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The Importance of Knowing Your Food Sources: Finding Local Farmers Near You
As more people become concerned with the quality and sources of their food, the importance of knowing where your food comes from has become increasingly important. One way to ensure you are getting high-quality, fresh produce is by buying from local farmers. In this article, we will discuss the benefits of buying from local farmers and provide tips on how to find them near you.
Why Buying From Local Farmers Is Beneficial
When you buy from local farmers, you are supporting your local economy. This is because the money spent on their products goes directly to them rather than being filtered through middlemen or large corporations. Additionally, local farmers often use sustainable farming practices that are better for the environment and result in healthier produce.
Buying from local farmers also means that you are getting fresher produce. The fruits and vegetables sold at supermarkets may have been picked weeks ago and traveled long distances before reaching your plate, resulting in a loss of nutrients. In contrast, produce bought directly from a farmer is often picked within 24 hours of being sold, ensuring maximum freshness.
How to Find Local Farmers Near You
One way to find local farmers near you is by visiting your nearest farmer’s market. Most cities have at least one farmer’s market where small-scale producers sell their products directly to consumers. These markets offer a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables as well as other locally made products such as honey, cheese, and bread.
Another way to find local farmers near you is by using online directories such as LocalHarvest.org or EatWild.com. These websites allow you to search for farms in your area that sell produce directly to consumers or offer Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) programs where customers can buy a share of the farm’s harvest each season.
Finally, consider joining a community-supported agriculture program (CSA). CSAs allow consumers to buy a share of a farm’s harvest each season, providing them with a weekly or bi-weekly box of fresh produce. This is a great way to support local farmers and ensure you have access to fresh, seasonal produce.
Tips for Buying From Local Farmers
When buying from local farmers, it is important to ask questions about their farming practices. Many small-scale farmers use sustainable farming methods such as crop rotation, cover cropping, and natural pest control. By asking these questions, you can ensure that the food you are buying is grown in an environmentally friendly manner.
It is also important to be flexible when shopping at farmer’s markets or through CSAs. Unlike supermarkets, where you can find any fruit or vegetable year-round, local farmers only sell what is in season. This means that your options may be limited depending on the time of year.
Finally, don’t be afraid to try new things. Local farmers often grow varieties of fruits and vegetables that are not commonly found in supermarkets. Trying these new foods can expand your palate and provide you with unique culinary experiences.
In conclusion, knowing where your food comes from is essential for ensuring its quality and freshness. By buying from local farmers near you, you are supporting your local economy while also getting access to healthier produce grown using sustainable farming practices. Use the tips provided in this article to find local farmers near you and start enjoying the benefits of fresh produce today.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
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Chapter 5: The Literature Review
5.3 Acceptable sources for literature reviews
Following are a few acceptable sources for literature reviews, listed in order from what will be considered most acceptable to less acceptable sources for your literature review assignments:
- Peer reviewed journal articles.
- Edited academic books.
- Articles in professional journals.
- Statistical data from government websites.
- Website material from professional associations (use sparingly and carefully). The following sections will explain and provide examples of these various sources.
Peer reviewed journal articles (papers)
A peer reviewed journal article is a paper that has been submitted to a scholarly journal, accepted, and published. Peer review journal papers go through a rigorous, blind review process of peer review. What this means is that two to three experts in the area of research featured in the paper have reviewed and accepted the paper for publication. The names of the author(s) who are seeking to publish the research have been removed (blind review), so as to minimize any bias towards the authors of the research (albeit, sometimes a savvy reviewer can discern who has done the research based upon previous publications, etc.). This blind review process can be long (often 12 to 18 months) and may involve many back and forth edits on the behalf of the researchers, as they work to address the edits and concerns of the peers who reviewed their paper. Often, reviewers will reject the paper for a variety of reasons, such as unclear or questionable methods, lack of contribution to the field, etc. Because peer reviewed journal articles have gone through a rigorous process of review, they are considered to be the premier source for research. Peer reviewed journal articles should serve as the foundation for your literature review.
The following link will provide more information on peer reviewed journal articles. Make sure you watch the little video on the upper left-hand side of your screen, in addition to reading the material at the following website: http://guides.lib.jjay.cuny.edu/c.php?g=288333&p=1922599
Edited academic books
An edited academic book is a collection of scholarly scientific papers written by different authors. The works are original papers, not published elsewhere (“Edited volume,” 2018). The papers within the text also go through a process of review; however, the review is often not a blind review because the authors have been invited to contribute to the book. Consequently, edited academic books are fine to use for your literature review, but you also want to ensure that your literature review contains mostly peer reviewed journal papers.
Articles in professional journals
Articles from professional journals should be used with caution for your literature review. This is because articles in trade journals are not usually peer reviewed, even though they may appear to be. A good way to find out is to read the “About Us” section of the professional journal, which should state whether or not the papers are peer reviewed. You can also find out by Googling the name of the journal and adding “peer reviewed” to the search.
Statistical data from governmental websites
Governmental websites can be excellent sources for statistical data, e.g, Statistics Canada collects and publishes data related to the economy, society, and the environment (see https://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/start ).
Website material from professional associations
Material from other websites can also serve as a source for statistics that you may need for your literature review. Since you want to justify the value of the research that interests you, you might make use of a professional association’s website to learn how many members they have, for example. You might want to demonstrate, as part of the introduction to your literature review, why more research on the topic of PTSD in police officers is important. You could use peer reviewed journal articles to determine the prevalence of PTSD in police officers in Canada in the last ten years, and then use the Ontario Police Officers´ Association website to determine the approximate number of police officers employed in the Province of Ontario over the last ten years. This might help you estimate how many police officers could be suffering with PTSD in Ontario. That number could potentially help to justify a research grant down the road. But again, this type of website- based material should be used with caution and sparingly.
Research Methods for the Social Sciences: An Introduction by Valerie Sheppard is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
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Literature review sources
Sources for literature review can be divided into three categories as illustrated in table below. In your dissertation you will need to use all three categories of literature review sources:
Sources for literature review and examples
Generally, your literature review should integrate a wide range of sources such as:
- Books . Textbooks remain as the most important source to find models and theories related to the research area. Research the most respected authorities in your selected research area and find the latest editions of books authored by them. For example, in the area of marketing the most notable authors include Philip Kotler, Seth Godin, Malcolm Gladwell, Emanuel Rosen and others.
- Magazines . Industry-specific magazines are usually rich in scholarly articles and they can be effective source to learn about the latest trends and developments in the research area. Reading industry magazines can be the most enjoyable part of the literature review, assuming that your selected research area represents an area of your personal and professional interests, which should be the case anyways.
- Newspapers can be referred to as the main source of up-to-date news about the latest events related to the research area. However, the proportion of the use of newspapers in literature review is recommended to be less compared to alternative sources of secondary data such as books and magazines. This is due to the fact that newspaper articles mainly lack depth of analyses and discussions.
- Online articles . You can find online versions of all of the above sources. However, note that the levels of reliability of online articles can be highly compromised depending on the source due to the high levels of ease with which articles can be published online. Opinions offered in a wide range of online discussion blogs cannot be usually used in literature review. Similarly, dissertation assessors are not keen to appreciate references to a wide range of blogs, unless articles in these blogs are authored by respected authorities in the research area.
Your secondary data sources may comprise certain amount of grey literature as well. The term grey literature refers to type of literature produced by government, academics, business and industry in print and electronic formats, which is not controlled by commercial publishers. It is called ‘grey’ because the status of the information in grey literature is not certain. In other words, any publication that has not been peer reviewed for publication is grey literature.
The necessity to use grey literature arises when there is no enough peer reviewed publications are available for the subject of your study.
- University of La Verne
- Subject Guides
Literature Review Basics
- Primary & Secondary Sources
- Literature Review Introduction
- Writing Literature Reviews
- Tutorials & Samples
The Literature refers to the collection of scholarly writings on a topic. This includes peer-reviewed articles, books, dissertations and conference papers.
- When reviewing the literature, be sure to include major works as well as studies that respond to major works. You will want to focus on primary sources, though secondary sources can be valuable as well.
The term primary source is used broadly to embody all sources that are original. P rimary sources provide first-hand information that is closest to the object of study. Primary sources vary by discipline.
- In the natural and social sciences, original reports of research found in academic journals detailing the methodology used in the research, in-depth descriptions, and discussions of the findings are considered primary sources of information.
- Other common examples of primary sources include speeches, letters, diaries, autobiographies, interviews, official reports, court records, artifacts, photographs, and drawings.
Galvan, J. L. (2013). Writing literature reviews: A guide for students of the social and behavioral sciences . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak.
A secondary source is a source that provides non-original or secondhand data or information.
- Secondary sources are written about primary sources.
- Research summaries reported in textbooks, magazines, and newspapers are considered secondary sources. They typically provide global descriptions of results with few details on the methodology. Other examples of secondary sources include biographies and critical studies of an author's work.
Secondary Source. (2005). In W. Paul Vogt (Ed.), Dictionary of Statistics & Methodology. (3 rd ed., p. 291). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Weidenborner, S., & Caruso, D. (1997). Writing research papers: A guide to the process . New York: St. Martin's Press.
More Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources
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Literature Reviews: Types of Literature
- Library Basics
- 1. Choose Your Topic
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Types of Literature
- 3. Search the Literature
- 4. Read & Analyze the Literature
- 5. Write the Review
- Keeping Track of Information
- Style Guides
- Books, Tutorials & Examples
Different types of publications have different characteristics.
Primary Literature Primary sources means original studies, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies. They are authored by researchers, contains original research data, and are usually published in a peer-reviewed journal. Primary literature may also include conference papers, pre-prints, or preliminary reports. Also called empirical research .
Secondary Literature Secondary literature consists of interpretations and evaluations that are derived from or refer to the primary source literature. Examples include review articles (such as meta-analysis and systematic reviews) and reference works. Professionals within each discipline take the primary literature and synthesize, generalize, and integrate new research.
Tertiary Literature Tertiary literature consists of a distillation and collection of primary and secondary sources such as textbooks, encyclopedia articles, and guidebooks or handbooks. The purpose of tertiary literature is to provide an overview of key research findings and an introduction to principles and practices within the discipline.
Adapted from the Information Services Department of the Library of the Health Sciences-Chicago , University of Illinois at Chicago.
Types of Scientific Publications
These examples and descriptions of publication types will give you an idea of how to use various works and why you would want to write a particular kind of paper.
- Scholarly article aka empirical article
- Review article
- Conference paper
Scholarly (aka empirical) article -- example
Empirical studies use data derived from observation or experiment. Original research papers (also called primary research articles) that describe empirical studies and their results are published in academic journals. Articles that report empirical research contain different sections which relate to the steps of the scientific method.
Abstract - The abstract provides a very brief summary of the research.
Introduction - The introduction sets the research in a context, which provides a review of related research and develops the hypotheses for the research.
Method - The method section describes how the research was conducted.
Results - The results section describes the outcomes of the study.
Discussion - The discussion section contains the interpretations and implications of the study.
References - A references section lists the articles, books, and other material cited in the report.
Review article -- example
A review article summarizes a particular field of study and places the recent research in context. It provides an overview and is an excellent introduction to a subject area. The references used in a review article are helpful as they lead to more in-depth research.
Many databases have limits or filters to search for review articles. You can also search by keywords like review article, survey, overview, summary, etc.
Conference proceedings, abstracts and reports -- example
Conference proceedings, abstracts and reports are not usually peer-reviewed. A conference article is similar to a scholarly article insofar as it is academic. Conference articles are published much more quickly than scholarly articles. You can find conference papers in many of the same places as scholarly articles.
How Do You Identify Empirical Articles?
To identify an article based on empirical research, look for the following characteristics:
The article is published in a peer-reviewed journal .
The article includes charts, graphs, or statistical analysis .
The article is substantial in size , likely to be more than 5 pages long.
The article contains the following parts (the exact terms may vary): abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, references .
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Eugene McDermott Library
- Collecting Resources for a Literature Review
- Organizing the Literature Review
- Writing the Literature Review
- Examples of Literature Reviews
Sources for Literature Review Items
Sources for a Literature Review will come from a variety of places, including:
•Books Use the Library Catalog to see what items McDermott Library has on your topic or if McDermott Library has a specific source you need. The WorldCat database allows you to search the catalogs on many, many libraries. WorldCat is a good place to find out what books exist on your topic.
•Reference Materials Reference Materials such as encyclopedias and dictionaries provide good overall views of topics and provide keyword hints for searching. Many will include lists of sources to consider for your literature review.
•Journals via Electronic Databases Journals are a major source of materials for a literature review. With the library's databases, you can search thousands of journals back a century or more.
•Conference Papers At conferences, professionals and scholars explore the latest trends, share new ideas, and present new research. Searching Conference papers allows you to see research before it is published and get a feel for what is going on in a particular organization or within a particular group.
Many electronic databases include conference proceedings, but with ProceedingsFirst database, you can search proceedings alone.
•Dissertations & Theses The major index for Dissertations and Theses is Dissertations Abstracts . McDermott Library's version of Dissertations Abstracts is
Dissertations and Theses Full-Text and includes some full-text of Ph.D. dissertations.
•Internet The general internet can be a valuable resource for information. However, it is largely unregulated. Be sure to critically evaluate internet sources. Look at the Evaluating Websites LibGuide for suggestions on evaluating websites.
•Government Publications The U.S. government produces a wide variety of information sources, from consumer brochures to congressional reports to large amounts of data to longitudinal studies. For the United States, firstgov and fedstats are good places to start. Official state websites can be helpful for individual state statistics and information.
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How many sources do you need in a literature review?
Students often ask me how many sources they need in their literature review. The short answer is, “It depends.” It depends on your topic, the nature of your research project, your level of scholarship, and a number of other factors.
An article from Canberra University ( http://www.canberra.edu.au/studyskills/writing/literature ) suggests:
- Undergraduate review: 5-20 titles depending on level
- Honours dissertation: 20+ titles
- Master’s thesis: 40+ titles
- Doctoral thesis: 50+ titles
Another strategy I learned somewhere along the way that I now share with my students is this:
If your literature review is one section of a larger research paper, thesis or dissertation
Minimum number of sources = number of pages in the body of your entire paper (exclusive of title page, abstract, appendices and references)
Example: A paper that has 10 pages of content (the body of the paper) needs at least 10 sources in its literature review.
A thesis of 100 pages (in the body) includes at least 100 sources.
If your literature review is a stand-alone document
Minimum number of sources = 3 times the number of pages in the body of your paper (exclusive of title page, abstract, appendices and references)
Example: A stand-alone literature review that has 10 pages of content (the body of the paper) should examine at least 30 sources.
These are not hard and fast rules by any means. Also, it is worth mentioning that as students and scholars who care about the quality of our work, we want to aim to raise the bar, not simply meet a minimum suggested standard. What these guidelines are suggesting is that you don’t aim for any less . If you do, your search for relevant literature in your field may be incomplete and you need to keep digging. Of course, your sources have to be relevant to your topic, too.
Not every scholar or academic supervisor would agree with the guidelines I offer here, criticizing them as being too reductionist or simplistic. My point isn’t to offer a black and white rule or to open a theoretical debate for which there can be no clear solution, but rather to offer a straight forward and practical answer to a question that academics often respond to in an ambiguous way, leaving students frustrated, exasperated, and anxious about how to go conduct their literature review.
When in doubt, talk with your own instructor or supervisor, asking them what their expectations are. (Don’t be surprised though, if you get an answer that is vague, like, “It depends…”)
Remember: Aim for quality over quality… and to do a quality literature review, you need to have a substantive quantity of sources.
Here are some of my favourite resources to help you write your literature review:
University of Toronto – http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/specific-types-of-writing/literature-review
U Conn – http://classguides.lib.uconn.edu/content.php?pid=239974&sid=1980274
University of Leicester – http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/ld/resources/writing/writing-resources/literature-review
Queensland Univeristy of Technology – http://www.citewrite.qut.edu.au/write/litreview.jsp
Birmingham City University – http://library.bcu.ac.uk/learner/writingguides/1.04.htm
Related posts: Why APA formatting matters http://wp.me/pNAh3-1Hc
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Sarah Elaine Eaton is a faculty member in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, Canada.
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Dr. Sarah Elaine Eaton is a professor, ethicist, writer, and speaker. She is a strong advocate for academic integrity and ethics in educational contexts.
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