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Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style  can be found here .

Important Note: Because the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual heavily emphasizes digital and electronic sources, it does not contain explicit instructions for certain less-common print sources that earlier editions covered. For this reason, some of the examples below have been adapted from the instructions for sources with similar attributes (e.g., the conference proceedings example is derived from the instructions the 7 th edition manual gives for citing edited collections). Every example below that has been adapted in this way is accompanied by a note explaining how it was adapted.

Please also note: While this resource contains many examples of citations for uncommon print sources that we think are helpful, it may not account for every possibility. For even more examples of how to cite uncommon print sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Entry in a Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with a Group Author

The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite physical reference works such as dictionaries, thesauruses, or encyclopedias. Therefore, this citation, as well as the one for an individual author of an entry in a reference work, is modeled on that of a chapter in an edited book or anthology, both which are similar in format to reference works.

Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work (edition, page numbers). Publisher name.

Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. (1997). Goat. In Merriam Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10 th ed., pp. 499-500). Merriam-Webster, Incorporated.

Entry in a Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with an Individual Author

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of entry. In F. M. Lastname (ed.), Title of reference work (edition, page numbers). Publisher.

Tatum, S. R. (2009). Spirituality and religion in hip hop literature and culture. In T. L. Stanley (ed.), Encyclopedia of hip hop literature (pp. 250-252). Greenwood.

Work Discussed in a Secondary Source

Provide the source in which the original work was referenced:

Nail, T. (2017). What is an assemblage? SubStance , 46 (1), 21-37. http://sub.uwpress.org/lookup/doi/10.3368/ss.46.1.21

Note: Provide the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Deleuze and Guattari’s work is cited in Nail and you did not read the original work, list the Nail reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation: 

Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of the assemblage (as cited in Nail, 2017)….

Dissertation Abstract

The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite dissertation abstracts. Therefore, this citation models that of a journal article, which is similar in format.

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International , Vol., Page.

Angeli, E. L. (2012). Networks of communication in emergency medical services. Dissertation Abstracts International, 74 , 03(E).

Dissertation or Master’s Thesis, Published

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database or Archive Name.

Angeli, E. L. (2012). Networks of communication in emergency medical services (Publication No. 3544643) [Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Note: If the dissertation or thesis is not published in a database, include the URL of the site where the document is located.

Dissertation or Master’s Thesis, Unpublished

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis [Unpublished doctoral dissertation/master’s thesis]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree. 

Samson, J. M. (2016). Human trafficking and globalization [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Federal or State Statute

Name of Act, Public Law No. (Year). URL

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Publ. L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 119 (2010).  https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-111publ148/pdf/PLAW-111publ148.pdf

Report by a Government Agency or Other Organization

Organization Name. (Year). Title of report. URL

United States Government Accountability Office. (2019). Performance and accountability report: Fiscal year 2019 . https://www.gao.gov/assets/710/702715.pdf

Report by Individual Authors at Government Agency or Other Organization

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of report . Organization Name. URL

Palanker, D., Volk, J., Lucia, K., & Thomas, K. (2018). Mental health parity at risk: Deregulating the individual market and the impact on mental health coverage . National Alliance on Mental Illness. https://www.nami.org/About-NAMI/Publications-Reports/Public-Policy-Reports/Parity-at-Risk/ParityatRisk.pdf  

Conference Proceedings

The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide guidance on citing conference proceedings. Therefore, this citation models that of an edited collection, which is similar in format.

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Eds.). (Year). Title of Proceedings . Publisher. URL (if applicable)

Huang, S., Pierce, R., & Stamey, J. (Eds.). (2006). Proceedings of the 24 th annual ACM international conference on the design of communication . ACM Digital Library. https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1166324&picked=prox

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Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Formatting:

  • Italicize the title
  • Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title

See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules

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Citing Dissertations & Theses in APA Format

Dissertations & Theses

Dissertations and theses are formatted the same way in APA 7th edition. Theses are generally the culminating work for a master's or undergraduate degree and dissertations are often original research completed by doctoral students. Here are examples of a dissertation & a thesis, and how they would be formatted: 

Examples: 

Dissertation found in Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global: 

Reference:  

Banks, B. (2020). Addressing institutional racism in healthcare: A case study (Publication No. 28154307) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global. 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):  

(Banks, 2020).

In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):

(Banks, 2020, p. 157).

Master's thesis from a University scholarship database: 

Sears, L. B. (2017). The public voice and sustainable food systems: Community engagement in food action plans [Unpublished master's thesis]. University of Kansas.  https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/26899  

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Sears, 2017). 

(Sears, 2017, p. 24). 

Carrie Forbes, MLS

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Citation information has been adapted from the APA Manual (7th Edition). Please refer to page 333 of the APA Manual (7th Edition) for more information.

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Terminology - Thesis, dissertation or exegesis?

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Thesis and dissertation can mean different things depending on where the degree is awarded. Always check the title page, or subsequent pages, to determine exactly what the work is and use the information for your reference. ​

Auckland University of Technology (and other NZ universities)

  • Thesis is either for a doctoral or a master's degree.
  • Dissertation is either for a master's or a bachelor's degree with honours.
  • Exegesis is the written component of a practice-based thesis where the major output is a creative work;  e.g., a film, artwork, novel.

Other parts of the world

  • In North America and some other countries, dissertation is used for a doctoral degree and thesis for a master's degree.

Theses available in a database, a university archive or from a personal website.

Reference format

Theses published online (e.g. in institutional repositories), theses from proquest dissertations and theses global.

Find how to cite in text on the  In-text citation  page.

 Unpublished thesis or dissertations are usually sourced directly from the university in print form.

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Theses & Dissertations

Citing a published thesis, citing an unpublished thesis, citing a thesis in online database or repository.

  • CMS 14.224: Theses and dissertations

Titles of unpublished works appear in "quotation marks"—not in italics . This treatment extends to theses and dissertations, which are otherwise cited like books.

The kind of thesis, the academic institution, and the date follow the title. Like the publication data of a book, these are enclosed in parentheses in a note but not in a bibliography.

If the document was consulted online, include a URL or, for documents retrieved from a commercial database, give the name of the database and, in parentheses, any identification number supplied or recommended by the database.

For dissertations issued on microfilm, see 14.120 . For published abstracts of dissertations, see 14.197 .

Note-Bibliography

First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," (Publisher, Year).

      Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty,” PhD diss., (University of Chicago, 2008).

Short Note:

Last-name, "Title of Thesis."

Choi. “Contesting Imaginaires ."

Bibliography Entry:

Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Year.

Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss. University      of Chicago, 2008.

Author-Date

Text Citation:

(Last-name Year)

(Mihwa 2008)

Reference Entry:

Last-name, First-name. Year. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle."

Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting  Imaginaires  in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.”  PhD diss.       University of Chicago.

Note -Bibliography

Note #. First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," Unpublished thesis type, University. Year.

Barry C. Hosking, "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand," PhD diss., (Ghent University, 2010).

Note #. Last-name,"Title of Thesis."

Barry C. Hosking, "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes."

Bibliography:

Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Unpublished thesis type. University. Year.

Hosking, Barry C. "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand." PhD diss., Ghent University, 2010.

(Hosking 2010)

Last-name, First-name.  Year.  "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Unpublished thesis type. University.

Hosking, Barry C.    2010.  "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand." PhD diss., Ghent University.

Note #. First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," Database Name (Identifier if given), Year, Internet address.

      12. Meredith Stewart, "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus, " Australasian Digital Theses Program (WMU2005.1222), 2005, http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.

Note #. Last-name, "Title of Thesis."

21. Stewart, "An Investigation into Aspects."

Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Database Name (Identifier if given), Year. Internet address.

Stewart, Meredith. "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus ." Australasian Digital Theses Program (WMU2005.1222),  2005. http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.

(Stewart 2005)

Last-name, First-name. Year. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle."  Database Name  (Identifier if given), Internet address.

Stewart, Meredith. 2005. "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus ." Australasian Digital Theses Program  (WMU2005.1222),    http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.

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How do I cite a dissertation in MLA style?

Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook . For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .

A dissertation is a unique type of source. It is a finished, stand-alone work written under the auspices of an institution. In a change from the previous edition of the MLA Handbook ,    we do not distinguish between published and unpublished dissertations. To cite a dissertation, include in the entry the author, title, and date of publication as core elements. As an optional element, list the institution granting the degree and a description of the work.

Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting . 2010. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation.

If you accessed the dissertation through an online repository, include this fact as the title of the second container:

Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting . 2010. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation.  ProQuest , search.proquest.com/docview/305212264?accountid=7432.

Citation guides

All you need to know about citations

How to cite a dissertation in APA

APA dissertation citation

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To cite a dissertation in a reference entry in APA style 6th edition include the following elements:

  • Author(s) of the dissertation: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to seven authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For eight or more authors include the first six names followed by an ellipsis (…) and add the last author's name.
  • Year of publication: Give the year in brackets followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the dissertation: Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized.
  • URL: Give the full URL where the document can be retrieved from.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a dissertation in APA style 6th edition:

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from URL

If the dissertation is available from a database, archive or any online platform use the following template:

  • Author(s) of the dissertation: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to 20 authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For 21 or more authors include the first 19 names followed by an ellipsis (…) and add the last author's name.
  • Publication number: Give the identification number of the dissertation, if available.
  • Name of the degree awarding institution: Give the name of the institution.
  • Name of platform: Give the name of the database, archive or any platform that holds the dissertation.
  • URL: If the dissertation was found on a database, omit this element.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a dissertation in APA style 7th edition:

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation ( Publication number ) [Doctoral dissertation, Name of the degree awarding institution ]. Name of platform . URL

If the dissertation has not been published or is available from a database use the following template:

  • Location: Give the location of the institution. If outside the United States also include the country name.

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of the degree awarding institution , Location .

If the dissertation is not published, use the following template:

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of the degree awarding institution .

APA reference list examples

Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the APA style guidelines for a dissertation citation in action:

A dissertation found in an online platform

Guo, J . ( 2018 ). Trust-based service management of internet of things systems and its applications ( Doctoral dissertation ). Retrieved from https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/82854
Guo, J . ( 2018 ). Trust-based service management of internet of things systems and its applications [ Doctoral dissertation , Virginia Tech ]. ETDs: Virginia Tech Electronic Theses and Dissertations . https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/82854

An unpublished doctoral dissertation

Neel, B. L . ( 2017 ). Three flute chamber works by Alberto Ginastera: Intertwining elements of art and folk music ( Unpublished doctoral dissertation ). University of Nebraska-Lincoln , NE .
Neel, B. L . ( 2017 ). Three flute chamber works by Alberto Ginastera: Intertwining elements of art and folk music [ Unpublished doctoral dissertation ]. University of Nebraska-Lincoln .

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This citation style guide is based on the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association ( 6 th edition).

More useful guides

  • APA Referencing: Theses
  • Reference List: Other Print Sources
  • APA 6th Edition Citation Style

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How to cite a dissertation in apa 7, published by steve tippins on june 25, 2020 june 25, 2020.

Last Updated on: 3rd June 2022, 04:25 am

The specific guidelines for how to cite a dissertation in APA style depend on a few factors. We’ll go over those below. However, no matter the specifics of the citation, the title of the dissertation is always written the same way.

The dissertation’s title should be written in sentence case and in italics. The first word of the title should be capitalized, and all other words should be in lower case, except for proper nouns.

With that in mind, let’s dive into the specifics of how to cite a dissertation in APA.

How to Cite a Dissertation in APA

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In Text Citation

The guidelines for how to cite a dissertation in APA are the same for writing an in-text citation, paraphrase, and quotation; only the format for the reference list differs.  

(Name of Author, year)

(Stanford, 2016)

Horace Mann developed the common school, which was a free, non-sectarian, public institution (Stanford, 2016).  

According to Stanford (2016), “the common school was the best educational institution to help Americans achieve moral and socioeconomic uplift” (p. 46). 

Reference List

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P ublished Dissertations

Published dissertations and theses are on databases, such as Pro-Quest Dissertations and Theses Globa, a university archive, or a website.

Author’s last name, initial of first name. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication number). [Type of dissertation or thesis, Academic Institution]. Name of database.

Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, University of Virginia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Unpublished Dissertations

Unpublished dissertations and theses are usually only available in print form. 

Author’s last name, initial of first name. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Unpublished doctoral or master’s thesis). Academic Institution.

Stanford, C. (2016). Horace Mann (1796–1859) and nineteenth-century educational reform . (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University. 

Note: For dissertations and theses published or unpublished in countries other than the United States, you have to provide the location.  

Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Dissertation From an Academic Institution’s Online Archive

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There is only one difference in the guidelines for how to cite a dissertation from an online archive or repository and other ones. The name of the institution’s repository or archive and link needs to be provided. It should be written at the end of the other publication information.

In-text citation

Template (Name of Author, year) 

Example (Howard, 2017)

Paraphrase Literary structure is the arrangement of text elements, written in a way that ensures the author’s meaning is conveyed (Howard, 2017).  

Quotation  According to Howard (2016), “technological advances have resulted in a change in the paradigm regarding literature structures” (p. 46). 

Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, University of Virginia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. University of Virginia Archives. https://uovarchives.net/10389/11814

How to Cite a Dissertation Published Online (Not in a Database)

The guidelines for how to cite a dissertation or thesis published online are similar to those of published and unpublished ones, except for the format in the reference list.  

Reference list

Author’s last name, initial of first name. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication number). [Type of dissertation or thesis, Academic Institution]. URL.

Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, University of Virginia]. https://uv.edu/Howard /10288/

Note: You can find more information about how to cite a dissertation or thesis in APA 7th editionon pages 333-334.

How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style: Final Thoughts

Citing a dissertation is relatively simple. As long as you adhere to the rules above, you should have no problem generating the correct citations.

If you need of assistance with APA style, feel free to take a look at our Dissertation Editing services.

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Steve Tippins

Steve Tippins, PhD, has thrived in academia for over thirty years. He continues to love teaching in addition to coaching recent PhD graduates as well as students writing their dissertations. Learn more about his dissertation coaching and career coaching services. Book a Free Consultation with Steve Tippins

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  • Published report
  • Student's own work
  • Tutor materials for academic course
  • Unpublished report
  • Working paper
  • Referencing glossary

To be made up of:

  • Year of submission (in round brackets).
  • Title of thesis (in italics).
  • Degree statement.
  • Degree-awarding body.
  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date).

In-text citation: 

(Smith, 2019)

Reference List:  

Smith, E. R. C. (2019). Conduits of invasive species into the UK: the angling route? Ph. D. Thesis. University College London. Available at: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10072700 (Accessed: 20 May 2021).

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  • Citing sources

How to Cite Sources | Citation Generator & Quick Guide

Citing your sources is essential in  academic writing . Whenever you quote or paraphrase a source (such as a book, article, or webpage), you have to include a  citation crediting the original author.

Failing to properly cite your sources counts as plagiarism , since you’re presenting someone else’s ideas as if they were your own.

The most commonly used citation styles are APA and MLA. The free Scribbr Citation Generator is the quickest way to cite sources in these styles. Simply enter the URL, DOI, or title, and we’ll generate an accurate, correctly formatted citation.

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Table of contents

When do you need to cite sources, which citation style should you use, in-text citations, reference lists and bibliographies.

Scribbr Citation Generator

Other useful citation tools

Citation examples and full guides, frequently asked questions about citing sources.

Citations are required in all types of academic texts. They are needed for several reasons:

  • To avoid plagiarism by indicating when you’re taking information from another source
  • To give proper credit to the author of that source
  • To allow the reader to consult your sources for themselves

A citation is needed whenever you integrate a source into your writing. This usually means quoting or paraphrasing:

  • To quote a source , copy a short piece of text word for word and put it inside quotation marks .
  • To paraphrase a source , put the text into your own words. It’s important that the paraphrase is not too close to the original wording. You can use the paraphrasing tool if you don’t want to do this manually.

Citations are needed whether you quote or paraphrase, and whatever type of source you use. As well as citing scholarly sources like books and journal articles, don’t forget to include citations for any other sources you use for ideas, examples, or evidence. That includes websites, YouTube videos , and lectures .

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Usually, your institution (or the journal you’re submitting to) will require you to follow a specific citation style, so check your guidelines or ask your instructor.

In some cases, you may have to choose a citation style for yourself. Make sure to pick one style and use it consistently:

  • APA Style is widely used in the social sciences and beyond.
  • MLA style is common in the humanities.
  • Chicago notes and bibliography , common in the humanities
  • Chicago author-date , used in the (social) sciences
  • There are many other citation styles for different disciplines.

If in doubt, check with your instructor or read other papers from your field of study to see what style they follow.

In most styles, your citations consist of:

  • Brief in-text citations at the relevant points in the text
  • A reference list or bibliography containing full information on all the sources you’ve cited

In-text citations most commonly take the form of parenthetical citations featuring the last name of the source’s author and its year of publication (aka author-date citations).

An alternative to this type of in-text citation is the system used in numerical citation styles , where a number is inserted into the text, corresponding to an entry in a numbered reference list.

There are also note citation styles , where you place your citations in either footnotes or endnotes . Since they’re not embedded in the text itself, these citations can provide more detail and sometimes aren’t accompanied by a full reference list or bibliography.

A reference list (aka “Bibliography” or “Works Cited,” depending on the style) is where you provide full information on each of the sources you’ve cited in the text. It appears at the end of your paper, usually with a hanging indent applied to each entry.

The information included in reference entries is broadly similar, whatever citation style you’re using. For each source, you’ll typically include the:

  • Author name
  • Publication date
  • Container (e.g., the book an essay was published in, the journal an article appeared in)
  • Location (e.g., a URL or DOI , or sometimes a physical location)

The exact information included varies depending on the source type and the citation style. The order in which the information appears, and how you format it (e.g., capitalization, use of italics) also varies.

Most commonly, the entries in your reference list are alphabetized by author name. This allows the reader to easily find the relevant entry based on the author name in your in-text citation.

APA-reference-list

In numerical citation styles, the entries in your reference list are numbered, usually based on the order in which you cite them. The reader finds the right entry based on the number that appears in the text.

Vancouver reference list example

Because each style has many small differences regarding things like italicization, capitalization , and punctuation , it can be difficult to get every detail right. Using a citation generator can save you a lot of time and effort.

Scribbr offers citation generators for both APA and MLA style. Both are quick, easy to use, and 100% free, with no ads and no registration required.

Just input a URL or DOI or add the source details manually, and the generator will automatically produce an in-text citation and reference entry in the correct format. You can save your reference list as you go and download it when you’re done, and even add annotations for an annotated bibliography .

Once you’ve prepared your citations, you might still be unsure if they’re correct and if you’ve used them appropriately in your text. This is where Scribbr’s other citation tools and services may come in handy:

Plagiarism Checker

Citation Checker

Citation Editing

Plagiarism means passing off someone else’s words or ideas as your own. It’s a serious offense in academia. Universities use plagiarism checking software to scan your paper and identify any similarities to other texts.

When you’re dealing with a lot of sources, it’s easy to make mistakes that could constitute accidental plagiarism. For example, you might forget to add a citation after a quote, or paraphrase a source in a way that’s too close to the original text.

Using a plagiarism checker yourself before you submit your work can help you spot these mistakes before they get you in trouble. Based on the results, you can add any missing citations and rephrase your text where necessary.

Try out the Scribbr Plagiarism Checker for free, or check out our detailed comparison of the best plagiarism checkers available online.

Scribbr Plagiarism Checker

Scribbr’s Citation Checker is a unique AI-powered tool that automatically detects stylistic errors and inconsistencies in your in-text citations. It also suggests a correction for every mistake.

Currently available for APA Style, this is the fastest and easiest way to make sure you’ve formatted your citations correctly. You can try out the tool for free below.

If you need extra help with your reference list, we also offer a more in-depth Citation Editing Service.

Our experts cross-check your in-text citations and reference entries, make sure you’ve included the correct information for each source, and improve the formatting of your reference page.

If you want to handle your citations yourself, Scribbr’s free Knowledge Base provides clear, accurate guidance on every aspect of citation. You can see citation examples for a variety of common source types below:

And you can check out our comprehensive guides to the most popular citation styles:

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

The abbreviation “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”) is used to shorten citations of sources with multiple authors.

“Et al.” is used in APA in-text citations of sources with 3+ authors, e.g. (Smith et al., 2019). It is not used in APA reference entries .

Use “et al.” for 3+ authors in MLA in-text citations and Works Cited entries.

Use “et al.” for 4+ authors in a Chicago in-text citation , and for 10+ authors in a Chicago bibliography entry.

The Scribbr Citation Generator is developed using the open-source Citation Style Language (CSL) project and Frank Bennett’s citeproc-js . It’s the same technology used by dozens of other popular citation tools, including Mendeley and Zotero.

You can find all the citation styles and locales used in the Scribbr Citation Generator in our publicly accessible repository on Github .

APA format is widely used by professionals, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business.

Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in to double-check which style you should be using.

MLA Style  is the second most used citation style (after APA ). It is mainly used by students and researchers in humanities fields such as literature, languages, and philosophy.

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how to cite for dissertation

Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA

How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA

Citing a thesis or dissertation.

Thesis – A document submitted to earn a degree at a university.

Dissertation – A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.

The formatting for thesis and dissertation citations is largely the same. However, you should be sure to include the type of degree after the publication year as supplemental information. For instance, state if the source you are citing is an undergraduate thesis or a PhD dissertation.

MLA Thesis and Dissertation Citation Structure (print)

Last, First M.  Title of the Thesis/Dissertation. Year Published. Name of University, type of degree.

MLA Thesis and Dissertation Citation Structure (online)

Last, First M.  Title of the Thesis/Dissertation. Year Published. Name of University, type of degree.  Website Name , URL.

ThesisDissertationImage

Wilson, Peggy Lynn. Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County . 2011. University of Maryland, PhD dissertation.

In-text Citation Structure

(Author Last Name page #)

In-text Citation Example

(Wilson 14)

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Sample Paper
  • Works Cited
  • MLA 8 Updates
  • MLA 9 Updates
  • View MLA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
  • View all MLA Examples

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Cite A Dissertation in Harvard style

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  • Select style:
  • Archive material
  • Chapter of an edited book
  • Conference proceedings
  • Dictionary entry
  • Dissertation
  • DVD, video, or film
  • E-book or PDF
  • Edited book
  • Encyclopedia article
  • Government publication
  • Music or recording
  • Online image or video
  • Presentation
  • Press release
  • Religious text

Use the following template or our Harvard Referencing Generator to cite a dissertation. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator .

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.

Popular Harvard Citation Guides

  • How to cite a Book in Harvard style
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  • How to cite a DVD, video, or film in Harvard style
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  • How to cite a Chapter of an edited book in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Conference proceedings in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Court case in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Dictionary entry in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Dissertation in Harvard style
  • How to cite a E-book or PDF in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Edited book in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Email in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Encyclopedia article in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Government publication in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Interview in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Legislation in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Magazine in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Music or recording in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Newspaper in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Patent in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Podcast in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Presentation or lecture in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Press release in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Religious text in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Report in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Software in Harvard style

Enago Academy

Digital Citations: A comprehensive guide to citing of websites in APA, MLA, and CMOS style

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In today’s digital age, the internet serves as an invaluable resource for researchers across all disciplines. As the digital knowledge repository continues to expand, citing websites has become an integral aspect of academic writing. However, scholars, from undergraduates to seasoned researchers, often find themselves grappled with the intricacies of citing online sources. In this article, we will explore the importance of digital citations and delve into the nuances of citing websites in different citation styles.

Table of Contents

Why Cite Websites?

In recent years, the reliance of online resources has surged in parallel to the exponential growth of the internet. From scholarly articles and reports to blog posts and social media threads, researchers frequently rely on web sources to support their arguments and findings. As a result, the increasing amount of data online in various websites has become an integral part of academic writing across disciplines. From scholarly articles to dissertations , researchers frequently refer online sources to stay updated on the latest research.

Benefits of citing a website

Moreover, citing websites enhances a researcher’s visibility by linking their work to a broader digital landscape, potentially increasing its impact and facilitating collaboration. Although citing websites is essential for effectively communicating one’s research in today’s digital landscape, finding the right website is essential to find reliable information.

Identifying the Right Websites

Identifying reliable and credible websites is paramount when gathering information for academic purposes. To ensure the quality and accuracy of your sources, consider the following tips:

1. Evaluate the Domain

Websites ending in .gov, .edu, or .org are often more credible for academic research data

2. Assess the Authorship

Look for the credentials and information about the author or organization responsible for the content

3. Verify the Content Accuracy

Evaluate the timeline and accuracy by cross-referring other reliable sources of information

4. Check for Citations

Reliable websites often cite their sources, providing a trail of evidence to support their claims

Taking time to thoroughly gauge website quality on the above criteria goes a long way in boosting scholarly impact and confidence in the evidence you bring to support arguments upon which you cite them. Additionally, the reliability of your sources directly correlates with the academic strength of your work.

Components of Website Citations

In academic writing, website citations typically include the following components:

Components of a website citation

Citing a Website in APA, MLA and CMOS Style

Citing a website in the required style can boost the academic tone. There are several styles of citing a website. Citing websites correctly is essential to adhere to the citation guidelines mentioned by your institution.

Here’s how to cite a website in APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), and Chicago styles to ensure that your research papers and articles are accurately documented and credible for your readers.

1. APA Style

Includes: Author’s last name, initials. (full date of publication – Year Month Day). title of the webpage (in italics). website name (in plain text). URL of the website

In-text citation: Author, Year

Example: Nair, Anagha. (2024, February 22). Plain Language Summary — Communicating your research to bridge the academic-lay gap. Enago Academy. https://www.enago.com/academy/plain-language-summary/

(It is important to note that the name of the blog posts is italicized while citing blogs and articles.)

2. MLA Style

Includes: Author last name, first name. “title of the webpage.” website name (in italics), accessed date (Day Month Year), URL of the website

In-text citation:  Name of the website

Example of citing a webpage: Nair, Anagha. “Plain Language Summary — Communicating your research to bridge the academic-lay gap.” Enago Academy , 22 February 2024, https://www.enago.com/academy/plain-language-summary/

3. Chicago Style

Includes: Author last name, first name. “title of the webpage.” website name (in italics), accessed date (Month Day, Year). URL of the website

In-text citation: (Author Year)

Example: Nair, Anagha. Plain Language Summary — Communicating your research to bridge the academic-lay gap. Enago Academy , February 22, 2024. https://www.enago.com/academy/plain-language-summary/

When a page has no author specified, you can mention the name of the organization that created it instead. However, this can be avoided if matches to the name of the website.  Furthermore, if the date of publication is not available, “n.d.” can be used in its place. You can also include an access date (depending upon the citation style)

Understanding different citation styles when citing websites is important as it shows you understand academic conventions and demonstrates your ability to pay attention to important formatting details. Instead of citing manually, one can use citation generator tools to generate citation. Furthermore, using tools such as Enago Plagiarism Checker can help in improving your written work by detecting plagiarism, improving grammar and generate citation.

Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to cite a website properly in your research papers and articles.

Guide on citing websites

It is important to note that some styles, like APA, may require you to include the date you accessed the webpage, especially for dynamic or frequently updated content. Furthermore, it was advisable to include DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or a stable permalink in your citation, if provided by the website, for better accessibility.

Difference Between Citing a Website and Research Papers

While citing websites shares similarities with citing research papers from journals, there are some notable differences. Websites often lack formal publication information such as volume and issue numbers, making it essential to include additional details like the URL and access date in certain citation styles. Moreover, websites may vary widely in terms of reliability and credibility, necessitating a more critical evaluation of sources.

Citing websites can improve the impact and credibility of your work. Are you a researcher struggling to cast an impact with your research? Consider Enago’s Research Impact Services to allow a team of industry experts assist your publishing journey!

Mastering the art of citing websites is essential for researchers at all stages of their academic journey. By citing sources accurately, identifying credible websites, and adhering to established citation styles, researchers can enhance the credibility and impact of their work in the digital age.

Frequently Asked Questions

Here’s how to cite a website in MLA style: Author last name, first name. “title of the webpage.” website name (in italics), accessed date (Day Month Year), URL of the website

When citing a website in text, you typically include the author's last name (if available) or the name of the organization responsible for the website, along with the year of publication (or last update), and sometimes the page or paragraph number if you're quoting directly. The specific format can vary depending on the citation style you are using (such as APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.).

Here’s how you can cite a website in APA style: Author’s last name, initials. (full date of publication - Year Month Day). title of the webpage (in italics). website name (in plain text). URL of the website

Here’s how you can cite a website in Chicago style: Author last name, first name. “title of the webpage.” website name (in italics), accessed date (Month Day, Year). URL of the website

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Title: scalable vision-based 3d object detection and monocular depth estimation for autonomous driving.

Abstract: This dissertation is a multifaceted contribution to the advancement of vision-based 3D perception technologies. In the first segment, the thesis introduces structural enhancements to both monocular and stereo 3D object detection algorithms. By integrating ground-referenced geometric priors into monocular detection models, this research achieves unparalleled accuracy in benchmark evaluations for monocular 3D detection. Concurrently, the work refines stereo 3D detection paradigms by incorporating insights and inferential structures gleaned from monocular networks, thereby augmenting the operational efficiency of stereo detection systems. The second segment is devoted to data-driven strategies and their real-world applications in 3D vision detection. A novel training regimen is introduced that amalgamates datasets annotated with either 2D or 3D labels. This approach not only augments the detection models through the utilization of a substantially expanded dataset but also facilitates economical model deployment in real-world scenarios where only 2D annotations are readily available. Lastly, the dissertation presents an innovative pipeline tailored for unsupervised depth estimation in autonomous driving contexts. Extensive empirical analyses affirm the robustness and efficacy of this newly proposed pipeline. Collectively, these contributions lay a robust foundation for the widespread adoption of vision-based 3D perception technologies in autonomous driving applications.

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Palantir Shares Are Trading Higher Premarket After Wedbush's Dan Ives Ups Target: Here's What To Expect Next

Dan Ives of Wedbush Securitie s has increased his price target for Palantir Technologies Inc. PLTR , signaling strong prospects in AI applications.

What Happened : On Friday, Ives announced a bullish adjustment to his price target for Palantir, raising it from $30 to $35. Ives cited recent field checks that suggest the company’s AI and data analytics platform is becoming essential for U.S. enterprises. He likened Palantir’s AI platform to soccer star Lionel Messi, referring to it as the “Messi of AI thesis.”

In a note shared by Wedbush, the analysts led by Ives also expressed that Palantir is an “undiscovered gem” in the AI revolution.

“With a strong product portfolio coupled with AI, we expect PLTR to garner a meaningful share of what we believe to be a $1 trillion AI Global TAM as enterprise and government ecosystems rush to implement useful platforms for automating complex workflows,” the note read.

Palantir’s stock saw a modest rise in premarket trading by 1.66% at $26.90.

See Also: Shiba Inu Burns 100M Tokens In Single Transaction: ‘Another 120% Move From Here,’ Predicts Trader

Why It Matters : The revised price target from Ives comes amid a broader reevaluation of Palantir by the analyst community who have set an average 12-month price target of $20.22, a notable increase from the previous average of $18.25. This suggests a growing optimism around the company’s prospects.

Moreover, Jim Cramer , the host of CNBC’s “Mad Money,” has recently endorsed Palantir as a strong buy, reinforcing the positive sentiment. His endorsement, as reported by CNBC, aligns with the bullish outlook shared by Ives.

Adding to the company’s positive news, Palantir has secured a significant $178 million contract extension from the U.S. Army. The deal involves the development of advanced AI/ML technologies, further cementing Palantir’s role in the defense sector and its AI expansion prospects.

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  2. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

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  3. How to cite a thesis or dissertation using APA style

    how to cite for dissertation

  4. APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation

    how to cite for dissertation

  5. 3 Ways to Cite a Dissertation in APA

    how to cite for dissertation

  6. How to Cite a Dissertation or Thesis in APA 7 with Examples

    how to cite for dissertation

VIDEO

  1. How to write References, Citations & Bibliography in Thesis/Dissertation

  2. What is Citation?

  3. 7 Essential Qualities Of Highly Cited Research

  4. APA STYLE Citations for PhD and Research Project

  5. REFERENCING AND PLAGIARISM

  6. How to Write Thesis of PhD, Dissertation of MPhil & MA

COMMENTS

  1. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style

    To cite an unpublished dissertation (one you got directly from the author or university in print form), add "Unpublished" to the bracketed description, and list the university at the end of the reference, outside the square brackets. APA format. Author last name, Initials. ( Year ).

  2. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

    Citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database. If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It's similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences: Structure: Author's last name, F. M. (Year published).

  3. Published Dissertation or Thesis References

    Published dissertation or thesis references are covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Section 10.6 and the Concise Guide Section 10.5. This guidance has been revised from the 6th edition. Date created: February 2020. Cite This Webpage. This page contains reference examples for published dissertations or ...

  4. Reference List: Other Print Sources

    Dissertation Abstract. The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite dissertation abstracts. Therefore, this citation models that of a journal article, which is similar in format.

  5. Thesis/Dissertation

    Thesis, from a commercial database. Lope, M. D. (2014). Perceptions of global mindedness in the international baccalaureate middle years programme: The relationship to student academic performance and teacher characteristics (Order No. 3682837) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland].ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

  6. APA Citation Style, 7th Edition: Dissertations & Thesis

    Dissertation found in Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global: Reference: Banks, B. (2020). Addressing institutional racism in healthcare: A case study (Publication No. 28154307) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global. In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Banks, 2020). In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):

  7. Theses and dissertations

    Thesis is either for a doctoral or a master's degree. Dissertation is either for a master's or a bachelor's degree with honours. Exegesis is the written component of a practice-based thesis where the major output is a creative work; e.g., a film, artwork, novel.

  8. APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation

    The APA dissertation or thesis citation isn't a one size fits all type of citation. The reason behind this is because APA offers a different format for a published and unpublished thesis or dissertation. However, you'll need to include information like: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Publication ...

  9. Dissertations & Theses

    A quick guide to using APA citation style. General Rule: Author, A. A. (year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Publication No. #) [Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].Name of Database.

  10. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA

    Full Citation Rules. To cite a dissertation in APA on the References page, follow this formula: Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No. #) [Dissertation type, University]. Database.

  11. Cite a Thesis / Dissertation

    Thesis Paper AI Proofreader Essay Checker PhD dissertation APA editing Academic editing College admissions essay Personal statement English proofreading Spanish, French, or German. ... Plagiarism Checker. Citation Tools. Citation Generator Check your Citations Cite with Chrome. AI Writing. AI Proofreader Paraphrasing Tool Grammar Checker ...

  12. Dissertations & Theses

    Theses & Dissertations. CMS 14.224: Theses and dissertations. Titles of unpublished works appear in "quotation marks"—not in italics. This treatment extends to theses and dissertations, which are otherwise cited like books. The kind of thesis, the academic institution, and the date follow the title. Like the publication data of a book, these ...

  13. How do I cite a dissertation in MLA style?

    In a change from the previous edition of the MLA Handbook , we do not distinguish between published and unpublished dissertations. To cite a dissertation, include in the entry the author, title, and date of publication as core elements. As an optional element, list the institution granting the degree and a description of the work.

  14. APA: how to cite a dissertation [Update 2023]

    Year of publication: Give the year in brackets followed by a full stop. Title of the dissertation: Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized. Publication number: Give the identification number of the dissertation, if available. Name of the degree awarding institution: Give the name of the institution.

  15. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA 7

    The dissertation's title should be written in sentence case and in italics. The first word of the title should be capitalized, and all other words should be in lower case, except for proper nouns. With that in mind, let's dive into the specifics of how to cite a dissertation in APA. Get Your Dissertation Edited.

  16. How to Reference a Dissertation in HARVARD

    Automatic works cited and bibliography formatting for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian citation styles. Now supports 7th edition of MLA.

  17. Guides and databases: Harvard: Thesis or dissertation

    Citing authors with Harvard ; Page numbers and punctuation ; References with missing details ; Secondary referencing ; Example reference list ; Articles Toggle Dropdown. ... Title of thesis (in italics). Degree statement. Degree-awarding body. Available at: URL. (Accessed: date). In-text citation: (Smith, 2019)

  18. How to Cite Sources

    To quote a source, copy a short piece of text word for word and put it inside quotation marks. To paraphrase a source, put the text into your own words. It's important that the paraphrase is not too close to the original wording. You can use the paraphrasing tool if you don't want to do this manually.

  19. How to Cite a Thesis in APA

    Full Citation Rules. Citing a thesis in APA on the References page follows the format for citing a dissertation. Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No. #) [Dissertation type, University]. Database.

  20. How to Cite a Thesis/Dissertation in Chicago/Turabian

    This guide will show you how to create notes-bibliography style citations for theses and dissertations in a variety of formats using the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. Guide Overview. Citing a thesis or dissertation from a database; Citing a thesis or dissertation from the web; Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation

  21. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA

    Citing a Thesis or Dissertation. Thesis - A document submitted to earn a degree at a university.. Dissertation - A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.. The formatting for thesis and dissertation citations is largely the same. However, you should be sure to include the type of degree after the publication year as supplemental information.

  22. Cite A Dissertation in Harvard style

    Cite A Dissertation in Harvard style. Use the following template or our Harvard Referencing Generator to cite a dissertation. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.

  23. How to Cite a Website in MLA, APA, & Chicago Styles

    Citing websites correctly is essential to adhere to the citation guidelines mentioned by your institution. Here's how to cite a website in APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), and Chicago styles to ensure that your research papers and articles are accurately documented and credible for your readers. 1.

  24. [2403.02037] Scalable Vision-Based 3D Object Detection and Monocular

    This dissertation is a multifaceted contribution to the advancement of vision-based 3D perception technologies. In the first segment, the thesis introduces structural enhancements to both monocular and stereo 3D object detection algorithms. By integrating ground-referenced geometric priors into monocular detection models, this research achieves unparalleled accuracy in benchmark evaluations ...

  25. Palantir Shares Are Trading Higher Premarket After Wedbush's ...

    He likened Palantir's AI platform to soccer star Lionel Messi, referring to it as the "Messi of AI thesis." In a note shared by Wedbush, the analysts led by Ives also expressed that Palantir ...