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Paraphrasing in APA

Paraphrasing is the art of putting information into your own words while writing a research paper, in order to maintain the academic integrity of your project. This is important because you need to use solid evidence as a researcher, but you need to put information into the proper format to avoid plagiarism. The American Psychological Association (APA) created a writing style in 1929 that calls for uniformity and consistency in giving credit to sources in your research.

How to properly paraphrase

If you do not properly paraphrase your source material following the APA style, you are at the risk of losing credibility as a writer and possibly plagiarizing. Although paraphrasing is not difficult, it does take time and a little forethought to do it correctly. There are several steps you should follow in order to achieve success.

1. Read the original source

The first step in creating an effective paraphrase is to carefully read the original source. Read it the first time to get the overall understanding, and then do a second closer reading in order to gather details and material that will help you formulate your argument.

2. Take notes in your own words

After reading the original source and determining what details can help you formulate your argument, take a minute to jot down some notes. Be careful to put everything into your own words. Change the structure of the sentence as well as the vocabulary.

Also, take a moment to take notes on the context of the source. Why was it written? Who wrote it? When was it written?

3. Construct a paraphrase

In order to construct a paraphrase, you need to include the same information, but with different sentence structure and different vocabulary. APA rules say that a paraphrase should be approximately the same length as the original.

You also need to add contextual text around the paraphrase so it fits within your paper.

4. Double check the original source to avoid duplication

Although an extra step, it is always a good idea to read through the original source one more time to make sure that you have chosen different words and varied the sentence structure. This is a good time to add the APA requirements of author and year of the source so that you have it handy.

5. Include an APA in-text citation

Even though you are putting a paraphrase into your own words, APA requires an in-text citation for paraphrasing. You can create a parenthetical citation or a narrative citation to accomplish this.

Remember: All in-text citations will also need a corresponding APA reference in the APA reference page . For this article, we’re just focusing on in-text citations in paraphrases.

For both types of in-text citation, you will need the following source information:

  • Author’s last name
  • Year published
  • single page: p. #
  • page range: pp. #-#

Parenthetical citation

For an APA parenthetical citation , write your paraphrase and then add the author and year in parenthesis at the end. Use a comma between the author and the year inside the parenthesis, and put the period for the end of the sentence outside the parenthesis.

Oh, say can you see by the dawn’s early light What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming? (Key, 1814).

My parents traveled from Italy to Germany and then France. As the oldest child, I traveled with them after being born in Naples. They were very close, and shared that love they had for each other with me (Shelley, 1818, p. 78).

Narrative citation

In a narrative citation, you introduce the author’s name as part of the sentence, and put the year in parenthesis.

Francis Scott Key (1814) wrote very special words while overlooking a battle: Oh, say can you see by the dawn’s early light, what so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming?

For further details, visit this guide on APA in-text citations.

Paraphrasing example

Franklin Delano Roosevelt gave an inaugural address in January 1933 during the Great Depression. This is an excerpt taken from an online source :

This is preeminently the time to speak the truth, the whole truth, frankly and boldly. Nor need we shrink from honestly facing conditions in our country today. This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper….

1. Read original source text

In order to paraphrase, read through the text once to get the gist of it, and then again for deeper understanding. The context of this passage is also significant. It was given by a U.S. president during the Great Depression. What do you think he was trying to achieve?

Next take notes in your own words. Without immediately looking at the text, jot down what you think is the main point or concept of it. Next, take notes on the context of the source (you can look at the source for this).

For this passage, a few example notes could be:

  • Facing truth
  • Harsh current reality
  • Believing that this great nation will endure and eventually prosper again
  • Speech by President Roosevelt in 1933
  • Given during the Great Depression
  • He was addressing his citizens

Now’s the time to construct the paraphrase. Based on the notes above, a paraphrase would look something like this:

With his inaugural speech, Roosevelt was carefully trying to prepare citizens of the Nation to face the harsh reality that the Great Depression had caused, while also reassuring them that the country would endure and eventually prosper again.

4. Double check with the original source

The paraphrase above doesn’t not look too similar to the original, but we could still change a few words that were also in the original phrase (like “Nation,” “endure,” and “prosper). Revised, it looks like this:

With his inaugural speech, Roosevelt was carefully trying to prepare citizens of the United States to face the harsh reality that the Great Depression had caused, while also reassuring them that the country would eventually bounce back .

5. Add an APA in-text citation

An APA in-text citation means including the source’s author, year published, and page numbers (if available). The paraphrase already has the author’s name, but the year published needs to be added in parentheses. This is from an online source so no page number is needed.

With his inaugural speech, Roosevelt (1933) was carefully trying to prepare citizens of the United States to face the harsh reality that the Great Depression had caused, while also reassuring them that the country would eventually bounce back.

Examples of poor paraphrasing

Most people who fail at paraphrasing use the same sentence as the original source, and just change a word or two. If this is the case, the paraphrase would look something like this:

This great country will endure as it has endured, will come back to life and will prosper. So, first of all, let me show my strong belief that the only thing we have to worry about is fear itself…”

Another problem with paraphrasing occurs when you do half the job. Although the first and third sentences change the sentence structure and vocabulary in the sample below, there are some sections that are taken word-for-word from the original.

“From Italy they visited Germany and France. I, their eldest child, was born at Naples, and as an infant accompanied them in their rambles. I remained for several years their only child. Much as they were attached to each other, they seemed to draw inexhaustible stores of affection from a very mine of love to bestow them upon me.

Paraphrase:

My parents visited Italy and then Germany and France. I, their eldest child, was born at Naples. I traveled with them and was their only child for a few years. They loved each other and they seemed to draw inexhaustible stores of affection from a very mine of love.

In addition to the word-for-word similarities, this paraphrase doesn’t mention the original source’s author, year published, or page number (Shelley, 1818, p. 78).

Key takeaways

  • In order to avoid plagiarism, APA delineates the way to give credit to sources when you are paraphrasing.
  • In APA style, parenthetical citations demand the author and year of source.
  • In order to create a stellar paraphrase, you need to change the structure and the words, but keep the main idea intact.

Published October 28, 2020.

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APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Paraphrasing

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  • In-Text Citation for More Than One Author

No Author and/or No Date

When you write information from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion as follows:

Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt, 1993).

Note : If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation, instead include the year of publication following his/her name:

Hunt (1993) noted that mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research after the publication of John Bowlby's studies.

Original Source

Homeless individuals commonly come from families who are riddled with problems and marital disharmony, and are alienated from their parents. They have often been physically and even sexually abused, have relocated frequently, and many of them may be asked to leave home or are actually thrown out, or alternatively are placed in group homes or in foster care. They often have no one to care for them and no one knows them intimately.

Source from: 

Rokach, A. (2005). The causes of loneliness in homeless youth. The Journal of Psychology , 139, 469-480. 

Example: Incorrect Paraphrasing

The homeless come from families with problems. Frequently, they have been physically or sexually abused, or have lived in group homes. Usually no one cares for them or knows them intimately (Rokach, 2005). 

Note : In this incorrect example the writing is too similar to the original source. The student only changed or removed a few words and has not phrased the ideas in a new way. 

Example: Correct Paraphrasing

Many homeless experience isolation in part due to suffering from abuse or neglect during their childhood (Rokach, 2005).

Note : The example keeps the idea of the original writing but phrases it in a new way.

In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors

In-text citation for group or corporate authors.

No Known Author:

Note that in most cases where a personal author is not named, a group author may be cited instead (eg. Statistics Canada). However, in certain cases, such as religious ancient texts, the author is unknown. Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title. Don't count initial articles like "A", "An" or "The". You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your References List.

If the title in the References list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation.

If you are citing an article, a chapter of a book or a page from a website, put the words in double quotation marks.

Capitalize the titles using title case (every major word is capitalized) even if the reference list entry uses sentence case (only first word is capitalized).

( Cell Biology , 2012, p. 157)

("Nursing," 2011, p. 9)

No Known Date of Publication :

Where you'd normally put the year of publication, instead use the letters "n.d.".

(Smith, n.d., p. 200)

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APA 7th referencing guide: Paraphrasing

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About paraphrasing

Most pieces of writing you do at university will expect you to refer to other sources as evidence to support and justify the point that you make. The key way to use sources in your writing is to paraphrase their ideas. Paraphrasing is using another person’s ideas but putting them into your own words and showing your interpretation of these ideas.  It is not just changing a few words in a sentence from the original text, and it must still have a citation with the author’s surname or organisation’s name plus the year it was published. You do not have to include a page number unless you are paraphrasing or summarising an idea from a particular page.

Callanan, G. A. & Tomkowicz, S. M. (2011). Legal yes, ethical no: using the case of debit card overdraft fees as a business ethics teaching tool. Journal of the Academy of Business Education , 12, 85-100.

Idea in the source which you want to paraphrase:-

This simultaneous attention to profit maximization on the one hand and the ethical expectations of society on the other creates a conflict that organizations confront on a daily basis. In this sense, organizations are pulled in two different directions; actions that allow for profit maximization, even if they are legal, could be questionable from an ethics standpoint and thereby fail to satisfy the expectations of society (pp. 85-86).

Unacceptable paraphrase i.e. plagiarism:-

This immediate consideration to profit maximization on the one hand and the moral expectations of society on the other creates a struggle that organizations confront on a regular basis. Therefore, organizations are pulled in two different directions; activities that allow for profit expansion, even if they are lawful, could be disputed from an ethics standpoint and thereby fail to fulfil the expectations of society.

Acceptable paraphrase:-

Callanan and Tomkowicz (2011, pp. 85-86) have argued that the ethical expectations of society and the attention placed on profit maximisation create a struggle for most organisations, which they have to deal with every day; organisations are often pulled in two opposing directions, one being the actions which will maximise profit and the other being the expectations of society.

If you are unsure how to paraphrase, please speak to the Learning Development team for your faculty: https://www.lancaster.ac.uk/library/learning-development/

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Running text (Author, Date). Author (Date) running text.

Parenthetical Format . The citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence and includes the author and date separated by a comma. If at the end of a sentence a full stop is placed after the citation.  Growth occurs at every stage of life (Newman & Newman, 2017). Case study research does not employ the scientific method (Barlow et al., 2017) although it is an important tool for qualitative researchers (Travers, 2001). Narrative Format . The author is used as part of the text, the date appears directly after the author in parentheses. If the date is used as a part of the text, just separate the author and date with a comma.  As discussed by Newman and Newman (2017), growth occurs at every stage of life. In 2019, Hiscock et al. pointed out that half of Australian children and adolescents who experienced mental health issues did not receive professional treatment.

Common Examples

Long Paraphrases & Paragraphs

When paraphrasing or summarising using one source over several sentences or even a whole paragraph, cite the source in the first sentence. There is no need to cite the work again in this paragraph provided it is clear that this is the only source being paraphrased. The  APA Style and Grammar Guidelines provide this example:

          Velez et al. (2018) found that for women of color, sexism and racism in the workplace were associated with poor work and mental health outcomes, including job-related burnout, turnover intentions, and psychological distress. However, self-esteem, person–organization fit, and perceived organizational support mediated these effects. These findings underscore the importance of considering multiple forms of workplace discrimination in clinical practice and research with women of color, along with efforts to challenge and reduce such discrimination.

You must reintroduce the citation if the paraphrase continues across multiple paragraphs.  If the paragraph or sentence contains information from multiple sources, then cite as often as required to make sure the source is clearly acknowledged. The  APA Style and Grammar Guidelines provide this example:

           Play therapists can experience many symptoms of impaired wellness, including emotional exhaustion or reduced ability to empathize with others (Elwood et al., 2011; Figley, 2002), disruption in personal relationships (Elwood et al., 2011; Robinson-Keilig, 2014), decreased satisfaction with work (Elwood et al., 2011), avoidance of particular situations (Figley, 2002; O’Halloran & Linton, 2000), and feelings or thoughts of helplessness (Elwood et al., 2011; Figley, 2002; O’Halloran & Linton, 2000).

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FAQ: How do I cite paraphrased information in APA Style (in-text)?

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Last Updated: Aug 09, 2023 Views: 273226

When you paraphrase, you use your own words. This is usually preferable to direct quotes because the information is written in your own style, but you must be careful not to change the meaning. When paraphrasing, you must still acknowledge where you got the idea from by including a parenthetical citation.

When citing paraphrased information, APA requires you to include the author and date. It is also recommended (but not required) that you include the page number. The format of the page number depends on if the information is on a single page or range of pages.

Examples of Citing Paraphrased Information at the Beginning of a Sentence

A review  (Selby et al., 2017)  identified several laws pertaining to cancer research in the UK that might be affected because of Brexit.

Patafio et al. (2016) investigated the relationship between cancer research funding and cancer research output and found that research output is not well correlated with the public health burden of individual cancers that was measure by mortality rates.

The authors (Lindqvist & Neumann) argue that security and privacy are crucial in the Internet of Things (IoT) because if future attacks are successful they can cause widespread destruction and even cost lives.

Bernard (2011)  argues that Henry VIII's Catholicism was more than just Catholicism without the pope.

Examples of Citing Paraphrased Information in the Middle of a Sentence

Surgery is considered a last resort in the treatment of plantar fasciitis  Owens (2017) argues.

Strength training as treatment for plantar fasciitis, according to (Huffer et al. 2017) , does not contribute to the improved function and pain relief.

Many physical therapists use ultrasound therapy as treatment; however, numerous studies highlighted in the review published by Sanke and Radwan (2015) show that the therapy does not have any effect on the condition. 

Examples of Citing Paraphrased Information at the End of a Sentence

There are multiple types of cyberbullying  (El Asam & Samara, 2016) .

A significant amount of youths' social interaction takes place through technology and children as young as 10 have access to mobile devices  (Williford & DePaolis, 2016) .

The authors found that undergraduate students are afraid to report cyberbullying  (Watts et al., 2017, p. 273) .

Example of how the original quotation might be paraphrased<

Original quotation:.

American commitment to self-government rested on the early experience of colonization. English common law was introduced with the first settlers, and each new colony soon had an elected assembly designed to represent and protect the interests of the settler population, acting like a local equivalent of the Westminster House of Commons.  In theory, popular participation in government was balanced by a strong executive, in the person of the governor, supported by an advisory council.  Bit in the first years of settlement, when colonies were sponsored by private companies rather than the Crown, governors and councils were often themselves elected, reinforcing the tendency towards local control (Conway, 2013, p. 33) .

The essay incorporating the paraphrasing:

The early settlers in Colonial American may have considered themselves English and loyal to the Crown.  However, the local government structure supported a system of relative self-governance  (Conway, 2013, p. 33) .

More Information

  • APA guide  (Shapiro Library)

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American Psychological Association. (2020).  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7 th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Bernard, G. W. (2011). The dissolution of the monasteries. History , 96 (324), 390-409. 

Conway, S. (2013). A short history of the American Revolutionary War . I.B.Tauris.

El Asam, A., & Samara, M. (2016). Cyberbullying and the law: A review of psychological and legal challenges. Computers in human behavior , 65 , 127-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.08.012

Lindqvist, U., & Neumann, P. G. (2017). The future of the internet of things. Communications of the ACM , 60 (2), 26-30. https://doi.org/10.1145/3029589

Owens, J. M. (2017). Diagnosis and management of plantar fasciitis in primary care. Journal for nurse practitioners , 13 (5), 354-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2016.12.016

Patafio, F. M., Brooks, S. C., Wei, X., Peng, Y., Biagi, J., & Booth, C. M. (2016). Research output and the public health burden of cancer: Is there any relationship? Current Oncology , 23 (2), 75-80. https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2935

Sanke, P. L., & Radwan, T. S. (2015). Ultrasound as an effective treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis. Journal of foot & ankle surgery , 54 (4) 481-487.

Selby, P., Lawler, M., Baird, R., Banks, I., Johnston, P., & Nurse, P. (2017). The potential consequences for cancer care and cancer research of Brexit. Ecancermedicalscience , 11 (752-769), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.3332/ecancer.2017.ed63

Watts, L. K., Wagner, J., Velasquez, B., & Behrens, P. I. (2017). Cyberbullying in higher education: A literature review. Computers in human behavior , 69 , 268-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.038

Williford, A., & Depaolis, K. J. (2016). Predictors of cyberbullying intervention among elementary school staff: The moderating effect of staff status. Psychology in the schools , 53 (10), 1032-1044. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21973

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Paraphrasing in APA

If you’re taking a class in the social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, or political science, you’re probably using APA (American Psychological Association) format. One important use of formatting guidelines is to standardize the way you incorporate and cite sources in your papers.

Sources are incorporated into papers as quotations, summaries, or paraphrases. Paraphrasing is also called “indirect discourse” because instead of directly writing what the source says, you’re putting it in your own words. The source is represented indirectly, but still with proper citation.

Some people have the misconception that if they change the wording of a source, as we do in a paraphrase, they no longer must cite the source. This isn’t true; it’s always important to let readers know when you’re using ideas from a source. This lets readers see the depth of your research.

Let’s look at how to properly incorporate paraphrases using APA format.

Letting the reader know when a paraphrase starts

In a quotation, it is easy for a reader to tell when the quote begins and ends because the quote is enclosed in quotation marks. Paraphrases lack quotation marks, but it’s still important to show the readers when you’re shifting into material from a source. You don’t want readers to be confused about whether they’re reading your idea or an idea from a source.

Narrative citation

It’s important to organize your paraphrase so it’s clear where it begins and ends, so it’s not abruptly dropped in. Narrative citation involves working some amount of the citation information into the sentence that transitions into the paraphrase.  This information is part of the signal phrase that lets the reader know that a source is coming. A narrative citations usually includes the following information:

  • Last Name of the Author
  • Year of Publication
  • Single page — p. 1
  • Page range — pp. 1-5

The first time you use the source, include the author’s full name. You may also want to include something about his or her credentials so it’s clear to the readers why this person is a relevant authority.

Narrative format:

Last Name of the Author (Year of Publication) other paraphrase text (Page number).

Narrative example:

Bryan Stevenson, author of Just Mercy (2014), explained how the traditional agriculture base of the Alabaman economy had to change as a result of several factors, including the migration of African Americans to other areas of the country in the 1940s (p. 24).

After the first mention of an author, you can switch to using just their last name. You can also  use an appropriate pronoun if it would be clear to readers whom the pronoun refers to, such as if there are several paraphrases from the same author in one paragraph.

An appropriate verb is also part of the signal phrase. In the example above, that verb is “explained.” In APA format, these verbs are in simple past tense or past perfect tense.

Letting the reader know when a paraphrase ends

Just like with the beginning of a paraphrase, the end needs to be signaled to the reader in some way.

Parenthetical citation

Parenthetical citations go at the end of a quote or paraphrase. In APA format, the information in a parenthetical citation is the author’s last name, a comma, and the year of publication. If the author’s last name and the date were given at the beginning of the paraphrase, they do not have to be repeated at the end. A page number is optional for a paraphrase, but it is a good idea. Part of the reason for citations is to allow a reader to follow your research. If the source you are paraphrasing is long or complex, a page number would help the reader find the original material. Place a lowercase ‘p’ followed by a period and a space before the page number. If you’re paraphrasing material over more than one page, use two lowercase p’s followed by a period.

Parenthetical format:

Paraphrase text (Last Name of the Author, Year of Publication, Page number).

Stevenson (2014) explains that proximity allows us to see that people can’t be reduced to their worst actions (pp. 17-18).

Parenthetical example:

Proximity allows us to see that people can’t be reduced to their worst actions (Stevenson, 2014, pp. 17-18).

When there are no page numbers or listed authors

Of course, some sources, such as web pages, do not have page numbers. Sometimes a writer will cite the paragraph number. In this case, write ‘para’ followed by a period, a space and the paragraph number. If the paraphrase is over more than one paragraph, add an ‘s’. If the text is long enough that counting out the paragraphs would be unreasonable, you can include another identifying feature, like the chapter name or number.

Despite fanciful theories rarely based in fact, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2019) has maintained that the natural environment is the main cause of vessel disappearances in the Bermuda Triangle (para. 3).

The parenthetical citation goes within the sentence, so the period is to the right of the parenthesis.

The information comes from an unpaginated source, so the paragraph number was used instead.

Notice also that in this example there is no person given as the author. Rather, the information is credited to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Likewise, on the website where this information is found, no person is given as the author. The organization is considered the author. On the references page, the name of the organization will be in the author position.

Some organizations have well-known abbreviations. If that is the case, the first time you refer to an organization, use the full name in the citation but include the abbreviation immediately after in square brackets. For all further citations, you can just use the abbreviation. If you’re unsure whether an organization’s abbreviation is well-known, err on the side of clarity for the reader and use the full name.

Connection to the references page

A reader can take the information in an in-text citation and find the source on the references page. The references page provides the full citation. With this, a reader can easily find the text herself if she wants to read further. An in-text citation includes the author’s last name. This is the first piece of information on a references page citation, which makes it easy to match up the in-text citation to the right source.

Published October 29, 2020.

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Paraphrasing APA Tool: APA Style Guide

Table of Contents

Paraphrasing APA tool is a must-learn for students who want to ace their papers. If you’re taking a social sciences course like psychology, sociology, or political science, you’re probably using APA style.

Standardizing the incorporation and citation of sources is essential for formatting guideline.

In papers, sources are incorporated as direct quotes, summaries, or paraphrases. Instead of expressing exactly what the source says, you rewrite it in your own words. This is known as “indirect discourse.” The source is represented indirectly while yet being appropriately cited.

Some individuals mistakenly believe that if they change the phrasing of a source, as we do in a paraphrase, they no longer need to cite it. This is False. It is always vital to acknowledge sources when borrowing someone else’s ideas. This demonstrates the breadth of your research to the reader.

Let’s examine how to incorporate paraphrasing APA tool correctly for our papers.

 Standardizing the incorporation and citation of sources is essential for formatting guidelines.

How to Properly Incorporate the Paraphrasing APA Tool

Notifying the reader when a paraphrase begins.

The use of quotation marks within a quotation makes it easier for a reader to identify the beginning and finish of a quote. 

Even though paraphrases lack quotation marks, it is nevertheless necessary to indicate to the reader when you are incorporating material from another source . 

You do not want readers to be uncertain about whether they are reading your thought or an idea from another source.

Narrative Citation Format

It is essential to order your paraphrase so that it begins and ends clearly. The narrative citation requires incorporating a portion of the citation into the transitional sentence of the paraphrase. 

This information is included in the phrase that alerts the reader that a source is forthcoming. The following information is typically included in narrative citations:

  • Author’s Surname, Year of Publication
  • Page number (if the source includes pages) or citation format Position within the source

Include the author’s complete name the first time you utilize a source. You may also want to describe their credentials, so the reader knows why they’re an authority.

Narrative Structure

  • Author’s Surname 
  • Year of Publication 
  • Page number

Narrative Example

Allison Pegworth, author of  Keeping Peace  (2018), described how men, women, and children were smuggled into other regions and captured into slavery in the 1930s (p. 50).

After the initial mention of an author, just their last name should be used. You may also use a pronoun if the reader knows to whom it refers, such as when many paraphrases of the same author appear in the same paragraph.

A suitable verb is also included in the signal sentence. The verb in the above example is “described.” In APA style, these verbs are in the simple past or past perfect tense.

Notifying the Reader When a Paraphrase Concludes

Similar to the beginning, the conclusion of a paraphrase must be conveyed to the reader .

Bibliographical Citation

Citations are at the end of a quote or paraphrase. A parenthetical citation includes the author’s last name, a comma, and the publication year in APA format. 

If the author’s last name and date were mentioned at the beginning, they’re not needed at the end. A page number is not required to paraphrase, but it is recommended. 

The purpose of citations is to let the reader follow your research. If the source you paraphrase is lengthy or complex, using the page number will assist the reader in locating the original text. 

Before the page number, use a lowercase ‘p’ followed by a period and a space. Use two lowercase p’s followed by a period when paraphrasing information that spans more than one page.

Format: Parenthetical Citations

Paraphrase text indicating 

  • Last Name of the Author
  • Year of Publication

Example of a Narrative Citation

Jameson (2018) states that tall people have an economic advantage over short people in places where height isn’t supposed to matter (pp. 20-22).

Example of a Parenthetical Citation

Tall people have an economic advantage over short people in places where height isn’t supposed to matter (Jameson, 2018, pp. 20-22).

Parenthetical Citation

Parenthetical citations go at the end of a quote or paraphrase. In APA format, the information in a parenthetical citation is the author’s last name, a comma, and the year of publication. 

If the author’s last name and the date are at the beginning of the paraphrase, do not repeat them at the end. A page number is optional for paraphrasing, but it is a good idea. Part of the reason for citations is to allow a reader to follow your research. 

If the source you paraphrase is long or complex, a page number will help the reader find the original material. Place a lowercase ‘p’ followed by a period and a space before the page number. If you’re paraphrasing material over more than one page, use two lowercase p’s followed by a period.

When Neither Page Numbers nor Authors Are Given

Certain materials, including web pages, lack page numbers. Occasionally, a writer will reference the paragraph number. Write ‘para’ followed by a period, a space, and the paragraph number in this instance. 

If the paraphrase spans many paragraphs, add an ‘s.’ If the content is too long to count paragraphs, use the chapter name or number instead.

The Food and Drug Agency (2015) regulates the export, import, manufacture, advertisement, distribution, sale, and use of chemicals in the US. despite reports stating otherwise. (para. 2)

The citation in parentheses is part of the sentence, so the period is to the right of the parenthetical quotation.

The information comes from a source without page numbers. Thus, paragraph numbers have been utilized instead.

Also, observe that there is no author listed in this instance. Instead, credit is given to the FDA. Likewise, no author is listed on the webpage where this material is located. The authorship is attributed to the organization. The organization’s name will be listed in the author position on the references page.

Specific organizations have widely recognized abbreviations. If so, use the organization’s full name the first time, then the abbreviation in square brackets.

For all subsequent citations, only the abbreviation should be used. If you are uncertain whether an organization’s abbreviation is widely recognized, err on the side of reader clarity and use the full name.

Connecting the Reference Page

A reader can use an in-text citation to locate the source on the references page. The complete citation is provided on the references page. A reader can readily find the text if they wish to continue reading. 

A citation within the text (in-text citation) includes the author’s surname. This is the initial information on the references page, making it simple to link the in-text citation with the correct source.

Paraphrasing APA Tool: APA Style Guide

Pam is an expert grammarian with years of experience teaching English, writing and ESL Grammar courses at the university level. She is enamored with all things language and fascinated with how we use words to shape our world.

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  4. Paraphrasing Quotes In Apa Format

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VIDEO

  1. LESSON 78

  2. How to properly use ChatGPT for Paraphrasing and Proofreading

  3. APA Style

  4. referencing APA style part 2

  5. How to quote citations in apa format?

  6. Paraphrasing in MLA Format

COMMENTS

  1. Paraphrasing

    From the APA Style blog If you translate a passage from one language into another on your own in your paper, your translation is considered a paraphrase, not a direct quotation. Attend the webinar, "Citing Works in Text Using Seventh Edition APA Style," on July 14, 2020, to learn the keys to accurately and consistently citing sources in APA Style.

  2. Paraphrasing

    Using paper checkers responsibly A paraphrase is... Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source. A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.

  3. Paraphrasing in APA

    Citation Generator Source Type Search Paraphrasing is the art of putting information into your own words while writing a research paper, in order to maintain the academic integrity of your project. This is important because you need to use solid evidence as a researcher, but you need to put information into the proper format to avoid plagiarism.

  4. PDF Paraphrasing and Citation Activities, APA Style 7th Edition

    Instructions Complete the following activities to practice your paraphrasing and citation skills. Then compare your answers with those from the APA Style team (see pages 6 and 7 of this instructional aid) as well as your classmates or colleagues. In completing the activities, you can type your answers directly into the PDF using the text fields.

  5. APA Citation Style, 7th Edition: In-Text Citations & Paraphrasing

    Continue writing your paragraph, you do NOT need to add another in-text citation until: 1) You are paraphrasing from a NEW source, which means you need to cite NEW information OR 2) You need to cite a DIRECT quote, which includes a page number, paragraph number or Section title.

  6. PDF Paraphrasing Guidelines (APA, 2020, p. 269)

    Paraphrasing Guidelines (APA, 2020, p. 269) APA 7 notes that "published authors paraphrase their sources most of the time, rather than directly quoting" (p. 269). For writing in psychology, students should use direct quotations only sparingly and instead mainly synthesize and paraphrase.

  7. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  8. LibGuides: APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Paraphrasing

    In-Text Citation for More Than One Author No Author and/or No Date Paraphrasing When you write information from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion as follows:

  9. APA Style 6th Edition Blog: Paraphrasing

    For more on quoting and paraphrasing in APA Style, please see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., §§ 6.03-6.09). References. ... APA Style, however, consistently uses the author-date format to identify an idea's origin. When repeatedly referring to the same source, ...

  10. Paraphrasing

    Reference Page Format ; Abstract and Keywords ; Annotated Bibliography ; Style and Grammar Guidlines ; APA 7th Tips, DOIs, URLs & More ... Guidance from APA Style on paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is covered in Sections 8.23 and 8.24 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition.

  11. LibGuides: APA 7th referencing guide: Paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing is using another person's ideas but putting them into your own words and showing your interpretation of these ideas. It is not just changing a few words in a sentence from the original text, and it must still have a citation with the author's surname or organisation's name plus the year it was published. You do not have to ...

  12. APA Style Guide: Paraphrase

    Paraphrase/Summary. Paraphrasing is when you, as the researcher, put a passage or idea from another work and into your own words. A paraphrased passage is generally shorter and more condensed than the original. Summarizing is very similar to paraphrasing, in that it also involves putting someone else's ideas into your own words in order to ...

  13. ACAP Learning Resources: Reference in APA 7: Paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing. Running text (Author, Date). Author (Date) running text. Parenthetical Format. The citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence and includes the author and date separated by a comma. If at the end of a sentence a full stop is placed after the citation. Growth occurs at every stage of life (Newman & Newman, 2017).

  14. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper Author/Authors Rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors that apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.)

  15. APA Formatting and Citation (7th Ed.)

    Throughout your paper, you need to apply the following APA format guidelines: Set page margins to 1 inch on all sides. Double-space all text, including headings. Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 inches. Use an accessible font (e.g., Times New Roman 12pt., Arial 11pt., or Georgia 11pt.). Include a page number on every page.

  16. How do I cite paraphrased information in APA Style (in-text)?

    When citing paraphrased information, APA requires you to include the author and date. It is also recommended (but not required) that you include the page number. The format of the page number depends on if the information is on a single page or range of pages. Examples of Citing Paraphrased Information at the Beginning of a Sentence

  17. Quotations

    Home Style and Grammar Guidelines In-Text Citations Quotations A direct quotation reproduces words verbatim from another work or from your own previously published work. It is best to paraphrase sources rather than directly quoting them because paraphrasing allows you to fit material to the context of your paper and writing style.

  18. Paraphrasing in APA

    Paraphrasing in APA If you're taking a class in the social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, or political science, you're probably using APA (American Psychological Association) format. One important use of formatting guidelines is to standardize the way you incorporate and cite sources in your papers.

  19. Free APA Citation Generator

    Formatting the APA reference page The basics. On the reference page, you list all the sources that you've cited throughout your paper. Place the page, right after the main body and before any appendices. ... Paraphrasing tool: Avoid accidental plagiarism and make your text sound better. Grammar checker: Eliminate pesky spelling and grammar ...

  20. Paraphrasing APA Tool: APA Style Guide

    Paraphrasing APA tool is a must-learn for students who want to ace their papers. If you're taking a social sciences course like psychology, sociology, or political science, you're probably using APA style. Standardizing the incorporation and citation of sources is essential for formatting guideline. In papers, sources are incorporated as ...

  21. APA Citation Guide (7th edition): Quotes vs Paraphrases

    When quoting place quotation marks (" ") around the selected passage to show where the quote begins and where it ends. Make sure to include an in-text citation. Paraphrasing is used to show that you understand what the author wrote. You must reword the passage, expressing the ideas in your own words, and not just change a few words here and there.

  22. Citing Paraphrased Work in APA Style

    As the Publication Manual notes, citing your sources is imperative: "Whether paraphrasing, quoting an author directly, or describing an idea that influenced your work, you must credit the source" (p. 170). But, we are sometimes asked how a writer can properly and clearly attribute multiple ideas within a paragraph yet maintain a readable ...

  23. Paraphrasing Tool

    It is a free paraphrase tool with advanced paraphrasing features. It is an excellent AI rewording tool that helps you paraphrase text for free. Much better than Quillbot and other premium paraphrasing tools. I am an author, and this rewriter is my best friend. It assists me in composing emails and social media posts.

  24. Introducing the APA Style Merch Store!

    Hello, APA Stylers! We are pleased to announce the opening of our online store, where you can buy the latest APA Style merchandise.To paraphrase the lyrics from the popular song "Seven" by singer Jung Kook and featuring the rapper Latto, you can access the store 7 days a week—every hour, every minute, and every second.. The APA Style Merch Store has a little something for everyone.