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What Is a Case Study?
When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.
Deep Dive into a Topic
At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.
As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.
Study a Pattern
One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.
During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.
As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.
Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.
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Social Case Study Report DSWD
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1 Advance Unedited Version Distr.: General Original: English
Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
List of issues in relation to the initial report of the, replies of the philippines, a. purpose and general obligations (arts. 1–4), on the effectiveness of the national council on, members - government and non-government agencies,.
6. The NCDA addresses the needs of all PWD,
9. Under the 2nd National Human Rights Action Plan of
Are already in place and are continually being enhanced. , directional signs with braille versions; and, (h) reserved, b. specific rights (arts. 5–30), equality and non-discrimination (art. 5), subsequent amendments in 2007 and 2016, in addressing.
22. The Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE)
Claims for which remedies have been granted and the.
1 Biraogo v. Philippine Truth Commission, G. R. No. 192935, December 7, 20 10, 637 SCRA 78, 148; Southern Hemisphere Engagement Network, Inc. v. Anti-Terrorism Council, G.R. No. 178552, October 5, 20 10, 632 SCRA 146, 166-1 67; Senate of the Philippines v. Ermita, 522 Phil. I, 27 (2006); Francisco v. House of Representatives, 460 Phil. 83 0, 892 (2003). 9 CRPD/C/PHL/Q/1
32. The following is a general data from the State’s
11. on efforts to end the stigma and discrimination, licensed medical practitioner are recognized and entitled, broad age and sex distribution of pwds (in thousands),, 36. the state, through its concerned agencies, has been.
levels and the incidence of sexual violence and sexual
Empowerment in their respective sectors, sub-sectors or.
• Non-Handicapping Environment. • Apart from the LGU-devolved programs and services for PWD, the following are direct services extended by the DSWD: • Financial assistance by the Crisis Intervention Unit to PWD in crisis situations; • Provision of assistive devices; and, • Livelihood opportunities. 42. The DSWD also continuously implements a 24-hour temporary shelter and care for girls and boys with disabilities and operates centers providing vocational rehabilitation training programs. 43. For 2018, Php9,9 million (US$187 thousand) was allocated for the purchase of assistive devices, conduct of capacity-building activities, quarterly meetings of the Regional Committee on Disability Affairs and other related activities/events, such as the nationwide observance of the National Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation Week. 15. On providing for the full enjoyment of human rights by children with disabilities, including by ensuring that they are not subjected to drug trafficking, forced labour and child prostitution. 44. Under the Children’s Emergency Relief and Protection Act (CERPA) of 2016, the State formulated a Comprehensive Emergency Program for Children (CEPC), a guide in the implementation of CERPA and its IRR. The CEPC provides inclusive, gender and culture-sensitive standards and protocols in handling disasters and other emergency situations to protect, among others, children with special needs. Also, through the CEPC, law enforcement agencies are mandated to monitor and ensure the safety and security of affected children. All government agencies, LGUs, as well as CSOs are likewise required to adopt child protection policies to deter and effectively respond to cases of violence, abuse and exploitation of children. 14 CRPD/C/PHL/Q/1
45. The State, through the DSWD’s Pantawid
Year female male, 46. since 2014, the state has certified 343 barangays.
3 HELP ME stands for H-Health E-Education and Training L-Livelihood P-Prevention, Protection and Prosecution and ME- Monitoring and Evaluation 15 CRPD/C/PHL/Q/1
51. In 2016, the State, through the DOLE’s National
Enhance understanding of the principles of the, philippines (nbcp), and other referral codes (i.e.,, guides the establishment, implementation, monitoring,.
Situations of risk and humanitarian emergencies
Can avail the services of a competent counsel of choice..
needed. The NCDA provides for list of sign language
Freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or
Such time that they are fully adjusted with their, • development and strengthening of community-, themselves for a better future by providing them with, education (art. 24).
87. The State, through the NCDA, has given technical support and acted as resource institution in projects spearheaded by the Save the Children and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), particularly for Project KASALI. 88. The State, through the DepEd, protects and promotes the fundamental right of all Filipinos to quality basic education to facilitate the realization of their full potential and their meaningful participation in nation-building. This right recognizes the principle of inclusive education as it promotes institutional sensitivity and responsiveness to the nature, situation, and realities faced by learners and directs the DepEd to proactively address these concerns through the curriculum and other relevant interventions. 89. The institutionalization of inclusive education is articulated in the strategic direction of the DepEd under the Duterte administration wherein every school should serve as a “one-stop shop” that can provide educational interventions or programs to diverse learners. Further, policy support for these programs is in place to ensure provision of appropriate resources. Continuous human resource development programs and activities are also implemented to ensure the readiness and awareness of all teaching and non-teaching personnel in relation to inclusive education. The following are the DepEd’s policies and programs that implement inclusive education for learners with disabilities: • DepEd Order 26 (s. 1997), on the “Institutionalization of SPED Programs in All Schools”; • DepEd Order 72 (s. 2009), on “Inclusive Education as Strategy for Increasing Participation Rate of Children”; • DepEd Order 50 (s. 2010), on “Strengthening Special Education Program at the Basic Education Level”; • DepEd Order 58 (s. 2010), on “Implementing Guidelines for Alternative Learning System (ALS) Programs”; • DepEd Order 77 (s. 2011), on “Moving the Disability Agenda Forward”; • DepEd Order 54 (s. 2012), on “Policy Guidelines on the Implementation of Alternative Delivery Modes (ADMs)”; • DepEd Order 58 (s. 2012), on the “Revised Implementing Guidelines on the Provision of Teaching Aid and Transportation Allowances to ALS Mobile Teachers and District Alternative Learning System Coordinators (DALSCs)”; • DepEd Order 59 (s. 2012), on the “Revised Implementing Guidelines on the Selection and Hiring of ALS Literacy Volunteers”; • DepEd Order 77 (s. 2012), on the “Amended Guidelines for the ALS Unified Contracting Scheme”; • DepEd Order 46 (s. 2014), on the “Guidelines on the Implementation of the ALS for PWDs Program”; • DepEd Order 38 (s. 2015), on the “Guidelines on the Utilization of Support Funds for the SPED Program”; • DepEd Order 46 (s. 2017), on the “Framework for the Pilot Implementation of the Alternative Learning System-Education and Skills Training” • DepEd Order 58 (s. 2017), on the “Adoption of New School Forms for Kindergarten, Senior High School, Alternative Learning System, Health and Nutrition and Standardization of Permanent Records”; and • DepEd Order 63 (s. 2017), on the “Implementing Guidelines on the Utilization of Support to Operations Fund for Regional Offices for Mapping and Monitoring Activities of the ALS for Calendar Year 2017” 90. The School Health Division of the DepEd’s Bureau of Learner Support Services safeguards the health and nutritional well-being of learners through a comprehensive and
integrated School Health Services which includes programs covering school-based feeding, school health nursing, and medical and dental health. 91. Please refer to related information in Item 19.
Health (art. 25)
Habilitation and rehabilitation (art. 26).
102. In addition, RA 7277, as amended by RA No. 9422, granted additional privileges
Work and employment (art. 27).
4 Republic Act No. 6727 (An Act to Rationalize Wage Policy Determination by Establishing the Mechanism and Proper Standards Therefor, amending for the purpose Article 99 of, and incorporating Articles 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126 and 127 into, Presidential Decree No. 442, as amended, otherwise known as the Labor Code of the Philippines, fixing new wage rates, providing wage incentives for industrial dispersal to the countryside, and for other purposes) 5 http://www.nwcp.dole.gov.ph/pages/statistics/stat_current_regional.html. 29 CRPD/C/PHL/Q/1
Wage Order No. / Non- Planta-
110. To date, disaggregated data on the earnings of workers with disabilities vis-à-vis the national average are unavailable, but are included in the computation of the national average. Given this, the following table shows the average daily basic pay of wage and salary workers by major industry group from 2015-2016:
MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUP 2015 2016 2017
Ave ave jan.
37. On the effectiveness of the 5-percent quota system for employment as it applies to different types of impairment, together with data on the employment/unemployment of PWD disaggregated by sex, age, ethnicity, type of disability and educational level. 111. The 5% quota system for employment of PWD stipulated in the Magna Carta for PWD has been amended by RA No. 105246 where Section 5 now reads as: “At least one percent (1%) of all positions in all government agencies, offices or corporations shall be reserved for persons with disability; provided, that private corporations with more than one hundred (100) employees are encouraged to reserve at least one percent (1%) of all positions for persons with disability.” 112. As of August 2017, there were 7,250 PWD (3,973 males and 3,277 females) in the ranks of the 2.42 million personnel in the Philippine bureaucracy. 113. Based on the online Inventory of Government Human Resources (IGHR) of the State’s Civil Service Commission (CSC), the following are the number of PWD in government service disaggregated by: (a) geographical distribution; and, (b) sex, as of 31 August 2017:
6 An Act Expanding the Positions Reserved for Persons with Disability, amending for the purpose Republic Act No. 7277, as amended, otherwise known as the Magna Carta for Persons with Disability 31 CRPD/C/PHL/Q/1
Region Male Female Total
1 157 138 295.
114. The CSC is enhancing the IGHR to enable the system to reflect more information on government human resources, including PWD workers. 115. The CSC likewise recognizes the benefits and privileges that PWD enjoy under the Magna Carta for PWD, which includes equitable opportunities to join the government service. The CSC adopted PWD-focused policies, such as (a) CSC MC 20, on requiring government agencies to provide express lanes for persons with disabilities, and (b) CSC MC 31 (s. 2017) on categories of examinees and administration of Civil Service Examinations to PWD. 116. As of June 2016, the private sector employed 3,504 PWD out of the estimated 4.38 million establishments employing 20 or more workers across the three major industries, distributed accordingly as follows: service sector (56%), industry (42%), and agriculture (2%).7 117. Incentives are also provided to private corporations which employ PWD, entitling the former to additional deductions from their gross income, equivalent to 25% of the total amount paid as salaries and wages to PWD, subject to necessary clearances and certifications from national government agencies.
Adequate standard of living and social protection (art. 28)
7 https://www.psa.gov.ph/content/20152016-integrated-survey-labor-and-employment-part-i-modules- employment-occupational 32 CRPD/C/PHL/Q/1
39. On the implementation of the 2006 National Policy and Plan of Action on Disability and the Poverty Alleviation Fund as they ensure a decent standard of living for PWD, and, with reference to paragraph 196 of the State party’s report, on addressing the high percentage of PWD living in poverty. 119. The current PDP focuses on reducing poverty incidence from 21.6 to 14% by 2022. To help further empower PWD, RA 10754 (s. 2016) was passed expanding the benefits and privileges of PWD. The Act provides for at least 20% discount and exemption from the value-added tax, if applicable, on a list of goods and services for the exclusive use and enjoyment of PWD. 120. All State development programs, which intend to alleviate poverty and assist poor Filipinos also cover PWD. These include the following: (a) Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps). This anti-poverty program’s twin objectives are the provision of social assistance through conditional cash transfer for the immediate needs of the family, and social development to break the inter-generational poverty through human capital investment. As of 31 December 2017, the 4Ps has been implemented in 144 cities and 1,483 municipalities in 80 provinces, for a total of 4,394,813 active household-beneficiaries or 99.83% of the year's target of 4,402,253 households. Of this figure, 4,164,788 households were covered by the regular Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program, while 230,065 households were covered by the Modified Conditional Cash Transfer (MCCT). The MCCT includes beneficiaries who are not covered under the regular CCT, such as victims of natural and man-made disasters rendered homeless and with no means of livelihood, homeless street families and IP households in geographically isolated and disadvantaged areas. (b) Sustainable Livelihood Program (SLP). The SLP aims to provide sustainable income source to improve the socioeconomic capacity of beneficiaries. It operates on a 2- track system in which participants, after going through social preparation and capacity- building workshops, are given the option to take either the Microenterprise Development track or the Employment Facilitation track, and assistance is extended based on the chosen tracks. Further trainings, as well as monitoring and evaluation, are conducted during the program’s implementation. From 2011-2017, the SLP served 1,764,255 households out of the 1,731,714 target households. From the total households served, some 1,469,364 were 4Ps household- beneficiaries, or 84.9% of the total 2011-2017 target households. Of the 134,923 households served from January 2017 to November 2017, some 36,280 were Employment Facilitation Track beneficiaries. (c) DOLE Integrated Livelihood Program (DILP). The DILP provides the following support services: (a) working capital for the purchase of raw materials and equipment and tools; (b) training on setting-up and operating livelihood undertakings; (c) enrolment in Group Personal Accident Insurance under the Government Service Insurance System; and, (d) continuing technical and business advisory services to beneficiaries. From 2014 to 2017, some 6,846 PWD have benefitted from the program. (d) Automatic PhilHealth coverage of all indigent Filipinos. Poor families identified through the DSWD’s Listahanan (list of indigents generated through the NHTS- PR) are entitled to benefits under the National Health Insurance Program. In 2017, a total of 32,030,297 poor Filipinos were enrolled in PhilHealth through this initiative. During the same year, 93 percent of the projected Philippine population had PhilHealth coverage. (e) Vocational Rehabilitation Centers managed by the DSWD. These centers train PWD achieve the highest level of physical, mental, social, and economic sufficiency within the bounds of their capacities and limitations. The program includes social rehabilitation, vocational rehabilitation, on-the-job training, and school placement. The DSWD also provides gratuity to trainees with disabilities to subsidize transportation expenses, meals, training materials and other related expenses while on training.
Participation in political and public life (art. 29)
Participation in cultural life, recreation, leisure and sport (art. 30)
C. specific obligations (arts. 31–33), statistics and data collection (art. 31), international cooperation (art. 32), especially through their organizations, is essential to the state’s effective fulfilment of, national implementation and monitoring (art. 33).
136. On the other hand, the State’s National Anti-Poverty Commission has a sectoral council for PWD with members voted upon by PWD organizations in a national assembly and appointed by the President of the Republic of the Philippines. 137. Finally, pursuant to AO No. 163 (s. 2006), the Presidential Human Rights Committee was strengthened of its mandate as the primary advisory body to the President in effectively addressing all human rights/ issues in the country. Said Committee, through its Secretariat, coordinates with all concerned Executive agencies as well as non- government oganizations and civil society to ensure the State’s compliance with international human rights treaties to which it is a State party, such as the CRPD.