teaching methods for inventive problem solving in junior high school

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Fostering Critical Thinking: Teaching Creative Problem-Solving in Middle School Made Easy

As educators, we understand the importance of equipping our students with the necessary skills to navigate the challenges of the 21st century. One crucial skill that holds significant value in both academic and real-world settings is critical thinking. In middle school, students are at a pivotal stage in their development, making it the perfect time to introduce and nurture creative problem-solving abilities. In this blog post, we will explore strategies and techniques to effectively teach creative problem-solving in middle school.

Understanding Creative Problem-Solving

Creative problem-solving is a cognitive process that involves generating innovative solutions to complex problems. It goes beyond traditional problem-solving by encouraging students to think outside the box, explore multiple perspectives, and consider unconventional approaches. By teaching creative problem-solving in middle school, we empower students to become independent thinkers and effective problem-solvers.

Strategies for Teaching Creative Problem-Solving in Middle School

1. Encouraging open-ended questions and discussions

One effective way to foster creative problem-solving is by encouraging open-ended questions and discussions in the classroom. By asking thought-provoking questions, we stimulate students’ critical thinking skills and encourage them to explore different possibilities. Creating a safe and inclusive classroom environment is crucial for promoting meaningful discussions where students feel comfortable sharing their thoughts and ideas.

2. Promoting brainstorming and idea generation

Brainstorming sessions are an excellent tool for promoting creative problem-solving. Encourage students to think outside the box and generate as many ideas as possible, without judgment or evaluation. By creating a supportive atmosphere, students will feel more confident in sharing their unique perspectives and innovative solutions.

3. Developing critical thinking skills through real-world scenarios

Integrating real-life examples and scenarios into lessons is an effective way to develop students’ critical thinking skills. By analyzing and evaluating different perspectives, students learn to consider multiple viewpoints and make informed decisions. This approach helps students understand the relevance of creative problem-solving in their everyday lives.

4. Integrating technology and multimedia resources

Technology and multimedia resources can enhance problem-solving skills by providing students with interactive and engaging learning experiences. Utilize digital tools and platforms that allow students to collaborate, research, and present their ideas. Incorporating multimedia resources such as videos, images, and infographics can also stimulate creativity and inspire innovative thinking.

Assessing and Evaluating Creative Problem-Solving Skills

Assessment is a crucial component of teaching creative problem-solving. Ongoing assessment and feedback provide valuable insights into students’ progress and areas for improvement. Here are some strategies for assessing creative problem-solving skills:

1. Observations and anecdotal records

Observe students during class discussions, group activities, and individual problem-solving tasks. Take anecdotal records to document their critical thinking abilities, creativity, and problem-solving strategies. This qualitative data will help you gain a comprehensive understanding of each student’s progress.

2. Rubrics and checklists

Create rubrics and checklists that outline the criteria for successful creative problem-solving. Use these tools to assess students’ performance based on specific skills, such as generating innovative ideas, considering multiple perspectives, and effectively communicating their solutions. Rubrics and checklists provide clear expectations and allow for objective evaluation.

Collaborative Learning and Teamwork

Collaborative learning and teamwork play a significant role in developing problem-solving skills. By working together, students learn to communicate effectively, share ideas, and consider different viewpoints. Here are some strategies for promoting teamwork and collaboration in middle school:

1. Group projects and cooperative learning activities

Assign group projects and cooperative learning activities that require students to work together to solve problems. Encourage them to delegate tasks, communicate their ideas, and support one another throughout the process. This collaborative approach fosters critical thinking, creativity, and effective problem-solving.

2. Establishing clear expectations and roles within teams

When assigning group work, establish clear expectations and roles within teams. Clearly define each student’s responsibilities and encourage them to take ownership of their tasks. This clarity promotes accountability and ensures that each team member contributes to the problem-solving process.

Fostering critical thinking and creative problem-solving skills in middle school is essential for preparing students for the challenges they will face in the future. By implementing strategies such as encouraging open-ended discussions, promoting brainstorming, integrating real-world scenarios, and utilizing technology, we can create a classroom environment that nurtures these skills. Assessing and providing constructive feedback, as well as promoting collaborative learning and teamwork, further enhance students’ problem-solving abilities. Start your EverydaySpeech Free trial today and embark on a journey to empower your students with the critical thinking and creative problem-solving skills they need to succeed.

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teaching methods for inventive problem solving in junior high school

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6 strategies to instill problem-solving skills in students.

Critical Thinking In Students: 6 Top Strategies

Why Developing Problem-Solving Skills Is Important

Problem-solving is defined as the ability to quickly solve any given problem with ease. This requires convergent and divergent thinking skills. Convergent thinking is a process aimed to deduce a concrete solution to a problem. And, the process of exploring all the possible solutions to analyze and generate creative ideas is called divergent thinking.

People with good problem-solving skills are indeed an asset to society. Problem-solving also plays a vital role in child development. These skillsets are much sought-after in this competitive world and are therefore imperative for general life and workplace success .

Problem-solving is an important 21st-century skill because it determines one’s personal development, employment prospects, and overall contribution to society.

6 Practical Ways To Foster Critical Thinking In Students

1. promote skill building through self-directed learning .

Research [1] proved that self-directed learning promotes critical thinking in students as it allows them to fully explore their creative and imaginative sides. It fosters the ability of independent thinking in students and eventually promotes a sense of self-actualization in them. Today, the principle of autonomous learning is applied in most visionary schooling platforms because it is the most credible way to inculcate this new-age skill in young learners.

This methodology perfectly suits middle and high school students because they enjoy the process of discovery learning and are capable of drawing conclusions in the light of facts.

As a parent, you need to be a facilitator in this process and understand the importance of problem-solving skills in kids. The simplest way to do this is to allow some independent thinking time after the instructional delivery and encourage multiple original ideas by promoting divergent thinking. All this fosters advanced reasoning abilities in students and promotes critical thinking for advanced problem-solving.

Top educators from great-quality accredited online schools make use of these strategies, along with several other eLearning skills , and guide the learners throughout the process of gathering, prioritizing, interpreting, and concluding information.

2. Encourage Brainstorming In A Non-Judgmental Environment

Problem-solving in child development is a game-changer for success later in life. So, try to create the right atmosphere for kids at home to nurture this core competency.

A non-judgmental environment is always free from negative criticism and sarcasm. Allow children to voice opinions freely and make sure there is enough positive reinforcement for all genuine attempts.

Individual brainstorming is the best to craft creative solutions for less complex issues because it allows individuals to break free from regular, conventional ideas while interacting in a more positive environment.

Support your kid for more and more lateral/parallel thinking and appreciate all out-of-box/innovative responses.

3. Strengthen The Components Of Problem-Solving 

Another way to foster problem-solving skills in learners is by strengthening the decision-making component of the problem-solving process. Decision-making skills are imperative to solve problems because they help to weigh the advantages and disadvantages before reaching a conclusion.

Encourage kids to make choices between possible alternatives and make this fun by trying out everyday basic choices like food, books, movies, sports, etc. Make sure you allow kids to take charge of these decisions and intervene with your logical and valid inputs. Remember that it is essential to understand the importance of problem-solving skills in kids. So, try to create enough such opportunities for young learners.

These practices will develop habits of analyzing situations from multiple dimensions and eventually, children will learn to research and preempt the repercussions of their individual choices.

4. Use The Best Techniques Of Some Researched Theories

Some great psychological theories can be easily applied in real-life situations. As a parent, you can foster these relevant problem-solving skills in the child by incorporating some components of popular theories.

Let me explain this through some examples:

Use the theory of "psychological distancing" [2] to disconnect children from their emotions while solving the problem. It will help them see the bigger picture of the issue by viewing it from a wider perspective. This strategy eliminates the chances of biases and selective understanding based on personal preferences and therefore, helps in viewing issues through multiple perspectives.

Another helpful strategy can be the "heuristic framework" [3], which can help foster advanced thinking abilities by breaking information into smaller and more comprehensive parts. With middle and high schoolers, you can try its component of backward planning effectively. This strategy can be mindfully implemented in any day-to-day situation, like planning for a get-together or estimating monthly expenses for budget planning. Encourage responses in a way that starts from the most distant challenges like month-end crunch/emergency funds, etc., and look for these solutions before planning the immediate requirements.

5. Be A Positive Role Model

As parents, we can also foster problem-solving skills through numerous informal interactions and behaviors. Our own approach toward solving problems largely influences our children's abilities because there is a powerful impact on the family atmosphere and parenting in the critical habit formation stages.

Look for opportunities to involve children in problematic situations and create some hypothetical ones if you do not have real ones. Involve children in discussions that need deep thinking; for example, preparations for extreme weather change or changing some business strategies (like hoarding raw material) to bring down the investments of a family business.

Be a structured and organized problem solver yourself and present your thoughts in the most logical and sequential manner. Support children's efforts throughout and share your input about their dilemmas. The importance of problem-solving skills in kids is evident. So, try to be an ideal role model for kids all the time.

6. Observe, Facilitate, And Share Feedback

Last but not least, be a guide and mentor for your students at all times. Observe them and be ready to intervene as and when it is required. Avoid interrupting and criticizing directly at any point in time because these competencies are best developed in a positive learning environment .

So, make sure you share enough positive feedback and facilitate this process throughout. However, do not give any direct answers to make the task easy for children. Instead, guide them through the pathway that can lead to possible and relevant solutions. Encourage multiple solutions and prejudice-free opinions and allow enough time for kids to derive conclusions. Re-explain the steps of the process (identifying, analyzing, solving, and reviewing, etc.) repeatedly, and motivate children for more and more divergent thinking.

Problem-solving skills are an asset for our kids in all stages of life. So, put your best foot forward and support your child in and out to acquire these 21st-century relevant skillsets for a tremendously successful and happy life ahead!


[1] Self-Directed Learning Strategy: A Tool for Promoting Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills among Social Studies Students

[2] Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance

[3] 7.3 Problem-Solving

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Teaching Problem-Solving Skills

Many instructors design opportunities for students to solve “problems”. But are their students solving true problems or merely participating in practice exercises? The former stresses critical thinking and decision­ making skills whereas the latter requires only the application of previously learned procedures.

Problem solving is often broadly defined as "the ability to understand the environment, identify complex problems, review related information to develop, evaluate strategies and implement solutions to build the desired outcome" (Fissore, C. et al, 2021). True problem solving is the process of applying a method – not known in advance – to a problem that is subject to a specific set of conditions and that the problem solver has not seen before, in order to obtain a satisfactory solution.

Below you will find some basic principles for teaching problem solving and one model to implement in your classroom teaching.

Principles for teaching problem solving

  • Model a useful problem-solving method . Problem solving can be difficult and sometimes tedious. Show students how to be patient and persistent, and how to follow a structured method, such as Woods’ model described below. Articulate your method as you use it so students see the connections.
  • Teach within a specific context . Teach problem-solving skills in the context in which they will be used by students (e.g., mole fraction calculations in a chemistry course). Use real-life problems in explanations, examples, and exams. Do not teach problem solving as an independent, abstract skill.
  • Help students understand the problem . In order to solve problems, students need to define the end goal. This step is crucial to successful learning of problem-solving skills. If you succeed at helping students answer the questions “what?” and “why?”, finding the answer to “how?” will be easier.
  • Take enough time . When planning a lecture/tutorial, budget enough time for: understanding the problem and defining the goal (both individually and as a class); dealing with questions from you and your students; making, finding, and fixing mistakes; and solving entire problems in a single session.
  • Ask questions and make suggestions . Ask students to predict “what would happen if …” or explain why something happened. This will help them to develop analytical and deductive thinking skills. Also, ask questions and make suggestions about strategies to encourage students to reflect on the problem-solving strategies that they use.
  • Link errors to misconceptions . Use errors as evidence of misconceptions, not carelessness or random guessing. Make an effort to isolate the misconception and correct it, then teach students to do this by themselves. We can all learn from mistakes.

Woods’ problem-solving model

Define the problem.

  • The system . Have students identify the system under study (e.g., a metal bridge subject to certain forces) by interpreting the information provided in the problem statement. Drawing a diagram is a great way to do this.
  • Known(s) and concepts . List what is known about the problem, and identify the knowledge needed to understand (and eventually) solve it.
  • Unknown(s) . Once you have a list of knowns, identifying the unknown(s) becomes simpler. One unknown is generally the answer to the problem, but there may be other unknowns. Be sure that students understand what they are expected to find.
  • Units and symbols . One key aspect in problem solving is teaching students how to select, interpret, and use units and symbols. Emphasize the use of units whenever applicable. Develop a habit of using appropriate units and symbols yourself at all times.
  • Constraints . All problems have some stated or implied constraints. Teach students to look for the words "only", "must", "neglect", or "assume" to help identify the constraints.
  • Criteria for success . Help students consider, from the beginning, what a logical type of answer would be. What characteristics will it possess? For example, a quantitative problem will require an answer in some form of numerical units (e.g., $/kg product, square cm, etc.) while an optimization problem requires an answer in the form of either a numerical maximum or minimum.

Think about it

  • “Let it simmer”.  Use this stage to ponder the problem. Ideally, students will develop a mental image of the problem at hand during this stage.
  • Identify specific pieces of knowledge . Students need to determine by themselves the required background knowledge from illustrations, examples and problems covered in the course.
  • Collect information . Encourage students to collect pertinent information such as conversion factors, constants, and tables needed to solve the problem.

Plan a solution

  • Consider possible strategies . Often, the type of solution will be determined by the type of problem. Some common problem-solving strategies are: compute; simplify; use an equation; make a model, diagram, table, or chart; or work backwards.
  • Choose the best strategy . Help students to choose the best strategy by reminding them again what they are required to find or calculate.

Carry out the plan

  • Be patient . Most problems are not solved quickly or on the first attempt. In other cases, executing the solution may be the easiest step.
  • Be persistent . If a plan does not work immediately, do not let students get discouraged. Encourage them to try a different strategy and keep trying.

Encourage students to reflect. Once a solution has been reached, students should ask themselves the following questions:

  • Does the answer make sense?
  • Does it fit with the criteria established in step 1?
  • Did I answer the question(s)?
  • What did I learn by doing this?
  • Could I have done the problem another way?

If you would like support applying these tips to your own teaching, CTE staff members are here to help.  View the  CTE Support  page to find the most relevant staff member to contact. 

  • Fissore, C., Marchisio, M., Roman, F., & Sacchet, M. (2021). Development of problem solving skills with Maple in higher education. In: Corless, R.M., Gerhard, J., Kotsireas, I.S. (eds) Maple in Mathematics Education and Research. MC 2020. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1414. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-81698-8_15
  • Foshay, R., & Kirkley, J. (1998). Principles for Teaching Problem Solving. TRO Learning Inc., Edina MN.  (PDF) Principles for Teaching Problem Solving (researchgate.net)
  • Hayes, J.R. (1989). The Complete Problem Solver. 2nd Edition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Woods, D.R., Wright, J.D., Hoffman, T.W., Swartman, R.K., Doig, I.D. (1975). Teaching Problem solving Skills.
  • Engineering Education. Vol 1, No. 1. p. 238. Washington, DC: The American Society for Engineering Education.

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