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Book Title: Research Methods in Psychology – 2nd Canadian Edition

Authors: I-Chant A. Chiang; Rajiv S. Jhangiani; and Paul C. Price

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Book Description: Note: An updated edition of this book was published October 2020. You can find it here: Research Methods in Psychology - 4th Edition . With this textbook, we introduce students to the fundamental principles of what it is like to think like a psychology researcher. We also hope to connect with the Canadian audience to show them the fantastic research being generated in Canada as well as provide them with an accurate picture of the Canadian context for ethical human research.

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Book description.

Note: The second edition of this book was published October 2020. You can find it here: Research Methods in Psychology – 4th Edition

With this textbook, we introduce students to the fundamental principles of what it is like to think like a psychology researcher. We also hope to connect with the Canadian audience to show them the fantastic research being generated in Canada as well as provide them with an accurate picture of the Canadian context for ethical human research.

Research Methods in Psychology - 2nd Canadian Edition by Paul C. Price, Rajiv Jhangiani, & I-Chant A. Chiang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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© 2015 Paul C. Price, Rajiv Jhangiani, & I-Chant A. Chiang

This textbook is an adaptation of Research Methods of Psychology written by Paul C. Price (California State University, Fresno) and adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License  without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

This adaptation constitutes the second Canadian edition and was co-authored by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) and I-Chant A. Chiang (Quest University Canada) and licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License .

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research methods in psychology 2nd edition

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Research Methods in Psychology - 2nd Canadian Edition

(2 reviews)

research methods in psychology 2nd edition

Rajiv S. Jhangiani, Kwantlen Polytechnic University

I-Chant A. Chiang, Quest University Canada

Copyright Year: 2015

Publisher: BCcampus

Language: English

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Reviewed by Bettina Spencer, Professor of Psychology, Saint Mary's College on 12/4/23

This book covers all of the main topics in research methods for psychology students. I appreciate that it also includes sections on qualitative methods as well as how to present results. read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

This book covers all of the main topics in research methods for psychology students. I appreciate that it also includes sections on qualitative methods as well as how to present results.

Content Accuracy rating: 4

All of the information on methods is accurate, but the book references 6th edition APA style rather than 7th edition. As such, instructors will have to modify this particular portion although the general information about writing in APA style is good.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

Aside from the 6th edition APA style, this book is generally relevant and up to date. It does, however, often reference classic social psychology studies without addressing the limitations in the sampling.

Clarity rating: 5

This book is very clearly written and easily accessible. The sections on statistics are especially clear and organized, which is useful because this is an area students often need extra support in. All of the technical terminology throughout the book is thoroughly explained.

Consistency rating: 5

There is consistent writing and clarity throughout this book. The technical terms are consistent throughout the book which is good because we, psychologists, do sometimes use different jargon for the same thing depending on our subfield. The sections all build off of one another and reference back to each other in a way that makes the book easy to use.

Modularity rating: 5

An instructor could easily assign certain sections of the book. For example, you could just assign the chapter on experimental design, or research ethics, etc. without assigning the whole. There are times where a later section will reference a study that was used an example earlier, but it always restates the results so the reader does not have to actually go back and read the previous section,

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

This book is very well organized, beginning with theories and ethics, moving into the range of designs and approaches, and ending with how to present research and write statistics. The statistics sections almost feel like a bonus because students will most likely have taken a statistics course before taking a research methods course, so these parts serve as a good refresher.

Interface rating: 5

In the PDF version, sections are linked from the table of contents, and you can search and find specific sections quite easily.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

The writing is very clear with no grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 3

This book references many classic social psychology studies for it's examples, but many of those studies were conducted with white, middle-class Americans. These old studies can't be changed, but instructors should address the problems and limitations with these findings, and the book does not do that. It generally takes a "color blind" approach and does not really mention cultural differences, which is a problem for teaching. For example, topics such as how to collect and report demographics is much more complicated than reported in the book.

Reviewed by Lisa Elliott, Assistant Teaching Professor, Pennsylvania State University- The Behrend College on 2/1/18

The book covers all of the standard research methods topics that I cover in class. I believe that it is more comprehensive than most commercial texts as it includes how to write survey questions, a chapter on the significance/replicability... read more

The book covers all of the standard research methods topics that I cover in class. I believe that it is more comprehensive than most commercial texts as it includes how to write survey questions, a chapter on the significance/replicability discussion, and qualitative methodologies with grounded theory. In the past, I have added a separate lecture to discuss qualitative methodologies. I am glad to see it covered with comprehensiveness in this book. I also liked the indepth discussion of measurement in relation to statistical analysis, operationalizing, and developing new measures. This is a finer point that I cover in class but rarely see covered indepth in the text.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

My measure of accuracy, comprehensiveness, and clarity in a research methods textbook is how well the authors describe type I and type II errors. In this book, they use the metaphor of pregnancy: a type I error is a false positive such as when a man is diagnosed as pregnant; a type II error is a false negative such as when a clearly pregnant woman is diagnosed as not pregnant. This was illustrated very clearly with wonderful, tasteful photos. This difficult concept is the keystone for discussions on power and p value which are the topics that the authors tackle next. This example defines how carefully and well this book is written. If I were to place it next to publishers volumes of the same material. This book is better. It does a better job of describing important points in a coherent and clear manner. If there are mistakes, they must be very minor. All that I could find was a misspelled website url.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

The only concern about longevity is over the permanence of the urls referred to in the book. However, the book functions without the urls and they are easily updated by the instructor during the lecture. With the exception of the significance/replicability discussion, the material covered in a current methods course has remained consistent over the past decade. I don't foresee the significance/replicability discussion resolved in the near future. This is a challenge that students should be prepared to face as they begin as junior researchers. I appreciate the authors including this chapter in the book as I will use this book if only for these chapters. No commercial textbook that I know about has this information presented in such a clear and objective manner.

I enjoyed the writing. It was very clear and concise. It was much better than the usual textbooks that students are forced to muddle through. The authors used good examples which should be accessible to an undergraduate audience. I particularly like that the authors gave good examples and bad examples of important concepts. Then, they went into detail as to why particular items were good and what was good about them. They detailed why particular items were bad and what made them poor choices. Finally, they describe the outcome of bad choices in the larger scheme. There is much jargon in every methods textbook. These authors define things well in concrete terms. I particularly liked the clarity of writing in this book.

The chapters in this book all have the same format. The authors begin with a brief paragraph which focuses on a modern experiment or study. Then, they use that as a basis to describe the topic in detail. This approach introduces students to a variety of research in a very accessible way. Each chapter is formatted in this way. All of the chapters have sections which focus in detail on a particular topic. Then these topics are cross listed across the different chapters through hyperlinks. Each topic is short with a summary and a suggestion for exercises at the end.

Often, authors in Methods textbooks are unclear where to put important topics such as reliability, validity, operationalizing, what a p-value really means, and sampling. In the textbook that I currently use, the authors have put all of these items into one omnibus chapter. I find that I must go back to this chapter again throughout the semester and then search for the particular item within the chapter. I like how this book separates these items and concentrates on explaining them in depth. I also like how the authors chose to create hyperlinks to the other places in the book that used these items. This allows me, as the instructor, to reorder the chapters in a way that fits with the class. In some courses, not all chapters will be needed. I could use some chapters for a graduate course in methods along with another book. Then, I could use the same book in its entirety for the undergraduate course. Sometimes, I have students in a more advanced course who took Methods at a different university or not at all. I like that this book is free and modular. I can refer these students to this book for review before a qualifying exam or before an important lesson that relies on pre-existing methods knowledge.

I liked the order of the chapters. This is how i prefer to teach methods with the experiment chapters before the qualitative chapters. However, other instructors may like the opposite. The modularity of this book allows either approach. I also like that the book has hyperlinks between the chapters. Often, students will need to review reliability and validity when they get to quasi experimental designs (several chapters ahead). They will have forgotten this information. The hyperlinks make it easy to go back and review. The short sections also create an easiness that encourages exploration. Within the chapters, I like how the authors begin with a description of a study and then use that description to illustrate the points throughout the entire chapter. The descriptions are brief and interesting. Then, there is the APA citation at the bottom of the page. It is easy to look up the article this way. Other textbooks put all of the references at the back of the book. It is much more effortful to find an interesting article when the references are at the back. By the time that you have found it, you forget what you just read.

I liked that the book was available in a variety of formats. I downloaded the pdf on my smart phone and found it fairly easy to read. Although I could not set bookmarks and that was frustrating. I also like to make comments and notes in my books. I think with a different app, I would be able to do these things just fine. Maybe there could be a few recommendations for apps on the website and which format works best with which app. I like that students can download the book on their phone. Most of them do this anyway from the publishers website. For the important classes (in their mind), they also have the printed copy or they rent the printed copy too. With the pdf, they have the option to print it out.

I found no grammar or spelling errors. There was a link that seemed to be misspelled on page 71 the link to Hanover's Rescorla Wagner page.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

As an instructor who is a woman at a male dominated engineering school, sometimes the examples in psychology textbooks make me uncomfortable to discuss in class. This book's examples would not make me uncomfortable. There seems to be an equal number of men and women portrayed in the book as researchers and I don't sense a bias against any particular group. The writing is objective and sticks to the point without an agenda.

I wish that you had added a bit more about noisey data and maybe used some examples that had outliers. I also wish that you had discussed the issue of cherry picking.

Many commercial textbooks focus on research as a student's exploration or journey in science. Students misunderstand this perspective. I was very glad that you urge students to look for research ideas in the discussion section of peer reviewed articles, to base their methods on those that are previously published, and to use validated measures in their work. This approach trains students to rely on previous research and build on sound scientific foundations using theory. Thank you.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology

  • Understanding Science
  • Scientific Research in Psychology
  • Science and Common Sense
  • Science and Clinical Practice

Chapter 2: Getting Started in Research

  • Basic Concepts
  • Generating Good Research Questions
  • Reviewing the Research Literature

Chapter 3: Research Ethics

  • Moral Foundations of Ethical Research
  • From Moral Principles to Ethics Codes
  • Putting Ethics Into Practice

Chapter 4: Theory in Psychology

  • Phenomena and Theories
  • The Variety of Theories in Psychology
  • Using Theories in Psychological Research

Chapter 5: Psychological Measurement

  • Understanding Psychological Measurement
  • Reliability and Validity of Measurement
  • Practical Strategies for Psychological Measurement

Chapter 6: Experimental Research

  • Experiment Basics
  • Experimental Design
  • Conducting Experiments

Chapter 7: Nonexperimental Research

  • Overview of Nonexperimental Research
  • Correlational Research
  • Quasi-Experimental Research
  • Qualitative Research

Chapter 8: Complex Research Designs

  • Multiple Dependent Variables
  • Multiple Independent Variables
  • Complex Correlational Designs

Chapter 9: Survey Research

  • Overview of Survey Research
  • Constructing Survey Questionnaires
  • Conducting Surveys

Chapter 10: Single-Subject Research

  • Overview of Single-Subject Research
  • Single-Subject Research Designs
  • The Single-Subject Versus Group “Debate”

Chapter 11: Presenting Your Research

  • American Psychological Association (APA) Style
  • Writing a Research Report in American Psychological Association (APA) Style
  • Other Presentation Formats

Chapter 12: Descriptive Statistics

  • Describing Single Variables
  • Describing Statistical Relationships
  • Expressing Your Results
  • Conducting Your Analyses

Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics

  • Understanding Null Hypothesis Testing
  • Some Basic Null Hypothesis Tests
  • Additional Considerations
  • From the “Replicability Crisis” to Open Science Practices

Ancillary Material

About the book.

The present adaptation constitutes the second Canadian edition and was co-authored by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) and I-Chant A. Chiang (Quest University Canada) and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Revisions include the following:

Chapter 1: Added a description of the “Many Labs Replication Project,” added a reference to the Neurobonkers website, and embedded videos about open access publishing, driver distraction, two types of empirical studies, and the use of evidence to evaluate the world around us. Chapter 2: Updated the exemplar study in the chapter overview, added relevant examples and descriptions of contemporary studies, provided a link to an interactive visualization for correlations, added a description of double-blind peer review, added a figure to illustrate a spurious correlation, and embedded videos about how to develop a good research topic, searching the PsycINFO database, using Google Scholar, and how to read an academic paper. Chapter 3: Added in LaCour ethical violation. Revised chapter headings and order to reflect TCPS-2 moral principles. Chapter 4: Added in difference between laws and effects and theoretical framework. Chapter 5: Added fuller descriptions of the levels of measurement, added a table to summarize the levels of measurement, added a fuller description of the MMPI, removed the discussion of the IAT, and added descriptions of concurrent, predictive, and convergent validity. Chapter 6: Added in construct validity, statistical validity, mundane realism, psychological realism, Latin Square Design. Updated references. Chapter 7: Added in mixed-design studies and fuller discussion of qualitative-quantitative debate. Chapter 8: Added an exercise to sketch the 8 possible results of a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Chapter 9: Added information about Canadian Election Studies, more references, specific guidelines about order and open-ended questions, and rating scale. Updated online survey creation sites. Chapter 11: Updated examples and links to online resources. Chapter 13: Added discussion of p-curve and BASP announcement about banning p-values. Added a section that introduces the “replicability crisis” in psychology, along with discussions of questionable research practices, best practices in research design and data management, and the emergence of open science practices and Transparency and Openness Promotion guidelines.

Glossary of key terms: Added.

In addition, throughout the textbook, we revised the language to be more precise and to improve flow, added links to other chapters, added images, updated hyperlinks, corrected spelling and formatting errors, and changed references to reflect the contemporary Canadian context.

About the Contributors

Rajiv S. Jhangiani . Faculty member in the Department of Psychology at Kwantlen Polytechnic University, where I conduct research on open education, the scholarship of teaching and learning, and political psychology.

I am also an Open Learning Faculty Member at Thompson Rivers University, an OER Research Fellow with the Open Education Group, and an Associate Editor of Psychology Learning & Teaching. I formerly served as the Associate Editor of NOBA Psychology and as a Faculty Fellow with the BC Open Textbook Project

My professional affiliations include the Association for Psychological Science, the Society for the Teaching of Psychology, the Society for Personality & Social Psychology, the Social Psychology Network, Sigma Xi, and the International Society of Political Psychology.

I-Chant A. Chiang . Growing up in a bilingual environment was the start of I-Chant’s interest in the intersection of language, culture, and thinking. Through studying English, she pursued her love of literature, writing and words. At the same time, I-Chant became fascinated with studying human behaviour through psychology. She received a BA and BS from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign before heading to Stanford University for an MA and PhD in psychology. Her dual interests are combined by studying the psychology of language in the context of other disciplines, such as political science, communication, and education. Prior to Quest, I-Chant was at Aberystwyth University in Wales where she was a founding member of their psychology department. She recently published a textbook, Research Methods in Psychology – 2nd Canadian Edition, and an edited volume, Explorations in Political Psychology.

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Book Title: Research Methods in Psychology

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Authors: Paul C. Price, Rajiv S. Jhangiani, and I-Chant A. Chiang

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Research Methods in Psychology: Investigating Human Behavior

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Research Methods in Psychology: Investigating Human Behavior Second Edition

There is a newer edition of this item:.

Research Methods in Psychology: Investigating Human Behavior

The Second Edition of Paul G. Nestor and Russell K. Schutt’s successful and unique Research Methods in Psychology: Investigating Human Behavior draws from substantive research stories to illustrate how research is presented while systematically unifying the entire research process within a conceptual framework. This accessible text examines engaging research studies and examples, considering research ethics throughout.

"This is a great text that emphasizes the important concepts within research methods. The resources are excellent; they incorporate up-to-date research and technology and introduce the student to empirical articles, and the information is presented in a way that challenges the student to apply the material."

―Maria Pacella , Kent State University

"The text is comprehensive. It covers a wide variety of information without being overwhelming. This is a very good textbook for an introductory course in research methods. I like that its focus is on psychological research specifically."

―Angela M. Heads , Prairie View A&M University

  • ISBN-10 1483343766
  • ISBN-13 978-1483343761
  • Edition Second
  • Publisher SAGE Publications, Inc
  • Publication date March 12, 2014
  • Language English
  • Dimensions 8.25 x 0.75 x 10.25 inches
  • Print length 448 pages
  • See all details

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Editorial Reviews

About the author.

Paul G. Nestor, PhD , is professor of psychology at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, and assistant professor in psychology in the department of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. A summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Boston University, he earned his MA and PhD in clinical psychology from The Catholic University of America, and was a postdoctoral fellow in the National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Research Training Program at Harvard Medical School. His peer-reviewed publications cover a variety of areas in behavioral science, including neuropsychology, structural and functional neuroimaging, attention, memory, personality, forensic psychology, and schizophrenia. He has authored or co-authored over one- hundred peer-reviewed articles in some of the most prominent journals. His research has been federally supported by competitive grants from both the National Institute of Mental Health and the Department of Veterans Affairs. He is a past recipient of a Veterans Administration Merit Review Award, “Cognitive Neuroscience Studies of Schizophrenia.” He is also the past recipient of the University of Massachusetts, Boston Chancellor’s Award for Distinguished Scholarship for his research in psychology. His teaching has been recognized by the University of Massachusetts, Boston College of Arts and Sciences’ Outstanding Faculty Achievement Award. Nestor also has experience in media presentation for both television and radio, including having his research featured on the Discovery Channel and on WUMB. He is a licensed psychologist in Massachusetts, specializing in clinical psychology, neuropsychology, and forensic psychology.

Russell K. Schutt , PhD, is Professor of Sociology at the University of Massachusetts Boston; Clinical Research Scientist I at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; and Lecturer (part-time) in the Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School. He completed his BA, MA, and PhD degrees at the University of Illinois at Chicago and his postdoctoral fellowship in the Sociology of Social Control Training Program at Yale University. In addition to co-authoring The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice and Fundamentals of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice (with Ronet Bachman), he is the author of Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research and Understanding the Social World: Research Methods for the 21st Century, and co-author of Making Sense of the Social World (with Dan Chambliss), Research Methods in Psychology (with Paul G. Nestor), The Practice of Research in Social Work and Fundamentals of Social Work Research (with Ray Engel), and Research Methods in Education (with Joseph Check), all with SAGE Publications, as well as author of Homelessness, Housing, and Mental Illness and Organization in a Changing Environment, coeditor of Social Neuroscience: Brain, Mind, and Society and of The Organizational Response to Social Problems, and coauthor of Responding to the Homeless: Policy and Practice. He has authored and coauthored more than 65 peer-reviewed journal articles as well as many book chapters and research reports on homelessness, mental health, service preferences and satisfaction, organizations, and the sociology of law. His current and most recent research includes a $200,000 National Science Foundation-funded study of the social impact of the pandemic in Boston, with collaborators at the Center for Survey Research (UMass Boston) and Northeastern University, a $3.8 million randomized comparative effectiveness trial of two socially-oriented interventions to improve community functioning among persons diagnosed with serious mental illness, funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center with collaborators at the Harvard Medical School, and a $1 million Veterans Health Administration-funded study of peer support with colleagues at the University of Massachusetts Medical School  and the VA.  His past research has been funded by the National Cancer Institute, the Veterans Health Administration, the National Institute of Mental Health, the Fetzer Institute, and state agencies. Details are available at https://blogs.umb.edu/russellkschutt/ .

Product details

  • Publisher ‏ : ‎ SAGE Publications, Inc; Second edition (March 12, 2014)
  • Language ‏ : ‎ English
  • Paperback ‏ : ‎ 448 pages
  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1483343766
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1483343761
  • Item Weight ‏ : ‎ 1.8 pounds
  • Dimensions ‏ : ‎ 8.25 x 0.75 x 10.25 inches
  • #771 in Medical Psychology Research
  • #783 in Popular Psychology Research
  • #8,564 in Medical General Psychology

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Research Methods in Psychology

Investigating human behavior, student resources, about the book.

The Second Edition of Paul G. Nestor and Russell K. Schutt’s successful and unique Research Methods in Psychology: Investigating Human Behavior draws from substantive research stories to illustrate how research is presented while systematically unifying the entire research process within a conceptual framework. This accessible text examines engaging research studies and examples, considering research ethics throughout.

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About this Book

This textbook is an adaptation of one written by [unnamed original author] and adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License  without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee. The original text is available here:  http://www.saylor.org/site/textbooks/

The first Canadian edition (published in 2013) was authored by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License . Revisions included the addition of a table of contents, changes to Chapter 3 (Research Ethics) to include a contemporary example of an ethical breach and to reflect Canadian ethical guidelines and privacy laws, additional information regarding online data collection in Chapter 9 (Survey Research), corrections of errors in the text and formulae, spelling changes from US to Canadian conventions, the addition of a cover page, and other necessary formatting adjustments.

The second Canadian edition (published in 2015) was co-authored by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) and I-Chant A. Chiang (Quest University Canada) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License . Revisions included:  (throughout) language revision, spelling & formatting, additional video links and website links, interactive visualizations, figures, tables, and examples; (Chapter 1) the Many Labs Replication Project; (Chapter 2) double-blind peer review, contemporary literature databases, how to read academic papers; (Chapter 3) Canadian ethics; (Chapter 4) laws, effects, theory; (Chapter 5) fuller description of the MMPI, removal of IAT, validity descriptions; (Chapter 6) validity & realism descriptions, Latin Square design; (Chapter 7) Mixed-design studies, qualitative-quantitative debate; (Chapter 8) 2 × 2 factorial exercise; (Chapter 9) Canadian Election Studies, order and open-ended questions; (Chapter 13) p-curve and BASP announcement about banning p-values; “replicability crisis” in psychology; (Glossary) added key terms.

The second U.S. edition (published in 2017) was authored by Dana C. Leighton (Southern Arkansas University) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License . Revisions included reversion of spelling from Canadian English to U.S. English and the addition of a cover photo: “Great Wave off Kanagawa”  after Katsushika Hokusai (葛飾北斎) is public domain.

The third U.S. edition (published in 2017) was authored by Carrie Cuttler (Washington State University) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License . Revisions included general reorganization, language revision, spelling, formatting, additional video links, and examples throughout. More specifically, the overall model section was moved from Chapter 1 to Chapter 2, new sections were added to Chapter 1 on methods of knowing and goals of science, and a link on the replication crisis in psychology was added to Chapter 1. Chapter 2 was also reorganized by moving the section on reviewing the research literature to earlier in the chapter and taking sections from Chapter 4 (on theories and hypotheses), moving them to Chapter 2, and cutting the remainder of Chapter 4. Sections of Chapter 2 on correlation were also moved to Chapter 6. New sections on characteristics of good research questions, an overview of experimental vs. non-experimental research, a description of field vs. lab studies, and making conclusions were also added to Chapter 2. Chapter 3 was expanded by adding a definition of anonymity, elaborating on the Belmont Report (the principles of respect for persons and beneficence were added), and adding a link to a clip dispelling the myth that vaccines cause autism. Sections from Chapter 4 (on defining theories and hypotheses) were moved to Chapter 2 and the remainder of the previous Chapter 4 (on phenomenon, theories, and hypotheses) was cut. Chapter 5 was reorganized by moving the sections on four types of validity, manipulation checks, and placebo effects to later in the chapter. Descriptions of single factor two-level designs, single factor multi-level designs, matched-groups designs, order effects, and random counterbalancing were added to Chapter 5 and the concept of statistical validity was expanded upon. Chapter 6 was also reorganized by moving sections describing correlation coefficients from Chapters 2 and 12 to Chapter 6. The section of the book on complex correlation was also moved to Chapter 6 and the section on quasi-experiments was moved from Chapter 6 to its own chapter (Chapter 8). The categories of non-experimental research described in Chapter 6 were change to cross-sectional, correlational, and observational research. Chapter 6 was further expanded to describe cross-sectional studies, partial correlation, simple regression, the use of regression to make predictions, case studies, participant observation, disguised and undisguised observation, and structured observation. The terms independent variable and dependent variable as used in the context of regression were changed to predictor variable and outcome/criterion variable respectively. A distinction between proportionate stratified sampling and disproportionate stratified sampling was added to Chapter 7. The section on quasi-experimental designs was moved to its own chapter (Chapter 8) and was elaborated upon to include instrumentation and testing as threats to internal validity of one-group pretest-posttest designs, and to include sections describing the one-group posttest only design, pretest-posttest nonequivalent groups design, interrupted time-series with nonequivalent groups design, pretest-posttest design with switching replication, and switching replication with treatment removal designs. The section of Chapter 9 on factorial designs was split into two sections and the remainder of the chapter was moved or cut. Further, examples of everyday interactions were added and a description of simple effects was added to Chapter 9. The section on case studies that appeared in Chapter 10 was edited and moved to Chapter 6.  Further, labels were added to multiple-baseline across behaviours, settings, and participants designs, and a concluding paragraph on converging evidence was added to Chapter 10. Only minor edits were made to the remaining chapters (Chapters 11, 12, and 13).

This fourth edition (published in 2019) was co-authored by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University), Carrie Cuttler (Washington State University), and Dana C. Leighton (Texas A&M University—Texarkana) and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License . Revisions throughout the current edition include changing the chapter and section numbering system to better accommodate adaptions that remove or reorder chapters; continued reversion from the Canadian edition; general grammatical edits; replacement of “he/she” to “they” and “his/her” to “their”; removal or update of dead links; embedded videos that were not embedded; moved key takeaways and exercises from the end of each chapter section to the end of each chapter; a new cover design. In addition, the following revisions were made to specific chapters:

  • Updated list of empirically supported therapies.
  • Added description of follow-up research by Drews, Pasupathi, and Strayer (2004) demonstrating that cell phone conversations while driving carry a greater risk than conversations with a passenger
  • Added the term meta-analysis along with a definition of this term
  • Replaced terms men and women with males and females
  • Updated the description of the number of records returned with different search terms to a broader description of the relative number of records (that will not change as more articles are added to PsychINFO)
  • Replaced the term “operationally define” variables with a more general statement about measuring variables since the term operational definition is not formally defined until later in the text
  • Added a citation for Zajonc’s (1965) research
  • Added a brief description of factors (i.e., small sample size, stringent alpha level) that increase the likelihood of a Type II error.
  • Removed titles of tables in references to tables
  • Added statement that many people, including children, have died as a result of people avoiding the MMR vaccine
  • Added a statement about self-plagiarizing being unethical and provided an example of submitting the same assignment in multiple classes
  • Explained the respect for persons principle
  • Revised the levels of IRB review to match terminology used in federal regulations
  • Footnotes for references were made actual footnotes in Pressbooks
  • Removed potentially offensive or stigmatizing examples
  • Clarified definition of levels of measurement
  • Added citations for the various scales described
  • Added further description of why IQ is measured on an interval scale
  • Added descriptions of the indicators of central tendency that are appropriate to compute and report for each of the scales of measure (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio)
  • Added a paragraph on operationally defining the construct that reviews the process of transferring a conceptual definition to something that can be directly observed and measured
  • Added brief description of PsycTESTS and link to these tests
  • Removed the statement that family and friends can serve as good pilot subjects
  • Clarified the distinction between independent and dependent variables
  • Moved up the discussion of a control condition
  • Briefly discussed research ethics within the description of the study by Guéguen & de Gail (2003)
  • More clearly defined a power analysis and emphasized the importance of conducting one
  • Referenced confounds within the discussion of internal validity
  • Noted that within-subjects experiments require fewer participants
  • Removed duplicate reference
  • Added citations
  • Updated language
  • Clarified when non-experimental approaches are appropriate
  • Added information about Milgram’s non-experimental study of obedience to authority
  • Added a discussion of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-sequential studies
  • Revised organization of non-experimental approaches
  • Removed description of experimenter-selected independent variable
  • Specified types of variables that may be measured in correlational research
  • Added an example of a correlational study that uses categorical variables
  • Added a factor analysis table
  • Listed more examples of nonstatistical data analysis techniques
  • Added a table to summarize some differences between quantitative and qualitative research
  • Described some group dynamics and personality characteristics that might influence participation in focus groups
  • Discussed Festinger’s research on cognitive dissonance that used disguised participant observation
  • Described the Hawthorne effect
  • Added an example of a study that used structured observation within a laboratory environment
  • Clarified language concerning data collection methods vs. research designs
  • Mentioned randomizing the order of presentation of questions as another way of reducing response order effects
  • Explained reverse coding
  • Described additional types of non-probability sampling
  • Reiterated the importance of conducting a power analysis
  • Added common online data collection sites
  • Discussed how the inclusion of a control group rules out threats to internal validity within a one-group design study
  • Clarified discussion of non-experimental factorial designs.
  • Chapter 10: No substantive changes
  • Added regional psychology association conferences to list of conferences
  • Condensed and clarified discussion of final manuscripts
  • Updated discussion of open sharing of results to acknowledge some journals that require open data
  • Added explanation of person-first language
  • Corrected erroneous APA style recommendations and added references to specific Publication Manual sections
  • Standardized the use of the terms “figure” and “chart” to better correspond with APA style
  • Minor changes to discussion of poster formatting
  • Moved list of conferences to end of discussion to not break up the material
  • Defined p-hacking and clarified discussion of p-hacking
  • Made definition of p -value more technically correct

Research Methods in Psychology Copyright © 2019 by Rajiv S. Jhangiani, I-Chant A. Chiang, Carrie Cuttler, & Dana C. Leighton is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Research Methods in Psychology (2nd Edition)

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The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology

The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology

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The second edition of the SAGE  Handbook of Qualitative Research is an extraordinary compendium of the central current issues in qualitative research in psychology. Capturing the diversity and plurality of qualitative methods of investigation, this updated handbook also considers matters such as ethics and reflexivity shared across methods. Newly revised to include recent work in the burgeoning field of qualitative inquiry, it will be an essential companion for both new and experienced qualitative researchers.  Qualitative researchers in psychology owe a debt of gratitude to these editors for pulling this together. 

This is a very welcome and timely second edition of the highly-regarded SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology . In the nine years since it was first published in 2008, qualitative research in psychology has flourished into a rich, diverse and vibrant field.  As the Editors of this Handbook note, there is a sense of sophistication that has evolved throughout these recent developments. There is also an increased confidence that can be seen across this updated Handbook, from the editors’ valuable framing of the field at the start through to the revised chapters and the inclusion of three new chapters. Notable additions to the Handbook include a chapter devoted to interpretation issues in qualitative research, new approaches to thematic analysis, developments and progress around metasynthesis, netnography and the implications of rapidly developing information and communication technologies for qualitative research. 

This Handbook will be highly valuable for a range of audiences, including for students in psychology and other social science disciplines, but also for academics, practitioners and activists (and indeed essential reading for many). It provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-play in qualitative research in psychology, covers a range of diverse methodologies, outlines key approaches and perspectives, and describes applications to specific subfields of psychology.  It doesn’t shy away from the many big questions, tensions, complexities and debates that are involved in qualitative research, including the range of positions and approaches that exist regarding epistemology, ethics and politics, and the varying priorities that different people bring to research. Rather it engages with these issues directly and in an accessible and welcoming manner, ensuring this Handbook will function as the clear and reliable guide for both novices and experienced researchers.  In this sense it is highly successful in meeting its purpose to “help its readers to gain a sense of the territory and to enable them to make well-informed methodological theoretical and ideological choices” (Stainton Rogers & Willig, p4).

The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology is comprehensive and bold, celebrating the wide range of methods, approaches, perspectives and applications among qualitative research in psychology.  Written by leading psychologists, this handbook covers what are now well established qualitative methods while considering methodological changes required by contemporary developments, such as social media and the routine recording of people at work, blurring the distinctions between public and private and research and everyday practice.

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The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology

  • By: Carla Willig & Wendy Stainton Rogers
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd
  • Publication year: 2017
  • Online pub date: December 18, 2017
  • Discipline: Psychology
  • Methods: Narrative research , Theory , Grounded theory
  • DOI: https:// doi. org/10.4135/9781526405555
  • Keywords: community psychology , cultural psychology , developmental psychology , forensic psychology , health psychology , knowledge , social theory Show all Show less
  • Print ISBN: 9781473925212
  • Online ISBN: 9781526405555
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Subject index

The Second Edition of The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology provides comprehensive coverage of the qualitative methods, strategies, and research issues in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology has been transformed since the first edition's publication. Responding to this evolving field, existing chapters have been updated while three new chapters have been added on Thematic Analysis, Interpretation, and Netnography. With a focus on methodological progress throughout, the chapters are organised into three sections: Section One: Methods Section Two: Perspectives and Techniques Section Three: Applications In the field of psychology and beyond, this handbook will constitute a valuable resource for both experienced qualitative researchers and novices for many years to come.

Front Matter

  • Editorial Board
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • List of Boxes
  • Notes on the Editors and Contributors
  • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 1: Introduction

Part I: METHODOLOGIES

  • Chapter 2: Thematic Analysis
  • Chapter 3: Ethnography
  • Chapter 4: Action Research
  • Chapter 5: Conversation Analysis
  • Chapter 6: Discursive Psychology
  • Chapter 7: Foucauldian Discourse Analysis
  • Chapter 8: Psychoanalytic Approaches to Qualitative Psychology
  • Chapter 9: Memory Work
  • Chapter 10: Narrative Inquiry
  • Chapter 11: The Descriptive Phenomenological Psychological Method
  • Chapter 12: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
  • Chapter 13: Q Methodology
  • Chapter 14: Grounded Theory Methods for Qualitative Psychology

Part II: PERSPECTIVES AND APPROACHES

  • Chapter 15: Ethics in Qualitative Psychological Research
  • Chapter 16: Interpretation in Qualitative Research
  • Chapter 17: Qualitative Methods in Feminist Psychology
  • Chapter 18: Postcolonialism and Psychology: Growing Interest and Promising Potential
  • Chapter 19: Community Psychology
  • Chapter 20: Social Representations
  • Chapter 21: Visual Approaches: Using and Interpreting Images
  • Chapter 22: Netnography: Radical Participative Understanding for a Networked Communications Society
  • Chapter 23: Using Computer Packages in Qualitative Research: Exemplars, Developments and Challenges
  • Chapter 24: Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: A Pragmatic Approach

Part III: APPLICATIONS

  • Chapter 25: Social Psychology
  • Chapter 26: Health Psychology
  • Chapter 27: Developmental Psychology
  • Chapter 28: Clinical Psychology
  • Chapter 29: Qualitative Research in Counselling and Psychotherapy: History, Methods, Ethics and Impact
  • Chapter 30: Qualitative Methods in Organizational Psychology
  • Chapter 31: Forensic Psychology
  • Chapter 32: Cultural Psychology
  • Chapter 33: Cognitive Psychology
  • Chapter 34: Review and Prospect

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ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Cultural and educational environment in the development of younger schoolchildren’s creative potential.

Vera Yu. Khotinets

  • 1 Department of General Psychology, Institute of Pedagogy, Psychology and Social Technologies, Udmurt State University, Izhevsk, Russia
  • 2 Department of Educational Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

The purpose of our research is to study the creative potential as psychological capacities for younger schoolchildren’s creative self-realization and self-development in various conditions of the educational environment. The methodological basis of this work is Vygotsky’s conceptual provisions according to which the human psyche is culturally determined, and a sociocultural environment is considered to be the main source and condition for the child’s mental development. The study involved younger schoolchildren (a total of 160 children from the 4th grade aged 9–10 years, n  = 160, M  = 9.5 years, SD = 2.6; 49% boys) from schools in Kazan (Russian Federation). We used a test of verbal creativity when studying the creative potential of younger schoolchildren, the proposed method is a Russian-language adapted version of the RAT test (remote association test) by Mednik. The Johnson Creativity Inventory was used as adapted by Tunick. To study the level of communicative control, the test “Diagnostics of communicative control” by Schneider was used. To assess the personal qualities of younger students, we used a modified version of the children’s personality questionnaire intended for 8–12 year-old children and developed by Cattell and Koan. As a result of a comprehensive expert assessment, we identified four types of schools with different severity degrees of essential characteristics of educational environments: serene, dogmatic, career and creative. According to the analysis of variance (one-dimensional one-factor ANOVA), the younger schoolchildren’s creative potential was revealed in the context of the educational environment variability and the contingency of the educational environment parameters with the personal characteristics of the children. We have empirically confirmed that in a creative educational environment with cultural content based on ethno-cultural values, patterns and norms, the development of the child is actively supported largely, with the disclosure of his creative potential. Younger schoolchildren are characterized by greater subjective agency and the capability to gain unique achievements in educational and cognitive activity.

1. Introduction

Research problem. One of the focuses in current research is the problem of creating a system of conditions for the personality formation. This system provides positive opportunities and various options for choosing the optimal trajectory of the personality development, which places the concept of “cultural and educational environment” among the basic ones in a modern developmental education. An educational environment is studied as a component of the social situation of the child mental development and as a condition for its personal development ( Leontyev, 1975 ; Vygotsky, 1999 , 2005 ; Yasvin, 2010 ; Veraksa, 2018 ; Veraksa et al., 2019 ; Rubtsov and Ulanovskaya, 2022 and others). However, the research into the influence that educational systems exert on the child’s intellectual, emotional and personal development primarily focuses on the consideration of theoretical aspects, there are very few empirical studies of the educational environment developing potential, which is specific to each educational institution. Existing studies, devoted to this problem, are very contradictory, they do not take into account the current reforms in the field of education ( Rubtsov and Ulanovskaya, 2022 ). In this regard, of primary importance for educational psychology is the problem of assessing the quality of education in educational institutions that provide specific conditions and development opportunities for the subjects of education. This accounts for the significance of the research into the creative potential of a growing person, the need to further explore the social situation of development and the conditions for the ontogenesis of creativity, potentially contributing to its formation. By a cultural and educational environment we mean a system of conditions and opportunities for the development of subjects of education with cultural content ( Khotinets and Medvedeva, 2021 ). Creative potential at primary school age is understood as an integrative quality, reflecting the measure of the younger schoolchild’s creative self-realization and self-development ability ( Veraksa, 1990 ). Primary school age is the period most open to various changes. A change in the leading activity promotes “the erasure” of past experiences, laying a new foundation for the child’s personality. During this period, the younger schoolchild is most sensitive to the formation of a cognitive attitude to the world, the manifestation of free personal expression, the development of creative abilities, and communicative creativity, which ensures the creative nature of communication and communicative activity of the child ( Runco and Acar, 2012 ; Runco et al., 2020 ; Khotinets et al., 2022 ; Shishova and Akhatova, 2022 etc.). According to Vygotsky’s theoretical provisions concerning the systemic nature of the higher mental functions’ development, at the early school age, thinking becomes a “system-forming” function moving from the visual-figurative to its verbal-logical type, which undoubtedly affects other mental functions seeking to occupy the center of consciousness. The change in the system of internal relationships allows the central function to become more differentiated and developed. At this time, other mental processes function as processes serving the formation of the central function. Thus, the complexity of interfunctional relationships and the differentiation of mental functions gradually increase. To acquire higher mental functions, it is necessary to transfer and assimilate knowledge about their structures in an organized educational environment through specially organized training ( Vygotsky, 1999 ).

In the context of studying a growing person’s creative potential, the problems identified by Vygotsky remain relevant today: “the relationship between learning and development at school age,” “the social situation of development,” “mechanisms for the practical mastery of reality.” According to Vygotsky, it is “learning that creates the zone of proximal development, that is, it brings up the child’s interest in life, awakens and sets in motion a whole series of internal development processes that are so far possible for the child only in the sphere of its relationships with others and through its cooperation with peers, but which, performing the internal course of development, later become the child’s own internal property” ( Vygotsky, 1935 , p. 16). The “social situation of development” is understood as “a completely peculiar, specific for a given age, exclusive, unique and inimitable relationship between the child and the reality surrounding it, primarily the social one” ( Vygotsky, 1984 , p. 258). This social reality is “the main source of development” when the social becomes the individual.

1.1. Literature review

According to Vygotsky, “in the child’s development, the outcomes that we are to achieve at the end of the development, as a result of this development, are already given in the environment from the very beginning” ( Vygotsky, 2001 , p. 83). “The greatest feature of the child’s development is that this development takes place in such conditions of interaction with the environment, when the ideal form, the final (cultural) form that should appear at the end of development, not only exists in the environment and comes into contact with the child from the very beginning, but also actually interacts with it, influencing the primary (natural) form, the first steps of the child’s development, i.e., something that should take shape at the very end of the development somehow influences the very first stages of this development” ( Vygotsky, 2001 , pp. 83–84).

Answering to the question about the role of the educational environment in the mental and personal development of the child, Vygotsky said that “in relation to the development of higher human-specific properties and forms of activity, the environment acts as a source of this development, i.e., it is the interaction with the environment that is the source generating these properties in the child” ( Vygotsky, 2001 , p. 88).

According to Vygotsky, “the best stimulus for children’s creativity is the organization of their life and environment in such a way that it creates the needs and opportunities for children’s creativity” ( Vygotsky, 2004 , pp. 57–58). The meaning and significance of children’s creativity lies in the fact that it allows the child to overcome that tough challenge in the development of creative imagination, which gives a new and lifelong direction to his fantasy. The meaning of children’s creativity is its effect of deepening, expanding and cleansing of the child’s emotional life. The significance of children’s creativity is its ability to allow the child, by exercising its creative aspirations and skills, to master human speech - the most subtle and complex instrument for the formation and transmission of human thoughts, human feelings, human inner world ( Vygotsky, 2004 , pp. 60–61).

Vygotsky highlights the importance of cultivating creativity at school age. A person can comprehend his whole future with the help of creative imagination. His orientation in the future, his behavior, based on the future and proceeding from this future, is the main function of the imagination. And since pedagogical work is mainly oriented toward preparing the students’ behavior for the future, the development and exercise of their imagination are the main driving forces in realizing this goal. The shaping of a creative personality, aspiring to the future, is prepared by creative imagination embodied in the present ( Vygotsky, 2004 , p. 78).

This report argues that a national strategy for creative and cultural education is essential to that process. We put the case for developing creative and cultural education; we consider what is involved; we look at current provision and assess the opportunities and obstacles; and we set out a national strategy. By creative education we mean forms of education that develop young peopleʻs capacities for original ideas and action: by cultural education we mean forms of education that enable them to engage positively with the growing complexity and diversity of social values and ways of life. We argue that there are important relationships between creative and cultural education, and significant implications for methods of teaching and assessment, the balance of the school curriculum and for partnerships between schools and the wider world ( The National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education (NACCCE), 1999 ).

This report argues that a national strategy for creative and cultural education is essential to that process. We put the case for developing creative and cultural education; we consider what is involved; we look at current provision and assess the opportunities and obstacles; and we set out a national strategy. By creative education we mean forms of education that develop young peopleʻs capacities for original ideas and action: by cultural education we mean forms of education that enable them to engage positively with the growing complexity and diversity of social values and ways of life. We argue that there are important relationships between creative and cultural education, and significant implications for methods of teaching and assessment, the balance of the school curriculum and for partnerships between schools and the wider world.

In modern educational theory, creativity, as the ability to build a unique product, create new, unique solutions to complex problems and approaches to challenging tasks, is a students’ priority competence ( Rotherham and Willingham, 2010 ; Donovan et al., 2014 ). Based on the results of a review of modern publications on creativity in education, we identify a number of research areas, which include the study of trends in the development of creative potential, creative abilities and cognitive styles; environmental conditions that promote or hinder creativity; links between creativity and learning models; development of techniques teaching creativity (creative learning’, teaching for creativity) and technologies aiming to increase creativity and unlock creative potential ( Runco, 2007 ; Newton and Beverton, 2012 ; Newton and Newton, 2014 ; Gruszka and Tang, 2017 ; Runco et al., 2020 ). The most important factors that determine the child’s creativity ( Lebuda et al., 2021 ) are creative potential and creative abilities ( Kim, 2005 ), general cognitive abilities ( Zabelina and Ganis, 2018 ; Gerwig et al., 2021 ), specific skills in a particular subject area ( Simonton, 2009 ; Szen-Ziemiańska et al., 2017 ; Ahmed and Feist, 2021 ); learning ( Kaufman and Kaufman, 2007 ; Agoguéa et al., 2014 ) in an enriched cultural and educational environment ( Vygotsky, 2001 ).

At the same time, experts in the field of modern education and educational policy are faced with a certain kind of contradiction. On the one hand, the research highlights the important role of education in encouraging and developing children’s creativity ( Thurlings et al., 2015 ). On the other hand, due to diversification (variability of educational services and educational curricula, types and kinds of educational institutions, teaching methods and techniques) and standardized testing of basic skills, children’s creativity actually decreases as they move along their educational trajectory ( Robinson, 2011 ; Kupers et al., 2019 ).

We believe that by finding answers to our research questions we will be able to resolve the identified contradictions.

In our research, Vygotsky’s theory is implemented by means of fundamentally important theoretical provisions:

1. A creative cultural and educational environment, as an accumulator of psychological tools, is the source of the child’s mental and personal development.

2. Higher mental functions, as a result of the internalization of psychological tools, are formed in learning by assimilating historically developed methods and forms of activity, both as a way of the student’s interaction with the educational environment, and as a form of the student’s cooperation with others.

3. In order to create a zone of proximal development and to give rise to a number of internal development processes, we need a properly constructed school education and a properly organized educational environment.

1.2. Aims and objectives of the research

The purpose of our research is to study the creative potential as psychological capacities for younger schoolchildren’s creative self-realization and self-development in various conditions of the educational environment.

1.3. Research objectives

1. Conduct a comprehensive expert assessment of the educational environment qualitative parameters, identifying four types of schools with different severity of characteristics: serene, dogmatic, career and creative.

2. Identify indicators of younger schoolchildren’s creative potential and personal qualities in accordance with the variable parameters of the educational environment.

2. Materials and methods

The methodological basis of this work is the conceptual provisions of Vygotsky’s cultural-historical psychology. We distinguish both external determinants (a specially organized educational environment) and internal factors, whose actions explain such phenomena as the zones of actual, proximal and further development.

2.1. Schools and participants

Our study of junior schoolchildren’s creative potential was conducted on the basis of Kazan state schools corresponding to various pedagogical models of organizing education (a gymnasium with in-depth study of individual subjects - English, biology, mathematics and physics; “Specialized Olympiad and Scientific Center ‘Sun’,” a general education boarding school; two schools with a general education curricula).

Nine experts assessed the school educational environment using Yasvin’s method of vector modeling: psychologists and teachers of educational institutions, university professors and master students of Kazan. All diagnostic procedures were carried out in full accordance with the diagnostic standard: using uniform forms, instructions and stimulus materials. The reliability of the study results was ensured by the preliminary training of experts in a series of workshops that were devoted to the development of a consensus assessment. We revealed a high degree of consistency in observations found in the experts’ assessments.

Our empirical study included 160 4th grade students without developmental delays or disabilities, aged 9–10 years ( n  = 160, M  = 9.5 years, SD = 2.6; 49% boys), with written parental consent; among them 40 children were from the gymnasium with in-depth study of individual subjects - English, biology, mathematics and physics (17 boys, 23 girls), their parents’ education: 78% - higher, 22% - secondary vocational, the family social status: 45% - workers, 15% - engineers, employees, 40% - entrepreneurs, businessmen; 40 children were from the general education boarding school “Specialized Olympiad-Scientific Center ‘Sun’” (21 boys, 19 girls), their parents’ education: 83% - higher, 17% - specialized secondary; the family social status: 70% - workers, 13% - engineers, employees, 17% - entrepreneurs, businessmen; 80 children studied according to the general education curriculum (40 boys, 40 girls), their parents’ education: 58% - higher, 42% - specialized secondary; the family social status: 87% - workers, 3% - engineers, employees, 10% - entrepreneurs, businessmen.

2.2. Measures

2.2.1. assessment of the schools’ educational environment.

To study the features of the educational environment, Yasvin identifies 11 parameters (five ‘main’ characteristics: breadth, intensity, modality, degree of awareness and stability, and six ‘secondary’ characteristics: emotionality, generality, dominance, coherence, mobility and agency). This method is characterized by the construction of a vector that corresponds to a certain type of educational environment. This operation is carried out after counting up the answers to diagnostic questions: three of them aim to determine the opportunities for the student’s free development in the educational environment, and three more show the availability of opportunities for the development of the child’s agency. Further, in the coordinate system (agency-inaction, freedom-dependence), a vector is built showing the type of environment, which constitutes modality as a feature of the educational environment.

Diagnostic questions and interpretation of the answers.

For the “freedom-dependency” axis:

1. Whose interests and values come first in this educational environment?

(a) personality; (b) society (group).

The priority of personal interests and values over the interests and values of society is interpreted as an opportunity for free development, and a score is accordingly marked on the “freedom” scale; in case of the priority of public interests, a score is marked on the scale “dependence.”

2. Who usually adjusts to whom in the process of interaction?

(a) the teacher to the students; (b) the students to the teacher.

If it is noted that in the given educational environment, the situation when the teacher adjusts to the students (or at least the teacher strives for this situation) dominates, this is interpreted as an opportunity for the students’ free development, respectively, a score is marked on the “freedom” scale; if it is stated that students are constantly forced to obey their teachers, a score is marked on the “dependence” scale.

3. What form of education is predominantly carried out in this educational environment?

(a) individual; (b) collective (team).

The educational environment with individual-oriented forms of learning is interpreted as the environment possessing additional opportunities for the free development of a self-directed student, and a score is given on the “freedom” scale; in the case when teamwork has priority in the educational environment, a score is marked on the “dependency” scale.

For the “Agency –Inaction” axis:

4. Is punishment of the child practiced in this educational environment?

(a) yes; (b) no.

The absence of punishment is considered as a condition conducive to the development of agency; thus, a score is given on the “agency” scale; in the case when punishments are practiced (both directly and indirectly) in this learning environment, a score is given on the “inaction” scale.

5. Does the given educational environment stimulate the manifestation of any children’s initiative?

(a) more often yes; (b) usually not.

If in this learning environment, positive reinforcement of student initiatives is observed, then this is interpreted as an additional opportunity for the development of students’ agency and a score is given on the “agency” scale; if the initiative demonstrated by the child is usually ignored or can lead to all sorts of troubles, then a score is marked on the “inaction” scale.

6. Do certain children’s creative manifestations find any positive response in this educational environment?

In the case when the learning environment encourages or appreciates creativity, such an environment is considered as conducive to the development of agency, a score is marked on the “agency” scale; if the children’s creative self-expression is ignored and goes unnoticed and underestimated, a score is marked on the “inaction” scale.

The author proposes four basic types of educational environment: “dogmatic” (contributes to the development of passive behavior and dependence of the child); “career” (contributes to the development of agency and the dependence of the child at the same time); “serene” (promotes the free development, but causes the formation of the child’s passive behavior); “creative” (contributes to the free development of an active child). Based on the answers to the diagnostic questions, corresponding vector, which allows one to assess the learning environment, is constructed in the coordinate system ( Figure 1 ); an example of the possible construction options of a vector model of the environment based on the answer to diagnostic questions). The studies of Yasvin provide a detailed description of the methodology for examining a school educational environment and the typology of educational environments at schools ( Yasvin et al., 2015 ; Yasvin, 2020 ).

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Figure 1 . An example of the possible construction options of a vector model of the environment based on the answers to diagnostic questions. Reproduced from Yasvin et al. (2015) , licenced under CC BY 4.0.

2.2.2. Creative potential

We used a test of verbal creativity when studying the creative potential of younger schoolchildren. It includes two qualitative characteristics: “originality index” and “uniqueness index.” The technique aims to identify and assess the teste’s often hidden, blocked creative potential. The proposed method is a Russian-language adapted version of the RAT test (remote association test) by Mednik (2006) . The Remote Associates Test (RAT) is a creativity test used to determine a human’s creative potential. The test typically lasts 40 min and consists of thirty to forty questions each of which consists of three common stimulus words that appear to be unrelated. The subject must think of a fourth word that is somehow related to each of the first three words. Scores are calculated based on the number of correct questions. 1 The technique was adapted by Alekseeva and Galkina in the Druzhinin’s Laboratory of the Abilities Psychology at the Institute of Psychology, the Russian Academy of Sciences, based on a sample of schoolchildren; Voronin based his study on a sample of managers aged 23 to 35 years. For the Russian version Cronbach’s coefficient is α = 0.87 ( Ushakov, 2011 ; Druzhinin, 2019 ).

The Johnson Creativity Inventory was used as adapted by Tunik (1997a , 1998) , based on two approaches:

• according to Torrens, creativity manifests itself with a lack of knowledge; in the process of incorporating information into new structures and relationships; in the process of identifying missing information; in the process of finding new solutions and testing them; in the process of reporting results;

• according to Johnson (1979) , creativity manifests itself as an unexpected productive act performed spontaneously by the performer in a certain environment of social interaction. In this case, the performer relies on his/her own knowledge and capabilities.

This creativity questionnaire focuses on the elements that are associated with creative self-expression. The Creativity Inventory is an objective, eight-item checklist of creative thinking and behavior characteristics, designed specifically to identify externally observable manifestations of creativity.

Each statement of the questionnaire is evaluated on a scale containing five gradations (possible rating points: 1 - never, 2 - rarely, 3 - sometimes, 4 - often, 5 - always). The overall creativity score is the sum of scores for eight items (the minimum score - 8, the maximum score - 40 points). The Table 1 shows the correspondence of the sum of points to the levels of creativity. The internal consistency of the Russian version of the scale was Cronbach’s alpha α = 0.79. To assess the retest reliability, the correlation coefficient of Spearman ranks was calculated (interval - three months), which turned out to be 0.78 (sample size - 80 children). To compare the data of various experts (the experts were three teachers teaching different subjects), Spearman’s correlation coefficients were found. For a sample of 8-year-old children, the value of the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.51 to 0.71, for a sample of 10-year-old children - from 0.49 to 0.78, for a sample of 14-year-old children - from 0.58 to 0.79. It should also be noted that with the increase in the age of children, the consistency of the data of various experts among themselves increases ( Tunik, 1997b , 1998 , 2000 ).

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Table 1 . Levels of Creativity adapted from Tunik (1997b) .

To study the level of communicative control, the test “Diagnostics of communicative control” by Schneider was used ( Schneider, 2002 ). The test consists of 10 statements reflecting reactions to some communication situations. The internal consistency of the Russian version of the test is α = 0.85.

To assess the personal qualities of younger students, we used a modified version of the children’s personality questionnaire intended for 8-12 year-old children and developed by Cattell and Koan (Children Personality Questionnaire – CPQ). The internal consistency of the Russian version of the test is α = 0.88 ( Alexandrovskaya and Gilyashev, 1978, 1995 ).

2.3. Research results

In the course of solving the first task, we performed a comprehensive expert assessment of the qualitative parameters of the educational environment based on the parameters formulated by Yasvin (2020) . As a result, we identified four types of schools with different severity degrees of the essential characteristics of educational environments: serene, dogmatic, career and creative (see Figure 2 ). In the course of the study, we found that the general education spaces of Kazan schools are more consistent with the dogmatic and serene environment, a career type of modality characterizes one of the gymnasiums, and the “Specialized Olympiad and Scientific Center ‘Sun’ has a creative development environment. The histogram shows that dogmatic schools are characterized by high stability and the ability to quickly adapt to external pressure, by a clear internal organization of the system, respect for traditions and order. However, it should be noted that this educational environment shows low agency and emotionality, demonstrated by the subjects of educational relations.

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Figure 2 . Severity of the essential characteristics of educational environments based on vector modeling (V. Yasvin).

As can be seen from the histogram, a serene-type general education school is characterized by high dominance, the significance of this local environment in the system of values of the subjects of the educational process. A distinctive feature of a serene environment is relatively low stability, manifested in the precariousness of its system, low rates of awareness, intensity, generalization and mobility of the educational process. “There is no perseverance either in the desire to preserve, hold out, or in the desire to achieve, find. The child lives in an atmosphere of internal well-being and lazy, conservative habits, condescension to modern trends, among attractive simplicity” ( Korchak, 1980 ).

According to the data obtained on a multidisciplinary career-type gymnasium, we have found that the features of this environment are characterized by a high level of intensity and awareness due to a deeper study of individual subjects and the focus of all activities on achieving the set goals. This environment shows high agency, which indicates the ability to produce socially significant results with a beneficial impact on society.

Specialized Olympiad and Scientific Center ‘Sun’ is distinguished by a creative environment with cultural content based on ethno-cultural samples and norms with bright national color, mobility and emotional richness of the educational process. Teachers have the ability to creatively approach the organization of the educational process, namely, to use new methodological developments, to conduct lessons in the context of certain events taking place in the environment; they vary the lesson plan depending on the specific situation, get acquainted with the work of psychologists and, accordingly, restructure the nature of their pedagogical communication with their students, etc.

While solving the second empirical problem, we subjected the obtained empirical data to a one-way analysis of variance (see Tables 2 , 3 ). Data processing methods were carried out using the IBM SPSS Statistics 23 for Windows statistical package: descriptive statistics and the analysis of variance (univariate one-way ANOVA). The Scheffe a posteriori method of paired comparisons (Scheffe test) made it possible to carry out pairwise multiple comparisons of mean values while obtaining a statistically significant result.

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Table 2 . Mean values and standard deviations for indicators of younger schoolchildren’s creative potential in terms of variability of educational environments (univariate one-way ANOVA).

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Table 3 . Mean values and standard deviations for indicators of younger schoolchildren’s creative potential in terms of variability of educational environments (univariate one-way ANOVA).

Table 1 illustrates the data on the severity of the creative potential of the schoolchildren (see Table 1 ), who received higher scores according to the “Originality index” (the ability to express themselves in unusual activities and situations), and the “Uniqueness index” (the ability to make unconventional judgments and perform unusual actions) from the creative educational environment.

As can be seen in Table 2 , there are statistically confirmed differences in the manifestation of such qualities as verbal intelligence, self-confidence, a tendency for self-affirmation, propensity to take risks, social courage, sensitivity, excitability, anxiety and nervous tension in younger schoolchildren from different educational environments.

We have established that younger schoolchildren from creative and career environments have the highest rates of verbal intelligence. They master new knowledge and develop abstract thinking faster. Schoolchildren from the creative environment are characterized by risk-taking and high social courage to a greater degree. These children are distinguished by dynamism and agency; when faced with non-standard situations, they do not get lost and quickly find a different way to solve the problems that have arisen. Moreover, we recorded low levels of anxiety and nervous tension, which ensures emotional stability in educational and cognitive activities. Career-type schoolchildren have a tendency to self-affirmation, a desire for leadership and dominance with excessive motivation, practicality and realism in resolving problem situations. They are characterized by low sensitivity, increased excitability and nervous tension with the need for practical relaxation in the process of activity. The characteristic features of younger schoolchildren from a dogmatic environment are: being better prepared to successfully meet school requirements, however demonstrating low social courage. These schoolchildren more often use standard approaches to solving problems, producing elementary forms of thinking, which is accompanied by variability in mood and a change in mental states. The younger schoolchildren from a serene environment are largely exposed to the influences of the external environment, they are distinguished by the absence of strong motives and intentions in achieving goals, low rates of risky behavior combined with a need for support from others.

3. Conclusion

The paper analyzes various types of educational environments in terms of culturally-appropriate components. Based on the results of the dispersion analysis, the study revealed younger schoolchildren’s creative potential in the context of educational environment variability, and the relationships between the parameters of the educational environment and the personal characteristics of children.

Thus, in a creative educational environment, to a greater extent than in other environments, the subjects of the educational system provide and actively support the individual development of the child and the disclosure of its creative potential. The priority of the creative educational environment is not only to develop the child’s agency and creativity, but also to boost its own need for creativity and self-development as the creation of the self and the formation of the ability to independently set goals and realize its own ideas. The discovered empirical regularity is not a heuristic one in science, it is an independent trend in pedagogical practices. Pedagogical intervention is aimed not so much at meeting the requirements of the teacher, but rather at satisfying the need for creativity by involving schoolchildren in mental, intellectual and communicative activities.

Our study statistically confirmed significant differences between educational environments in terms of younger schoolchildren’s creative potential. Thus, in a creative educational environment , younger schoolchildren demonstrate higher subjective activity with the possibility of unique achievements in educational and cognitive sphere, the desire for unusual actions and unconventional judgments due to verbal intelligence. In a career educational environment , learners are more prone to self-affirmation, the desire for leadership and dominance. In a dogmatic educational environment , schoolchildren most often use standard approaches to solving assigned problems, generating elementary forms of thinking. In a serene educational environment , schoolchildren do not have strong motivations and intentions to achieve goals, risk-taking behavior is not typical, and they demonstrate a high need for support from the outside world.

Thus, pedagogical conditions, as components of the educational system, reflect the totality of the educational environment possibilities expressed in the capabilities of the educational process subjects. Vygotsky’s ideas not only complement modern ideas about the relationship between learning and the psyche development, but also reveal the problems of the experimental evidence base in other modern approaches. This, in particular, concerns the clarification of the mechanisms in the relationship between learning and mental development in the context of controlled initiation from the outside of the self-organization processes of the cognitive system elements in the subject of education in accordance with the system self-development potential ( Pogozhina, 2016 ).

The limitations of the study apply to the choice of: (1) the subject of the study, in particular, the creative potential was studied in connection with the parameters of the educational environment in different types of primary schools; the effects of external and internal factors in determining the creative potential were not considered; (2) strategies for building groups (arranging a sample) involving 160 junior schoolchildren; it is necessary to increase the sample to prevent internal threats to the validity of the study.

Research prospects concern the clarification of the mechanisms of the relationship between learning and the mental development of schoolchildren of different ages in the context of controlled initiation from the outside of the processes of self-organization of elements of creativity in accordance with the potential for self-development of a complex self-organizing system of higher mental functions ( Vygotsky, 1999 , 2005 ).

Practical value. The results of the study can be used by specialists in the design and evaluation of educational environments; by school psychologists, working with younger schoolchildren in the course of implementation of differentiated, individual approaches in the education system.

Data availability statement

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/ Supplementary material , further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

Ethics statement

The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Committee of the Institute of Psychology and Education of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University. Written informed consent to participate in this study was provided by the participants’ legal guardian/next of kin.

Author contributions

VK designed and directed the project, and developed the theoretical framework. ES performed the research and conducted a mathematical analysis of the data, performed the analysis, drafted the manuscript, and aided in interpreting the results and worked on the manuscript. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript.

This work was supported by the Kazan Federal University Strategic Academic Leadership Program (PRIORITY-2030).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Supplementary material

The Supplementary material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1178535/full#supplementary-material

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Keywords: cultural-historical psychology, cultural-educational environment, educational environment design, creative potential, communicative creativity, primary school ages

Citation: Khotinets VY and Shishova EO (2023) Cultural and educational environment in the development of younger schoolchildren’s creative potential. Front. Psychol . 14:1178535. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1178535

Received: 02 March 2023; Accepted: 24 July 2023; Published: 15 September 2023.

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*Correspondence: Evgeniya O. Shishova, [email protected]

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  1. Research Methods in Psychology

    Book Description. Note: The second edition of this book was published October 2020. You can find it here: Research Methods in Psychology - 4th Edition. With this textbook, we introduce students to the fundamental principles of what it is like to think like a psychology researcher. We also hope to connect with the Canadian audience to show ...

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    This book covers all of the main topics in research methods for psychology students. I appreciate that it also includes sections on qualitative methods as well as how to present results. Content Accuracy rating: 4 All of the information on methods is accurate, but the book references 6th edition APA style rather than 7th edition.

  3. Research Methods in Psychology: Evaluating a World of Information

    She regularly teaches courses on research methods, cultural psychology, the self-concept, and the teaching of psychology. Dr. Morling's most recent scholarly research has focused on how culture shapes human motivation and social life, as well as where cultural differences are located and measured―whether within the person, or in cultural ...

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    Research Methods in Psychology, Second Edition is an expanded and updated new edition of this best-selling textbook. It presents a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the key research methods, both qualitative and quantitative, employed in psychology and across the social sciences. Four entirely new chapters are presented (Research with Special Groups, Cross-Cultural Research, Content ...

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    Science and Clinical Practice. Chapter 1. Chapter 2: Getting Started in Research. Basic Concepts. Generating Good Research Questions. Reviewing the Research Literature. Chapter 3: Research Ethics. Moral Foundations of Ethical Research. From Moral Principles to Ethics Codes.

  6. Research Methods in Psychology 2nd Edition

    Research Methods in Psychology, Second Edition is an expanded and updated new edition of this best-selling textbook. It presents a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the key research methods, both qualitative and quantitative, employed in psychology and across the social sciences. Four entirely new chapters are presented (Research with Special Groups, Cross-Cultural Research, Content ...

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    Research Methods in Psychology. Paul C. Price, Rajiv S. Jhangiani, I-Chant A. Chiang. BCcampus, 2014 - Psychology - 305 pages. The present adaptation constitutes the second Canadian edition and was co-authored by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) and I-Chant A. Chiang (Quest University Canada) and is licensed under a Creative ...

  9. Research Methods in Psychology: Investigating Human Behavior

    The Second Edition of Paul G. Nestor and Russell K. Schutt's successful and unique Research Methods in Psychology: Investigating Human Behavior draws from substantive research stories to illustrate how research is presented while systematically unifying the entire research process within a conceptual framework. This accessible text examines engaging research studies and examples, considering ...

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    The Second Edition of Paul G. Nestor and Russell K. Schutt's successful and unique Research Methods in Psychology: Investigating Human Behavior draws from substantive research stories to illustrate how research is presented while systematically unifying the entire research process within a conceptual framework.

  11. APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology

    With significant new and updated content across dozens of chapters, this second edition presents the most exhaustive treatment available of the techniques psychologists and others have developed to help them pursue a shared understanding of why humans think, feel, and behave the way they do. The initial chapters in this indispensable three ...

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    Chapter 1: Updated list of empirically supported therapies. Chapter 2: Added description of follow-up research by Drews, Pasupathi, and Strayer (2004) demonstrating that cell phone conversations while driving carry a greater risk than conversations with a passenger. Added the term meta-analysis along with a definition of this term.

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  15. Handbook of Psychology, Volume 2, Research Methods in Psychology, 2nd

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  20. Elena OREKHOVA

    Elena OREKHOVA | Cited by 2,249 | of Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow | Read 98 publications | Contact Elena OREKHOVA. ... 36 Research Items. 1293 Citations.

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    1 Department of Educational Psychology and Pedagogy, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia; 2 Department of Developmental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia; The conducted research was devoted to comparison of kindergartens' educational environment quality evaluation via ECERS-R and CLASS methods.

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    Moscow State University of Psychology & Education - the first psychological university and one of the top universities of psychological studies in Russia.. Founded under the initiative of the Moscow Government, the University aims at training highly qualified specialists in the field of education, healthcare and social protection.. As a basic resource center of psychological service, MSUPE ...

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    1 Department of General Psychology, Institute of Pedagogy, Psychology and Social Technologies, Udmurt State University, Izhevsk, Russia; 2 Department of Educational Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia; The purpose of our research is to study the creative potential as psychological capacities for younger schoolchildren's ...