Elements of an Essay

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Essay elements and structure.

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As stated in The Nature, History, and Types of Essay , a n essay is a prose non-fiction piece of writing with a varying length that addresses a thing, a person, a problem, or an issue from the author's personal point of view. To make the discussion effective, the elements that build the description, narration, exposition, or arguments in an essay should be well-organized. Structurally, the basic elements of an essay are organized into three main sections (introduction, body, and conclusion), as illustrated by the following figure.

Figure 1. Basic essay Structure

 (credit:   https://peachyessay.com/blogs/how-to-structure-essay/ ).

The followings are a brief description of each essay element. To make the description effective, the essay titled How Reading Empowers EFL Learners is referred to as an illustration. Thus, you are suggested to read it first before continuing reading the next section.

A . INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH

  • The general statement or orientation to the topic is one or two sentences that introduce the topic. The general statement must be interesting so that the readers are motivated to read the essay up to the end. Scarry & Scarry (2010, pp. 507-508) offer 9 patterns from which an author can select and use to attract the readers, like definitions of the subject to discuss, anecdotes, a startling statement, a famous quotation, and soon. 
  • The thesis  statement tells what the writer intends to prove, defend, or explain about the topic. It gives the main idea of an essay and is usually placed at the end of the introductory paragraph. A thesis statement is built up by a topic + controlling idea .
  • Outline of the main points (or strategy of development ) describes the organization of the essay, i.e. what will be discussed first, second, etc. It is often preceded by the essay’s purpose statement. However, not all essays include this information. The topic discussed in every body paragraph should be presented in line with the order in the outline. Look how How Reading Empowers EFL Learners in Figure 2 states the purpose and outline, and how the body paragraphs are presented in the sequence determined in the outline.

three basic elements of essay

Figure 2: A Sample of Analysis of Essay Elements

  • Topic Sentence in a body paragraph is usually the first sentence and states the main  idea.
  • Supporting sentence provides details , i.e. facts, explanations, arguments, analysis, and  citations of someone else’s ideas employed to back up the main idea of the paragraph.
  • Concluding Sentence recaps the main point developed by the supporting sentences  and indicates to the reader that this is the end of the paragraph. Concluding sentence is  rarely included in the body paragraphs of an essay. 
  • Thesis restatement is one or more sentence used to repeat or reaffirm the thesis  presented in the introductory paragraph.
  • Summary of main points recapitulates the key points discussed in t he whole body  paragraphs. The summary can be written in one to three sentences, depending on the amount of the key points. The first sentence of the concluding paragraph   of How Reading Empowers EFL Learners summarizes the main points. 
  • Final comment can be one or more of: (1) a conclusion drawn from the discussion in  the body paragraph, (2) final observation about the controlling idea, (3) relevant suggestion, solution or warning, or (4) a prediction based on the details of the body  paragraphs. How Reading Empowers EFL Learners incl udes an implication and a warning.

three basic elements of essay

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4.1 Basic Essay Structure

Emilie Zickel and Charlotte Morgan

Essays written for an academic audience follow a structure with which you are likely familiar: Intro, Body, Conclusion. Here is a general overview of what each of those sections “does” in the larger essay.

Be aware, however, that certain assignments and certain professors may ask for additional content or require unusual formatting, so always be sure to read the assignment sheet as carefully as possible.

Introductory Section

This paragraph is the “first impression” paragraph. It needs to make an impression on the reader so that he or she becomes interested, understands your goal in the paper, and wants to read on. The intro often ends with the thesis.

  • begin by drawing your reader in – offer a statement that will pique their interest in your topic
  • offer some context or background information about your topic that leads you to your thesis
  • conclude with the thesis

For more information about composing a strong introduction, you can visit  “How to Write an Engaging Introduction, “ by Jennifer Janechek, published on  Writing Commons,  is an excellent resource that offers specific tips and examples of compelling introduction paragraphs

Body of the Essay

The Body of the Essay is where you fully develop the main idea or thesis outlined in the introduction. Each paragraph within the body of the essay enlarges one major point in the development of the overall argument (although some points may consist of several sub-points, each of which will need its own paragraph). Each paragraph should contain the following elements:

  • Clearly state the main point in each paragraph in the form of a  topic sentence.
  • Then, support that point with evidence.
  • Provide an explanation of the evidence’s significance. Highlight the way the main point shows the logical steps in the argument and link back to the claim you make in your thesis statement.

Remember to make sure that you focus on a single idea, reason, or example that supports your thesis in each body paragraph. Your topic sentence (a mini thesis that states the main idea of the paragraph), should contain details and specific examples to make your ideas clear and convincing) (Morgan).

Details on how to build strong paragraphs can be found in section 4.2 .

Many people struggle with the conclusion, not knowing how to end a paper without simply restating the paper’s thesis and main points. In fact, one of the earliest ways that we learn to write conclusions involves the “summarize and restate” method of repeating the points that you have already discussed.

While that method can be an effective way to perhaps begin a conclusion, the strongest conclusions will go beyond rehashing the key ideas from the paper. Just as the intro is the first impression, the conclusion is the last impression–and you do want your writing to make a lasting impression.

Below are some things to consider when writing your conclusion:

  • what is the significance of the ideas you developed in this paper?
  • how does your paper affect you, others like you, people in your community, or people in other communities?
  • what must be done about this topic?
  • what further research or ideas could be studied?

Jennifer Yirinic’s article, “ How to Write a Compelling Conclusion ,” which was published on  Writing Commons,  is an excellent resource that can help you to craft powerful and interesting closing paragraph.

4.1 Basic Essay Structure Copyright © by Emilie Zickel and Charlotte Morgan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Almost every course you will encounter in college will include writing assignments. One of the most common writing assignments is known as an essay. While the content and style of  essay projects will vary across the disciplines, there are a number of key components that all good essays include. This section of the guide walks you through some of the basic components of the essay genre.  Here are some general thoughts before you get started.  

  • A good essay is well-organized and structured. Good essays have a clear introduction, thesis, and conclusion. Body paragraphs in the essay connect back to the thesis. 
  • In college, we are no longer tied to a five-paragraph essay (unless an instructor specifically asks for this). Our essays in college can range in length. Some projects may be more than 10 pages, so it would be impossible to use only 5 paragraphs for an essay of this length. 
  • Because we are no longer tied to a 5-paragraph essay, we do not have to include "three points" in our thesis statement as we may have done in other courses. 
  • Essays should be cohesive and have a good flow. We can create this flow by using transition words and phrases to connect one point to the next. 
  • Remember to the review the directions before you start. One can produce a wonderfully-written essay, but if it does not meet the project's parameters, it will not usually receive a passing grade.
  • Schedule a meeting with your instructor or tutor before you begin. Visit  http://baker.mywconline.com/  to schedule a meeting with a professional tutor. 

three basic elements of essay

  • Parts of an Essay This handout breaks down an essay into it core parts. This short video will provide you with essay structure help.
  • Creating a Strong Thesis Statement Here are some brief tips about how to write a strong thesis statement for your college writing project.
  • How to Write an Excellent Introduction This handout leads you through a number of successful strategies to garner reader interest and transition into your thesis statement.
  • Creating Body Paragraphs This resource walks you through paragraph creation including how to implement good topic sentences, proper organization, and excellent development.
  • Crafting a Strong Conclusion We often focus on creating a strong introduction, but crafting a well-written conclusion is just as important.
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  • Introduction
  • Each is made up of one or several paragraphs.
  • The purpose of this section is to introduce the topic and why it matters, identify the specific focus of the paper, and indicate how the paper will be organized.
  • To keep from being too broad or vague, try to incorporate a keyword from your title in the first sentence.
  • For example, you might tell readers that the issue is part of an important debate or provide a statistic explaining how many people are affected.  
  • Defining your terms is particularly important if there are several possible meanings or interpretations of the term.
  • Try to frame this as a statement of your focus. This is also known as a purpose statement, thesis argument, or hypothesis.
  • The purpose of this section is to provide information and arguments that follow logically from the main point you identified in your introduction. 
  • Identify the main ideas that support and develop your paper’s main point.
  • For longer essays, you may be required to use subheadings to label your sections.
  • Point: Provide a topic sentence that identifies the topic of the paragraph.
  • Proof: Give evidence or examples that develop and explain the topic (e.g., these may come from your sources).
  • Significance: Conclude the paragraph with sentence that tells the reader how your paragraph supports the main point of your essay.
  • The purpose of this section is to summarize the main points of the essay and identify the broader significance of the topic or issue.
  • Remind the reader of the main point of your essay (without restating it word-for-word).
  • Summarize the key ideas that supported your main point. (Note: No new information or evidence should be introduced in the conclusion.) 
  • Suggest next steps, future research, or recommendations.
  • Answer the question “Why should readers care?” (implications, significance).
  • Find out what style guide you are required to follow (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago) and follow the guidelines to create a reference list (may be called a bibliography or works cited).
  • Be sure to include citations in the text when you refer to sources within your essay.
  • Cite Your Sources - University of Guelph
  • Read assignment instructions carefully and refer to them throughout the writing process.
  • e.g., describe, evaluate, analyze, explain, argue, trace, outline, synthesize, compare, contrast, critique.
  • For longer essays, you may find it helpful to work on a section at a time, approaching each section as a “mini-essay.”
  • Make sure every paragraph, example, and sentence directly supports your main point.
  • Aim for 5-8 sentences or ¾ page.
  • Visit your instructor or TA during office hours to talk about your approach to the assignment.
  • Leave yourself time to revise your essay before submitting.
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Note: This guide was used/adapted with the permission of Baker College. For more information please visit the Baker College Writing Guide . 

Almost every course you will encounter in college will include writing assignments. One of the most common writing assignments is known as an essay. While the content and style of essay projects will vary across the disciplines, there are several key components that all good essays include. This section of the guide walks you through some of the basic components of the essay genre.  Here are some general thoughts before you get started.  

  • A good essay is well-organized and structured. Good essays have a clear introduction, thesis, and conclusion. Body paragraphs in the essay connect back to the thesis. 
  • Essays should be cohesive and have a good flow. We can create this flow by using transition words and phrases to connect one point to the next. 
  • Remember to review the directions before you start. One can produce a wonderfully written essay, but if it does not meet the project's parameters, it will not usually receive a passing grade.
  • Tips for Writing Your Thesis Drafting a thesis statement can be intimidating, but there are a variety of resources to help.
  • Strong Introduction Paragraphs Review tips on starting your paper strong.
  • Creating Body Paragraphs This resource walks you through paragraph creation including how to implement good topic sentences, proper organization, and excellent development.
  • Crafting a Strong Conclusion We often focus on creating a strong introduction, but crafting a well-written conclusion is just as important.
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  • Last Updated: Nov 30, 2023 1:00 PM
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How to Write an Essay Outline | Guidelines & Examples

Published on August 14, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

An essay outline is a way of planning the structure of your essay before you start writing. It involves writing quick summary sentences or phrases for every point you will cover in each paragraph , giving you a picture of how your argument will unfold.

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Organizing your material, presentation of the outline, examples of essay outlines, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about essay outlines.

At the stage where you’re writing an essay outline, your ideas are probably still not fully formed. You should know your topic  and have already done some preliminary research to find relevant sources , but now you need to shape your ideas into a structured argument.

Creating categories

Look over any information, quotes and ideas you’ve noted down from your research and consider the central point you want to make in the essay—this will be the basis of your thesis statement . Once you have an idea of your overall argument, you can begin to organize your material in a way that serves that argument.

Try to arrange your material into categories related to different aspects of your argument. If you’re writing about a literary text, you might group your ideas into themes; in a history essay, it might be several key trends or turning points from the period you’re discussing.

Three main themes or subjects is a common structure for essays. Depending on the length of the essay, you could split the themes into three body paragraphs, or three longer sections with several paragraphs covering each theme.

As you create the outline, look critically at your categories and points: Are any of them irrelevant or redundant? Make sure every topic you cover is clearly related to your thesis statement.

Order of information

When you have your material organized into several categories, consider what order they should appear in.

Your essay will always begin and end with an introduction and conclusion , but the organization of the body is up to you.

Consider these questions to order your material:

  • Is there an obvious starting point for your argument?
  • Is there one subject that provides an easy transition into another?
  • Do some points need to be set up by discussing other points first?

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Within each paragraph, you’ll discuss a single idea related to your overall topic or argument, using several points of evidence or analysis to do so.

In your outline, you present these points as a few short numbered sentences or phrases.They can be split into sub-points when more detail is needed.

The template below shows how you might structure an outline for a five-paragraph essay.

  • Thesis statement
  • First piece of evidence
  • Second piece of evidence
  • Summary/synthesis
  • Importance of topic
  • Strong closing statement

You can choose whether to write your outline in full sentences or short phrases. Be consistent in your choice; don’t randomly write some points as full sentences and others as short phrases.

Examples of outlines for different types of essays are presented below: an argumentative, expository, and literary analysis essay.

Argumentative essay outline

This outline is for a short argumentative essay evaluating the internet’s impact on education. It uses short phrases to summarize each point.

Its body is split into three paragraphs, each presenting arguments about a different aspect of the internet’s effects on education.

  • Importance of the internet
  • Concerns about internet use
  • Thesis statement: Internet use a net positive
  • Data exploring this effect
  • Analysis indicating it is overstated
  • Students’ reading levels over time
  • Why this data is questionable
  • Video media
  • Interactive media
  • Speed and simplicity of online research
  • Questions about reliability (transitioning into next topic)
  • Evidence indicating its ubiquity
  • Claims that it discourages engagement with academic writing
  • Evidence that Wikipedia warns students not to cite it
  • Argument that it introduces students to citation
  • Summary of key points
  • Value of digital education for students
  • Need for optimism to embrace advantages of the internet

Expository essay outline

This is the outline for an expository essay describing how the invention of the printing press affected life and politics in Europe.

The paragraphs are still summarized in short phrases here, but individual points are described with full sentences.

  • Claim that the printing press marks the end of the Middle Ages.
  • Provide background on the low levels of literacy before the printing press.
  • Present the thesis statement: The invention of the printing press increased circulation of information in Europe, paving the way for the Reformation.
  • Discuss the very high levels of illiteracy in medieval Europe.
  • Describe how literacy and thus knowledge and education were mainly the domain of religious and political elites.
  • Indicate how this discouraged political and religious change.
  • Describe the invention of the printing press in 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg.
  • Show the implications of the new technology for book production.
  • Describe the rapid spread of the technology and the printing of the Gutenberg Bible.
  • Link to the Reformation.
  • Discuss the trend for translating the Bible into vernacular languages during the years following the printing press’s invention.
  • Describe Luther’s own translation of the Bible during the Reformation.
  • Sketch out the large-scale effects the Reformation would have on religion and politics.
  • Summarize the history described.
  • Stress the significance of the printing press to the events of this period.

Literary analysis essay outline

The literary analysis essay outlined below discusses the role of theater in Jane Austen’s novel Mansfield Park .

The body of the essay is divided into three different themes, each of which is explored through examples from the book.

  • Describe the theatricality of Austen’s works
  • Outline the role theater plays in Mansfield Park
  • Introduce the research question : How does Austen use theater to express the characters’ morality in Mansfield Park ?
  • Discuss Austen’s depiction of the performance at the end of the first volume
  • Discuss how Sir Bertram reacts to the acting scheme
  • Introduce Austen’s use of stage direction–like details during dialogue
  • Explore how these are deployed to show the characters’ self-absorption
  • Discuss Austen’s description of Maria and Julia’s relationship as polite but affectionless
  • Compare Mrs. Norris’s self-conceit as charitable despite her idleness
  • Summarize the three themes: The acting scheme, stage directions, and the performance of morals
  • Answer the research question
  • Indicate areas for further study

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You will sometimes be asked to hand in an essay outline before you start writing your essay . Your supervisor wants to see that you have a clear idea of your structure so that writing will go smoothly.

Even when you do not have to hand it in, writing an essay outline is an important part of the writing process . It’s a good idea to write one (as informally as you like) to clarify your structure for yourself whenever you are working on an essay.

If you have to hand in your essay outline , you may be given specific guidelines stating whether you have to use full sentences. If you’re not sure, ask your supervisor.

When writing an essay outline for yourself, the choice is yours. Some students find it helpful to write out their ideas in full sentences, while others prefer to summarize them in short phrases.

You should try to follow your outline as you write your essay . However, if your ideas change or it becomes clear that your structure could be better, it’s okay to depart from your essay outline . Just make sure you know why you’re doing so.

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Gordon Harvey’s Elements of the Academic Essay

The “Elements of the Academic Essay” is a taxonomy of academic writing by Gordon Harvey. It identifies the key components of academic writing across the disciplines and has been widely influential. Below is a complete list (with descriptions).

Elements of an Essay

“Your main insight or idea about a text or topic, and the main proposition that your essay demonstrates. It should be true but arguable (not obviously or patently true, but one alternative among several), be limited enough in scope to be argued in a short composition and with available evidence, and get to the heart of the text or topic being analyzed (not be peripheral). It should be stated early in some form and at some point recast sharply (not just be implied), and it should govern the whole essay (not disappear in places).”  — Gordon Harvey, “Elements of the Academic Essay”

  • See this fuller discussion of some of the scholarly debates about the thesis statement:  The Thesis Statement
  • See this piece on the pros and cons of having a thesis statement:  Pros and Cons of Thesis Statements
  • See this piece on working with students without a thesis:  What To Do When There’s No Thesis
  • And see this piece for working with students with varied levels of thesis development:  A Pseudo-Thesis

“The intellectual context that you establish for your topic and thesis at the start of your essay, in order to suggest why someone, besides your instructor, might want to read an essay on this topic or need to hear your particular thesis argued—why your thesis isn’t just obvious to all, why other people might hold other theses (that you think are wrong). Your motive should be aimed at your audience: it won’t necessarily be the reason you first got interested in the topic (which could be private and idiosyncratic) or the personal motivation behind your engagement with the topic. Indeed it’s where you suggest that your argument isn’t idiosyncratic, but rather is generally interesting. The motive you set up should be genuine: a misapprehension or puzzle that an intelligent reader (not a straw dummy) would really have, a point that such a reader would really overlook. Defining motive should be the main business of your introductory paragraphs, where it is usually introduced by a form of the complicating word ‘But.'”  — Gordon Harvey, “The Elements of the Academic Essay”

“The data—facts, examples, or details—that you refer to, quote, or summarize to support your thesis. There needs to be enough evidence to be persuasive; it needs to be the right kind of evidence to support the thesis (with no obvious pieces of evidence overlooked); it needs to be sufficiently concrete for the reader to trust it (e.g. in textual analysis, it often helps to find one or two key or representative passages to quote and focus on); and if summarized, it needs to be summarized accurately and fairly.”  –Gordon Harvey, “The Elements of the Academic Essay

“The work of breaking down, interpreting, and commenting upon the data, of saying what can be inferred from the data such that it supports a thesis (is evidence for something). Analysis is what you do with data when you go beyond observing or summarizing it: you show how its parts contribute to a whole or how causes contribute to an effect; you draw out the significance or implication not apparent to a superficial view. Analysis is what makes the writer feel present, as a reasoning individual; so your essay should do more analyzing than summarizing or quoting.”  — Gordon Harvey, “The Elements of the Academic Essay”

“The recurring terms or basic oppositions that an argument rests upon, usually literal but sometimes a ruling metaphor. These terms usually imply certain assumptions—unstated beliefs about life, history, literature, reasoning, etc. that the essayist doesn’t argue for but simply assumes to be true. An essay’s keyterms should be clear in their meaning and appear throughout (not be abandoned half-way); they should be appropriate for the subject at hand (not unfair or too simple—a false or constraining opposition); and they should not be inert clichés or abstractions (e.g. “the evils of society”). The attendant assumptions should bear logical inspection, and if arguable they should be explicitly acknowledged.”  — Gordon Harvey, “The Elements of the Academic Essay”

One of the most common issues we address in the writing center is the issue of structure. Many students never consciously address structure in the way that they consciously formulate a thesis. This is ironic because the two are inseparable – that is, the way you formulate an argument (structure) is essential to the argument itself (thesis). Thus, when emphasizing the importance of structure to students, it is important to remind them that structure cannot be developed in the absence of a strong thesis: you have to know what you’re arguing before you decide how to argue it.

As a writing tutor, your first task in addressing issues of structure will be to try and gauge if the student writer has an idea of what good structure looks like. Some students understand good structure, even if it’s just at an intuitive level, while others do not. If comprehension seems lacking, it may be useful to actually stop and explain what good structure looks like.

Some Ways of Thinking about Structure:

The structure of the paper should be progressive; the paper should “build” throughout. That is, there should be a logical order to the paper; each successive paragraph should build on the ideas presented in the last. In the writing center we are familiar with the scattershot essay in which the student throws out ten arguments to see what sticks. Such essays are characterized by weak or nonexistent transitions such as “My next point…” or “Another example of this…”.

Some students will understand structure better with the help of a metaphor. One particularly nice metaphor (courtesy of Dara) is to view the structure of an academic paper as a set of stairs. The paper begins with a small step; the first paragraph gives the most simple assumption or support for the argument. The paper then builds, slowly and gradually towards the top of the staircase. When the paper reaches its conclusion, it has brought the reader up to the top of the staircase to a point of new insight. From the balcony the reader can gaze out upon the original statement or question from higher ground.

How Gordon Harvey describes structure in his “Elements of the Academic Essay”:

“The sections should follow a logical order, and the links in that order should be apparent to the reader (see “stitching”). But it should also be a progressive order—there should have a direction of development or complication, not be simply a list or a series of restatements of the thesis (“Macbeth is ambitious: he’s ambitious here; and he’s ambitious here; and he’s ambitions here, too; thus, Macbeth is ambitious”). And the order should be supple enough to allow the writer to explore the topic, not just hammer home a thesis.”

“Words that tie together the parts of an argument, most commonly (a) by using transition (linking or turning) words as signposts to indicate how a new section, paragraph, or sentence follows from the one immediately previous; but also (b) by recollection of an earlier idea or part of the essay, referring back to it either by explicit statement or by echoing key words or resonant phrases quoted or stated earlier. The repeating of key or thesis concepts is especially helpful at points of transition from one section to another, to show how the new section fits in.”  — Gordon Harvey, “The Elements of the Academic Essay”

Persons or documents, referred to, summarized, or quoted, that help a writer demonstrate the truth of his or her argument. They are typically sources of (a) factual information or data, (b) opinions or interpretation on your topic, (c) comparable versions of the thing you are discussing, or (d) applicable general concepts. Your sources need to be efficiently integrated and fairly acknowledged by citation.”  — Gordon Harvey, “The Elements of the Academic Essay”

When you pause in your demonstration to reflect on it, to raise or answer a question about it—as when you (1) consider a counter-argument—a possible objection, alternative, or problem that a skeptical or resistant reader might raise; (2) define your terms or assumptions (what do I mean by this term? or, what am I assuming here?); (3) handle a newly emergent concern (but if this is so, then how can X be?); (4) draw out an implication (so what? what might be the wider significance of the argument I have made? what might it lead to if I’m right? or, what does my argument about a single aspect of this suggest about the whole thing? or about the way people live and think?), and (5) consider a possible explanation for the phenomenon that has been demonstrated (why might this be so? what might cause or have caused it?); (6) offer a qualification or limitation to the case you have made (what you’re not saying). The first of these reflections can come anywhere in an essay; the second usually comes early; the last four often come late (they’re common moves of conclusion).”  — Gordon Harvey, “The Elements of the Academic Essay”

“Bits of information, explanation, and summary that orient the reader who isn’t expert in the subject, enabling such a reader to follow the argument. The orienting question is, what does my reader need here? The answer can take many forms: necessary information about the text, author, or event (e.g. given in your introduction); a summary of a text or passage about to be analyzed; pieces of information given along the way about passages, people, or events mentioned (including announcing or “set-up” phrases for quotations and sources). The trick is to orient briefly and gracefully.”  — Gordon Harvey, “The Elements of the Academic Essay”

“The implied relationship of you, the writer, to your readers and subject: how and where you implicitly position yourself as an analyst. Stance is defined by such features as style and tone (e.g. familiar or formal); the presence or absence of specialized language and knowledge; the amount of time spent orienting a general, non-expert reader; the use of scholarly conventions of form and style. Your stance should be established within the first few paragraphs of your essay, and it should remain consistent.”  — Gordon Harvey, “The Elements of the Academic Essay”

“The choices you make of words and sentence structure. Your style should be exact and clear (should bring out main idea and action of each sentence, not bury it) and plain without being flat (should be graceful and a little interesting, not stuffy).”  — Gordon Harvey, “The Elements of the Academic Essay”

“It should both interest and inform. To inform—i.e. inform a general reader who might be browsing in an essay collection or bibliography—your title should give the subject and focus of the essay. To interest, your title might include a linguistic twist, paradox, sound pattern, or striking phrase taken from one of your sources (the aptness of which phrase the reader comes gradually to see). You can combine the interesting and informing functions in a single title or split them into title and subtitle. The interesting element shouldn’t be too cute; the informing element shouldn’t go so far as to state a thesis. Don’t underline your own title, except where it contains the title of another text.”  — Gordon Harvey, “The Elements of the Academic Essay”

A student’s argument serves as the backbone to a piece of writing. Often expressed in the form of a one-sentence thesis statement, an argument forms the basis for a paper, defines the writer’s feelings toward a particular topic, and engages the reader in a discussion about a particular topic. Because an argument bears so much weight on the success of a paper, students may spend hours searching for that one, arguable claim that will carry them through to the assigned page limit. Formulating a decent argument about a text is tricky, especially when a professor does not distribute essay prompts—prompting students to come to the Writing Center asking that eternal question: “ What  am I going to write about?!”

Formulating the Idea of an Argument (Pre-Writing Stage)

Before a student can begin drafting a paper, he or she must have a solid argument. Begin this process by looking at the writing assignment rubric and/or prompt assigned by the professor. If no particular prompt was assigned, ask the student what interests him or her in the class? Was there a reading assignment that was particularly compelling and/or interesting? Engage the student in a conversation about the class or the paper assignment with a pen and paper in their hand. When an interesting idea is conveyed, ask them to jot it down on a paper. Look for similarities or connections in their written list of ideas.

If a student is still lost, it’s helpful to remind them to remember to have a  motive  for writing. Besides working to pass a class or getting a good grade, what could inspire a student to write an eight page paper and enjoy the process? Relating the assigned class readings to incidents in a student’s own life often helps create a sense of urgency and need to write an argument. In an essay entitled “The Great Conversation (of the Dining Hall): One Student’s Experience of College-Level Writing,” student Kimberly Nelson remembers her passion for Tolkien fueled her to write a lengthy research paper and engage her friends in discussions concerning her topic (290).

Additional ideas for consultations during the pre-writing stage .

Formulating the Argument

The pre-writing stage is essential because arguments must “be limited enough in scope to be argued in a short composition” according to Harvey’s  Elements of the Academic Essay . Narrow down the range of ideas so the student may write a more succinct paper with efficient language. When composing an argument (and later, a thesis), avoid definitive statements—arguments are  arguable , and a great paper builds on a successive chain of ideas grounded in evidence to support an argument. It is of paramount importance to remind your student that the argument will govern the entire paper and not “disappear in places” (Harvey). When composing an actual paper, it’s helpful to Post-It note a summary of your argument on your computer screen to serve as a constant reminder of  why  you are writing.

Difficulties with Arguments and International Students

When international students arrive at Pomona College, they are often unsure of what the standard academic writing expectations are. If a student submits a draft to you devoid of any argument, it’s important to remember that the conventions of their home country may not match up to the standards we expect to see here. Some countries place more of an emphasis on a summary of ideas of others rather than generating entirely new arguments. If this is the case for your student, (gently) remind him or her that most Pomona College professors expect to see new arguments generated from the students and that “summary” papers are frowned upon. Don’t disparage their previous work—use the ideas present in their paragraphs as a launching point for crafting a new, creative argument.

“Students, like all writers, must fictionalize their audience.”

– Fred Pfister and Joanne Petrik, “A Heuristic Model for Creating a Writer’s Audience” (1980)

The main purpose of imagining or fictionalizing an audience is to allow the student to position his/her paper within the discourse and in conversation with other academics. By helping the student acknowledge the fact that both the writer (the student) and the reader (the audience) play a role in the writing process, the student will be better able to clarify and strengthen his/her argument.

Moreover, the practice of fictionalizing the audience should eventually help the student learn how to become his/her own reader. By adopting the role of both the writer and the reader, the student will be able to further develop his ability to locate his/her text in a discourse community.

During a consultation, you may notice that a student’s argument does not actually engage in a conversation with the members of its respective discourse community. If his/her paper does not refer to other texts or ask questions that are relevant to this particular discourse, you may need to ask the student to imagine who his/her audience is as well as what the audience’s reaction to the paper may look like.

Although the student’s immediate answer will most likely be his/her professor, you should advise the student to attempt imagining an audience beyond his/her class—an audience composed of people who are invested in this discourse or this specific topic.

If your student cannot imagine or fictionalize such an audience, it may be because the student may not believe that he/she know enough about the topic to address such a knowledgeable audience. In this case, you should advise the student to pretend that he/she is an expert on the topic or that the student’s paper will be published and read by other members of the discourse community.

The student, however, should not pander to the audience and “undervalue the responsibility that [he/she] has to [the] subject” (Ede and Lunsford, 1984). Advise him/her to avoid re-shaping the paper so that it merely caters to or appeases the audience.

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  • AWELU contents
  • Writing at university
  • Different kinds of student texts
  • Understanding instructions and stylesheets
  • Understanding essay/exam questions
  • Peer review instructions
  • Dealing with feedback
  • Checklist for writers
  • Research writing resources
  • Administrative writing resources
  • LU language policy

Introduction

  • What characterises academic writing?
  • The heterogeneity of academic writing

Three-part essays

  • IMRaD essays
  • How to get started on your response paper
  • Student literature review
  • Annotated bibliography
  • Three versions of the RA
  • Examples of specificity within disciplines
  • Reviews (review articles and book reviews)
  • Popular science writing
  • Research posters
  • Grant proposals
  • Writing for Publication
  • Salutations
  • Structuring your email
  • Direct and indirect approaches
  • Useful email phrases
  • Language tips for email writers
  • Writing memos
  • Meeting terminology
  • The writing process
  • Identifying your audience
  • Using invention techniques
  • Research question
  • Thesis statement
  • Developing reading strategies
  • Taking notes
  • Identifying language resources
  • Choosing a writing tool
  • Framing the text: Title and reference list
  • Structure of the whole text
  • Structuring the argument
  • Structure of introductions
  • Structure within sections of the text
  • Structure within paragraphs
  • Signposting the structure
  • Using sources
  • What needs to be revised?
  • How to revise
  • Many vs. much
  • Other quantifiers
  • Quantifiers in a table
  • Miscellaneous quantifiers
  • Adjectives and adverbs
  • Capitalisation
  • Sentence fragment
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  • What or which?
  • Singular noun phrases connected by "or"
  • Singular noun phrases connected by "either/or"
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  • Indefinite pronouns and agreement
  • Sums of money and periods of time
  • Words that indicate portions
  • Uncountable nouns
  • Dependent clauses and agreement
  • Agreement with the right noun phrase
  • Some important exceptions and words of advice
  • Atypical nouns
  • The major word classes
  • The morphology of the major word classes
  • Words and phrases
  • Elements in the noun phrase
  • Classes of nouns
  • Determiners
  • Elements in the verb phrase
  • Classes of main verbs
  • Auxiliary verbs
  • Primary auxiliary verbs
  • Modal auxiliary verbs
  • Meanings of modal auxiliaries
  • Marginal auxiliary verbs
  • Time and tense
  • Simple and progressive forms
  • The perfect
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  • Adjective phrases
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  • Personal pronouns
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  • Prepositions and prepositional phrases
  • More on adverbials
  • The order of subjects and verbs
  • Subject-Verb agreement
  • Hyphen and dash
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  • Differences between British and American spelling
  • Vocabulary awareness
  • Useful words and phrases
  • Using abbreviations
  • Register types
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  • DOs & DON'Ts
  • General information on dictionary use
  • Online dictionary resources
  • What is a corpus?
  • Examples of the usefulness of a corpus
  • Using the World Wide Web as a corpus
  • Online corpus resources
  • Different kinds of sources
  • The functions of references
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  • Documentary note style
  • Writing acknowledgements
  • What is academic integrity?
  • Academic integrity and writing
  • Academic integrity at LU
  • Different kinds of plagiarism
  • Avoiding plagiarism
  • About Awelu

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  • Start here AWELU contents Student writing resources Research writing resources Administrative writing resources LU language policy
  • Genres Introduction The Nature of Academic Writing Student writing genres Writing in Academic Genres Writing for Publication Writing for Administrative Purposes
  • Writing The writing process Pre-writing stage Writing stage Rewriting stage
  • Language Introduction Common problems and how to avoid them Selective mini grammar Coherence Punctuation Spelling Focus on vocabulary Register and style Dictionaries Corpora - resources for writer autonomy References
  • Referencing Introduction Different kinds of sources The functions of references How to give references Reference accuracy Reference management tools Using a reference style Quick guides to reference styles Writing acknowledgements
  • Academic integrity What is academic integrity? Academic integrity and writing Academic integrity at LU Plagiarism

Essays consisting of an introduction, a main body (which may be divided into sections), and a   conclusion   are referred to as three-part essays. You may be used to this essay format from school.

In the introduction, the reader is introduced to the topic that will be discussed and to the argument that will be presented. After the introduction comes the main part of the text, where the analysis and discussion are carried out and results are presented. Depending on the length of the essay, this body section may or may not be divided into different sections, and the division may be thematic, chronological, or based on comparison and contrast, for instance. In the final part of the essay, the argument will be summed up and conclusions will be drawn from what has been discussed in the body.

Structure of the three-part essay

Each section of the text needs to be structured in a way that helps the reader understand the argument and the points that the writer wishes to make.

The main purpose of the introduction is to provide the reader with a clear idea of the focus and aim of the text. The topic of the essay/article is presented in the introduction, often accompanied by a thesis statement (the claim that the writer wishes to make). Depending on the type of essay, the introduction section also

  • provides the context/background of the argument
  • introduces the theoretical perspectives, terminology, etc. that will be used
  • explains how the writing will be organised

All the information in the introduction must be relevant to the points that are subsequently made in the body of the text. The introduction often starts with a broad, or general, description of the topic and then gradually narrows down to the specific focus of the essay. Read more about the structure of introductions, and learn about the CARS (Creating a Research Space) model here:

After the introduction comes the main part of the text, which is often referred to as the body. This is where the analysis and discussion will be carried out and where results are presented. Everything that is brought up in this part of the text relates back to what was presented in the introduction. Depending on discipline, aim and context, there are various ways of structuring the body of the text. A basic strategy is to deal with one thing at a time and to order the different issues that are brought up in a logical sequence that makes the argument easy to follow.

Depending on the length of the essay, the body may or may not be divided into different sections. Note that there is never a heading called "Body" in essays; this word is only used when talking about the essay format to signal that it is the bulk of the essay text.

In the final part of the essay, the argument is summed up and conclusions are drawn from what has been discussed. Generally, a conclusion should not contain any new facts or ideas, but instead provide a brief restatement of the main arguments that have been presented in the essay.

The conclusion might refer back to the introduction and comment on the thesis statement or the research questions presented there. In some texts, it is appropriate to include a look forward, in the form of suggestions for further study, for instance.

You can watch this video for more information about the three-part essay structure:

Instructional video from the free online MOOC "Writing in English at University" which was developed at Lund University in 2016.

Further help on writing a three-part essay

For further information and advice about different parts of the essay, see:

  • Structure of Introductions

English Summary

3 Parts of an Essay

There are three parts of an essay:

Table of Contents

The Introduction

It should be brief, interesting and should strike the keynote of the subject. The first sentence placed at the beginning of the first paragraph should indicate what is to follow. It should, in fact, express clearly what is the essential theme of the subject.

Sometimes a short quotation, a proverb, a very brief story or a general remark about the subject may serve the purpose. But it is not safe, to begin with, a definition.

This is the main part of the essay. It should contain the necessary facts, ideas, illustrations and reflections of the writer on the given subject. Here one should adhere closely to the outline.

The Conclusion

The ending, like the beginning, should be brief and striking. It should be natural and not abrupt. If that is impossible, the essay should be completed by summarising the main points raised in the body of the essay. The last sentence, above all, should not only be striking but also pleasing to the mind and the ear.

Related Posts:

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Basic Elements of an Essay: Detailed Overview

Many students often ask themselves a question:‘What are the basic elements of an essay?’ To answer it fully and comprehensively, it is essential to know the key elements an academic paper is comprised of. Failure to do so can land you in a lot of trouble with your professor and result in you getting a lower score.

To stay on track and avoid writing yourself into a corner, it is important to come up with a detailed outline. In it, you should list everything you plan to include in your essay in chronological order. Keep in mind that arranging sections chronologically is just a recommendation, and as such, and you shouldn't follow it blindly. For example, many students make the common mistake of starting to work on the introduction just because it comes first in their essay’s hierarchical structure. However, it makes no sense because it is impossible to compose the intro or conclusion unless you know exactly what you’re going to write about in the body paragraphs. Therefore, it is not until you have a clear idea of what will be included in the body paragraphs that you can set about composing your thesis statement based on the topic sentences that open each new paragraph.

So, what are the elements of a good essay? On the whole, there are only three basic elements, such as the introduction, body, and conclusion. However, we can make a more detailed outline:

  • Title page (optional) — It may vary depending on the chosen citation format. If you are not sure about it, ask your teacher or see which format corresponds to specific subjects. Include your name, paper’s title, institution details, and date.
  • Abstract — a summary of the paper, which should be no longer than 300 words (1/3 of a page).
  • Introduction and thesis statement.
  • Body part with examples or evidence.
  • Conclusion with a final statement.

Students are often required to add the Bibliography section (aka Works Cited or References), which is is a list of literature you used in your essay. In other words, mention every source cited on the last page of the paper.

Introduction

This part should contain the hook sentence meant to catch the reader’s eye, background information, reasons for the reader to keep on reading, and a solid thesis statement.

To grab the reader’s attention, you may use one of the following:

  • Statistics;
  • Joke or anecdote;
  • Metaphor, simile, or some other literary tool;
  • Quote of a famous person;
  • Rhetorical question.

Then, tell your audience why the selected problem may be interesting to review. Finish with a 1-2-sentence thesis statement. The body paragraphs should prove/back your main idea.

Body Paragraphs

Each of the three body paragraphs should have the topic sentence, which is the underlying claim of a paragraph. Support each of the sentences using the evidence collected from primary and secondary sources during your research. Each paragraph should end with the transitions word(s) to ensure the logical flow of the entire paper.

The conclusion should begin with a paraphrased thesis statement which restates your main idea. Prepare a summary of the topic sentences from each of the body paragraphs. Conclude by saying whether you succeeded in proving the thesis and provide some forecasts for the future. You may finish your paper with an attention-grabbing hook, which can be something like a rhetorical question.

To sum up, the basic elements of an essay are the introduction, 3-5 body paragraphs, conclusion, and bibliography.

Parts of an Essay with Definition and Requirements

Different essay types have different basic elements. For example, the elements of an argumentative essay include a controversial thesis, background info on the problem, transitions, research, logos, pathos, and ethos.

This type of essay is pretty similar to the persuasive paper, the only difference being that the argumentative essay should also spur the audience into wanting to accept the author's position. The elements of a persuasive essay include a defined thesis, impressive intro, well-developed argument, powerful conclusion, purposeful word choice, and varied sentence structure.

One of the easiest papers is the narrative essay which requires the student to tell a story. Thus, one of the essential elements of narrative essay students are required to demonstrate their creativity.

But, some more peculiar essay types should be covered. What about the elements of an expository essay? It definitely must have a topic sentence, thesis, subtopics, transition words, evidence, examples, and a conclusion.

The elements of a personal essay depend entirely on the writer as they are the ones who make the decision what topic to discuss. The main task here is to provide the audience with more information about yourself or make it through the application process if it is a personal college essay.

That is pretty much everything there is to know about the structure of the academic paper and main elements of an essay. Keep in mind that coming up with a perfect essay at the first try is very difficult and may take a lot of time and effort. Therefore, our recommendation would be to hire trusted professionals like ourselves to do the job for you. All you need to do is specify the kind of essay you need, the topic, deadline, and a number of pages. We’ll take care of the rest and provide you with the best paper ever!

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An estimation method for passenger flow volumes from and to bus stops based on land use elements: an experimental study, 1. introduction, 2. theoretical foundation, 2.1. the estimation principle of passenger flow volumes from and to bus stops, 2.2. travel time and distance decay law, 3. experimental methods and materials, 3.1. the estimation method of passenger flow volumes from and to bus stops, 3.2. key data for the estimation method, 3.2.1. passenger flow volumes from and to bus stops, 3.2.2. walking and bus travel distance impedance, 3.3. construction of the basic estimation models, 3.3.1. the walking from-and-to models, 3.3.2. the bus travel from-and-to models, 4.1. the basic estimation models’ parameters, 4.2. fit validation of the estimation method, 5. discussion, 6. conclusions, author contributions, data availability statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest.

No.M (ha)M (ha)M (ha)M (ha)
(0.0, 0.2)(0.2, 0.4)(0.4, 0.6)(0.6, 0.8)(0.0, 0.2)(0.2, 0.4)(0.4, 0.6)(0.6, 0.8)(0.0, 0.2)(0.2, 0.4)(0.4, 0.6)(0.6, 0.8)(0.0, 0.2)(0.2, 0.4)(0.4, 0.6)(0.6, 0.8)
10.000.00 1.77 0.00 2.24 2.43 3.39 2.64 0.00 0.34 0.11 0.27 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.00
20.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.64 2.06 2.41 3.25 0.06 1.57 0.09 0.15 0.13 0.426 0.00 0.00
30.00 1.60 4.29 8.95 9.81 10.62 12.95 0.00 1.64 0.01 2.58 0.18 2.52 0.30 0.00 2.48
40.00 1.70 9.31 13.14 6.30 10.91 15.23 4.10 1.64 0.01 1.05 2.76 2.31 0.54 0.04 0.00
50.96 11.93 1.18 5.11 5.91 6.23 11.59 7.73 0.99 0.00 1.14 0.00 0.04 0.17 0.00 0.00
62.51 7.13 4.27 0.61 1.90 8.21 14.84 4.17 0.99 0.00 1.14 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.10 0.32
70.00 5.82 2.54 0.00 5.08 23.00 9.90 7.29 1.04 1.99 0.96 0.11 1.32 0.76 0.24 0.07
80.00 0.79 12.35 12.76 0.00 14.21 26.22 14.52 0.29 2.76 0.00 0.962 3.31 1.89 1.71 0.18
90.00 0.79 12.35 12.76 0.00 14.21 26.22 14.52 0.29 2.76 0.00 0.96 3.31 1.89 1.71 0.18
100.00 5.82 2.54 0.00 5.08 23.00 9.90 7.29 1.04 1.99 0.96 0.11 1.32 0.76 0.24 0.07
110.00 0.79 12.35 12.76 0.00 14.21 26.22 14.52 0.29 2.76 0.00 0.96 3.31 1.89 1.71 0.18
120.00 0.79 12.35 12.76 0.00 14.21 26.22 14.52 0.29 2.76 0.00 0.96 3.31 1.89 1.71 0.18
131.42 5.37 10.12 15.25 2.22 9.92 22.37 12.44 0.00 0.20 2.74 0.26 3.76 2.86 0.29 0.49
141.42 5.37 10.12 15.25 2.22 9.92 22.37 12.44 0.00 0.20 2.74 0.26 3.76 2.86 0.29 0.49
151.42 5.37 10.12 15.25 2.22 9.92 22.37 12.44 0.00 0.20 2.74 0.26 3.76 2.86 0.29 0.49
162.21 9.56 13.39 14.13 6.45 8.69 4.71 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 2.42 0.89 0.18 0.00
171.47 6.75 11.45 11.94 6.08 9.40 4.38 1.06 0.00 0.22 0.00 1.83 1.37 1.85 0.21 0.00
184.16 7.41 8.75 0.66 2.88 9.01 3.75 4.55 0.00 0.10 0.00 3.97 1.39 4.28 1.95 0.38
192.83 8.10 2.47 1.62 6.95 9.77 5.74 2.44 0.00 0.10 0.00 2.047 2.84 2.77 1.95 0.38
200.00 7.85 13.47 4.14 10.27 10.02 9.09 14.94 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.05 0.18 2.80 3.43 0.73
210.00 7.85 13.47 4.14 10.27 10.02 9.09 14.94 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.05 0.18 2.80 3.43 0.73
221.02 5.00 3.25 7.83 6.76 5.33 13.39 3.87 0.00 0.00 0.16 2.46 0.18 0.00 0.19 0.11
231.02 5.00 3.25 7.83 6.76 5.33 13.39 3.87 0.00 0.00 0.16 2.46 0.18 0.00 0.19 0.11
244.63 1.11 0.00 0.00 0.86 6.35 2.26 5.65 0.00 0.04 0.45 1.04 0.06 0.32 0.11 0.05
253.41 1.92 4.73 6.02 4.38 11.47 6.62 5.78 0.04 0.04 2.67 0.58 0.06 0.71 0.08 0.05
260.00 0.00 3.53 2.41 5.18 2.11 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.19 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.39 0.00 0.00
270.00 0.00 3.53 2.41 5.18 2.11 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.19 0.00 0.00 0.09 0.39 0.00 0.00
280.00 1.77 2.21 1.12 4.38 4.01 0.92 3.98 0.10 0.97 0.06 1.60 0.05 0.17 1.92 2.55
290.00 1.77 2.21 1.12 4.38 4.01 0.92 3.98 0.10 0.97 0.06 1.60 0.05 0.17 1.92 2.55
300.14 9.90 15.06 15.25 3.66 11.93 5.64 9.48 0.04 0.14 1.17 0.22 0.71 0.11 0.00 0.12
310.14 9.90 15.06 15.25 3.66 11.93 5.64 9.48 0.04 0.14 1.17 0.22 0.71 0.11 0.00 0.12
321.32 1.62 0.07 0.00 6.21 11.03 9.97 8.79 1.37 1.64 0.57 1.73 0.20 0.26 0.25 1.74
331.32 1.62 0.07 0.00 6.21 11.03 9.97 8.79 1.37 1.64 0.57 1.73 0.20 0.26 0.25 1.74
340.00 3.76 0.38 0.00 8.11 18.58 23.48 18.89 2.54 0.00 8.79 6.83 0.60 2.28 1.17 0.20
351.39 2.75 0.00 0.00 8.84 26.21 19.23 5.42 2.54 3.36 11.26 1.53 1.71 1.75 0.35 0.11
361.39 2.75 0.00 0.00 8.84 26.21 19.23 5.42 2.54 3.36 11.26 1.53 1.71 1.75 0.35 0.11
370.00 3.01 1.13 0.00 5.99 20.29 16.50 15.82 2.54 0.00 8.38 4.98 0.60 2.69 0.53 0.09
380.00 3.01 1.13 0.00 5.99 20.29 16.50 15.82 2.54 0.00 8.38 4.98 0.60 2.69 0.53 0.09
No.M S (ha)M S (ha)M S (ha)M S (ha)A (P·h )P A P (P·h )Q (P·h )P (P·h )A P A (P·h )Q (P·h )
10.132.160.090.0313.260.9913.217.015.490.8613.327.5
20.002.270.370.1721.620.8618.58.531.190.9931.012.0
30.899.031.171.63108.391.59172.7191.0133.001.82242.5293.0
41.407.281.131.49106.091.82193.4254.0128.291.59204.3262.0
53.305.890.670.0694.191.72161.978.0103.891.63169.0149.0
63.334.070.670.0487.221.63141.8146.096.531.72165.9195.0
71.418.781.110.97102.640.8789.031.0126.330.86108.237.0
81.425.320.782.49106.911.17125.5 131.0116.441.03119.6124.0
91.425.320.782.49106.911.18125.7142.0116.440.88103.0135.0
101.418.781.110.97102.640.8687.948.0126.330.87109.542.0
111.425.320.782.49106.911.03109.889.0116.441.17136.7149.5
121.425.320.7782.49106.910.8894.576.0116.441.18136.9120.5
133.125.400.252.87126.750.5772.5103.0
143.125.400.252.87126.750.92117.1151.0117.181.07125.7151.0
153.125.400.252.87117.180.5767.096.5
164.696.020.021.64126.520.89112.2130.5110.890.7077.367.0
173.465.950.091.22101.281.26127.1177.592.081.61148.6167.5
184.704.010.121.88125.900.5568.849.5111.750.2426.6 8.5
193.616.680.072.43126.870.2430.210.5113.100.5561.829.0
202.769.280.050.9790.610.5347.612.0
212.769.280.050.9797.550.5351.346.0
222.116.240.080.1261.530.1811.015.558.910.5532.333.0
232.116.240.080.1261.530.5533.734.058.910.1810.515.5
242.992.160.070.1159.570.5734.151.053.650.105.42.0
252.945.660.250.1978.320.107.97.077.520.5744.380.0
260.333.520.160.1425.210.041.02.028.700.5616.139.5
270.333.520.160.1425.210.5614.129.028.700.041.12.0
280.573.620.310.2842.400.5724.167.5
290.573.620.310.2835.970.5720.420.5
303.685.350.140.4584.400.5244.2114.0
313.685.350.140.4590.620.5247.456.5
321.136.981.250.2482.360.4940.347.5112.210.1213.95.0
331.136.981.250.2482.360.1210.217.0112.210.4954.962.5
340.8210.972.340.93134.100.2229.430.0191.550.4891.7109.0
351.4112.343.091.41177.191.50266.5260.0251.151.32332.3284.0
361.4112.343.091.41177.191.32234.5192.0251.151.50377.8344.5
370.729.472.260.97125.230.3442.348.0180.500.4886.594.0
380.729.472.260.97125.230.96119.9154.0180.500.4987.6118.0
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Click here to enlarge figure

Parameter SymbolS S S S
Distance segment (km)(0.0, 0.2)(0.2, 0.4)(0.4, 0.6)(0.6, 0.8)
Estimated value (%)59.4621.027.432.63
Parameter SymbolR R R R R
Distance segment (km)(0.0, 2.0)(2.0, 4.0)(4.0, 6.0)(6.0, 8.0)(8.0, 10.0)
Estimated value (%)65.9828.7212.505.442.37
Land Use TypeEducationalResidentialOfficeCommercial
Parameter symbol (person·ha ·h )O O O O
Fitted relative value13.29484.031052.621914.1178
Land Use TypeEducationalResidentialOfficeCommercial
Parameter symbol (person·ha ·h )T T T T
Fitted relative value15.90493.822126.918917.2681
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Share and Cite

Zhang, J.; Cai, J.; Wang, M.; Zhang, W. An Estimation Method for Passenger Flow Volumes from and to Bus Stops Based on Land Use Elements: An Experimental Study. Land 2024 , 13 , 971. https://doi.org/10.3390/land13070971

Zhang J, Cai J, Wang M, Zhang W. An Estimation Method for Passenger Flow Volumes from and to Bus Stops Based on Land Use Elements: An Experimental Study. Land . 2024; 13(7):971. https://doi.org/10.3390/land13070971

Zhang, Jianming, Jun Cai, Mengjia Wang, and Wansong Zhang. 2024. "An Estimation Method for Passenger Flow Volumes from and to Bus Stops Based on Land Use Elements: An Experimental Study" Land 13, no. 7: 971. https://doi.org/10.3390/land13070971

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  1. Examples and Definition of Elements of an Essay

    Nature of Elements of an Essay. An essay has three basic elements as given above. Each of these elements plays its respective role to persuade the audience, convince the readers, and convey the meanings an author intends to convey. For example, an introduction is intended to introduce the topic of the essay. First it hooks the readers through ...

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  3. PDF Components of a Good Essay Intro

    o make it flow in a logical way. The main parts (or sections) to an essay are. the intro, body, and conclusion. In a standard short essay, five paragraphs can provide the reader with enough inform. tion in a short amount of space. For a research paper or dissertation, however, it is essential that more than five paragraphs are present in order ...

  4. How to Structure an Essay

    The basic structure of an essay always consists of an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. But for many students, the most difficult part of structuring an essay is deciding how to organize information within the body. This article provides useful templates and tips to help you outline your essay, make decisions about your structure, and ...

  5. PDF A Brief Guide to the Elements of the Academic Essay

    3. Keyterms: the handful of recurring concepts or basic oppositions upon which your argument rests, usu-ally literal but sometimes a ruling metaphor. An essay's keyterms should be clear in their meaning and appear throughout (not be abandoned half-way); they should be appropriate for the subject at hand (not unfair or too

  6. PDF Parts of an Essay

    Body—An essay includes body paragraphs, which develop the main idea (thesis or claim) of the essay. An effective body paragraph should: Work together with the other body paragraphs to create a clear, cohesive paper (clarity and coherence can be achieved through the use of transitions). Conclusion—An essay ends with a brief conclusion, which ...

  7. PDF Elements of an Essay

    Elements of an Essay Each essay assignment will differ, but all of your essays should include the following four basic elements1. ... An essay usually has at least three body paragraphs that eachpresent evidence to support your . thesis. Topic Sentences: The first sentence of each paragraph should state the topic of that paragraph— ...

  8. Essay Elements and Structure

    Structurally, the basic elements of an essay are organized into three main sections (introduction, body, and conclusion), as illustrated by the following figure. Figure 1. Basic essay Structure. The followings are a brief description of each essay element. To make the description effective, the essay titled How Reading Empowers EFL Learners is ...

  9. 4.1 Basic Essay Structure

    Each paragraph within the body of the essay enlarges one major point in the development of the overall argument (although some points may consist of several sub-points, each of which will need its own paragraph). Each paragraph should contain the following elements: Clearly state the main point in each paragraph in the form of a topic sentence.

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    The Elements of the Popular Essay The First-Person Interlocutor • Speaks intimately, as if to a close friend. • Speaks of sensory and bodily experiences, personal emotions and private thoughts. • The self expressed in story and argument. Ideas/Ruminations Story/Argument • Speculate on the • Personal anecdotes.

  12. PDF Parts of an Essay

    Parts of an Essay. Detailed below are the key components of an academic, college-level essay. As you draft and revise your essays, keep in mind these fundamental parts so you can construct a stronger, more effective, and convincing essay. Purpose and Audience—Virtually all aspects of writing are governed by these two concepts.

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  14. PDF Gordon Harvey's "Elements of the Academic Essay"

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  17. Elements of the Essay

    Your stance should be established within the first few paragraphs of your essay, and it should remain consistent. Style: the choices you make of words and sentence structure. Your style should be exact and clear (should bring out main idea and action of each sentence, not bury it) and plain without being flat (should be graceful and a little ...

  18. How to Write an Essay Outline

    Revised on July 23, 2023. An essay outline is a way of planning the structure of your essay before you start writing. It involves writing quick summary sentences or phrases for every point you will cover in each paragraph, giving you a picture of how your argument will unfold. You'll sometimes be asked to submit an essay outline as a separate ...

  19. Gordon Harvey's Elements of the Academic Essay

    The "Elements of the Academic Essay" is a taxonomy of academic writing by Gordon Harvey. It identifies the key components of academic writing across the disciplines and has been widely influential. Below is a complete list (with descriptions). ... "The recurring terms or basic oppositions that an argument rests upon, usually literal but ...

  20. Three-part essays

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  23. Land

    To unravel the general relationship between bus travel and land use around bus stops and along bus routes and to promote their coordinated development, this paper explores a method to estimate passenger flow volumes from and to bus stops based on land use types, intensities, and spatial distributions around bus stops and along bus routes. Firstly, following the principle of the gravity model ...