summarize.tech: AI-powered video summaries
Get a summary of any long YouTube video, like a lecture, live event or a government meeting. Powered by AI.
- State of the Union address
- San Francisco School Board meeting
- Theory of Relativity lecture at Stanford
- Steve Vai documentary
- Data Orchestration tech talk
- All-In podcast
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Video Highlight is the fastest way to summarize and take notes from videos.
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Video Summarizer - Summarize Youtube Videos
Introduction to the video summarizer tool and how it works, this new tool will revolutionize how you research, study, and learn.
The video summarizer tool is a powerful way to condense lengthy video footage into a shorter, more manageable format. It works by identifying the key points and moments in a video, and then creating a summary that includes only the most important information.This can be an extremely useful tool for anyone who has to wade through hours of footage to find important information. It can also be helpful for anyone who wants to quickly get an overview of a video without having to watch the entire thing. The video summarizer tool is easy to use and can save a lot of time and effort!
How to Summarize Youtube Videos
Looking to summarize a YouTube video? The Video Summarizer tool can help. Just enter the URL of the video you want to summarize and our tool will do the rest. In seconds, you’ll have a short summary of the video that you can share with your friends or followers. Because our summarization technology is constantly improving, you can be sure that you’re getting the most accurate and up-to-date summaries available.
Examples: Summarize Any Youtube Video
The Video Summarizer tool can be used to summarize different types of Youtube videos. For example, it can be used to summarize a video about a particular topic, or it can be used to summarize a video that is part of a series. The Video Summarizer tool can also be used to summarize a video that is instructional in nature, or it can be used to summarize a video that is purely entertainment. In each case, the Video Summarizer tool will generate a summary of the main points in the video, making it easier for viewers to understand and remember the most important information.
Save Time With Our YouTube Video Summarizer
The Video Summarizer tool can help you save time when watching Youtube videos. With this tool, you can read a transcript of the video and view the notes that are created by Mindgrasp side-by-side. Then, you can play back the notes and video summary using our listen feature. This way, you can easily listen to the video notes and get the information you need without having to watch the entire video. For example, if you are driving or working out, you can listen to the notes generated while you are doing other things. This way, you can multitask and get more done in less time.
How to: Summarize YouTube Video
To get started with the Video Summarizer tool, simply sign up for a free trial. Once you’ve registered for an account, you’ll be able to upload your video files or paste a YouTube link. The summarizer will analyze the video and create a summary, which you can then download or listen to.
You can also choose to have the summarizer generate key points or highlights from the video. If you need help getting started, there’s a handy user guide that walks you through the process step by step here . So why not give it a try today? You may be surprised at how useful the Video Summarizer can be.
Getting Started with Video Summarizer
Saving time is one of the most commonly cited reasons for using video summary tools. The ability to quickly convert a video into a text format can save students and professionals hours of transcription time. In addition, video summaries can be used to create transcripts of interviews or speeches for later reference. Video summary tools can also be helpful for sales teams who need to quickly generate leads from videos or webinars. These tools can save time by identifying key sales points and extracting contact information from the video. As a result, video summary tools can be a valuable time-saving tool for busy students and professionals. The Video Summarizer tool is a great way to save time when watching Youtube videos. By automatically generating a summary and/or notes of the video using our YouTube video summarizer ai, you can quickly decide whether or not the video is worth watching. In addition, the Video Summarizer tool can be used to summarize any type of video, making it a versatile and powerful tool. If you’re interested in trying out the Video Summarizer tool, be sure to check out our demonstration video below. Thanks for reading!
- Video Summarizer
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Content creators, including YouTubers, podcasters, and videographers, can benefit from Summify.io by repurposing their video content into written blog posts
Bloggers can use Summify.io to transform videos into blog posts quickly. It's a time-saving solution that helps maintain a consistent posting schedule
Anyone Looking to Learn Better
Anyone who wants to learn better can use Summify.io to convert video content into written content that is easier to digest and understand.
Digital marketers can utilize Summify.io to create SEO-friendly blog posts that align with their content marketing strategies.
Researchers and Analysts
Researchers and analysts can use Summify.io to summarize videos of conferences, webinars, or interviews for sharing insights and key findings in blog posts or research reports.
Summarize any video in few seconds
Flexible and powerful, choose your style.
Summify offers 6 different styles to summarize your video.
Need to summarize a video in a different language? it's easy with Summify
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Youtube video summarizer: powered by ai.
How to summarize a YouTube video using Jasper.
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How to use a YouTube Video Summarizer
Need a summary of your latest video for the YouTube video description or related promotional assets? Here's how to create one.
Step 1: Create your YouTube script with AI
If you don't already have your video script in written form, use Jasper’s Video Script Outline template to create one. Typically, videos are made up of three basic parts:
- The conflict
- The resolution
However, depending on the video type, you can also use other video script templates . For example, you'll likely need to use a different structure for product explainers than for a how-to video. The great thing is that Jasper can instantly create the right type of outline for your video type based on the video title or topic you enter.
Step 2: Summarize your YouTube video script
Once you’ve finished your script, plug it into Jasper’s Text Summarizer template. You can enter up to 800 characters at a time and select from over 25 languages. Jasper will then create a polished YouTube video summary . It's a quick ad effective way to distill the main points of any video!
Try our other AI writing tools: Sentence Rewriter | Slogan Generator | Paraphrasing Tool | Paragraph Rewriter | Personal Bio Generator | Instagram Caption Generator
How to use jasper's youtube video summarizer, open the text summarizer template.
Create concise, engaging summaries with the Text Summarizer.
Enter your prompt
Feed Jasper the YouTube video script you'd like to summarize.
Watch Jasper create a summary nearly instantly!
Click "Generate" to get one or more summary options to choose from.
Jasper is rated the #1 AI platform for creators and marketing teams
A good video summary should include the main points, key takeaways, and any important facts or figures mentioned in the video. It may also provide a brief overview of the structure of the video.
When summarizing a YouTube video, it's important to focus on the most relevant information and avoid adding unnecessary details. The summary should be concise and easy to understand, while still conveying all of the essential information.
When writing a summary for your YouTube video, it's important to descriptive and engaging while still being concise. Ideally, it should be no more than a few sentences long.
Ready to create better YouTube summaries with AI?
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YouTube Video Summarizer
Use ai to summarize youtube videos in one click for free., how to summarize youtube videos.
You can easily summarize the youtube videos use NoteGPT with just 3 simple steps
Step1: Get Video URL
Get and copy video URL from youtube.com.
Step2: Paste Video URL
Paste URL into the field above and hit "Generate Summary" button.
Step3: Generate Summary
You can get youtube transcripts and summary with AI.
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Using a Summarize YouTube Video Generator: A Comprehensive Guide
Using a summarize youtube video generator can be a great way to create an effective summary of your YouTube video. Whether you're a content creator looking for a way to maximize engagement or an editor looking for an efficient way to create summaries, a Summarize youtube video generator can provide an invaluable tool. In this blog post, we'll provide an overview of the different types of video summary generators available, how to use each one, and tips on how to make the most out of your video summary.
Types of Summarize YouTube Video Generators
When it comes to summarize YouTube Video Generators, there are a few key types available. These include:
- YouTube video summary generator
- [youtube video description generator](https://paraphrasetool.com/compose-modes/video-description-generator)
- [youtube video idea generator](https://paraphrasetool.com/blog/using-youtube-video-generator-brainstorm-ideas)
- youtube video ideas generator
- YouTube Video Generator
- [youtube video summary generator free](https://paraphrasetool.com/compose-modes/youtube-tag-generator)
- youtube video to audio generator
- [citation generator youtube video](https://paraphrasetool.com/blog/comprehensive-guide-generating-random-video-ideas)
- random youtube video generator
How to Use a Summarize YouTube Video Generator
Using a Summarize YouTube Video Generator is easy and straightforward. Depending on the type of generator you're using, you'll be able to enter either the URL of the video or the title of the video into the generator. Once you've done this, the generator will generate a summary of the video for you.
Tips for Making the Most Out of Your Video Summary
Once you've generated a summary of your video, there are a few key tips to keep in mind to make the most out of your video summary.
- Keep the summary short and to the point - Summaries should be concise and should get to the heart of the video quickly.
- Focus on the key points - Make sure to highlight the main points and ideas of the video, rather than getting bogged down in details.
- Include a call-to-action - Make sure to include a call-to-action in your summary, such as a link to the video or an invitation to subscribe to the channel.
Using a Summarize YouTube Video Generator can be a great way to create an effective summary of your YouTube video. As long as you keep the tips outlined in this blog post in mind, you should be able to make the most out of your video summary.
By including the keywords: summarize youtube video generator, youtube video summary generator, youtube video description generator, youtube video idea generator, youtube video ideas generator, youtube video generator, youtube video summary generator free, youtube video to audio generator, citation generator youtube video, random youtube video generator, summarize youtube video generator throughout the post, it was possible to create a thorough and insightful blog post about using a Summarize YouTube Video Generator.
About Paraphrase Tool
Getting your wording just right.
Paraphrasing is a natural part of the writing process as it helps you clarify your thinking and suit your words to your audience. Using a Paraphrase Tool helps structure and streamline this work, and our paraphrase tool offers 20 modes, many of them free, for accomplishing just this. The 20 modes we offer are diverse, including a summarize tool, a free grammar checker, a mode to simplify text, and a sentence shortener. There are sentence rephrasers and paraphrase rephrase tools, and we pride ourselves on having both, since our reword generator accounts for context at both the sentence and paragraph levels.
When you google paraphrase you will get a variety of results, from a free Paraphrase Tool , to an article spinner, to a general phrase tool, and it can be hard to determine which of these rephrase tools will best help you complete your work. If you simply need to get a word rephrase, that is, reword only small elements within the sentence, many tools will suffice, but there is the risk that you end up with a tool that does not consider context and produces very awkward and ungrammatical sentences. Rephrasing is very much an art, and we’ve built our paraphrase bot to produce the most correct results in 20 modes in over 100 languages, making it the best paraphrasing tool at an exceptionally low cost. So whether you need to paraphrase deutsch, paraphrase greek, or paraphrase bahasa melayu, the next time you think, I need something to paraphrase this for me, you’ll know where to turn.
From keywords to paragraphs
Generating paragraphs with unique ideas can be challenging, and too often writers get stuck at this stage of the writing process. With our paragraph tool, you can enter keywords and let our AI generate paragraphs for you, so that you can have something to work with, refine the output, and become more engaged in your writing.
A paragraph generator creates links between your ideas, such that the output is sensible, unique, and stimulating, very close to what you would expect a thoughtful human paragraph writer to produce.
Paragraph makers are nice, but what about a short story generator? Because our AI is generalized, it serves a story generator, an essay generator, a poem generator, and much more. To generate compelling stories, you should provide the story generator with useful keywords from which it can develop plot elements, including characters, setting details, and any situational information. To generate reasonably good essays, you should likewise provide the essay maker with details around argumentative positions and any other pertinent ideas. If you more specifically want an introduction paragraph generator or conclusion paragraph generator, you can provide starter text and keywords that will best enable our essay creator to produce them.
You may well ask, “is this essay generator free?” Everything on this site is free within a 3-day trial, so you can test and develop confidence in our products. You may also be wondering where this is an essay automatic writer or if it will take a while to get results. All results appear within a matter of seconds, so you can move through your work as quickly as possible.
You may have professional needs for creating paragraphs as well, such as those needed for cover letter. Most of the time a cover letter template includes information that is not relevant to you; by using your own keywords, we can produce cover letter examples that are relevant to your use case and often require very little editing. By using this service, you can also learn how to write a cover letter and achieve the cover letter format you need.
Plagiarism checker free
Like everything else on our site, you can check plagiarism free within a trial, which is a great opportunity for those who want to check a paper for plagiarism without committing to paying before they see results. This free plagiarism checker is great for students and clearly indicates how to check for plagiarism by highlighting areas of similarity between the two texts. Just to be sure you are not accidentally plagiarizing, be sure to check all of your paraphrases as well.
8 Best YouTube Video Summarizers with GPT
Everyone's hanging out with ChatGPT (and now, the recently released GPT-4), asking for everything from creating articles to generating summaries of the given text. The results are mind-blowing, but ChatGPT comes with certain limitations: it does not allow you to generate direct summaries of YouTube videos.
Thankfully, this is exactly where YouTube video summarizers can help: instead of watching the entire YouTube video and writing the summary manually, you can let AI summarizers do it for you. I've spent a lot of time experimenting with different video summarizers recently.
For this article, I've considered over 30 video summarizers, and based on my research and testing, here's a list of the best out of the best 8 tools.
What Makes a Good YouTube Video Summarizer?
I've been writing about AI tools for more than a decade, so I was already familiar with most of the video summary generators I had to test. While testing the top YouTube summarizers over the course of the week, I focused on evaluating the general usability and (artificially) intelligent aspects of each tool.
Here's what I kept my eye out for as I tested each video summary generator :
Great User Interface: If you'll be using the summary generator (very) often, it needs to have an easy user interface with a neat design.
Easy to Use: The AI tool had to be fast and powerful, with a learning curve that matched its feature set. For example, some YouTube summarizers are not very easy to use, but they come with advanced features that save more of your time once you understand what they do.
High-quality Output: A few AI summarizers I tested were generating inaccurate summaries or were unable to correctly figure out the main points of the topic. For this specific reason, I shortlisted the best YouTube summarizers with the ability to understand the main topic and then generate the summary.
Extras: I also looked for AI tools that can go beyond summarizing YouTube content. For example, it could help generate a transcript of the video and even share the content on different channels.
List of the Best YouTube Video Summarizers
As AI becomes the new normal , most YouTube video summarizers use ChatGPT or GPT to analyze the content and produce a shorter — but more meaningful — version in the form of text.
Based on my in-depth research and testing, here are my picks for the eight best YouTube video summarizers.
#1 Notta: Best For Recording, Transcribing, and Summarizing YouTube Videos
Notta has been the industry standard AI note-taking app for many years now, and it's a cutting-edge tool that records, transcribes, and summarizes media files (like YouTube videos). The Notta AI Summary Generator feature automatically detects the main idea of the video and generates an appropriate summary with all the key points.
Notta also has a real-time transcription feature that can automatically generate transcripts of Zoom, Google Meet, Webex, or Microsoft Teams meetings. It works great and transcribes with 98.86% accuracy, which is much higher than other speech-to-text apps I tested .
Transcribe via YouTube URLs: With the Notta Web App, you can transcribe YouTube videos by copy-pasting their URLs.
Generate AI Summary: The Notta AI Summary Generator feature provides chapters, action items, and an overview of the YouTube video for better clarity.
Various Share Options: Once the transcript and summary are generated, they can be easily shared via a shareable link or directly on Notion and Salesforce.
Notta Web App has an intuitive and easy-to-use interface where you record , transcribe, and summarize audio and video files.
It has a handy Chrome extension to transcribe audio from any web page.
Notta Web App supports 104 transcription languages like English, Spanish, and French, making YouTube content accessible to a wider audience.
The Notta AI Summary Generator feature is available in a paid plan — though it is relatively affordable compared to other apps.
You'll need a stable Internet connection to use the Notta Web App.
Free Forever Plan
Pro Plan: $13.99 per user billed monthly
Business Plan: $59 per 2 users per month
Enterprise Plan: Custom Pricing
Transcribe & Summarize Audio & Video in Seconds
#2 youtube summary with chatgpt & claude: best for summarizing short videos for free.
This is another absolutely free browser extension — for Chrome, Safari, Edge, Brave, and Opera — that can effortlessly summarize YouTube videos. Creating a summary is easy: you just open the YouTube video, click the extension, and then the tool will automatically generate a summary. While the summary generator gets the job done for you, it is limited in certain ways: you can only summarize short videos that are less than 20 minutes.
Adjust Summary Length: YouTube Summary with ChatGPT is great at adjusting the length of the summary so the output meets your needs.
Versatile: It's simple to use and lets you generate transcripts and summaries of YouTube lectures, tutorials, how-to guides, and more.
Direct Sharing: The transcripts and summaries generated by the extension can be easily shared via link — with friends, colleagues, and even directly on social media platforms.
YouTube Summary with ChatGPT is free to use — and requires no signup process.
You can copy, edit, and even share the transcripts and summaries with team members.
With the free extension, you can adjust the length of the summary before hitting the generate button.
YouTube Summary with ChatGPT is solely designed to transcribe and summarize YouTube videos.
It's not fast and seamless — and even redirects you to the ChatGPT website before summarizing.
It only works for YouTube videos that are under 20 minutes.
Supports other web browsers (Edge, Brave, and Opera)
#3 NoteGPT: Best For Summarizing & Taking Notes on YouTube Videos
NoteGPT's #1 objective is to summarize any YouTube video by identifying the highlights from the content and putting them together. It has a lot of summarizing options like AI summary, transcript summary, and even regenerate summary. It does a decent job of generating summaries, so you'll never have to listen to the entire YouTube video.
Ease of Use: The AI tool is relatively easy to use, reliable, and requires no technical knowledge: open the NoteGPT YouTube video summarizer, paste the link, and click the generate button.
Accurate Transcription: You can copy-paste the YouTube video URLs, and NoteGPT will generate a quick transcript of the video content.
Multiple Regeneration: NoteGPT allows you to regenerate summaries until you're satisfied with the output.
All the summaries can be saved to the 'My Notes' section, which can be accessed at any time.
You can directly copy the summary to the clipboard and paste it anywhere you like.
NoteGPT's free plan packs a bunch of features like transcript summary, AI summary, regenerate summary, AI explains, AI Q&A, and more.
While NoteGPT helps you get the job done, the generated summaries don't provide much information about the video content.
You can generate only 15 summaries per month for free.
The tool does not come with any advanced features, which makes it less ideal for power users.
Starter: Free Forever Plan
Basic Plan: $2.99 per month
Pro Plan: $9.99 per month
#4 ChatGPT for YouTube: Best For Summarizing Without Any OpenAI Account
ChatGPT for YouTube hasn't been around for a really long, long time — but it's one of the popular free YouTube video summarizers of OpenAI. It has a package of AI features that transcribes spoken words into text and even generates a short, sweet summary. The drawback, however, is that you only get 5 free summaries — after which you'll need a paid subscription.
Key Highlights: With ChatGPT for YouTube, you can even generate the highlights from the video — and that too, without any effort.
Get Transcripts: The free Chrome extension also provides the transcripts of the entire YouTube video — which can be copied with a click.
Shareable Summaries: All the generated summaries can be copied and even shared with team members — with just a click.
ChatGPT for YouTube supports various languages like English, Portugal, and Turkish.
The handy Chrome Extension is versatile — meaning you can summarize YouTube videos, courses, tutorials, news, product feature introductions, academic seminars, or interviews.
There's no need to create a ChatGPT or OpenAI account to use this Chrome extension.
With ChatGPT for YouTube's free plan, you can generate only 5 summaries for free — once in a lifetime.
It may not work well with complex or extremely lengthy videos.
Sometimes, it may miss important information from the video.
Pro Plan: $9.90 for 300 quotes per month
Subscription Plan: $29.90 per month or $199 per year
#5 YoutubeDigest: Best For Exporting Summaries in PDF or DOCX Formats
YoutubeDigest is a great online YouTube video summarizer that helps you create summaries, translate them into various languages, and share the files with anyone in PDF, DOCX, or TXT formats.
It looks good, works even better, and has the right balance between a user-friendly interface and multiple features. If you're looking for a free browser extension that works well for YouTube videos, YoutubeDigest might be a great option.
Various Export Formats : With YoutubeDigest, you can export summaries as PDFs, DOCX, or TXT files.
Translate Summary : What I really liked about YoutubeDigest is its ability to translate the summary into multiple languages. What's even more exciting is that YoutubeDigest lets you add a language of your choice.
Share Options: Once the summary is generated, you can create a shareable link and then share the file with anyone.
You can choose the summary output option — article, bullet point, and more — to get the summary that matches your needs.
It is absolutely free to use on Chrome, Firefox, and Opera.
Unlike most other tools in this list, YoutubeDigest translates the transcripts into multiple other languages.
Unlike ChatGPT for YouTube, you'll need to have a ChatGPT account to use YoutubeDigest.
Currently, YoutubeDigest works only for YouTube video summarization — but the company is planning to extend that.
Sometimes, the generated summaries are of low quality.
#6 YouTube Summarizer: Best For Summarizing Videos in Executive & Long Summary
YouTube Summarizer is probably best known for its simplicity and summary length slider. That part of it works exactly as described: it lets you increase or decrease the output length, though I'm not sure if it strictly follows a certain format. Still, the basic features of YouTube Summarizer are more than enough to get it on this list as the best YouTube video summarizer.
Modify Summary Length: Adjusting the length of the summary is important — and YouTube Summarizer is a great tool for this. With a simple slider, you can increase or decrease the output length from 0-100%.
Different Summary Types: Unlike other tools you find in this list, YouTube Summarizer generates summaries in two types: Executive and Long.
Sharing Options: You can share the summaries via WhatsApp or Email.
With YouTube Summarizer, you can generate executive as well as long summaries.
The AI tool uses advanced artificial intelligence and natural language processing to summarize important information while maintaining the original context.
The AI video summarizer is completely free to use.
The interface is pretty basic and might not be a great choice for professionals.
The summaries might not be tailored to users' specific needs and interests.
Currently, there are no other advanced features available, like automatic transcription.
#7 HARPA: Best For Extracting Key Takeaways From Hours-Long Videos
There are a handful of freemium YouTube video summarizer apps out there that all have broadly similar features. Based on my testing, HARPA has some of the best offerings — and it's an easy-to-use and reliable summary generator worth checking out. One of my favorite things about HARPA is its best-in-class AI assistant, which lets you summarize, rephrase, correct and expand text, and even scan web pages for data extraction.
AI Commands: It's very easy to use HARPA for summarizing YouTube videos: all you need to do is click Alt + A together, and the AI tool will automatically generate a summary.
Extract Key Takeaways: The advanced AI tool can extract important takeaways from hour-long YouTube videos with just a click of a button.
AI Assistant: With HARPA, you can not only AI summarize YouTube videos but also reply to emails — helping you focus on the tasks that matter.
HARPA can summarize YouTube videos and even web pages for free.
It can extract key points from the videos so you can save them for later reference.
It also generates other types of text like Twitter tweets, Amazon descriptions, and even YouTube video scripts.
You'll need a ChatGPT account to use some features, which might not work in states where ChatGPT is not available.
Sometimes, the generated summaries do not provide all the important information.
There's no transcription feature available — like some of the other tools in this list.
#8 Eightify app: Best For Summarization and Translation in 40+ Languages
Eightify is one of the go-to YouTube video summarizers and translators for many people out there. Of all the apps on this list, Eightify has the strongest translation features and translates text into over 40 languages.
While summarizing, this AI tool generally does a good job of cutting out extra sentences from the content — without going too close to the main idea. Eightify is almost exclusively an app for generating YouTube summaries for people who often watch YouTube for research or education purposes.
Supports 40+ Languages: You can understand the essence of YouTube videos in summary format and even translate them into over 40 languages.
Timestamped Breakdowns: Eightify also breaks down the YouTube video summary into different paragraphs with timestamps — a feature that is not available in other apps on this list.
TLDR Summaries: With the Eightify app, you can generate TLDR summaries of long YouTube videos — without much effort.
Eightify app is one such application that can summarize even 4-6 hours-long YouTube videos.
There are two easy ways to share the summary: either copy the generated text or directly share the link with colleagues, friends, or on social media.
It is completely free to use — though you can extend its capabilities with in-app purchases.
Currently, it supports only YouTube videos.
It may not capture the details that are very complex or creative.
You'll get only three summaries per week for videos that are 30 minutes or shorter in length.
Offers in-app purchases
Best YouTube Video Summarizers: At a Glance
Now that I've discussed the top YouTube summarizers in detail, here's a quick overview of their pricing, main features, system compatibility, and best use case.
Is It Legal to Transcribe a YouTube Video?
No, it is not legal to transcribe any YouTube video without the creator’s permission. YouTube has strict community guidelines that state transcribing someone's YouTube video without their permission and re-uploading it is a violation. It's important to seek permission from the content owner before using it for any — personal, professional, or commercial — purpose.
How Do You Summarize a YouTube Transcript?
Notta Web App is an AI note-taking tool that can transcribe YouTube videos and even summarize the text into a short, meaningful version. Here's how to summarize a YouTube transcript using the Notta Web App.
Step 1: Open YouTube, and there, you can search for the video you want to summarize. Copy the URL and then log in to the Notta account.
Step 2: Next, select the 'Import Files' option available right on the dashboard. There, you’ll see a pop-up where you can paste the copied YouTube link, and Notta will start the transcription process.
Step 3: Open the generated transcript and locate the ' Notta AI Summary' icon to summarize the YouTube transcript into action items, key chapters, and an overview.
As I was researching each YouTube video summarizer , I paid attention to how much time I spent on manually summarizing videos every day: it added up to about 3 hours. That's 20% of my day spent on summarizing.
If you are in the same boat, pick up the AI video summarizer that speaks to your pain the most. Try it out for a few days (or weeks) to see if it helps you save time and improve productivity.
If you haven't yet discovered the best tool for the job, try Notta . With this AI note-taking tool, you can take the manual process out of summarizing YouTube videos and generate AI summaries in just a few clicks.
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How to Paraphrase and Summarize Work
Summing up key ideas in your own words.
By the Mind Tools Content Team
Imagine you're preparing a presentation for your CEO. You asked everyone in your team to contribute, and they all had plenty to say!
But now you have a dozen reports, all in different styles, and your CEO says that she can spare only 10 minutes to read the final version. What do you do?
The solution is to paraphrase and summarize the reports, so your boss gets only the key information that she needs, in a form that she can process quickly.
In this article, we explain how to paraphrase and how to summarize, and how to apply these techniques to text and the spoken word. We also explore the differences between the two skills, and point out the pitfalls to avoid.
What Is Paraphrasing?
When you paraphrase, you use your own words to express something that was written or said by another person.
Putting it into your own words can clarify the message, make it more relevant to your audience , or give it greater impact.
You might use paraphrased material to support your own argument or viewpoint. Or, if you're putting together a report , presentation or speech , you can use paraphrasing to maintain a consistent style, and to avoid lengthy quotations from the original text or conversation.
Paraphrased material should keep its original meaning and (approximate) length, but you can use it to pick out a single point from a longer discussion.
What Is Summarizing?
In contrast, a summary is a brief overview of an entire discussion or argument. You might summarize a whole research paper or conversation in a single paragraph, for example, or with a series of bullet points, using your own words and style.
People often summarize when the original material is long, or to emphasize key facts or points. Summaries leave out detail or examples that may distract the reader from the most important information, and they simplify complex arguments, grammar and vocabulary.
Used correctly, summarizing and paraphrasing can save time, increase understanding, and give authority and credibility to your work. Both tools are useful when the precise wording of the original communication is less important than its overall meaning.
How to Paraphrase Text
To paraphrase text, follow these four steps:
1. Read and Make Notes
Carefully read the text that you want to paraphrase. Highlight, underline or note down important terms and phrases that you need to remember.
2. Find Different Terms
Find equivalent words or phrases (synonyms) to use in place of the ones that you've picked out. A dictionary, thesaurus or online search can be useful here, but take care to preserve the meaning of the original text, particularly if you're dealing with technical or scientific terms.
3. Put the Text into Your Own Words
Rewrite the original text, line by line. Simplify the grammar and vocabulary, adjust the order of the words and sentences, and replace "passive" expressions with "active" ones (for example, you could change "The new supplier was contacted by Nusrat" to "Nusrat contacted the new supplier").
Remove complex clauses, and break longer sentences into shorter ones. All of this will make your new version easier to understand .
4. Check Your Work
Check your work by comparing it to the original. Your paraphrase should be clear and simple, and written in your own words. It may be shorter, but it should include all of the necessary detail.
Paraphrasing: an Example
Despite the undoubted fact that everyone's vision of what constitutes success is different, one should spend one's time establishing and finalizing one's personal vision of it. Otherwise, how can you possibly understand what your final destination might be, or whether or not your decisions are assisting you in moving in the direction of the goals which you've set yourself?
The two kinds of statement – mission and vision – can be invaluable to your approach, aiding you, as they do, in focusing on your primary goal, and quickly identifying possibilities that you might wish to exploit and explore.
We all have different ideas about success. What's important is that you spend time defining your version of success. That way, you'll understand what you should be working toward. You'll also know if your decisions are helping you to move toward your goals.
Used as part of your personal approach to goal-setting, mission and vision statements are useful for bringing sharp focus to your most important goal, and for helping you to quickly identify which opportunities you should pursue.
How to Paraphrase Speech
In a conversation – a meeting or coaching session, for example – paraphrasing is a good way to make sure that you have correctly understood what the other person has said.
This requires two additional skills: active listening and asking the right questions .
Useful questions include:
- If I hear you correctly, you're saying that…?
- So you mean that…? Is that right?
- Did I understand you when you said that…?
You can use questions like these to repeat the speaker's words back to them. For instance, if the person says, "We just don't have the funds available for these projects," you could reply: "If I understand you correctly, you're saying that our organization can't afford to pay for my team's projects?"
This may seem repetitive, but it gives the speaker the opportunity to highlight any misunderstandings, or to clarify their position.
When you're paraphrasing conversations in this way, take care not to introduce new ideas or information, and not to make judgments on what the other person has said, or to "spin" their words toward what you want to hear. Instead, simply restate their position as you understand it.
Sometimes, you may need to paraphrase a speech or a presentation. Perhaps you want to report back to your team, or write about it in a company blog, for example.
In these cases it's a good idea to make summary notes as you listen, and to work them up into a paraphrase later. (See How to Summarize Text or Speech, below.)
How to Summarize Text or Speech
Follow steps 1-5 below to summarize text. To summarize spoken material – a speech, a meeting, or a presentation, for example – start at step three.
1. Get a General Idea of the Original
First, speed read the text that you're summarizing to get a general impression of its content. Pay particular attention to the title, introduction, conclusion, and the headings and subheadings.
2. Check Your Understanding
Build your comprehension of the text by reading it again more carefully. Check that your initial interpretation of the content was correct.
3. Make Notes
Take notes on what you're reading or listening to. Use bullet points, and introduce each bullet with a key word or idea. Write down only one point or idea for each bullet.
If you're summarizing spoken material, you may not have much time on each point before the speaker moves on. If you can, obtain a meeting agenda, a copy of the presentation, or a transcript of the speech in advance, so you know what's coming.
Make sure your notes are concise, well-ordered, and include only the points that really matter.
The Cornell Note-Taking System is an effective way to organize your notes as you write them, so that you can easily identify key points and actions later. Our article, Writing Meeting Notes , also contains plenty of useful advice.
4. Write Your Summary
Bullet points or numbered lists are often an acceptable format for summaries – for example, on presentation slides, in the minutes of a meeting, or in Key Points sections like the one at the end of this article.
However, don't just use the bulleted notes that you took in step 3. They'll likely need editing or "polishing" if you want other people to understand them.
Some summaries, such as research paper abstracts, press releases, and marketing copy, require continuous prose. If this is the case, write your summary as a paragraph, turning each bullet point into a full sentence.
Aim to use only your own notes, and refer to original documents or recordings only if you really need to. This helps to ensure that you use your own words.
If you're summarizing speech, do so as soon as possible after the event, while it's still fresh in your mind.
5. Check Your Work
Your summary should be a brief but informative outline of the original. Check that you've expressed all of the most important points in your own words, and that you've left out any unnecessary detail.
Summarizing: an Example
So how do you go about identifying your strengths and weaknesses, and analyzing the opportunities and threats that flow from them? SWOT Analysis is a useful technique that helps you to do this.
What makes SWOT especially powerful is that, with a little thought, it can help you to uncover opportunities that you would not otherwise have spotted. And by understanding your weaknesses, you can manage and eliminate threats that might otherwise hurt your ability to move forward in your role.
If you look at yourself using the SWOT framework, you can start to separate yourself from your peers, and further develop the specialized talents and abilities that you need in order to advance your career and to help you achieve your personal goals.
SWOT Analysis is a technique that helps you identify strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats. Understanding and managing these factors helps you to develop the abilities you need to achieve your goals and progress in your career.
Permission and Citations
If you intend to publish or circulate your document, it's important to seek permission from the copyright holder of the material that you've paraphrased or summarized. Failure to do so can leave you open to allegations of plagiarism, or even legal action.
It's good practice to cite your sources with a footnote, or with a reference in the text to a list of sources at the end of your document. There are several standard citation styles – choose one and apply it consistently, or follow your organization's house style guidelines.
As well as acknowledging the original author, citations tell you, the reader, that you're reading paraphrased or summarized material. This enables you to check the original source if you think that someone else's words may have been misused or misinterpreted.
Some writers might use others' ideas to prop up their own, but include only what suits them, for instance. Others may have misunderstood the original arguments, or "twisted" them by adding their own material.
If you're wary, or you find problems with the work, you may prefer to seek more reliable sources of information. (See our article, How to Spot Real and Fake News , for more on this.)
Paraphrasing means rephrasing text or speech in your own words, without changing its meaning. Summarizing means cutting it down to its bare essentials. You can use both techniques to clarify and simplify complex information or ideas.
To paraphrase text:
- Read and make notes.
- Find different terms.
- Put the text into your own words.
- Check your work.
You can also use paraphrasing in a meeting or conversation, by listening carefully to what's being said and repeating it back to the speaker to check that you have understood it correctly.
To summarize text or speech:
- Get a general idea of the original.
- Check your understanding.
- Make notes.
- Write your summary.
Seek permission for any copyrighted material that you use, and cite it appropriately.
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Alex Murdaugh found guilty of murder: A summary and timeline
For more than a year, a central question swirled around the fatal shootings of the wife and son of disgraced South Carolina personal injury attorney Alex Murdaugh : Who killed them?
The unsolved slayings of Margaret, 52, and the couple's younger son, Paul, 22, in June 2021 shattered the immaculate image of the well-connected legal family in South Carolina's Lowcountry. Murdaugh, whose father, a grandfather and a great-grandfather were each elected as top prosecutors in the region in roles collectively spanning almost 90 years, immediately denied culpability in the deaths.
Still, the slayings set off a bizarre chain of events that officials say included Murdaugh hiring a man to kill him so his older son could collect on his life insurance policy, and dozens of charges against Murdaugh accusing him of financial crimes .
Investigators shared few details and named no suspects or persons of interest in the slayings. But then in July 2022, a grand jury indicted Murdaugh on double murder charges in connection with the deaths of Margaret and Paul, authorities said, capping a long-winding mystery marked by conflicting narratives and a web of other questionable deaths that has yet to be fully untangled.
The double murder trial began in January and after about six weeks of testimony, Murdaugh was found guilty of murder in the deaths of his wife and son.
Here's a timeline of key moments in the case.
June 7, 2021
Murdaugh calls 911 at 10:07 p.m. to say he has found the lifeless bodies of Margaret and Paul near the family's dog kennels on their hunting lodge estate in rural Colleton County.
"I've been gone," Murdaugh, his voice quivering, tells a dispatcher. "I just came back."
Authorities arrive on scene. (Lawyers for Murdaugh later provided an alibi, telling news outlets that he had been spending time with his mother, who has Alzheimer's disease, and her caregiver that day.)
June 10, 2021
Murdaugh's father, Randolph Murdaugh III, dies at his home in Hampton County, South Carolina, at age 81 following various health ailments. His death, while not directly connected to the slayings, adds to the growing intrigue in the case.
June 14, 2021
A coroner reveals Margaret and Paul both suffered multiple gunshot wounds, with the estimated time of death between 9:00 p.m. and 9:30 p.m.
Sept. 4, 2021
Murdaugh is injured in a roadside shooting in Hampton County, authorities say. His lawyer and friend, Jim Griffin, tells news outlets that Murdaugh's black Mercedes-Benz SUV had a flat tire and he pulled his vehicle over when a pickup truck passed by, turned around and a person inside opened fire.
Sept. 5, 2021
Authorities say Murdaugh's injury is a "superficial" head wound and he had been flown to Memorial Health University Medical Center in Savannah, Georgia, for treatment.
Sept. 6, 2021
Murdaugh releases a public statement saying he has resigned from his family's law firm to enter rehab and that he "made a lot of decisions that I truly regret." Hours later, his firm — Peters, Murdaugh, Parker, Eltzroth & Detrickhe — releases its own statement alleging Murdaugh had misappropriated company funds.
Sept. 8, 2021
The South Carolina Supreme Court indefinitely suspends Murdaugh's law license.
Sept. 14, 2021
Authorities provide new details in the roadside shooting. They allege that Murdaugh arranged for a man to kill him so that his older son, Buster, could collect on a $10 million life insurance policy. The man — identified as Curtis Edward Smith, 61 — is arrested on charges of assisted suicide, assault and battery of a high aggravated nature, pointing and presenting a firearm, insurance fraud and conspiracy to commit insurance fraud.
Sept. 15, 2021
An attorney for Murdaugh, Richard Harpootlian, tells NBC's "TODAY" show that his client was depressed and attempting to get off an opioid addiction that continued to consume him in the wake of his wife and son's death. Believing his insurance policy had a suicide clause, Harpootlian says Murdaugh enlisted a man to kill him during a "fake car breakdown."
Meanwhile, state investigators announce the opening of a criminal investigation into the death of a longtime Murdaugh housekeeper, Gloria Satterfield. She died in 2018 following what has been described as a "trip and fall accident" at the family home. The decision is based on a request from the Hampton County coroner and on "information gathered" during a separate investigation involving Murdaugh.
Sept. 16, 2021
Murdaugh surrenders to authorities after he is charged with insurance fraud, conspiracy to commit insurance fraud and filing a false police report. He is granted bond and a judge orders him to surrender his passport but permits him to return to a drug rehabilitation center.
Oct. 14, 2021
Murdaugh is arrested in Florida upon his release from a drug rehab facility. Authorities charge him with two felony counts of obtaining property by false pretenses after an investigation into millions of dollars that went missing from a settlement involving the death of Satterfield. According to her heirs, they received none of the proceeds from a $4.3 million settlement they said was orchestrated in secret by Murdaugh.
Meanwhile, Smith appears on NBC's "TODAY" show to dispute that he was a willing accomplice in the September roadside shooting of Murdaugh. In his version of events, he says Murdaugh had a gun and it appeared he was going to shoot himself, which is when Smith says he intervened. The gun fired. Once Smith realized Murdaugh was OK, he said he drove off.
Oct. 19, 2021
A South Carolina judge denies Murdaugh bond and orders him to undergo a psychiatric evaluation.
Nov. 19, 2021
The state's investigation into Murdaugh's business dealings leads to new indictments announced against him totaling 27 counts, including breach of trust with fraudulent intent, obtaining signature or property by false pretenses, money laundering, computer crimes and forgery. "Altogether, Murdaugh is charged with respect to alleged schemes to defraud victims and thereafter launder" nearly $4.9 million, the state attorney general's office said.
Dec. 9, 2021
The attorney general announces more charges, including nine counts of breach of trust with fraudulent intent, seven counts of computer crimes, four counts of money laundering and one count of forgery. In total, Murdaugh faces 48 separate charges. The victims include family friends, an undocumented immigrant and a man in a car wreck, prosecutors say.
Dec. 13, 2021
A judge sets Murdaugh's bond at $7 million. Murdaugh, who is being held in Richland County jail, also speaks publicly for the first time in months, telling the court that he had been going through opiate withdrawal in September when he sought to have himself killed.
"My head is on straighter, I'm thinking clearer than I have in a long, long time," Murdaugh says. "I want to deal with these charges appropriately and head-on."
(Murdaugh does not make bail.)
Jan. 21, 2022
A grand jury indicts Murdaugh on 23 new charges, including breach of trust with fraudulent intent and computer crimes. Collectively, he faces 71 charges involving the theft of about $8.5 million over the course of 11 years.
Jan. 24, 2022
A legal claim is filed against the estates of Margaret and Paul Murdaugh by the mother of Mallory Beach, 19, who was killed in a boat crash in 2019. The boat was owned by Murdaugh and investigators have said Paul had been steering at some point during the night of underage drinking involving six people on board. The boat slammed into a piling below a bridge, and the passengers, ages 18 to 20, were ejected.
Two survivors also join the Beach family's legal claim in an attempt to get money they believe they are owed as a result of the accident. Other related lawsuits are pending.
March 16, 2022
A grand jury indicts Murdaugh on four new charges related to a scheme to defraud multiple insurance companies and others involving his friend and another attorney, Cory Fleming. Fleming's lawyer says in a statement that he is "yet another casualty of the host of crimes perpetrated by Alex Murdaugh."
May 4, 2022
Prosecutors announce that Murdaugh is facing four new charges related to financial crimes also involving Fleming and others.
June 3, 2022
State authorities say they have received permission from Satterfield's family to exhume her body as part of an investigation into her death. That investigation was the result of questions surrounding why her death certificate noted that the manner of death was ruled "natural," which a coroner has said was inconsistent with injuries sustained in a "trip and fall accident."
June 24, 2022
Smith is taken into custody on new charges, including four counts of money laundering, three counts of forgery and criminal conspiracy.
June 28, 2022
A grand jury indicts Murdaugh and Smith with criminal conspiracy and narcotics offenses. Smith is also indicted on other drug charges. The men are accused of conspiring to purchase and distribute oxycodone in Colleton County from Oct. 7, 2013, to Sept. 7, 2021.
July 13, 2022
The South Carolina Supreme Court formally disbars Murdaugh, who is facing 84 criminal charges and 11 lawsuits.
July 14, 2022
A grand jury announces an indictment against Murdaugh on double murder charges in the deaths of Margaret and Paul.
Two sources close to the investigation say that authorities have cellphone video that they believe not only puts Murdaugh at the scene of the slayings shortly before they took place, but also contradicts a previous timeline of events provided on the day of the killings.
"It was very clear from day one that law enforcement and the Attorney General prematurely concluded that Alex was responsible for the murder of his wife and son," Murdaugh's lawyers say in a statement. "But we know that Alex did not have any motive whatsoever to murder them."
July 20, 2022
Murdaugh pleads not guilty to the murder charges.
Aug. 19, 2022
A grand jury indicts Murdaugh on nine more criminal counts related to money laundering and computer crimes. The indictment alleges Murdaugh stole money from his firm in late 2020 and 2021 and that in 2017-18, he took advantage of an error by the firm's accounting office, which sent $121,358 to him for a loan repayment when that money should have gone to his brother.
Murdaugh's brother, Randy, is also a partner in the firm; he has not been implicated in any of the alleged schemes.
Oct. 13, 2022
The state Attorney General's Office sets Murdaugh's trial date on the murder charges for Jan. 23 at the Colleton County Courthouse. The trial is expected to last almost three weeks.
Dec. 9, 2022
During a pretrial hearing, state prosecutors claim Murdaugh killed his wife and son to gain sympathy and "escape the accountability" for his string of financial crimes. Murdaugh's lawyers reject the state's motive and questioned why he would "shift a financial investigation away from himself in order to avoid scrutiny" only to put himself "in the middle of a murder investigation."
Dec. 16, 2022
A grand jury indicts Murdaugh on nine counts of tax evasion, alleging he failed to pay almost $487,000 in state income taxes while making nearly $14 million over nine years. With the latest indictment, the total financial-related charges against Murdaugh are more than 100.
Dec. 20, 2022
State prosecutors announce they will seek life in prison without parole in Murdaugh's double murder trial, allowing him to avoid the death penalty if convicted.
The double murder trial against Murdaugh opens at the Colleton County Courthouse with jury selection.
In an opening statement, state prosecutors contend Murdaugh killed his wife and son at close range with a shotgun and an AR-style rifle, and that forensic evidence would show his culpability. The defense in its opening statement insists there are numerous holes in the prosecution's case, claiming it is built on "theories" and "conjectures."
Prosecutors play a previously unseen video taken from the phone of Paul Murdaugh in which three voices can be heard in the background shortly before the murders occur. Witnesses testify the voices are of Alex, Paul and Margaret, which places the patriarch at the scene of the crime and undermines his alibi that he had not seen his wife and son in the moments before their deaths.
During the fifth week of the trial, Murdaugh takes the stand in his own defense. He testifies, "I didn't shoot my wife or son," and breaks down multiple times as his attorney asks him to describe the murder scene.
Murdaugh is on the stand again. During cross-examination, the prosecution grills him on his "new story," arguing that his earlier testimony was fabricated to align with their video evidence that he saw his wife and son minutes before they were found dead.
Murdaugh contends he lied to law enforcement officers about his location before the murders due to his addiction to prescription pain pills and his general paranoia.
The jury begins deliberations after the prosecution and defense wrap up closing arguments.
A verdict is returned three hours later, and Murdaugh is found guilty of murder in the deaths of Margaret and Paul. The jury also convicted him of two counts of possession of a weapon during a violent crime, which carries five more years in prison.
Lead prosecutor Creighton Waters says at a news conference to "let this be a warning: No matter who you are, if you break the law, the truth will come out and you will be brought to justice."
Murdaugh is punished with the maximum two consecutive life sentences for the killings. At his hearing, Judge Clifton Newman admonishes him for his apparent lack of awareness and "duplicitous conduct here in the courtroom."
Murdaugh continues to proclaim his innocence. His defense lawyers say they will appeal the conviction.
A lawyer for the Beach family says a wrongful death lawsuit against Murdaugh will go to trial Aug. 14. The family previously reached a settlement with Margaret's estate and surviving son Buster.
Murdaugh files a notice to appeal his double murder convictions. The notice does not include arguments offered by his legal team, who raised several issues at trial, including the admission of Murdaugh's financial misconduct into evidence.
Murdaugh has been moved into protective custody in a maximum-security prison after completing an initial evaluation, South Carolina corrections officials announce .
His unit is in an undisclosed location and is separated from the general population for safety reasons. Murdaugh's single 8-by-10 cell includes a bed, toilet and sink, and he is provided "all privileges afforded those in the general population inside this self-contained unit," according to the state.
Murdaugh's lawyers reveal as part of a lawsuit accusing him of life insurance fraud in the death of Satterfield that he "invented the critical facts" surrounding her initial "trip and fall accident" in 2018 in order to receive millions of dollars in a settlement. Nautilus Insurance Co. had filed a suit alleging it was defrauded.
"No dogs were involved in the fall of Gloria Satterfield on February 2, 2018," Murdaugh's lawyers said in a legal filing, and that Murdaugh "invented Ms. Satterfield's purported statement that dogs caused her to fall to force his insurers to make a settlement payment."
The Justice Department announces a 22-count indictment against Murdaugh on financial fraud and money laundering charges. The charges include allegations that he defrauded Satterfield's estate and homeowner's insurance carriers by directing settlement claims into a fake bank account and using the funds "for his own personal enrichment."
His lawyers say he is cooperating with the investigation and "anticipate that the charges brought today will be quickly resolved without a trial."
Lawsuits over the 2019 boat crash that killed Beach are settled ahead of a wrongful death trial involving Murdaugh. NBC affiliate WSAV reports the settlement cash amounts to $15 million, with most of it going to the Beach family.
A federal judge sentences Fleming , one of Murdaugh's alleged co-conspirators, to 46 months and three years of supervised release after pleading guilty in May to conspiracy to commit fraud in connection with the Satterfield theft. Fleming still faces a slate of state charges, including breach of trust, money laundering and computer crimes.
Murdaugh loses his prison phone and canteen privileges after the South Carolina Department of Corrections says he broke rules about engaging with the media after an investigation found he read his journal entries to his lawyer in a recorded phone call.
An incident report says the recording was for an upcoming Fox Nation documentary, "The Fall of the House of Murdaugh."
Murdaugh's lawyers file a motion seeking a new trial after allegedly uncovering evidence of jury tampering.
The motion accuses Rebecca Hill, the Colleton County clerk of court, with tampering with the jury by "advising them not to believe Murdaugh's testimony and other evidence presented by the defense, pressuring them to reach a quick guilty verdict, and even misrepresenting critical and material information to the trial judge in her campaign to remove a juror she believed to be favorable to the defense."
Murdaugh appears in court for the first time since his murder trial. Judge Newman sets a Nov. 27 trial date on the state financial fraud charges.
Murdaugh pleads guilty to 22 counts of federal financial fraud and money laundering as part of a plea deal. He will be sentenced at a later date.
Hill denies the jury tampering allegations, according to a filing by state prosecutors.
A court order reveals that Newman has asked to be removed from any further proceedings related to the murder case following the defense's request for a new judge.
Murdaugh reaches a plea deal on state charges of dozens of financial crimes.
Newman accepts Murdaugh's guilty plea and sentences him to 27 years in state prison, which must run concurrently with a federal sentence. Murdaugh apologizes to the victims of his financial crimes after they address the court .
If you or someone you know is in crisis, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-8255, text HOME to 741741 or visit SpeakingOfSuicide.com/resources for additional resources.
Erik Ortiz is a senior reporter for NBC News Digital focusing on racial injustice and social inequality.
AWS re:Invent: Everything Amazon’s announced, from new AI tools to LLM updates and more
Amazon's big aws cloud event has begun, with a clear focus on the use of ai to keep its lead intact.
Amazon Web Services is live in Las Vegas for its AWS re:Invent event, which kicked off November 27 and runs until December 1. We expect a rapid-fire stream of announcements and unveilings of recent things it’s been working on, particularly given the increased competition for cloud providers to meet the rise of AI with compelling offers for customers. AWS CEO Adam Selipsky’s keynote set the tone for the event, making it clear that AWS is in a position to defend its longstanding lead, and it’s deploying AI tools and services to continue being the top large cloud provider in the market.
We know you might not have time to attend , so we’re taking that on for the next few days and will deliver quick hits of the biggest news as they are announced, all in an easy-to-digest, easy-to-skim list featuring on-the-ground reporting from editors and cloud experts Frederic Lardinois and Ron Miller , along with contributions from the wider TechCrunch team. Here we go!
Thursday, Nov. 30
Q&a with amazon cto werner vogels.
Credits: Johannes Simon/Getty Images
Ahead of Amazon CTO Werner Vogels ‘ keynote address, Frederic sat down with Vogels to discuss the trends he is seeing — generative AI, of course — and predictions for the coming year. Read more .
Wednesday, Nov. 29
Image Credits: AWS
Another new tool is Amazon Neptune Analytics , which combines the best of both worlds: graph and vector databases. Ron reports that the new service helps customers analyze existing Neptune graph data or data lakes on top of S3 storage, taking advantage of vector search to find key insights. Read more .
Clean Rooms ML
AWS Clean Rooms ML helps you to unlock various opportunities for you to generate insights.
Amazon’s launching a privacy-preserving service that lets AWS customers deploy “lookalike” AI models trained for one-off company-company collaborations called AWS Clean Rooms ML , which Kyle writes is an offshoot of AWS’ existing Clean Rooms product and removes the need for AWS customers to share proprietary data with their outside partners to build, train and deploy AI models. Read more .
From Amazon’s AWS cloud arm comes the Amazon SageMaker HyperPod , a new purpose-built service for training and fine-tuning large language models. Frederic spoke with Ankur Mehrotra, AWS’ general manager for SageMaker, ahead of today’s announcement, who said, “SageMaker HyperPod gives you the ability to create a distributed cluster with accelerated instances that’s optimized for disputed training. It gives you the tools to efficiently distribute models and data across your cluster — and that speeds up your training process.” Read more .
AWS Titan image generator
You read that right, Amazon is joining the ranks of other big techs in finally releasing its own image generator . Kyle reports that the Titan Image Generator is now available in preview for AWS customers and can create new images when given a text description or customize existing images. Read more .
Tuesday, Nov. 28
Amazon q: an ai-powered chatbot.
Amazon Q is Amazon’s new AI-powered chatbot. Image Credits: Amazon
The big announcement for the day was Amazon Q, an AI-powered chatbot for AWS customers . During his keynote, AWS CEO Adam Selipsky described it as being able to “easily chat, generate content and take actions. It’s all informed by an understanding of your systems, your data repositories and your operations.” Kyle reports that Q is trained on 17 years’ worth of AWS knowledge and will go beyond just answering questions — it will also do things like understand the nuances of app workloads and suggest AWS solutions and products for apps that only run for a few seconds. Read more .
Guardrails for Amazon Bedrock
AWS Guardrails for Amazon Bedrock. Image Credits: Amazon
The new Guardrails for Amazon Bedrock tool lets companies define and limit the kinds of language a model can use. For example, define topics that are out of bounds for the model, so it simply doesn’t answer irrelevant questions, Ron writes. Read more .
New AWS Trainium chips for AI models
AWS Graviton4 and AWS Trainium (prototype). Image Credits: Business Wire
Amazon unveiled the latest generation of its chips for model training and inferencing (i.e. running trained models). Kyle writes that Amazon already discussed AWS Trainium2, designed to deliver up to 4x better performance and 2x better energy efficiency than the first-generation Trainium. The second chip was announced this morning, called the Graviton4, is intended for inferencing. The fourth generation in Amazon’s Graviton chip family (as implied by the “4” appended to “Graviton”), it’s distinct from Amazon’s other inferencing chip, Inferentia . Read more .
Amazon S3 Express One Zone
Amazon has a major update to its S3 object storage service called Amazon S3 Express One Zone , a new high-performance and low latency tier for S3. Frederic reports that One Zone will offer a major performance improvement for data-intensive applications, including AI/ML training, financial modeling and high-performance computing. Read more .
Three new serverless offerings
Amazon announced three new serverless offerings to make it easier to manage Aurora, ElastiCache and Redshift serverless services. Ron writes, “Because each of these options is serverless, it means that Amazon manages all of the hardware in the background, and delivers just the right amount of resources you need, scaling up when needed without IT having to deal with all of the back-end management work.” Read more .
Amazon One palm-scanning expands from stores to security
Amazon One Enterprise. Image Credits: Amazon
AWS lifted the lid on a new palm-scanning identity service that allows companies to authenticate people when entering physical premises. Paul reports that Amazon One Enterprise builds on the company’s existing Amazon One offering, which it debuted back in 2020 to enable biometric payments in Amazon’s own surveillance-powered cashierless stores . Visitors to Amazon Go stores can associate their payment card with their palm print, allowing them to enter the store and complete their transaction by hovering their hand over a scanner. Read more .
New thin client virtual desktop environment devices
Image Credits: Amazon
Amazon launched new $195 devices that allow enterprise users to access virtual desktop environments, like Amazon WorkSpaces, over the internet. Sarah writes that the devices are housed in Fire TV Cube hardware — a decision Amazon made to leverage existing expertise from the arm of the retail giant that makes streaming media players. The company explained its decision to build new hardware came from customer feedback about wanting to lower IT spending by replacing desktops and laptops with less expensive hardware. Read more .
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Seahawks lose wild 41-35 shootout to Cowboys, drop to .500
The Seahawks offense came to play. The defense did not.
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Share All sharing options for: Seahawks lose wild 41-35 shootout to Cowboys, drop to .500
The Seattle Seahawks (6-6) had a great offensive performance against an elite Dallas Cowboys (9-3) defense. The Seahawks defense completely embarrassed itself and the only time they forced a 0-point possession was on a CeeDee Lamb drop.
Geno Smith threw for 3 touchdowns (all to DK Metcalf), ran for another, and it still wasn’t enough, as Dak Prescott matched him with 3 TD passes of his own and the Cowboys rallied for a 41-35 win on Thursday Night Football. This was only the 5th game in NFL history to have no punts, although we did see four turnovers on downs combined by both teams. We might have expected Dallas to put up points, but the Seahawks offense came alive.
It still didn’t matter.
At 6-6, Seattle needs a lot of help to remain in a Wild Card spot entering December. A lot of help.
Dallas got the ball on offense to kick things off. It took little time for Dak Prescott to carve up the Seahawks defense. A 3rd and 2 throw to an open Brandin Cooks gained 19 yards and put the Cowboys just outside the red zone. No pass rush was found on 3rd and 10, as Prescott hit KaVontae Turpin right at the sticks to the Seahawks’ 2. From there, the Seahawks defense stiffened up thanks to a deflected pass by Devon Witherspoon, as well as a 3rd down sack by Jordyn Brooks. Brandon Aubrey, Dallas’ sensational rookie kicker, nailed his 30-yard field goal to put the Cowboys on the board.
Just when it looked like the Seahawks were in trouble after false starting on a 3rd and 3, Geno Smith threw a beautiful pass over the middle to DK Metcalf, who beat DaRon Bland and took off for a 73-yard touchdown! WHAT A START!
Following a Darrell Taylor sack on Prescott, the Cowboys faced 3rd and 16. A checkdown to Jake Ferguson converted after a missed tackle by Witherspoon. Riq Woolen was flagged for pass interference on the next snap, then Witherspoon got beaten for a touchdown by CeeDee Lamb. That was a quick response.
Geno uncorked a 31-yard deep shot to Metcalf, who once again beat Bland in coverage. The Seahawks were able to reach the red zone, where the drive stalled after Micah Parsons forced a 3rd down throwaway by Smith. A delay of game penalty on the special teams unit pushed Jason Myers’ field goal attempt to 42 yards out, which he hooked wide right. Not ideal!
The Cowboys once again marched right down the field on an 11-play, 63-yard drive. Tony Pollard converted a 4th and 1 run to the outside inside the Seahawks’ 40. A few plays later, Dak dialed up an easy TD to Brandin Cooks, who got matched up with Bobby Wagner for some twisted reason.
Geno Smith got a clutch 3rd down conversion to Jaxon Smith-Njigba to get the Seahawks offense into Dallas territory. A pass interference penalty on Rashaan Evans set the offense up inside the red zone. Stephon Gilmore was flagged for DPI in the end zone on Jaxon Smith-Njigba, gifting Seattle a 1st and goal at the 1 instead of a field goal attempt. Rookie Zach Charbonnet plowed his way in for his first NFL touchdown!
Seattle’s defense continued to struggle to get off the field. By the two-minute warning, the Cowboys were 7/9 on 3rd down and Prescott was scarcely getting touched. A sack by Leonard Williams after initial pressure from Dre’Mont Jones put the Cowboys behind the sticks in a goal-to-go situation. On 4th and goal at the 3, Dak ran it in for a touchdown but a holding penalty on Terence Steele took that away. This time, Brandon Aubrey was sent out for a field goal, which he converted.
In the two-minute drill, Geno Smith was able to get the Seahawks into field goal range. They took an end zone shot to Jaxon Smith-Njigba, which was ruled a touchdown! However, the review said JSN didn’t control the ball on his way down. DaRon Bland was still penalized for DPI in the end zone, so it was 1st and goal at the 1 at the 7. Geno still threw a TD to Noah Fant, only for the play to be called back because of a timeout by Dallas. Okay, no problem! Slant to DK for the score, and this one counts.
The Seahawks got the ball to start the 2nd half and went right back to work. Geno Smith was sharp, the running game got going with Zach Charbonnet, and on 3rd and goal it was Geno who used his legs to take off up the middle for a 5-yard touchdown. Dallas was in man coverage, everyone had their backs turned, and Smith had the freedom to take off and score.
Dallas responded with a penalty-aided 12-play, 75-yard drive that saw the Seahawks commit three “automatic first down” penalties. Dak Prescott’s screen to Jake Ferguson on 2nd and 13 was enough to get a goal-to-go situation. Two plays later, a toss to Tony Pollard scored for the Cowboys. Curiously, they kicked the PAT instead of tie it up right away.
Unfortunately, after getting torched for the entire 1st half, DaRon Bland got his revenge on Geno. At least it wasn’t a pick-6.
DaRon picking off Geno pic.twitter.com/LVpBdt9X5l — Dugar, Michael-Shawn (@MikeDugar) December 1, 2023
Thankfully, CeeDee Lamb dropped a 4th and 2 conversion with Devon Witherspoon in coverage. Turnover on downs!
A beautiful throw by Geno to a diving Noah Fant gained 27 yards. Before the quarter expired, a quick screen to Zach Charbonnet netted 39 yards on the catch-and-run to set up 1st and goal at the 6.
On 2nd and goal, DK Metcalf got his hat trick! Two Cowboys ran into each other and Metcalf was all alone for his third touchdown.
The Cowboys got gifted a 35-yard pass interference penalty on Riq Woolen, who was covering CeeDee Lamb down the field and the refs dinged him for marginal contact. Dak then got out of a nearly guaranteed sack by Darrell Taylor, escaped the pressure and found Jalen Tolbert in the red zone. From there, the Seahawks defense stiffened up and held Dallas to a field goal to make it 35-30 Seattle with 11:23 remaining.
Seattle converted a pair of 3rd downs to keep its next possession going. A screen to Jake Bobo gained 9 yards on 3rd and 10, leading to a “go for it” decision on 4th and 1 in Dallas territory. Charbonnet got stuffed in the backfield for a turnover on downs.
Dallas cut through Seattle’s defense like a hot knife through butter, culminating in a go-ahead touchdown by Jake Ferguson with 4:37 left. Jamal Adams got bodied. Cooks was left alone for the two-point conversion to make it 38-35 Dallas.
Geno Smith found Jaxon Smith-Njigba for 20 yards on 1st down, and DeeJay Dallas took the Seahawks to midfield. The drive stalled from there, and a 4th down blitz beater to JSN had a route miscommunication and an incomplete pass.
CeeDee Lamb ripped off a huge chunk play on a handoff, putting Dallas in the red zone. The Seahawks used their timeouts, got a 3rd and 3 incomplete from Prescott, stopping the clock. Brandon Aubrey came on for a short field goal to extend the lead to 6 with 1:43 to go.
75 yards to go! Lockett for 18 with Bland in coverage, and he got out of bounds. Noah Fant with a gain of 7 to midfield but inbounds. A throw to Fant is incomplete. Throw to JSN is batted away. 4th and 2... Parsons unblocked, game over.
1st Quarter : Brandon Aubrey 30-yard field goal - SEA 0, DAL 3
1st Quarter : DK Metcalf 73-yard touchdown from Geno Smith - SEA 7, DAL 3
DK METCALF 73 YARDS ‼️ #SEAvsDAL on Prime Video Also available on #NFLPlus https://t.co/YcXzMZb8jY pic.twitter.com/kE4zLLDz5M — NFL (@NFL) December 1, 2023
1st Quarter : CeeDee Lamb 15-yard touchdown from Dak Prescott - SEA 7, DAL 10
2nd Quarter : Brandin Cooks 7-yard touchdown pass from Dak Prescott - SEA 7, DAL 17
2nd Quarter : Zach Charbonnet 1-yard touchdown run - SEA 14, DAL 17
1st career touchdown for Zach Charbonnet! #SEAvsDAL on Prime Video Also available on #NFLPlus https://t.co/YcXzMZb8jY pic.twitter.com/XgtjwnKzv2 — NFL (@NFL) December 1, 2023
2nd Quarter : Brandon Aubrey 31-yard field goal - SEA 14, DAL 20
2nd Quarter : DK Metcalf 1-yard touchdown from Geno Smith - SEA 21, DAL 20
2nd TD of the night for DK Metcalf #SEAvsDAL on Prime Video Also available on #NFLPlus https://t.co/YcXzMZb8jY pic.twitter.com/PEOgzVmrO8 — NFL (@NFL) December 1, 2023
3rd Quarter: Geno Smith 5-yard touchdown run - SEA 28, DAL 20
That's how you start a half! pic.twitter.com/2yk2feJi54 — Seattle Seahawks (@Seahawks) December 1, 2023
3rd Quarter : Tony Pollard 6-yard touchdown run - SEA 28, DAL 27
4th Quarter : DK Metcalf 3-yard touchdown pass from Geno Smith - SEA 35, DAL 27
THAT’S THREE FOR DEKAYLIN! #SEAvsDAL on Prime Video Also available on #NFLPlus https://t.co/YcXzMZb8jY pic.twitter.com/Z1S1Acm7mR — NFL (@NFL) December 1, 2023
4th Quarter : Brandon Aubrey 38-yard field goal - SEA 35, DAL 30
4th Quarter : Jake Ferguson 12-yard touchdown from Dak Prescott (Brandin Cooks 2-point conversion from Prescott) - SEA 35, DAL 38
4th Quarter : Brandon Aubrey 32-yard field goal - SEA 35, DAL 41
Seahawks Injury Report
LB Jordyn Brooks left the game in the 2nd quarter with an ankle injury and was replaced by Devin Bush.
RB Zach Charbonnet left the game in the 4th quarter with a knee injury and did not return.
Next week’s opponent
The Seahawks have a mini-bye before a road game rematch against the San Francisco 49ers (8-3) on Sunday, Dec. 10. Kickoff time is 1:05 PM PT on FOX.
In This Stream
2023 nfl season, week 13: seahawks take on cowboys in prime-time.
- Winners and Losers from Cowboys 41, Seahawks 35
- Cowboys 41, Seahawks 35: No more defending this defense
- Zach Charbonnet doubtful with knee injury
More From Field Gulls
- Seahawks left Micah Parsons alone on purpose
- ‘Seahawks need to clean house’ - Fans react to Seattle’s devastating loss to Cowboys
- Watch: DK Metcalf gets the hat trick!
- 2023 NFL Season: Seahawks vs. Cowboys 4th Quarter game thread
Vanguard economic and market outlook for 2024: Global summary
The global outlook summary highlights the top-level findings of Vanguard's full economic and market outlook, to be distributed in mid-December.
Higher interest rates are here to stay. Even after policy rates recede from their cyclical peaks, in the decade ahead rates will settle at a higher level than we've grown accustomed to since the 2008 global financial crisis (GFC). This development ushers in a return to sound money, and the implications for the global economy and financial markets will be profound. Borrowing and savings behavior will reset, capital will be allocated more judiciously, and asset class return expectations will be recalibrated. Vanguard believes that a higher interest rate environment will serve investors well in achieving their long-term financial goals, but the transition may be bumpy.
Monetary policy will bare its teeth in 2024
The global economy has proven more resilient than we expected in 2023. This is partly because monetary policy has not been as restrictive as initially thought. Fundamental changes to the global economy have pushed up the neutral rate of interest—the rate at which policy is neither expansionary nor contractionary. Various other factors have blunted the normal channels of monetary policy transmission, including the U.S. fiscal impulse from debt-financed pandemic support and industrial policies, improved household and corporate balance sheets, and tight labor markets that have resulted in real wage growth. In the U.S., our analysis suggests that these offsets almost entirely counteracted the impact of higher policy interest rates. Outside the U.S., this dynamic is less pronounced. Europe's predominantly bank-based economy is already flirting with recession, and China's rebound from the end of COVID-19-related shutdowns has been weaker than expected.
The U.S. exceptionalism is set to fade in 2024. We expect monetary policy to become increasingly restrictive as inflation falls and offsetting forces wane. The economy will experience a mild downturn as a result. This is necessary to finish the job of returning inflation to target. However, there are risks to this view. A "soft landing," in which inflation returns to target without recession, remains possible, as does a recession that is further delayed. In Europe, we expect anemic growth as restrictive monetary and fiscal policy lingers, while in China, we expect additional policy stimulus to sustain economic recovery amid increasing external and structural headwinds.
Zero rates are yesterday's news
Barring an immediate 1990s-style productivity boom, a recession is likely a necessary condition to bring down the rate of inflation, through weakening demand for labor and slower wage growth. As central banks feel more confident in inflation's path toward targets, we expect they will start to cut policy rates in the second half of 2024.
That said, we expect policy rates to settle at a higher level compared with after the GFC and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Vanguard research has found that the equilibrium level of the real interest rate, also known as r-star or r*, has increased, driven primarily by demographics, long-term productivity growth, and higher structural fiscal deficits. This higher interest rate environment will last not months, but years. It is a structural shift that will endure beyond the next business cycle and, in our view, is the single most important financial development since the GFC.
Vanguard's 2024 economic forecasts
Notes: Forecasts are as of November 14, 2023. For the U.S., GDP growth is defined as the year-over-year change in fourth-quarter GDP. For all other countries/regions, GDP growth is defined as the annual change in GDP in the forecast year compared with the previous year. Unemployment forecasts are the average for the fourth quarter of 2024. NAIRU is the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment, a measure of labor market equilibrium. Core inflation excludes volatile food and energy prices. For the U.S., euro area, and U.K., core inflation is defined as the year-over-year change in the fourth quarter compared with the previous year. For China, core inflation is defined as the average annual change compared with the previous year. For the U.S., core inflation is based on the core Personal Consumption Expenditures Index. For all other countries/regions, core inflation is based on the core Consumer Price Index. The neutral rate is the equilibrium policy rate at which no easing or tightening pressures are being placed upon an economy or its financial markets.
A return to sound money
For households and businesses, higher interest rates will limit borrowing, increase the cost of capital, and encourage saving. For governments, higher rates will force a reassessment of fiscal outlooks sooner rather than later. The vicious circle of rising deficits and higher interest rates will accelerate concerns about fiscal sustainability. Vanguard's research suggests the window for governments to act on this is closing fast—it is an issue that must be tackled by this generation, not the next.
For well-diversified investors, the permanence of higher real interest rates is a welcome development. It provides a solid foundation for long-term risk-adjusted returns. However, as the transition to higher rates is not yet complete, near-term financial market volatility is likely to remain elevated.
Bonds are back!
Global bond markets have repriced significantly over the last two years because of the transition to the new era of higher rates. In our view, bond valuations are now close to fair, with higher long-term rates more aligned with secularly higher neutral rates. Meanwhile, term premia have increased as well, driven by elevated inflation and fiscal and monetary outlook uncertainty.
Despite the potential for near-term volatility, we believe this rise in interest rates is the single best economic and financial development in 20 years for long-term investors. Our bond return expectations have increased substantially. We now expect U.S. bonds to return a nominal annualized 4.8%–5.8% over the next decade, compared with the 1.5%–2.5% annualized returns we expected before the rate-hiking cycle began. Similarly, for international bonds, we expect annualized returns of 4.7%–5.7% over the next decade, compared with a forecast of 1.3%–2.3% when policy rates were low or, in some cases, negative.
If reinvested, the income component of bond returns at this level of rates will eventually more than offset the capital losses experienced over the last two years. By the end of the decade, bond portfolio values are expected to be higher than if rates had not increased in the first place.
Similarly, the case for the 60/40 portfolio is stronger than in recent memory. Long-term investors in balanced portfolios have seen a dramatic rise in the probability of achieving a 10-year annualized return of at least 7%, the post-1990 average, from an 8% likelihood in 2021 to 40% today.
Moving up the risk spectrum, credit valuations appear fair in the investment-grade space but relatively rich in high-yield. What's more, the growing likelihood of recession and declining profit margins skew the risks toward wider spreads.
Higher rates leave equities overvalued
A higher-rate environment depresses asset price valuations across global markets while squeezing profit margins as corporations find it more expensive to issue and refinance debt.
Valuations are most stretched in the U.S. As a result, we have downgraded our U.S. equity return expectations to an annualized 4.2%–6.2% over the next 10 years from 4.4%–6.4% heading into 2023. Within the U.S. market, value stocks are more attractive than they have been since late 2021, and small-capitalization stocks also appear attractive for the long term.
U.S. equities have continued to outperform their international peers. The key drivers of this performance gap over the last two years have been valuation expansion and U.S. dollar strength beyond our fair-value estimates, both of which are likely to reverse. Indeed, our Vanguard Capital Markets Model® (VCMM) projections suggest an increasing likelihood of greater opportunities outside the U.S. from a U.S. dollar investor's perspective. We project 10-year annualized returns of 7.0%–9.0% for non-U.S. developed markets and 6.6%–8.6% for emerging markets.
The global equity risk premium that emerges from current stock and bond market valuations is the lowest since the 1999–2009 "lost decade." The spread between global equity and global bond returns is expected to be 0 to 2 percentage points annualized over the next 10 years. In contrast to the last decade, we expect return outcomes for diversified investors to be more balanced. For those with an appropriate risk tolerance, a more defensive risk posture may be appropriate given higher expected fixed income returns and an equity market that is yet to fully reflect the implications of the return to sound money.
Stay up to date on our latest perspectives
IMPORTANT: The projections and other information generated by the VCMM regarding the likelihood of various investment outcomes are hypothetical in nature, do not reflect actual investment results, and are not guarantees of future results. Distribution of return outcomes from VCMM are derived from 10,000 simulations for each modeled asset class. Simulations as of September 30, 2023. Results from the model may vary with each use and over time.
All investing is subject to risk, including the possible loss of the money you invest. Be aware that fluctuations in the financial markets and other factors may cause declines in the value of your account. There is no guarantee that any particular asset allocation or mix of funds will meet your investment objectives or provide you with a given level of income. Diversification does not ensure a profit or protect against a loss.
Investments in bonds are subject to interest rate, credit, and inflation risk.
Investments in stocks and bonds issued by non-U.S. companies are subject to risks including country/regional risk and currency risk. These risks are especially high in emerging markets.
The VCMM projections are based on a statistical analysis of historical data. Future returns may behave differently from the historical patterns captured in the VCMM. More important, the VCMM may be underestimating extreme negative scenarios unobserved in the historical period on which the model estimation is based.
The Vanguard Capital Markets Model ® is a proprietary financial simulation tool developed and maintained by Vanguard’s primary investment research and advice teams. The model forecasts distributions of future returns for a wide array of broad asset classes. Those asset classes include U.S. and international equity markets, several maturities of the U.S. Treasury and corporate fixed income markets, international fixed income markets, U.S. money markets, commodities, and certain alternative investment strategies. The theoretical and empirical foundation for the Vanguard Capital Markets Model is that the returns of various asset classes reflect the compensation investors require for bearing different types of systematic risk (beta). At the core of the model are estimates of the dynamic statistical relationship between risk factors and asset returns, obtained from statistical analysis based on available monthly financial and economic data from as early as 1960. Using a system of estimated equations, the model then applies a Monte Carlo simulation method to project the estimated interrelationships among risk factors and asset classes as well as uncertainty and randomness over time. The model generates a large set of simulated outcomes for each asset class over several time horizons. Forecasts are obtained by computing measures of central tendency in these simulations. Results produced by the tool will vary with each use and over time.