head First HTML and CSS

Head First HTML and CSS

This excellent option follows the trademark of the “Head First” series, presenting concepts in a visually rich and interactive manner. And while it was published a while back, the evergreen content is highly relevant for HTML and CSS beginners, making it a strong contender for the title of the best book for learning HTML.

Our findings show that the content is presented in a reader-friendly manner with plenty of illustrations, diagrams, and real-world examples, making it more appealing to visual learners who appreciate a more immersive learning approach.

The authors cover the basics of HTML and CSS, teaching you how to create web pages and style them effectively. They also provide hands-on exercises, quizzes, and puzzles to help reinforce the concepts learned.

Expect to cover topics like layout, typography, colors, backgrounds, and working with tables and forms. This book also includes a brief history of the evolution of HTML/CSS.

At the end of the book, the authors also point readers to a range of resources that you can use to continue your web development journey, which is a nice touch. 

  • Comprehensive introduction to HTML/CSS
  • Engaging and visually rich learning experience
  • Numerous code examples
  • Brief history of HTML/CSS

5. Get Coding!

Get Coding!

This is one of the best HTML CSS books for younger learners that want to learn web development, as it takes a hands-on approach to guide you through the fascinating world of HTML and CSS with engaging activities and clear instructions.

One of its strengths is its ability to break down complex concepts into digestible chunks, making them accessible to kids.

The book begins by introducing the basics of HTML, teaching you how to structure a webpage, and adding headings, paragraphs, and images. It then seamlessly transitions to CSS, demonstrating how to enhance the look and feel of web content by applying styles and creating beautiful layouts.

Throughout the book, colorful illustrations and vibrant examples bring the content to life and help capture the attention of younger readers. It also includes fun projects, like designing a web page or making a game, to foster creativity and encourage experimentation. 

The interactive nature of the book also allows you to immediately apply what you've learned, reinforcing your understanding through practical exercises. This book also emphasizes the importance of good coding practices and provides helpful tips throughout.

  • Hands-on approach to learning HTML and CSS
  • Colorful illustrations and examples
  • Encourages creativity through fun projects
  • Breaks down complex topics into digestible chunks

6. CSS in Depth

CSS in Depth

Based on our observations, this is one of the best CSS books for readers who want to deepen their understanding of CSS concepts and techniques.

We should point out that this book is not suitable for complete beginners as the author assumes readers already have basic knowledge of HTML/CSS.

The book begins with an overview of basic concepts like specificity, inheritance, relative units, and the box model. 

The next section focuses on mastering layouts, including responsive design, floats, and modern CSS features like Flexbox and Grid. Other topics covered in depth in this book include typography, animations, transitions, transforms, color, and more.

  • Requires basic knowledge of HTML/CSS
  • Includes a video course companion
  • Learn CSS best practices

7. Responsive Web Design with HTML5 and CSS

Responsive Web Design with HTML5 and CSS

This is ideal for front-end developers who want to improve their skills in responsive web design. Going through this book, you can expect to learn valuable skills to create aesthetically appealing web applications, as each chapter includes hands-on coding exercises to practice what you’ve learned.

Expect to learn the essentials of responsive web design, writing HTML markup, media queries, CSS Grid, Flexbox, animations, SVG, forms, and more.

The latest (fourth) edition of this book also covers the latest developments in responsive web design, including CSS functions, CSS layers, container queries, and nesting, making it one of the best books on CSS and HTML for modern web development.

Uniquely, this book also focuses on web accessibility, with the author adding a section to discuss Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). This is a great way to up your UX and UI game!

  • Requires working knowledge of HTML/CSS
  • Learn the latest cutting-edge CSS features
  • Deep dive into responsive web design
  • Includes sections on web accessibility

8. Murach's HTML5 and CSS3

Murach's HTML5 and CSS3

This HTML book for beginners provides a comprehensive introduction to HTML and CSS, including fundamental concepts, syntax, and best practices. 

Made up of two main parts, the first section of this book is dedicated to teaching readers how to build websites with HTML and CSS from scratch. Some topics covered in this section are HTML elements, the CSS box model, and media queries.

The second section includes CSS Grid and Flexbox, working with forms and data validation, CSS3 transforms, transitions, animations, and website deployment.

Our team also discovered that the book has companion files available for download from Murach’s website. To get the most out of this book, we recommend you download the companion files and go through further examples and exercises.

  • Covers the latest features in HTML5 and CSS3
  • Suitable to use as a reference book
  • Learn how to deploy a website
  • Includes sections on using CSS frameworks

9. HTML, CSS & JavaScript in Easy Steps

HTML, CSS & JavaScript in Easy Steps

This is an excellent HTML book for beginners as it contains many coding challenges and exercises for readers to practice what they learn. Based on our observations, if you prefer hands-on learning, you will find this book really useful.

At nearly 500 pages in length, this book covers topics such as structuring web pages with HTML, managing text content, lists and tables, forms, the CSS box model, responsive design, and more.

Another benefit of this book is that it includes lessons on fundamental JavaScript concepts. Of course, we’re focusing on the best HTML/CSS books, but many developers gravitate towards learning JavaScript when they’ve mastered HTML and CSS. 

  • Step-by-step approach
  • Hands-on examples 
  • Includes many screenshots and diagrams
  • Includes lessons on JavaScript

10. HTML, CSS, JavaScript All in One

HTML, CSS, JavaScript All in One

At 800 pages long, this HTML book offers a comprehensive guide for beginners that want to dive into web development. It even starts with a detailed overview of how the web functions and how HTML, CSS, and JavaScript work together. 

Our findings show that the lessons in the book are presented in a thorough, step-by-step manner, guiding readers through the basics of building web applications. The content covers various essential topics, including responsive web design, multimedia integration, forms, tables, navigation, and more.

While the book excels at catering to beginners with its in-depth explanations of basic concepts, its well-structured approach and practical examples make it a valuable resource for advanced learners.

  • In-depth explanation of concepts
  • Detailed overview of how the web works
  • Thorough, step-by-step lessons
  • Comprehensive guide for beginners

11. Web Design Playground: HTML & CSS the Interactive Way

Web Design Playground: HTML & CSS the Interactive Way

This HTML and CSS book offers a unique and interactive learning experience for aspiring web designers, as it is supplied with a companion playground. This online workspace allows readers to dive into creating web applications without hassle.

Based on our observations, what sets this book apart is its focus on practical application. You'll start from the basics, learning HTML, CSS, and web page design, and then progressively build your skills through hands-on projects.

By the end of the book, you will have worked on 4 projects, including a personal homepage, a landing page, a photo gallery, and a portfolio page.

This book also covers topics like HTML and CSS fundamentals, working with images, color, and fonts, page layout techniques including Flexbox, responsive design principles, and more.

Drawing from our experience, we know this focus on project-based learning and the interactive workspace will equip you with the requisite skills to create attractive and responsive web pages.

  • Project-based learning approach
  • Companion playground for interactive practice
  • Clear explanations and full-color illustrations
  • Covers HTML, CSS, and web design fundamentals

12. Basics of Web Design: HTML5 & CSS

Basics of Web Design: HTML5 & CSS

The book covers topics starting from the basics of HTML and CSS and progressing towards more advanced concepts like navigation design, CSS Grid and Flexbox, media queries, and incorporating media and interactivity in web development.

This book also features lessons on other crucial topics like file organization, domain name registration, web hosting, secure sockets layer (SSL), search engine optimization (SEO), and accessibility testing.

These topics can further enhance your understanding of the broader web development landscape, ensuring a well-rounded knowledge base.

Our analysis of the book also revealed that each chapter concludes with a "review and apply" section, summarizing the key concepts covered and offering exercises for practice. This feature reinforces learning and allows readers to actively engage with the material, solidifying their understanding and practical skills.

  • Well-rounded web development knowledge base
  • “Review and apply” sections for reinforcement and practice
  • Learn web publishing basics

13. HTML and CSS: Visual QuickStart Guide

HTML and CSS: Visual QuickStart Guide

This is a great book to learn the ins and out of writing meaningful and well-structured HTML documents, including maintainable CSS code. 

We also discovered that the author employs visual aids, screenshots, and code examples to enhance the learning experience and make it more engaging. You also get access to an online version, which features supplementary videos, catering to those who prefer a visual learning approach.

Some of the topics covered in this book include HTML tags, CSS selectors, layout and positioning, styling text and images, creating forms, and establishing links. Our findings also show that it goes beyond the fundamentals, with sections on vital aspects of modern web development, such as performance optimization and accessibility. 

You’ll even explore concepts like version control and JavaScript libraries , providing a well-rounded understanding of the modern web development ecosystem.

  • Online version with supplementary videos
  • Includes many visual aids and screenshots
  • Covers performance, accessibility, and version control
  • Learn how to deploy websites

14. CSS Pocket Reference

CSS Pocket Reference

Coming in at only 200 or so pages long, this may be the best CSS book for web developers and designers that want a concise and comprehensive guide to CSS.

One of this book's standout features is its organization and clarity, allowing you to quickly find the specific information you require. A great example is the way that Meyer presents CSS properties and selectors, as this is well-structured and easy to follow. 

Based on our observations, this pocket reference covers many CSS topics, from fundamentals like style precedence and positioning to advanced techniques like pseudo-elements and media queries. Practical examples and syntax references also accompany each topic. Overall, this book’s explanations are concise yet thorough, providing a solid understanding of each concept.

  • Concise and comprehensive CSS reference guide
  • Portable and easily accessible format
  • Well-organized content for quick navigation

15. Learning Web Design

Learning Web Design

This HTML/CSS book offers a comprehensive exploration of modern web development technologies and principles by covering the essential topics that readers need for structuring web pages with HTML, including typography, links, images, and forms.

You’ll also delve into the art of styling web pages using CSS via essential concepts like layouts, the box model, colors, backgrounds, and even animations.

Throughout the book, each chapter presents exercises and short quizzes to reinforce understanding and provide practice opportunities. The fifth edition of the book keeps readers up to date with the latest features of CSS, such as Flexbox and Grid.

This book even has informative sections on important tools in web development like the command line, Git, and other modern tools. The author also explores the integration of JavaScript to add interactivity to web pages.

By emphasizing current best practices and industry standards, the book ensures that you gain valuable insights into designing websites that are modern, user-friendly, and accessible across various devices.

  • Covers CSS Grid and Flexbox in-depth
  • Has lessons on the command line and Git
  • Includes exercises and short quizzes
  • Learn best practices and industry standards
  • How to Choose the Best HTML and CSS Books in 2024?

The community regularly submits tutorials and learning resources for HTML and CSS, which our editorial team rigorously evaluates for recommendations. We also considered the following while researching the best book to learn HTML and CSS:

Author’s credentials: We found authors with extensive experience in HTML and CSS and related fields. Our evaluations ensure that they have the necessary expertise to provide you with the knowledge you need.

Level of experience: Choose a book that aligns with your skill level. If you’re just starting out, look for beginner-friendly books. And if you’re an experienced web developer, a more advanced book might be a better fit. Our evaluation included books for all skill levels.

Reviews from previous readers: We evaluated first-person reviews from our community and from sites like Amazon. This provides valuable insights into the book’s strengths and weaknesses.

Preferred learning style: Some books are more hands-on with practical examples, while others take a more theoretical approach. Choose a book that matches your preferred style of learning.

  • Final Thoughts

As two of the original languages of the Internet, HTML and CSS are still essential skills for modern web development in 2024. One of the best ways to learn these essential web development skills is to look for some of the best books for CSS and HTML.

To help you find the right learning resources for your needs, this article has covered the 15 best HTML/CSS books you need to read in 2024. So whether you’re brand new to web development or an experienced dev that wants to enhance their skills, we’ve got you covered!

Want to take your CSS skills to new heights? Check out

The Difference between CSS, CSS2, and CSS3

  • Frequently Asked Questions

1. Can I Learn HTML From a Book?

Yes, you can learn from HTML coding books. We’ve included some of the best books to learn HTML in this article for all skill levels, so look at these. We’d also recommend building some of the best HTML projects to reinforce and apply what you learn from HTML and CSS books.

2. Is HTML Better Than Python?

HTML and Python are very different languages with different purposes. HTML is a markup language used for structuring and presenting web content, while Python is a high-level programming language for developing applications and performing various other tasks, especially data-driven tasks like data science and analytics.

3. Is HTML Easy or Hard?

Generally speaking, HTML is considered one of the easiest languages to learn, especially for beginners, as it focuses on structuring web content rather than complex programming logic. That said, it does take time and practice to master advanced concepts and create more complex web pages.

4. What Should I Learn First, HTML or CSS?

We’d recommend starting with HTML since this forms the foundation of web development by defining the structure and content of a webpage. Once you have those skills, CSS is useful for styling and visually enhancing your HTML elements. If you need help getting started, this article covers 15 of the best books for CSS and HTML.

5. Which Is Better, HTML or CSS?

HTML and CSS are used for different, albeit complementary, purposes in web development. HTML provides the structure and content of a webpage, while CSS is used for styling and visual presentation. So it's not a question of one being better as they serve complementary roles in creating well-designed websites.

6. How Can I Strengthen My CSS Skills?

The best way to strengthen your CSS skills is to practice regularly by building different web layouts, experimenting with CSS properties, and exploring resources like online tutorials, documentation, and CSS-related projects.

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The Absolute Beginner's Guide to HTML and CSS

A Step-by-Step Guide with Examples and Lab Exercises

  • Kevin Wilson 0

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Learn how to use HTML and CSS to build fully functional web pages

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Table of contents (9 chapters)

Front matter, getting started.

Kevin Wilson

Introduction to HTML

Getting started with html, cascading style sheets, special effects, introduction to javascript, content management systems, back matter.

Written as an illustrated, step-by-step guide for beginners, this book will introduce you to HTML and CSS with lab exercises and examples of code.

You'll begin by setting up the development environment such as local web server and html editor. The next few chapters cover web servers, the basics of HTML such as language syntax, tags, and how to write a program. Next, you'll learn how to put together simple web pages demonstrating how the code works and how to use various HTML tags and CSS to style the pages. Finally, the use of CMS to build websites such as Drupal and WordPress and how HTML and CSS fits in. At the end there are reference libraries for both HTML tags and CSS.

The Absolute Beginners Guide to HTML and CSS provides you with the tools, confidence, and inspiration to start building web pages and websites. If you are a programmer, developer or a student, or just someone who wants to learn on their own, this book is for you.

What You'll Learn

  • Understand basic computer programming concepts
  • See how to use HTML and CSS to build web pages
  • Apply the syntax of HTML and CSS
  • See how HTML and CSS fits into CMS systems such as Drupal and WordPress

Who This Book Is For  

Software programmers, developers, students, and anyone who wants a quick reference for HTML and CSS

  • web page layouts
  • style sheets

Book Title : The Absolute Beginner's Guide to HTML and CSS

Book Subtitle : A Step-by-Step Guide with Examples and Lab Exercises

Authors : Kevin Wilson


Publisher : Apress Berkeley, CA

eBook Packages : Professional and Applied Computing , Professional and Applied Computing (R0) , Apress Access Books

Copyright Information : Kevin Wilson 2023

Softcover ISBN : 978-1-4842-9249-5 Published: 08 April 2023

eBook ISBN : 978-1-4842-9250-1 Published: 07 April 2023

Edition Number : 1

Number of Pages : XIII, 240

Number of Illustrations : 179 b/w illustrations

Topics : Web Development , Programming Techniques , User Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction

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10+ Free HTML and CSS Books in PDF Format


By Faraz - January 03, 2024

Discover the top 10+ free HTML and CSS books in PDF format that will supercharge your web development journey. Dive into these valuable resources and elevate your coding skills today!

10+ Free HTML and CSS Books in PDF Format.webp

Table of Contents

Introduction, the importance of html and css.

  • HTML & CSS: The Complete Reference, Fifth Edition
  • HTML & CSS: Design and Build Websites
  • Sams Teach Yourself HTML, CSS, and JavaScript All in One
  • Head First HTML and CSS
  • HTML: A Beginner’s Guide, Fourth Edition
  • HTML Tutorials Point
  • HTML5 Notes for Professionals
  • CSS Notes for Professionals
  • How To Build a Website with HTML
  • CSS: The Definitive Guide
  • CSS in Depth
  • CSS Handbook

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Embarking on a journey to master web development requires the right learning materials. In this article, we present a curated list of 10+ free HTML and CSS books available in PDF format. Whether you're a beginner or an experienced coder, these resources will empower you with the knowledge needed to create stunning and responsive websites. Let's delve into the world of web development together!

HTML and CSS form the backbone of web development, playing a pivotal role in creating visually appealing and functional websites. Understanding their significance is crucial for any aspiring or seasoned web developer.

Key Features of HTML

HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, is the foundation of web content. Learn about its key features, including its structure, and elements, and how it enhances the overall user experience.

Key Features of CSS

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) dictate the presentation and layout of web pages. Explore the essential features of CSS, such as styling, responsiveness, and the magic it brings to the visual aspects of a website.

1. HTML and CSS: The Complete Reference, Fifth Edition

HTML and CSS: The Complete Reference, Fifth Edition

HTML and CSS: The Complete Reference, Fifth Edition by Thomas A. Powell is an authoritative and comprehensive guide for web developers and designers. In this latest edition, Powell delves into the intricacies of HTML and CSS, providing a wealth of information for both beginners and experienced professionals. The book covers the latest standards and best practices, offering a thorough understanding of the fundamentals and advanced concepts in web development. Powell's clear explanations, practical examples, and detailed insights make this reference an indispensable tool for anyone looking to master HTML and CSS. Whether you're building your first website or seeking to refine your skills, this fifth edition is an invaluable resource that covers the full spectrum of HTML and CSS topics.

2. HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites

HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites

HTML and CSS: Design and Build Websites by Jon Duckett is a visually engaging and user-friendly guide that takes readers on a journey through the essentials of web development. With its beautifully designed pages and clear explanations, this book is a perfect companion for beginners and those looking to enhance their HTML and CSS skills. Jon Duckett's unique approach combines visual learning with practical insights, making complex concepts accessible to readers of all levels. Whether you're a novice in web design or looking to refine your coding abilities, this book provides a solid foundation in HTML and CSS. Dive into the world of website creation with Jon Duckett's beautifully crafted guide, where learning is both informative and visually captivating.

3. Sams Teach Yourself HTML, CSS, and JavaScript All in One

Sams Teach Yourself HTML, CSS, and JavaScript All in One

Sams Teach Yourself HTML, CSS, and JavaScript All in One by Julie C. Meloni is a comprehensive and practical guide for individuals eager to learn the core technologies of web development. In this book, Julie C. Meloni skillfully navigates through HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, offering a well-structured and hands-on approach for beginners and intermediate learners alike. The content is presented in a clear, concise manner, with real-world examples and exercises that reinforce understanding. Whether you're starting from scratch or looking to expand your web development skills, this book is an invaluable resource, providing a solid foundation in HTML, CSS, and JavaScript—all in one convenient package.

4. Head First HTML and CSS

Head First HTML and CSS

Head First HTML and CSS by Elisabeth Robson and Eric Freeman is a dynamic and brain-friendly guide designed to make learning HTML and CSS an engaging and memorable experience. With its visually rich format, interactive exercises, and witty approach, this book caters to beginners and those looking to solidify their understanding of web development. Elisabeth Robson and Eric Freeman leverage the Head First series' unique style to break down complex concepts into digestible chunks, making it easier for readers to grasp the fundamentals of HTML and CSS. Whether you're a visual learner or someone looking for an enjoyable introduction to web design, this book provides a refreshing and effective learning experience.

5. HTML: A Beginner’s Guide, Fourth Edition

HTML: A Beginner’s Guide, Fourth Edition

HTML: A Beginner’s Guide, Fourth Edition by Wendy Willard is an invaluable resource for those diving into the world of web development. This comprehensive book offers a step-by-step approach to learning HTML, making it accessible for beginners while providing in-depth insights for those looking to enhance their skills. Wendy Willard, an experienced educator, simplifies the complexities of HTML, offering clear explanations, practical examples, and hands-on exercises. Whether you're new to coding or aiming to refine your web development expertise, this fourth edition is a must-have guide, ensuring a solid foundation in HTML. Dive into the world of web design with confidence, thanks to Wendy Willard's expert guidance.

6. HTML Tutorials Point

HTML Tutorials Point

HTML Tutorials Point by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd offers a comprehensive and user-friendly tutorial for learning HTML. Developed by Tutorials Point, a trusted name in online education, this resource serves as an effective guide for individuals aiming to grasp the fundamentals of HTML. The tutorial covers a wide range of topics, providing step-by-step instructions, examples, and practical insights to help learners build a strong foundation in HTML. Whether you are a beginner in web development or seeking to enhance your skills, Tutorials Point's HTML tutorial offers a structured and accessible approach to mastering this essential language for creating web pages.

7. HTML5 Notes for Professionals

HTML5 Notes for Professionals

HTML5 Notes for Professionals by is a concise and practical resource that caters to both beginners and experienced developers seeking valuable insights into HTML5. This book, compiled by, offers a compilation of notes, tips, and examples to help readers master HTML5 efficiently. The content is presented in a clear and straightforward manner, making it an ideal reference for quick learning and problem-solving. Whether you're building your first website or exploring advanced features of HTML5, this resource serves as a handy companion for anyone looking to enhance their skills in web development.

8. CSS Notes for Professionals

CSS Notes for Professionals

CSS Notes for Professionals by is a concise and informative guide designed to assist both beginners and seasoned developers in mastering Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). Compiled by, this resource offers a collection of notes, tips, and examples to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of CSS. The content is presented in a user-friendly format, making it a valuable quick-reference tool for solving CSS-related challenges. Whether you're just starting with web design or seeking to refine your CSS skills, this guide provides a practical and efficient resource to enhance your knowledge and proficiency in styling web pages.

9. How To Build a Website with HTML

How To Build a Website with HTML

How To Build a Website with HTML by Erin Glass is a beginner-friendly guide that empowers readers to create their own websites using HTML. Erin Glass provides clear, step-by-step instructions and practical examples to demystify the process of web development. Whether you're new to coding or looking to strengthen your HTML skills, this guide offers a straightforward approach, making it accessible for individuals with varying levels of expertise. Dive into the world of web design with Erin Glass's guidance and build your own website from the ground up using HTML.

10. CSS: The Definitive Guide

CSS: The Definitive Guide

CSS: The Definitive Guide by Eric A. Meyer and Estelle Weyl is an authoritative and comprehensive resource for web developers seeking a deep understanding of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). In this book, Eric A. Meyer and Estelle Weyl provide a detailed exploration of CSS properties, selectors, and techniques, offering insights into both the fundamentals and advanced features of styling web content. The authors' expertise and clarity make this guide invaluable for both beginners and experienced developers looking to enhance their CSS skills. Whether you're aiming to create visually stunning websites or troubleshoot styling issues, this definitive guide serves as an indispensable reference for mastering the intricacies of CSS.

11. CSS in Depth

CSS in Depth

CSS in Depth by Keith J. Grant is a comprehensive and insightful guide that delves deep into the world of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). With a focus on practical applications and real-world examples, Keith J. Grant provides readers with an in-depth understanding of CSS concepts, techniques, and best practices. Whether you're a beginner looking to build a solid foundation or an experienced developer seeking to refine your CSS skills, this book offers a detailed exploration of styling web content. With Keith J. Grant's expertise, CSS in Depth is a valuable resource for anyone aiming to master the intricacies of modern web design and layout.

12. CSS Handbook

CSS Handbook

The CSS Handbook by Flavio is a concise and user-friendly guide that provides valuable insights into Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). Flavio's handbook is crafted to be an accessible resource for both beginners and experienced developers looking to enhance their understanding of CSS. With clear explanations, practical examples, and a focus on real-world applications, this handbook serves as a handy reference for styling web content. Whether you're embarking on your journey in web development or seeking to streamline your CSS skills, Flavio's CSS Handbook is a helpful companion offering practical tips and guidance to navigate the intricacies of modern web styling.

Empower yourself with the knowledge and skills needed to excel in web development by exploring these 10+ free HTML and CSS books in PDF format. Whether you're a beginner or an experienced coder, this curated list ensures you have the right resources at your fingertips.

Q1. Are these books suitable for beginners in web development?

A1. Yes, many of the suggested books cater to beginners, offering step-by-step guidance and hands-on exercises to build a strong foundation in HTML and CSS.

Q2. How often should I update my knowledge with the latest HTML and CSS trends?

A2. Regular updates are beneficial. Aim for quarterly check-ins to stay informed about emerging trends.

Q3. Are there any books specifically focused on responsive design for mobile devices?

A3. Yes, we've included PDF books specializing in responsive design for various devices.

Q4. Can I use these resources for self-paced learning?

A4. Certainly! Most of these books are designed for self-paced learning, allowing you to progress at your own speed.

Q5. What is the future outlook for web developers with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript skills?

A5. The demand is high! As technology evolves, skilled developers in HTML, CSS, and JavaScript will continue to be sought after in various industries.

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Books on Code

7 Best Books on HTML & CSS for Beginners in 2023

With HTML and CSS alone, you can start a career building static web pages from designs.

With HTML and CSS alone, you can start a career building static web pages from designs.

HTML is the foundation of all web pages.

HTML defines the structure of a page, while CSS defines its style. HTML and CSS are the beginning of everything you need to know to make your first web page!

We can say that HTML allows you to build the structure of your website and CSS makes that structure come to life.

In this article, we have put the spotlight on the best books for learning HTML and CSS through a collection of book reviews. Each book review will highlight the taste of the book, the contents covered, and how it can benefit you. 

Why Learn HTML & CSS?

Equipping yourself with HTML and CSS skills is helpful in almost all professions. Regardless of what your job is, we’ve got a few reasons why you should learn HTML and CSS. 

Easy to learn : HTML and CSS are some of the easiest scripting languages to learn. You don’t need a degree in computer science to get started. HTML and CSS offer simple sets of rules that define how to code and make the learning curve for mastery relatively easy.

Quick Career Change: With just HTML and CSS skills, you can offer service on Fiverr or Upwork and build your professional portfolio quickly.

Building blocks of websites : HTML and CSS are the building blocks of all websites. These are both used and supported widely by browsers.

Build your confidence and craft a new career : HTML and CSS currently power the internet. All big companies like Netflix, Google, and Facebook use HTML and CSS. So, you will have no trouble finding a company that can utilize your skills.

Learn other languages with greater ease: Having a handle on the fundamentals is foundational for learning other web languages like JavaScript , PHP , and GraphQL .

Additional income source : Upskilling yourself with HTML & CSS can provide you with an additional source of income. You can freelance your HTML & CSS services to individuals and build your portfolio and your confidence.

Become a front-end engineer: Solid HTML & CSS is foundational to a career as a front-end web developer .

What Makes Best HTML & CSS Books? 

Here are our criteria for the selection of the books:

The book should contain a variety of instructional materials, including exercises, examples, questions, learning activities, and other features that promote the reader's engagement and active learning.

It uses clear, precise, and easy-to-understand language.

Content must be up-to-date and should thoroughly teach and explain the basic concepts of HTML and CSS.

Contain assignments for practice and hands-on experience.

The book should have a clear layout and strictly focus on HTML and CSS.

Best Books on HTML & CSS

Here are some of the best books on HTML and CSS:

1. Best book for foundations: Head First HTML and CSS

html books for beginners pdf

While Head First HTML and CSS is an older title, published in 2012, it is still hands-down one of the best foundational books for learning HTML and CSS. If you want to learn not just the ‘how’ but the ‘why,’ this book helps you establish a solid foundation that kicks off your entire career.

This is a true beginner book. After you walk through everything this book offers, you will want to brush up on the modern HTML concepts that have occurred over the past decade. And, of course, you will want to practice.

I love this book because it was the book that got me started; I read it cover to cover because it was just fun, and I dreamed about making this work my career.

In other words, this book changed my life. I talk more about this book’s life-changing properties in this article.

This Head First book is packed with fun scenarios and games where you write directly into the book.

Some of the contents in this book include:

Creating an HTML page

Designing and constructing a web page

Using domain names, FTP, and HTTP

Incorporating media into your web pages

Styling web pages

Using the box model

Advanced web construction, positioning, and layouts

Tables, lists, and forms

If you are intrigued by the idea of doing crossword puzzles and fill-in-the-blank exercises as well as hands-on constructing structurally sound web pages, this book is for you.

2. Best book for getting started: HTML and CSS QuickStart Guide

html books for beginners pdf

HTML and CSS QuickStart Guide by David DuRocher covers all of the core HTML and CSS fundamentals you need to know in one place. The book covers HTML tags, CSS elements, CSS styling, and exactly how to fit the pieces together. 

The author has a unique and engaging approach to teach HTML and CSS principles. It moves from overviews of HTML and CSS to deeper, hands-on advice for creating websites. All topics are supported with abundant visual examples and a practical hands-on project! It is a great book for those learning to code and build websites.

Here's what you will learn from the book:

Modern Web Design Fundamentals : The book teaches how to use the powerful combination of HTML5 and CSS3 to build functional and responsive web pages.

Site Structure and Responsive Design Principles : The book teaches how to format HTML and CSS markup to produce attractive websites and web pages that look great on any browser and any device.

Breathing Life Into Your Projects : The book teaches how to incorporate forms, multimedia elements, special characters, and more into your web projects

Correct Markup Best Practices : It teaches how to efficiently use CSS and HTML together to produce clean, professional HTML documents using industry-standard tools such as GitHub

HTML and CSS for Beginners : It teaches formatting, sizing, fonts, images, multimedia, forms, sprites, and gradients to make your website. The book helps you in testing, debugging, and keeping your site’s code up to date. 

This comprehensive, actionable, and easy to read book is tailored specifically for beginners. It is a great reference book for those learning to code and build websites.

3. Best book for kids: Get Coding!

html books for beginners pdf

Get Coding!: Learn HTML, CSS & JavaScript & Build a Website, App & Game by Young Rewired State is an essential guide and a great introduction to computer programming for kids. It will help them to develop key programming skills for the future.

The book includes six exciting missions explained through simple step-by-step instructions to learn the basic concepts of coding. The reader will be helping Professor Bairstone, Dr. Day, and Ernest to keep the Monk Diamond safe from a gang of dangerous jewel thieves. 

Mission 1: Build A Web Page

Mission 2: Create A Password

Mission 3: Build An App

Mission 4: Plan A Route

Mission 5: Make A Game

Mission 6: Your Finished Website

The book’s hands-on approach lets readers learn the basics of coding while seeing real-time results. This educational book is one that kids will enjoy picking up, reading, then referring back to.

Other books you may be interested in:

4. Best book for beginners: Learning Web Design: A Beginner's Guide to HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and Web Graphics

html books for beginners pdf

Learning Web Design by Jennifer Robbins is your first stop for learning how to make web pages. It is a complete introductory-level course in web design and production. 

The book is divided into five parts and 25 chapters. Each chapter provides hands-on exercises to help you learn various techniques and short quizzes to make sure you understand key concepts.

PART I. Getting Started

Chapter 1 helps you to get started in Web Design

Chapter 2 discusses how the Web Works

Chapter 3 talks about some big concepts you need to know

PART II. HTML For Structure

Chapter 4 talks about creating a Simple Page

Chapter 5 covers Marking Up Text

Chapter 6 talks about Adding Links

Chapter 7 talks about Adding Images

Chapter 8 covers Table Markup

Chapter 9 covers Forms

Chapter 10 covers Embedded Media

PART III. CSS For Presentation

Chapter 11 introduces Cascading Style Sheets

Chapter 12 covers Formatting Text

Chapter 13 covers Colors and Backgrounds

Chapter 14 guides you ti think inside the box

Chapter 15 covers Floating and Positioning

Chapter 16 covers CSS Layout with Flexbox and Grid

Chapter 17 covers Responsive Web Design

Chapter 18 covers Transitions, Transforms, and Animation

Chapter 19 talks about more CSS Techniques

Chapter 20 covers modern Web Development Tools

PART IV. Javascript For Behavior

Chapter 21 gives the introduction to JavaScript

Chapter 22 talks about using JavaScript

PART V. Web Images

Chapter 23 covers Web Image Basics

Chapter 24 covers Image Asset Production

Chapter 25 talks about SVG

Online materials are provided through a companion website to work along with the book. By the end of the book, you’ll have the skills to create a simple multi-column site that works on all screen sizes. It is an absolute beginner book and a good reference for those who are acquainted. 

5. Best book for step-by-step learners: HTML, CSS, and JavaScript All in One, Sams Teach Yourself

html books for beginners pdf

Teach Yourself HTML, CSS, and JavaScript All in One by Julie Meloni and Jennifer Kyrnin combines these three fundamental web development technologies into one clearly written, carefully organized, step-by-step tutorial.

It is an all-in-one book that offers a detailed understanding, concepts, practical examples, and best practices of HTML5, CSS3 including jQuery.

The book is divided into six parts and twenty-eight lessons. They are well designed and simple to understand and will make it almost effortless for you to understand the topics.

Part I: Getting Started on the Web

Part II: Building Blocks of Practical Web Design

Part III: Advanced Web Page Design with CSS

Part IV: Responsive Web Design

Part V: Getting Started with Dynamic Sites

Part VI: Advanced Website Functionality and Management

At the end of the day, you will be able to design your own web pages and get them online in an instant. The lessons are straightforward with a step-by-step guide building upon the design concept from the ground up. The book includes practical examples and exercises to help you test your knowledge building up to the course.

Overall, a well-equipped book to make you an expert in the field of web design and development. By the end of this book, you will have gained practical knowledge. This book is for anyone with the desire to learn.

6. Best book for serious learners: Murach's HTML5 and CSS3, 4th Edition

html books for beginners pdf

Murach's HTML5 and CSS3 by Anne Boehm uses a practical approach and teaches you how to use HTML5 to provide the page content and CSS3 to format the content and layout the pages.

The book teaches you HTML and CSS from scratch, including the latest HTML5 and CSS3 features. The unique design of this book lets you go on to any other chapter to learn new skills whenever you need them.

The book is divided into four sections and twenty chapters. Every chapter is written in a bite-sized manner and straight to the point. The contents covered are:

Section 1 The essential concepts and skills

Chapter 1 gives the introduction to web development

Chapter 2 talks about how to code, test, and validate a web page

Chapter 3 talks about how to use HTML to structure a web page

Chapter 4 talks about how to use CSS to format the elements of a web page

Chapter 5 talks about how to use the CSS box model for spacing, borders, and backgrounds

Chapter 6 talks about how to use CSS for page layout

Chapter 7 talks about how to work with lists, links, and navigation menus

Chapter 8 talks about how to use CSS3 media queries for Responsive Web Design

Section 2 Web design and deployment

Chapter 9 guides you to design a website

Chapter 10 talks about how to deploy a website on a web server

Section 3 More HTML and CSS skills as you need them

Chapter 11 talks about how to use Flexible Box for page layout and RWD

Chapter 12 guides you to use Grid Layout for page layout and RWD

Chapter 13 talks about how to work with images and icons

Chapter 14 guides you to work with tables

Chapter 15 talks about how to work with forms

Chapter 16 guides you to add audio and video to your website

Chapter 17 talks about how to work with fonts and printing

Chapter 18 guides you to use CSS3 transitions, transforms, animations, and filters

Section 4 Other skills for professional web developers

Chapter 19 talks about how JavaScript and jQuery are used to enhance web pages

Chapter 20 discusses when and how to use third-party development tools

No matter where you stand if you read this book you will definitely gain knowledge and the HTML and CSS skills that you need on the job.

7. Best book for completionists: Responsive Web Design with HTML5 and CSS

html books for beginners pdf

Responsive Web Design with HTML5 and CSS by Ben Frain helps you to harness the latest capabilities of HTML5 and CSS to create a single UI that works flawlessly on mobile phones, tablets, and desktops.

As you go through the book, you will be able to:

Integrate CSS media queries into your designs; apply different styles to different devices

Load different sets of images depending upon screen size or resolution

Leverage the speed, semantics, and clean markup of accessible HTML patterns

Implement SVGs into your designs to provide resolution-independent images

Apply the latest features of CSS like custom properties, variable fonts, and CSS Grid

Add validation and interface elements like date and color pickers to HTML forms

Understand the multitude of ways to enhance interface elements with filters, shadows, animations, and more

This book is well-structured and easy to understand. The book is divided into eleven chapters and the topics covered in the book are:

Chapter 1 introduces the Essentials of Responsive Web Design

Chapter 2 talks about Writing HTML Markup

Chapter 3 covers Media Queries – Supporting Differing Viewports

Chapter 4 covers Fluid Layout, Flexbox, and Responsive Images

Chapter 5 talks about Layout with CSS Grid

Chapter 6 covers CSS Selectors, Typography, Color Modes, and More

Chapter 7 talks about Stunning Aesthetics with CSS

Chapter 8 guides you to use SVGs for Resolution Independence

Chapter 9 covers Transitions, Transformations, and Animations

Chapter 10 talks about Conquer Forms with HTML5 and CSS

Chapter 11 discusses Bonus Techniques and Parting Advice

By the end of this book, you will have a comprehensive understanding of responsive web design and what is possible with the latest HTML5 and CSS. Just pick up this book and explore new ways to look at web designing. This awesome guide for upgrading your web design skill is a must-read.

More Ways to Learn HTML & CSS 

So these are the 7 best HTML and CSS books for beginners. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced programmer, the books described above will guide you on that path to success. Check out the ones that serve your needs and we hope you will succeed in your endeavor.

There are also a few online courses on the list that let you learn HTML and CSS.

Coursera : HTML, CSS, and Javascript for Web Developers will help you learn the basic tools that every web page coder needs to know. This course teaches how to implement modern web pages with HTML and CSS. It takes approximately. 40 hours to complete.

Codecademy: Free interactive courses. For more on Codecademy’s premium offerings, see my Codecademy Pro review . 

Learn HTML : Learn all the common HTML tags used to structure HTML pages, the skeleton of all websites. You will also be able to create HTML tables to present tabular data efficiently.

Learn CSS : Learn to style web pages. You’ll be able to set up the correct file structure, edit text and colors, and create attractive layouts.

Udemy : Web Design for Beginners: Real World Coding in HTML & CSS is an 11-hours high-rated course with 71 lectures and 51 downloadable resources. It helps you to launch a career as a web designer by learning HTML5, CSS3, responsive design, Sass, and more.

If you are on a budget or just explore, I have also compiled free resources on learning HTML and CSS . They are quality and I highly recommend them.

Thanks so much for reading this article to the end. See you in the next one.

Miranda is the founder of Books on Code , with a mission to bring book-lover culture to programmers. Learn more by checking out Miranda on LinkedIn .

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HTML: A Beginner’s Guide, 5th Edition [PDF]

how to create a dynamic website using HTML

Book Description:

Essential HTML skills—made easy!

Thoroughly updated and revised, HTML: A Beginner’s Guide , Fifth Edition shows you, step by step, how to create a dynamic website using HTML. The book covers new HTML5 features, including video, audio, and canvas elements. Learn how to structure a page, place images, format text, create links, add color, work with multimedia, and use forms. You’ll also go beyond the basics and find out how to work with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), create dynamic web content with JavaScript, upload your site to the web, and code HTML emails. By the end of the book, you’ll be able to build custom websites using the latest HTML techniques.

Chapters include:

  • Key Skills & Concepts–Chapter-opening lists of specific skills covered in the chapter
  • Ask the Expert–Q & A sections filled with bonus information and helpful tips
  • Try This–Hands-on exercises that show you how to apply your skills
  • Notes–Extra information related to the topic being covered
  • Tips–Helpful reminders or alternate ways of doing things
  • Self-Tests–End-of-chapter reviews to test your knowledge
  • Annotated syntax–Example code with commentary that describes the programming techniques being illustrated

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10 Best HTML/CSS Books for Beginners & Advanced

Best books on html and css, best html/css books for beginners, 1. head first html and css, 2. html and css quickstart guide, 3. get coding: learn html, css & javascript & build a website, app & game – by young rewired state, best html/css books for intermediates, 4. learning web design: a beginner’s guide to html, css, javascript, and web graphics, 5. html and css: design and build websites, 6. html, css, and javascript all in one, best html/css books for experienced, 7. responsive web design with html5 and css by ben frain , 8. html 5 black book (covers css3, javascript, xml, xhtml, ajax, php, jquery) , 9. html5 and css3 all-in-one for dummies – by andy harris, 10. css pocket reference, additional resources.

Front-End Web Developers or Web Designers are in high demand in the IT industry, and Front-End Developer Jobs pay well. All of these factors contribute to people’s desire to pursue this career path. Frontend development is all about UI/UX, with the layout, styling, and design of the website being the primary priority. Every web designer or frontend developer’s path begins with HTML and CSS , and once they have a firm grasp on both, they must move on to Javascript in order to incorporate interactive elements into their HTML and CSS designs.

All web pages are built on a foundation of HTML. The structure of a page is defined by HTML, while the style is defined by CSS. HTML and CSS are the foundations of everything you’ll need to create your first website!

Most people choose online videos or materials for learning frontend development, but books are sometimes the greatest alternative for reference or understanding the idea in depth from beginning to end.

Confused about your next job?

Through a compilation of book reviews, we’ve highlighted the top books for learning HTML and CSS in this blog. Each book review will focus on the book’s flavour, the topics discussed, and how it might help you.

While there is a wealth of knowledge about HTML/CSS coding available, selecting the finest HTML/CSS books and resources may seem difficult.

Most manuals and tutorials on the internet, for example, mix up their content in a way that makes it impossible to follow along from beginning to end. Then, if you move to YouTube videos, you’ll see that, while some of them provide useful illustrations, most of them are short and uninformative.

As a result, many coding beginners are forced to enrol in online HTML/CSS courses, whilst advanced coders choose to use HTML/CSS forums.

Below is the list of some best HTML and CSS Books. These books are not only beneficial for beginners but its also good for advanced learners. In the next section we will be discussing in detail about the books.

This book is given by Elizabeth Robson and Eric Freeman. Despite the fact that Head First HTML and CSS was published in 2012, it is still one of the best fundamental books for learning HTML and CSS. If you want to understand not just the “how,” but also the “why,” this book will help you lay a firm foundation that will last throughout your career.

This is a book for complete beginners. After you’ve gone over everything this book has to offer, you’ll want to brush up on the latest HTML principles that have emerged in the last decade. Of course, you’ll want to put in some practise time. Content of this book is: 

  • Creating HTML Page
  • Designing and making web page
  • FTP, HTTPs domain names usage
  • Incorporating media in your web pages
  • Styling Web Page
  • Using the box model
  • Advanced Web Construction, positioning and layouts
  • Tables, List and form

Rating: 4.3/5 (Goodreads) Latest Edition: 2e

All of the key HTML and CSS fundamentals you need to know are covered in one place by David DuRocher. HTML tags, CSS elements, CSS styling, and how to put the pieces together are all covered in this book.

The author’s approach to teaching HTML and CSS principles is unique and fascinating. It progresses from high-level overviews of HTML and CSS to more detailed, hands-on advice on how to build websites. All concepts are backed up by a plethora of visual examples and hands-on activity! It’s an excellent resource for individuals learning to code and create websites. 

This book is designed exclusively for beginners and is thorough, actionable, and simple to read. It’s an excellent resource for individuals learning to code and create websites. 

This book speaks about : Modern Design Fundamentals, Site Structure and Responsive Design Principles, Breathing Life Into Your Projects, Correct Markup Best Practices, HTML and CSS For Beginners.

Ratings: 4.2/5  (Google Play) Latest Edition: 3e

If you’re looking for the greatest HTML/CSS books for kids, here is a good place to start. Young Rewired State, a global tech community made up of teenagers and children, wrote the book. And, yes, it is aimed at the exact same demographic.

The good thing about this book is that it goes beyond HTML/CSS. Rather, it goes above and above by assisting children with JavaScript code. You’ll also notice that the text is easy enough for even eight-year-olds to grasp. The book takes them step by step through the three programming languages, before gradually on to the more difficult areas. Six engaging tasks are included in the book, each with straightforward step-by-step directions for learning the fundamentals of coding. Professor Bairstone, Dr. Day, and Ernest will need your aid to keep the Monk Diamond safe from a band of violent jewel thieves.

This book is a complete guide for kids who wish to start their programming skills in web development.

Rating: 4.1/5 (Goodreads)

Jennifer Robbins’ Learning Web Design is a great place to start if you want to learn how to create websites. It’s a full-fledged introduction to web design and development. There are 25 chapters in the book, which are separated into five parts. Each chapter includes hands-on exercises and short quizzes to ensure that you comprehend essential concepts. 

Latest Edition: 5e Rating: 4.1/5 (Goodreads)

The Amazon bestseller Jon Duckett, a famous web designer and developer with over 15 years of expertise, is first on our list of the greatest HTML/CSS books.

He aims to make HTML/CSS less scary in this book by illustrating otherwise complex ideas with simple but colourful infographics and images. The layout is pleasingly basic, and you should be able to follow it from cover to cover with ease. In general, the book covers all of the fundamentals of HTML/CSS. You’ll learn how to create a website from the ground up, as well as how to work with languages on both Mac and PC and how to design various website features. Mr. Duckett has also given well-labeled screenshots of the text editor, demonstrating code samples.

Latest Edition: 3e Rating: 4.3/5 (Goodreads)

Meloni and Kyrin’s “HTML, CSS, and JavaScript All in One” is another complete resource for both beginners and advanced coders when it comes to HTML/CSS and JavaScript. You might think of it as a one-stop shop for learning the three most important web development languages. Essentially, the book explains how HTML, CSS, and JavaScript interact in modern web development before providing well-organized step-by-step examples on how to use all three technologies at the same time.

Each chapter includes perfectly integrated HTML5, CSS3, and ECMAScript 6 fundamentals. This tutorial will show you how to use them in a variety of web design situations.

Latest Edition: 3e Ratings: 4.4/5 (Goodreads)

It teaches you how to use HTML5 and CSS to create a single user interface that works on mobile phones, tablets, and computers. The book is broken into eleven chapters and covers the following concepts

  • Apply various styles to different devices by incorporating CSS media queries into your projects.
  • Depending on the size or quality of your screen, load different groups of photos.
  • Use accessible HTML patterns’ speed, semantics, and clean syntax to your advantage.
  • Use SVGs in your designs to create pictures that aren’t affected by resolution.
  • Use CSS’s most recent features, such as custom properties, changeable fonts, and CSS Grid.
  • HTML forms should have validation and user interface components such as date and colour pickers.
  • Learn how to use filters, shadows, animations, and other effects to improve interface elements.

Rating: 3.8/5 (Goodreads) Latest Edition: 3e 

HTML5 Black Book by DT Editorial Services is a one-of-a-kind reference book written from the perspective of a Web expert, with hundreds of examples and coverage of practically every facet of HTML5. It will assist you in mastering a variety of Web technologies, including CSS3, JavaScript, XML, and AJAX, in addition to HTML5. This book will introduce you to the latest features and elements of HTML5, such as audio and video media elements, the canvas element for sketching, and many others, if you are a Web designer or developer. In this book, you’ll learn how to create Web apps using HTML5 and other Web technologies in the most recent versions of modern browsers.

Ratings: 4.1/5 (Goodreads) Latest Edition: 2e

This all-in-one handbook “for dummies” is one of the best HTML/CSS publications, as it covers almost all of the HML5 and CSS3 fundamentals.In essence, this is where you’ll discover notes on the most recent HTML/CSS versions that are beginner-friendly. Andy Harris walks you through the fundamentals of working with HTML5 and CSS3, then shows you how to combine them with Ajax, MySQL, and JavaScript to create genuinely usable websites. In simple terms, you can anticipate to be covered comprehensively not just in terms of basic design and layout, but also in terms of client-side elements and server-side components. This appears to be an excellent book for both new and experienced coders.

Ratings: 4.2/5 (Goodreads) Latest Edition: 3e

Visual Presentation for the Web- This simple yet comprehensive quick reference by Eric A. Meyer delivers the vital knowledge you need when dealing with CSS and needs an answer right away. This fifth version has been revised and updated for CSS3, making it suited for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers. You’ll find an alphabetical summary of CSS selectors and properties, as well as a brief introduction to CSS’s fundamental ideas. Grid, flexbox, clipping, masking, and compositing are just a few of the new characteristics you’ll learn about. Find the information you require quickly. CSS concepts, values, selectors and queries, and properties are all explored. Learn how new features can help you improve and extend your CSS skills. In this updated edition, you’ll learn about new characteristics like animations, grids, flexboxes, masking, filtering, and compositing.

Ratings: 4/5 (Goodreads) Latest Edition: 5e

So, you’ve come across some wonderful books that are essential for any Frontend Developer or aspiring frontend developers. Keep in mind that most of these books are available in several versions while you’re at it. So, before you go any further, double-check that you’re getting the most recent version. Have a happy learning.

Is HTML good in 2022? Yes, HTML is still useful in 2022 because it is the core mark-up language for building web architecture.

What profession uses HTML? Frontend developers are in charge of the entire website’s end-to-end code. They manage HTML projects, create online apps, code websites, and assist website visitors.

Can I get a job if I know HTML? You can certainly find a job if you only know HTML and CSS. And even if those core abilities aren’t enough to land you your dream job, you can utilize them to start earning money while you learn more.

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The HTML Handbook

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The HTML Handbook

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Essential HTML & CSS Books (free e- books)

html books for beginners pdf

if you are new to front-end development, website designing and want a better idea of how this works? then these HTML & CSS books are for you.

Learning is so important as a web developer, things are changing so fast. in order to be with the flow, you need to be updated. these free HTML and CSS books meant to improve your development skills. There are many self-taught developers out there who learned from many resources on the internet such as e-books .

In this post, we have handpicked some great CSS books and HTML book for beginners to intermediate. these books help you, If you have keen to learn front-end development.

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The Magic of CSS

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HTML5 Notes for Professionals Book

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Web Visual Effects with CSS3

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CSS Fundamentals

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CSS Animation 101

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HTML Tutorial by TutorialBrain

Getting Started with CSS

Getting Started with CSS

Developing an HTML5 Brick Breaker Game With Phaser

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The Ultimate Guide to Learning CSS

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12 Excellent HTML5 eBooks [PDF Download]

Suited for beginners: html5 ebooks [pdf download], for intermediate and advanced users: html5 ebooks pdf download, knowledge base.

HTML5 as being developed as the next major revision of HTML is opening new doors to web professionals. With its unparalleled functionality, it actually boasts exciting new features and capabilities. Now to facilitate more advanced web development, we introduce HTML5 books PDF download. They deliver all the HTML5 related valuable information you need to get up and running with building next-generation HTML5 websites .

Plus, we’ve arranged these resources in a special way so you could find the eBook according to your experience level. You’ll see a compilation for HTML5 beginners and then a round-up of eBooks for HTML5 intermediate and advanced users. Each guide, in fact, has proven itself to be very helpful and highly resourceful. So, let’s get them fast-track you toward accessible standards to harness the power of HTML5 and embrace its cutting-edge features.

But before we start, here’s a stunning Dive Into HTML5 eBook available online for you to read absolutely for free. In our opinion this is the most essential eBook that every web professional should be familiar with. A very good option to start with.

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Introducing HTML5

by Bruce Lawson, Remy Sharp

Written by developers who have been using the new language for the past year in their work, this book shows you how to start adapting the language now to realize its benefits on today’s browsers. The book concentrates on the practical problems on how to work with HTML5. As well as talking about the well known new features of HTML5 such as audio and video, canvas and forms, the authors also delve into such diverse topics as ARIA (for accessibility), data storage, offline applications, the (nasty) drag and drop API and even the geolocation API (even though it's not strictly part of HTML5).

html5 ebook

A Guide to HTML5 and CSS3

by Ashley Menhennett

The book covers the basics of web development and it’s a great starting point whether your plan is to make websites, HTML5 mobile apps or games.

html books for beginners pdf

Beginning HTML5 and CSS3: Next Generation Web Standards

by Christopher Murphy, Richard Clark, Oli Studholme

If you are a web developer, then this book is your introduction to new features and elements of HTML5 – all the leaner, cleaner, and more efficient code you’ve hoped for is available now with HTML5, along with some new tools that will allow you to create more meaningful and richer content. For everyone involved in web design, this book introduces the new structural integrity and styling flexibility of CSS3. For all forward-looking web professionals, this book provides you with an in-depth look the new capabilities—including audio and video. You’ll learn about the new HTML5 structural sections, plus HTML5 and CSS3 layouts . You’ll also discover why some people think HTML5 is going to be a Flash killer, when you see how to create transitions and animations with these new technologies.

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HTML5: Up and Running

by Mark Pilgrim

This book provides practical information about how and why the latest version of HTML5 markup language will significantly change the way you develop for the Web. The book provides your first real look at HTML5's new elements and attributes and carefully guides you though the important changes in this version with lots of hands-on examples, including markup, graphics, and screenshots. You'll learn how to use HTML5 markup to add video, offline capabilities, offer a drawing canvas for dynamically generated 2D graphics and more – and you’ll be able to put that functionality to work right away.

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Sams Teach Yourself HTML5 in 10 Minutes

by Steven Holzner

Teach Yourself HTML5 in 10 Minutes offers straightforward, practical answers for fast results. By working through the book's clear, step-by-step examples, web designers or developers new to HTML5 can learn everything they need to know to quickly and easily get up to speed with HTML5. It’s for sure a quick, clear guide to using the exciting new features of HTML5 today. With step-by-step directions showing how to implement HTML5 video, drawing, drag and drop, forms, and more, the book also makes sense of all the competing claims and misinformation about what HTML5 is or isn't.

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The Essential Guide to HTML5

by Jeanine Meyer

HTML5 opens up a plethora of new avenues for application and game development on the web. Games can now be created and interacted with directly within HTML with no need for users to download extra plugins, or for developers to learn new languages. Important new features such as the Canvas tag enable drawing directly onto the web page, the Audio tag allows sounds to be triggered and played from within your HTML code, the web sockets API brings the facility for real-time communication.

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HTML5 and CSS3: Develop with Tomorrow's Standards Today

by Brian P. Hogan

This book gets you up to speed on the new HTML5 elements and CSS3 features you can use right now, and backwards compatible solutions ensure that you don't leave users of older browsers behind. It gets you started working with many useful new features of HTML and CSS right away. Gone are the days of adding additional markup just to style a button differently or stripe tables.

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Pro HTML5 Programming: Powerful APIs for Richer Internet Application Development

by Peter Lubbers, Brian Albers, Frank Salim

In this book, developers will learn how to use the latest cutting-edge HTML5 web technology-available in the most recent versions of modern browsers-to build web applications with unparalleled functionality, speed, and responsiveness. The book explains how you can create real-time HTML5 applications that tap the full potential of modern browsers, provides practical, real-world examples of HTML5 features in action, etc.

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HTML5 for Web Designers

by Jeremy Keith

In this comprehensive user’s guide, the author cuts to the chase, with crisp, clear, practical examples on what accessible, content-focused standards-based web designers and front-end developers need to know to harness the power of HTML5 in today’s browsers. This workshop will help you get to grips with the new features in HTML5, from audio and video to more powerful forms and new structural elements. You’ll gain an understanding of the new semantics and get an insight into how new features should be used.

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Smashing HTML5

by Bill Sanders

With 'Smashing HTML5', you have everything you need to get up and running quickly with great new HTML5 features, including new content-specific elements, audio and video playback, canvas for drawing, and many others. Smashing HTML5 provides comprehensive coverage – from how to get started with HTML5 to optimizing media on the Web. You will learn how to use text, graphics, audio, video, and navigation in HTML5 web pages running in compatible browsers.

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HTML5: Designing Rich Internet Applications (Visualizing the Web)

by Matthew Devid

With 'HTML5: Designing Rich Internet Applications' eBook that will be easy to implement the powerful new multimedia and interactive capabilities offered by HTML5, including style control tools, illustration tools, video, audio, and rich media solutions. You will reinforce your practical understanding of the new standard with demo applications and tutorials, so that execution is one short step away.

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Padding is an amount of space around a content and its edge. With other words, padding is a white space or a clear area around a text or an image. It generates the white space inside of the element's edges. The padding comprises padding-top , padding-right , padding-bottom and padding-left properties. In such a way you get complete power over the padding.

html books for beginners pdf

The thing is that the padding values can be set up in px, pt, cm, em , etc. or set as a percentage. Bear in mind, it’s better to use relative sizes such as em and % . The thing is that such relative units perform great on different screen sizes and browsers. Some elements have their own default built-in padding values, but it’s better to control it yourself. However, negative values are false.

The padding property can point out one, two, three, or four values. In case you need a boxed element with all four sides equal, set one value which will apply to all sides.

If two values are used, the first will apply to [top-and-bottom] , and the second will set to [left-and-right] values.

Three values define first to [top] , then to [left-and-right] and third to [bottom] . If you set each side using unique four values , it will start applying clockwise to [top], [right, bottom ] and [left ] . Use shortcuts to make your coding simpler.

html books for beginners pdf

When the value is set as a percentage, it is relevant to the [width] of an element. Keep in mind, the total breadth of the element corresponds to the width property plus the width of any padding area. In light of this, the width is recalculated each time the padding is adjusted.

The padding property supports all modern browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera, Internet Explorer, Android, and iOS.

Unlike margin, any padding can have a background color or image. The color of the padding area is defined via a [background] property. In case the element has a background color, the padding will inherit that color. Thus, if you need your background color to continue on into the space you design, the background will continue on behind the padding.

Image resolution is the number of detail an image holds. The term applies to raster digital images. Higher resolution means more image detail.


A raster image is an image consisting of the array of pixels. A pixel is the basic element of the two-dimensional digital image. At the same time, a pixel is also the physical element of the display matrix. With the help of pixels it’s possible to create a picture of any complexity. In the raster format images are displayed on the most of the image output devices: monitors, printers, cell phones, etc. The width and height of the image in pixels are the image size. And the number of pixels per inch (PPI) is the resolution of the image. The higher is the resolution, the more pixels are located in one inch. And the smaller a single one will be. Thus, the more precise will be the details of the image.

High definition images are a consequence of a greater resolution. Resolution determines the clarity of the objects and text on the monitor. At high resolution objects on the screen become smaller and look sharper. Monitors usually have standard (4: 3) or widescreen (16: 9 and 16:10) dimensions. This is the screen ratio. The number of pixels horizontally and vertically is the screen size. To know the monitor’s PPI we need to divide the monitor’s height in pixels by it’s height in inches, which can be calculated knowing the ratio and diagonal size. For example, the 16:9 monitor with 1920x1080 screen size and 24’’ diagonal will have the screen resolution of 92ppi.

In printing the resolution is measured in DPI, dots per inch. For the photo to be of a normal quality, a resolution must be at least 300dpi. Knowing this, it’s easy to calculate the size of the digital image in pixels for a specific paper size. For example, to print a photo on the A4 piece of paper (210x297mm) or 8x11 inches, we need to multiply 8 by 300 and 11 by 300. And get 2400x3300px. This should be the minimum size of the picture for printing on A4 sheet. If the size will be smaller, the printed image will be fuzzy and blurry.

Resolution of various media:

  • 352×240 : Video CD
  • 333×480 : VHS, Video8, Umatic
  • 350×480 : Betamax
  • 420×480 : Super Betamax, Betacam
  • 460×480 : Betacam SP, Umatic SP, NTSC (Over-The-Air TV)
  • 580×480 : Super VHS, Hi8, LaserDisc
  • 700×480 : Enhanced Definition Betamax, Analog broadcast limit (NTSC)
  • 768×576 : Analog broadcast limit (PAL, SECAM)
  • 500×480 : Digital8
  • 720×480 : D-VHS, DVD, miniDV, Digital Betacam (NTSC)
  • 720×480 : Widescreen DVD (anamorphic) (NTSC)
  • 720x576 : D-VHS, DVD, miniDV, Digital8, Digital Betacam (PAL/SECAM)
  • 720x576 : Widescreen DVD (anamorphic) (PAL/SECAM)
  • 1280×720 : D-VHS, HD DVD, Blu-ray, HDV (miniDV)
  • 1440×1080 : HDV (miniDV)
  • 1920×1080 : HDV (miniDV), AVCHD, HD DVD, Blu-ray, HDCAM SR
  • 1998x1080 : 2K Flat (1.85:1)
  • 2048×1080 : 2K Digital Cinema
  • 3840x2160 : 4K UHDTV
  • 4096×2160 : 4K Digital Cinema
  • 7680×4320 : 8K UHDTV
  • 15360x8640 : 16K Digital Cinema
  • 61440x34560 : 64K Digital Cinema

RGB Color Model

RGB color model (stands for Red, Green and Blue) is an additive color model in which those three main colors are mixed together to create other colors.

RGB Color Model

RGB color system is suited for surfaces that produce their own light. It’s used mainly on electronic display devices (TVs, digital scanners and cameras, computer monitors, etc). The screen surface of a computer monitor or a TV set is originally dark, so its original color is black. All other colors are obtained by using a combination of the three main colors, which in their mixture must create a white color. Experimentally it was proven that red, green and blue are the most suited for human eyes. Black color in this scheme is missing, since it’s the natural color of the screen.

As we know, the surface of the screen is not solid, it consists of small dots called pixels. Each pixel consists of three blocks, red, green and blue. By varying the brightness level of each block we can get different colors. The information about the brightness level is encoded using binary code. For example, the most common for modern displays 24-bit True Color system uses three bytes with values from 0 to 255 for each pixel on the screen. Absolutely red color will have a value 255.0.0. This means that the amount of red color is full, of the green is 0 and of the blue is also 0. Absolutely blue color will have a value of 0.255.0 and the green will be 0.0.255. With different combinations different colors are formed: bright-violet is 255.0.255, the black is 0.0.0 (no color at all), the white is 1.1.1 (red, green and blue are all at full brightness).

RGB color can also be encoded with the help of the hexadecimal system. If we convert each of the numbers that corresponds to a particular color into the hexadecimal system, we’ll get another form of color recording: FFFFFF is 255.255.255 or the white color, where FF is number 255. If the color is recorded in the hexadecimal system, it’s customary to put the “#” character before the numeric value: #FFFFFF. Here are some standard colors:

RGB Color Model

This color system is called additive. In other words, we take black color (no color) and add primary colors to it, mixing them all the way up to white. This way we can encode 16 777 216 colors, which is more than enough for human eyes.

What is an image Alt?

Basically, ‘alt tag’ is a term, which is commonly used to describe a word of a phrase used both in HTML and XHTML documents in order to identify some alternative text (= alt text) that is to be rendered when the element to which it is applied cannot be rendered. In a word, alt tag is an abbreviation of what is essentially an alt attribute on an image tag showing a nature or a content of its image. That is why each image on any successful website has its alt tag that describes what is actually on it. As a result, various screen readers will make the image from your website accessible while reading out this alternative text. To illustrate the situation, that is an example of a complete HTML image tag:

And this is how alt text works:

html books for beginners pdf

Why do we need alternative text for the images?

So, why does one need alt text for their images? Let’s figure it out together! As it has already been mentioned, the alt text literally tells what an image depicts as well as describes the main function of this image on the web page. To make a long story short, let’s imagine that you would like to use the picture of an attractive call-to-action-button , which propose a visitor of your online project to do the next action – ‘Reserve Your Seat’. In this case, the alt text for such button would say the next: ‘button to reserve a seat’. Generally speaking, you just propose a person to use some services or buy some products that you provide with the help of this button. Thus, its alternative text simply explains what the button is used for. As you can see, there is nothing complicated. Here is another simple example of using alt text. As you can see from the screenshot below, this blue call-to-action button lets a person get a shown website template right now.

html books for beginners pdf

What is more, talking about the image buttons, you could also put some extra call to action text to it. Actually, it is quite popular policy, so I am sure that you have seen such things a plenty of times while surfing through the web space. For example, you can easily propose the guests of your website to take an item for some price, (it would be something like: ‘Get this dress now only for $29!”) as the title attribute is always shown as a tooltip when you hover over the element. Below you can see the next example of this function.

html books for beginners pdf

Keep in mind that every image you want to use for your online project should have its own alternative text. Yes, it is a vital thing for Search Engine Optimization (SEO) purposes, but not only for these reasons. In point of fact, visually impaired and blind visitors of your site will also use alt in order to figure out what an image or a button is for. What else should you know about it? Well, although a title attribute is a helpful item, it is not actually required, so don’t be upset if you leave it out.

Ok, now you know a lot of information about the pluses of alternative text. Still, I know what you are thinking about right now: what should you do in case your image does not have a clear purpose? Without a doubt, it is a logical question, so let me tell you a couple of words. First of all, remember that the images that you would like to use simply for the design of your website should be in your CSS and never in your HTML code. Secondly, if you still have such images in your HTML and don’t want or can’t change it, I suggest you to give them an empty alt attribute. Shortly, the empty alt attribute looks like this:

<img src="/image.jpg" alt="html books for beginners pdf">

To make things clear it is here to make sure that screen readers will pass over the image that has no purpose.

Let’s summarize!

For today it was all the information about alternative text. To sum everything up, below you can see the list of the main functions of alt text.

1 To start with, alt text is read by screen readers in the place of the images that allow the content and function of an image to be accessible to people that have visual or other disabilities.

2 Moreover, alt text gives a description and a semantic meaning to your image that will be read by various search engines.

3 What is more, this description can also be used to later determine the content of your image from page content alone.

4 To finish with, in case the image file in not loaded when a person decided not to view images, alt text is shown in place of an image in browsers.

html books for beginners pdf

Thus, giving your images an alt text is an easy but important thing. Don’t forget that a winning alt text should be succinct and represent the function of your image as well as its content. On the other hand, keep in mind that alternative text should not be redundant (I mean be the same as your body text) or consist of such phrases as ‘the picture of something’, ’the image of something’, ‘the graphic of something’, etc. In addition, remember that this text may be provided in the alt attribute or in the surrounding context of your image. I hope you will remind all the given points because they are the main rules of a successful alt text creation. Also, you may watch this video from Matt Cutts that was made in order to help you with a nice alternative text creation.

Wait! Still want to know more about alt? In this case, I have a lot of useful articles to share with you! Thus, in order to learn more information about the subject of this post, don’t forget to check the next pages: alt tag and title tag optimization , this awesome post about alt text and this one that was made by Google team to help one to create a great alt text for their website’s images.

All in all, don’t hesitate to leave all your thoughts and questions in the comments below this post. Furthermore, I would like you to tell me your own definition of alt! Maybe you have something to add? For this simple reasons, just leave your comment below!

Finally, it’s time to learn other terms that are related to alternative text!

Related terms : HTML, XHTML, SEO, Screen reader.

References and further reading :

  • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is a standard markup language that is commonly used for the creation of different web pages as well as for various web applications. Naturally, it is one of three main components of the cornerstone technologies for World Wide Web (the others are Cascading Style Sheets and JavaScript). To make a long story short, HTML makes the structure of any web page semantically and originally included cues for the document to be appeared.
  • XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language) makes a part of the XML markup languages’ family. In a word, XHTML just mirrors the versions of the commonly used Hypertext Markup Language in which the web pages are formulated.
  • Screen reader is a popular software application that is used to convert text into ‘synthesised speech’ that allows a user to alternatively listen to content in case they are not able to visually check the content of a web page.
  • SEO (Search Engines Optimization) is the name of the process that makes some websites or some web pages visible in the web search engine’s unpaid results.

To begin with, CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, key) is the abbreviation for the name of the scheme, which combines the primary pigments. Thus, C means cyan (aqua), M means magenta (pink), Y is for yellow and K stands for the key. As you may know, these days K color means black in the modern printing world. Still, things have not always gone this way. Historically, there were other colors used for Key: brown and even blue. Honestly speaking, people used the color that was the cheapest ink to get for their needs.

html books for beginners pdf

How does it work?

Generally speaking, CMYK pigment model looks like a version of RGB (means red, green, and blue) color model that is upside-down. That is why today there are a lot of various draw and paint programs that are able to make use of both mentioned color models. Still, keep in mind that the CMYK model is usually used for the creation of the printed color illustration. On the other hand, the RGB color scheme is mostly used for the computer displays.

The difference between color and pigment

Without a doubt, there is a difference between color and pigment. What is more, it is a fundamental one! To make things clear, a color depicts the energy that is radiated by a luminous object. For example, LED (a light-emitting diode) and CRT (a cathode ray tube), so red (R), green (G), and blue (B) are meant to be the primary colors. Consequently, a red area that you may see on a cathode ray tube will look red, as it radiates a big amount of light in the red portion of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum (that, by the way, means nearly 750 nanometers), and there is much less light radiated at another wavelength. Talking about the pigments, they are opposed to the colors and represent the energy that is not absorbed by a substance (such as paint and ink). As it has already been said, the primary pigments are cyan, magenta and yellow. In addition, from time to time black (Key color) is also may be a primary pigment. All in all, black can be easily made if one combines the mentioned below colors in the large and equal amounts. So, keep in mind that if you see magenta (pink) ink on some pages, it looks so because it literally absorbs a big amount of energy at all the visible wavelengths except in the pink part of the spectrum, where is reflected the biggest part of the energy.

html books for beginners pdf

By the way, did you know that the primary colors and the primary pigments are mathematically related to each other? As a result, if one combines any 2 pure radiant primary colors (that still are red, green and blue), the will produce radiation, which will have the appearance of 1 of these pure non-black primary colors (that are cyan, magenta and yellow). On the other hand, if you combine any 2 non-black primary pigments, this action will give you a substance that will have the appearance of one of the pure primary colors written above. As you can see, there is nothing complicated.

All in all, don’t hesitate to leave all your thoughts and questions in the comments below this post. Furthermore, I would like you to tell me your own definition of CMYK! Maybe you have something to add? For these simple reasons, just leave your comment below!

Finally, it’s time to learn other terms that are related to CMYK!

Related terms : API, GRU, legacy application, hue, saturation, and brightness, RGB, CRT, color wheel.

  • API means application program interface. Generally speaking, API is a code, which allows 2 software programs to communicate with each other. This code defines the proper way for a person to write a program, which requires the services from OS (operating system) or other important apps. What is more, now APIs are implemented by function calls that are made of nouns and verbs.
  • GRU means graphics processing unit. In a word, GRU is a computer chip, which performs rapid mathematical calculations, mainly or the purpose of rendering images.
  • The legacy application is a software program, which is outdated or obsolete. By the way, although a legacy application still works, it can be unstable because of the compatibility issues with the current OSes (operating systems) and IT (information technology) infrastructures.
  • Hue, saturation, and brightness are the aspects of color in the red, green and blue (RGB) color scheme. In general, these terms are mostly used in reference to the color of every pixel in a CRT (cathode ray tube) display. To continue, we can specify all the possible colors according to hue, saturation and, of course, brightness, (that may also be called brilliance) just as the colors can be shown in terms of the R, G and B components.
  • RGB means Red, green and blue. To make a long story short, the RGB term refers to a system for representing the colors to be used on a computer display. Thus, red, green, and blue can be combined in various proportions to obtain any color in the visible spectrum. Levels of R, G, and B can each range from 0 to 100 percent of full intensity. That is why each level is represented by the range of decimal numbers from 0 to 255 (256 levels for each color), equivalent to the range of binary numbers from 00000000 to 11111111, or hexadecimal 00 to FF. Logically, the total number of available colors is 256 x 256 x 256, or 16,777,216 possible colors.
  • CRT means a cathode ray tube. Shortly, CRT is a specialized vacuum tube in which images are produced when an electron beam strikes the aphosphorescent surface. Most desktop computer displays make use of CRTs. The CRT in a computer display is similar to the"picture tube" in a television receiver.
  • Color wheel (or color circle) is the name of the basic tool, which was made for pleasant colors combining. Historically, the first circular color diagram was created in 1666 by well-known Sir Isaac Newton. As you can see on the image below, the color circle was made the way that one may take almost each pair of the colors, included to the color wheel, and they will look awesome together. Needless to say, during the last years, there were made a lot of variations of the basic design. Still, these days the shown color wheel, which consists of 12 colors (based on the RYB, or artistic, color model) is the most useful and popular one.

Actually, a term DPI comes as an abbreviation for “dots per inch” phrase. DPI = 1PPI (pixels per inch). When it comes to a digital image resolution or its size, we pay attention to the number of pixels along the height and length of the digital image. In addition, the more pixels the image contains - the larger it can be printed or displayed on the monitor saving a perfect quality. If you want to print an image of a certain size, you definitely need to pay attention to a DPI. In fact, if you need to print a 10x10 cm image with 300 DPI resolution, you’ll get a 3.9 x 3.9 inches photograph. Speaking of the size of an image in pixels, you will get a photo with 1050 x 1050 megapixels.

It’s important to note that there is also another meaning of DPI. To save you from messing up, we will explain to you another side of this abbreviation.

DPI as a Deep Packet Inspection

Another meaning of DPI comes as a methodology of statistics data accumulation, approvement, and network packets filtering due to their content. This deep packet inspection can analyze not only various packet headers but also the full amount of content that reaches second and higher OSI models levels. DPI can easily detect and block viruses, moreover, it filters the info that does not meet any specific criteria. Deep Packet Inspection is often used by providers to take control over traffic, to block some protocols, etc. Using DPI, you can also tailor connection statistics for any user.

Related terms : LPI, SPI, display resolution, Twip, complete packet inspection, information extraction.

  • PPI vs. DPI: what’s the difference?.
  • You Say You Want a Resolution: How Much DPI/PPI is Too Much? .
  • Change DPI of Image .
  • Understanding DPI, Resolution and Print vs. Web Images .
  • Content Intelligence – A New Frontier for DPI.
  • The Perils of Deep Packet Inspection .
  • How Deep Packet Inspection Works .

It is the fifth version of the most popular and most used mark-up coding language. The basics of all internet websites are built on HTML.

It is a book that is shared in digital format. Some of them can have paper copies and be sold in such a way, but an eBook is just the electronic version.

When we talk about coding language – yes, it is. Of course, you will also need lots of practice but learning theory from books is the simplest and fastest way to get along with HTML5.

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While many online guides try to use a lot of mind-boggling theory to teach HTML, this tutorial will instead concentrate on giving you the practical skills to create your first site. The goal is to show you how to build your first web page without focusing too much on the "why" in the entire tutorial. You will have the know-how to build a simple website by the end of this tutorial and we hope this will motivate you to further delve into the HTML world using our follow-on guides. Starting in 1989, Tim Berners-Lee, Robert Cailliau, and others first developed HTML. It stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. Hypertext means that there are links in the document that allow the reader to leap to other places in the document or completely to another document. The most recent release is known as HTML5.

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html books for beginners pdf

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This work describes the evolution of HyperText Markup Language (HTML) in an informational and interactive view, focusing on the improvements that this web technology provides for information exchange among people. The analysis of the emergence and evolution of HTML, along with the comparison of its development principles with the information and interaction design suggests that the evolution of this markup language involved mainly the good understanding of information conveyed to users. Another point is guaranteeing that the information presented in web technology will be free of errors (security concept) and received by all users (even those with special needs) using any type of platform. Moreover, the evolution of HTML aims to facilitate the production of documents in different languages. These subjects show that the HTML seeks to follow the new forms of dissemination of information and provides improvements in the interaction between content and users.

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This specification defines the Second Edition of XHTML 1.0, a reformulation of HTML 4 as an XML 1.0 application, and three DTDs corresponding to the ones defined by HTML 4. The semantics of the elements and their attributes are defined in the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4. These semantics provide the foundation for future extensibility of XHTML. Compatibility with existing HTML user agents is possible by following a small set of guidelines.-1-XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition) XHTML 1.0: The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition)


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Tutorial JavaScript untuk Pemula: Pelajari Javascript Langkah demi Langkah

James Hartman

Ringkasan Tutorial JavaScript

Apa itu javascript.

JavaScript adalah bahasa skrip sisi klien sumber terbuka dan terpopuler yang didukung oleh semua browser. JavaScript terutama digunakan untuk meningkatkan interaksi halaman web dengan pengguna dengan membuatnya lebih hidup dan interaktif. Ini juga digunakan untuk pengembangan game dan pengembangan aplikasi seluler.

Silabus Javascript

Langkah pertama dasar-dasar javascript untuk pemula, barang lanjutan javascript, pertanyaan wawancara javascript, alat, buku & tutorial pdf, apa yang akan anda pelajari dalam tutorial javascript untuk pemula ini.

Dalam tutorial dasar-dasar JavaScript untuk pemula ini, Anda akan belajar tentang beberapa dasar-dasar JavaScript seperti Variabel, Array, Loop, Pernyataan Bersyarat, Cookie, dll., dan beberapa konsep JavaScript tingkat lanjut seperti DOM, contoh kode praktis, kerangka pengujian Unit JavaScript, algoritma, dll.

Apakah ada prasyarat untuk Tutorial JavaScript ini?

Tidak ada apa-apa! Ini adalah panduan mutlak bagi pemula JavaScript untuk mempelajari JavaScript dengan contoh. Namun, jika Anda memiliki pengetahuan dasar tentang HTML dan CSS, ini akan membantu Anda belajar lebih cepat dan efisien.

Untuk siapa Tutorial JavaScript ini?

Tutorial JavaScript untuk pemula ini ditujukan untuk siswa yang ingin belajar tentang pengembangan aplikasi Web dan pengembangan perangkat lunak. Tutorial ini juga bermanfaat bagi para profesional yang bekerja dalam pengembangan aplikasi web untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan keterampilan mereka.

Mengapa mempelajari Bahasa Pemrograman JavaScript?

JavaScript adalah bahasa pemrograman sisi klien terpopuler yang banyak digunakan untuk pengembangan aplikasi web di setiap industri. Ada permintaan besar di industri TI untuk kandidat yang memiliki pengetahuan tentang JavaScript. Oleh karena itu, mempelajari JavaScript bermanfaat bagi Anda untuk mendapatkan pekerjaan yang baik dan juga meningkatkan keterampilan dan pengetahuan Anda.

Bagaimana cara kerja mesin JavaScript?

Mesin JavaScript itu rumit. Tapi ini berfungsi pada beberapa dasar sederhana:

  • Mesin membaca (“mengurai:) skrip.
  • Kemudian mengkonversi atau mengkompilasi skrip ke bahasa mesin.
  • Setelah itu kode mesin dijalankan.

Di sini, mesin JavaScript menerapkan pengoptimalan pada setiap langkah proses. Ia membaca skrip yang dikompilasi dan menganalisis data yang lewat di mesin JavaScript. Setelah itu, ia menerapkan pengoptimalan pada kode mesin dari pengetahuan yang diperoleh tersebut. Ketika proses ini selesai, skrip berjalan cukup cepat.

Apa yang dapat dilakukan JavaScript dalam browser?

Fungsionalitas JavaScript bergantung pada lingkungan tempat ia dijalankan. Misalnya, Node.js mendukung fungsi yang memungkinkan JavaScript membaca dan menulis file arbitrer, melakukan permintaan jaringan, berorientasi objek, dll. Peran yang dimainkan JavaScript di sisi klien (depan) end) dan pengembangan aplikasi di sisi server (back end) bisa sangat bervariasi.

JavaScript dalam browser juga memungkinkan Anda melakukan manipulasi halaman web, interaksi dengan pengguna dan dengan server web.

Javascript menawarkan keuntungan seperti:

  • Tampilkan konten dinamis berdasarkan profil pengguna.
  • Bereaksi terhadap operasi pengguna, seperti peristiwa klik mouse, penekanan tombol, atau gerakan penunjuk.
  • Fitur dukungan seperti entri formulir yang divalidasi otomatis dan menu drop-down interaktif.
  • Kirim permintaan ke server jarak jauh, Unggah dan unduh file.
  • Kode JavaScript juga dapat membuat gerakan dan suara
  • Ajukan pertanyaan kepada pengguna, Dapatkan dan setel cookie, tampilkan pesan, ganti tab browser.
  • Memungkinkan data disimpan di penyimpanan lokal.

Apa yang tidak bisa dilakukan JavaScript dalam browser?

Kemampuan JavaScript di browser sangat terbatas demi keselamatan pengguna. Ini membantu mencegah halaman web yang tidak sah mengakses informasi pribadi.

Contoh keterbatasan tersebut adalah:

  • JavaScript di halaman web mungkin tidak mengizinkan Anda menyalin, mengeksekusi, atau membaca/menulis file sembarangan di hard disk. Itu tidak menawarkan akses apa pun ke fungsi sistem Operasi.
  • Banyak browser mengizinkannya bekerja dengan file, namun aksesnya sangat terbatas dan hanya diberikan jika pengguna melakukan tindakan tertentu seperti, memasukkan file ke jendela browser atau memilih menggunakan menandai.
  • JavaScript memungkinkan Anda berkomunikasi melalui internet ke server tempat halaman saat ini berasal. Meskipun demikian, itu tidak memungkinkan Anda menerima data dari situs/domain lain.

Apa yang membuat JavaScript unik?

Berikut adalah tiga fitur terpenting yang membuat JavaScript unik

  • Ini menawarkan integrasi penuh dengan HTML/CSS.
  • Hal-hal sederhana dilakukan dengan cepat tanpa komplikasi atau tindak lanjut apa punwing aturan ketat.
  • Didukung oleh semua browser utama dan JavaScript diaktifkan secara default.

Alternatif untuk JavaScript

Sintaks JavaScript tidak cocok untuk semua orang karena proyek yang berbeda memerlukan fitur yang berbeda. Namun, beberapa alat modern seperti skrip Kopi, Naskah Ketik, dan Dart allowing pengembang untuk membuat kode dalam bahasa lain dan kemudian mengonversi secara otomatis menjadi kode JavaScript.

Dimana JavaScript Saat Ini?

ECMAScript adalah spesifikasi yang diatur oleh ECMA internasional yang bertujuan untuk membakukan JavaScript. Versi terbaru adalah ECMA9 juga disebut JavaScript 9. Versi ini didukung oleh semua browser utama seperti Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, dll. Meskipun setiap browser memiliki serangkaian perintah unik yang bukan bagian dari standar.


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