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How to Cite an Article Inside of a Book
Last Updated: February 7, 2023 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 262,450 times. Learn more...
Generally, when you use an article or essay published in a book as a source, you list the author and title of the article first. The title and editor of the book, along with publishing information, will make up the rest of your citation. The specific format of your citation varies depending on whether you're using the Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), or Chicago style.
- Example: Charry, Eric.
- Example: Charry, Eric. "Music and Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa."
- Example: Charry, Eric. "Music and Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa." The History of Islam in Africa , edited by Nehwmia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels.
- A standard MLA citation includes: Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Book , edited by First Name Last Name. Publisher, year, pp. ##-##.
- Example: Charry, Eric. "Music and Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa." The History of Islam in Africa , edited by Nehwmia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels. Ohio University Press, 2000, pp. 545-573.
- Example: "When communities converted to Islam, many traditional songs were changed to incorporate references to the religion (Charry 546)."
- If you use the author's name in the text of your paper, you don't have to include it in the parenthetical citation. For example: "According to Charry, communities incorporated references to Islam in traditional songs after converting to the religion (546).
- Example: Berry, W.
- Example: Berry, W. (2005).
- Example: Berry, W. (2005). War does not maintain peace or promote freedom.
- Example: Berry, W. (2005). War does not maintain peace or promote freedom. In L. I. Gerdes (Ed.),
- Example: Berry, W. (2005). War does not maintain peace or promote freedom. In L. I. Gerdes (Ed.), War: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 71-79).
- A standard APA reference includes: Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Article or essay title. In First Initial Last Name (Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (pp. ##-##). Place of publication: Publisher.
- Example: Berry, W. (2005). War does not maintain peace or promote freedom. In L. I. Gerdes (Ed.), War: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 71-79). Detroit, MI: Greenhouse Press.
- Example: "When nations go to war to defend freedom, their citizens become less free (Berry, 2005)."
- If you include the name of the author in your text, you don't have to include it in your parenthetical citation. Place a parenthetical with the year immediately after the author's name. For example: "Berry (2005) argued that the process of militarization reduces freedom to the extent that war and freedom are incompatible.
- Example: Andriewsky, Olga.
- Example: Andriewsky, Olga. "The Paradoxes of Reform: Higher Education in Post-Soviet Ukraine."
- Example: Andriewsky, Olga. "The Paradoxes of Reform: Higher Education in Post-Soviet Ukraine." In Society in Transition: Social Change in Ukraine in Western Perspectives , edited by Wsevolod Isajiw, 239-268.
- A standard Chicago bibliography entry includes: Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." In Book Title , edited by First Name Last Name, ##-##. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.
- Example: Andriewsky, Olga. "The Paradoxes of Reform: Higher Education in Post-Soviet Ukraine." In Society in Transition: Social Change in Ukraine in Western Perspectives , edited by Wsevolod Isajiw, 239-268. Toronto, CA: Canadian Scholars' Press, 2003.
- In Chicago style, the information included in the footnote does not change if you mention the author's name, or any other citation information, in the text of your paper.
- Standard Chicago footnotes include: First Name Last Name, "Article Title," in Book Title , edited by First Name Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), ##.
- Example: Olga Andriewsky, "The Paradoxes of Reform: Higher Education in Post-Soviet Ukraine," in Society in Transition: Social Change in Ukraine in Western Perspectives , edited by Wsevolod Isajiw (Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press, 2003), 255.
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- ↑ https://uscmed.sc.libguides.com/c.php?g=484371&p=3313032
- ↑ https://utica.libguides.com/c.php?g=703243&p=4991646
- ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/reference-guide.pdf
- ↑ https://guides.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/APA/book-chapter
- ↑ https://libguides.tru.ca/chicago/book-chapter
- ↑ http://libguides.heidelberg.edu/chicago/book/chapter
About This Article
To cite an article inside of a book using MLA format, start by writing the author's last name, then add a comma. Next, write their first name and add a period. In quotation marks, enclose the title of the article you are citing, followed by a period. Then, in italics, write the name of the book, add a comma, write "edited by," and include the name of the editor. After a period, conclude with the name of the book's publisher, along with the year and the relevant page numbers, separated by commas. Alternatively, if you want to do an in-text citation, provide the author's name and page number in parentheses at the end of the line, before the period. For more advice, like how to cite an article inside of a book in APA format, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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MLA 8 Citation Guide
- TITLE of SOURCE
- TITLE of CONTAINER
- OTHER CONTRIBUTORS
- PUBLICATION DATE
- Works Cited
- Journal Article with One Author
- Journal Article with 2 Authors
- Journal Article with 3 or more Authors
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- One Author or Editor
- Two Authors or Editors
- Three or More Authors
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
- Article in a Reference Book
- Reference Work
- Basic Web Page
- Entry in a Reference Work
- Government or Agency Document
- YouTube Video
- Electronic Image
- Figures and Charts
- Class Lecture/Notes
- Secondary Sources
MLA Works Cited Page: Books
Ask Us 24/7
Online help is available anytime via our AskUs 24/7 chat service:
Works Cited List:
Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection , edited by Editor Name(s). Publisher, Year, pp Page range of entry.
Lawrence, James. A., and Alfred Dodds. "Goal-Directed Activities and Life-Span Development.” Handbook of Developmental Psychology, edited by John Valsiner and Kare Connolly. Heinemann, 2000, pp. 24-34.
(Author Surname [of Chapter or Article] page number)
(Lawrence and Dodds 26)
Works Cited List
Jans, Nick. The Last Light Breaking: Life among Alaska's Inupiat Eskimos . Alaska Northwest Books, 1993.
Miller, John, and Tim Smith, editors. Cape Cod Stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard . Chronicle Books, 1996.
Please see the sample citation for a chapter or article in an anthology below for information on citing a component of an edited collection.
Numbered edition other than the first
Wardle, Elizabeth, and Doug Downs, editors. Writing About Writing: A College Reader . 2nd ed., Bedford/St. Martin's, 2014.
Culliney, John L. Islands in a Far Sea: The Fate of Nature in Hawai'i . Rev. ed., U of Hawai'i P, 2006.
Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington . Princeton UP, 1962-63. 2 vols.
In-text citation: (Green 1: 112-14) "1" is the volume number.
- << Previous: Three or More Authors
- Next: Article in a Reference Book >>
- Last Updated: Sep 18, 2023 4:37 PM
- URL: https://utica.libguides.com/mla
Thursday, February 23: The Clark Library is closed today.
MLA Style (9th Edition) Citation Guide: Books & Ebooks
- Introduction to MLA Style
- Journal Articles
- Magazine/Newspaper Articles
- Books & Ebooks
- Government & Legal Documents
- Biblical Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Videos/DVDs/TV Shows
- How to Cite: Other
- 9th Edition Updates
- Additional Help
Table of Contents
Book in print, book with editor(s) but no author, translated book, chapters, short stories, essays, or articles from a book (anthology or collection), an introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword, article in a reference book (e.g. encyclopedias, dictionaries).
Note: For your Works Cited list, all citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent.
A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.
An author can be a person but can also be an organization, or company. These are called group or corporate authors.
If you are citing a chapter from a book that has an editor, the author of the chapter is listed first, and is the name listed in the in-text citation.
Capitalize the first letter of every important word in the title. You do not need to capitalize words such as: in, of, or an.
If there is a colon (:) in the title, include what comes after the colon (also known as the subtitle).
You have the option to use the shortened name of the publisher by abbreviating "University" and "Press" (e.g. Oxford UP, not Oxford University Press).
You also have the option to remove articles (A, An, The), business abbreviations (e.g. Co., Inc.) and descriptive words (e.g. Books, House, Press, Publishers).
The format of all dates is: Date Month (shortened) Year. e.g. 5 Sept. 2012.
Whether to give the year alone or include a month and day depends on your source: write the full date as you find it there.
If no date is listed, omit it unless you can find that information available in a reliable source. In that case the date is cited in square brackets. e.g. 
Page number on your Works Cited page (but not for in-text citations) are now proceeded by p. for a single page number and pp. for a range of page numbers. E.g. p. 156 or pp. 79-92.
Date of access is optional in MLA 8th/9th edition; it is recommended for pages that may change frequently or that do not have a copyright/publication date.
Last Name, First Name. Title of Book . City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
Note : The city of publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown in North America.
Works Cited List Example:
Kurlansky, Mark. Salt: A World History . Walker, 2002.
In-Text Citation Example:
(Author's Last Name Page Number)
Example: (Kurlansky 10)
Last Name, First Name of First Author, and First Name Last Name of Second Author. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication.
Note: Only the first author listed appears in "Last Name, First Name" format. Authors' names are separated by a comma. Before the last author to be listed, add the word "and."
Jacobson, Diane L., and Robert Kysar. A Beginner's Guide to the Books of the Bible, Augsburg, 1991.
(Author's Last Name and Author's Last Name Page Number)
Example: (Jacobson and Kysar 25)
Three or More Authors
Last Name, First Name of First Author, et al. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication.
Note: If you have three or more authors list only the first author's name followed by et al. instead of listing all authors names. For example Smith, John, et al. The first author is the first name listed on the work you are citing, not the first name alphabetically.
Nickels, William, et al. Understanding Business. 9th ed., McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2016.
(First Author's Last Name et al. Page Number)
Example: (Nickels et al. 5)
eBook from a Library Database
Last Name, First Name of First Author, et al. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication. Name of eBook Database, doi:DOI number/URL/Permalink.
Calhoun, Craig. Sociology in America: A History . U of Chicago P, 2008. ProQuest Ebook Central , ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/up/detail.action?docID=408466&pq-origsite=primo.
(Author's Last Name Page Number)
Example: (Calhoun 53)
eBook for Kindle or other eBook Reader
Note: The MLA uses the term "eBook" to refer to publications formatted specifically for reading with an eBook reader device (e.g., a Kindle) or a corresponding web application, which will not have URLs or DOIs. Citations will be very similar to physical book citations; just add the word "eBook" in the "version" slot of the MLA template (i.e., after the author, the title of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors).
Silva, Paul J. How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing , eBook, American Psychological Association, 2007.
Example: (Silva 30)
Note : When no page numbers are listed on an eBook, cite the chapter number instead in your in-text citation. Example: (Smith ch. 2).
Last Name of editor, First Name, editor(s). Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of Publication.
Wolfteich, Claire E., editor. Invitation to Practical Theology: Catholic Voices and Visions . Paulist, 2014.
(Last name page number)
Example: (Wolfteich 103)
(More than one editor)
Kidwell, Jeremy, and Sean Doherty, editors. Theology and Economics: A Christian Vision of the Common Good. eBook, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
(Last name page number)
Example: (Kidwell and Doherty 103)
If you want to emphasize the work rather than the translator, cite as you would any other book. Add “translated by” and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s).
Boitani, Piero. The Bible and Its Rewritings . Translated by Anita Weston, Oxford UP, 1999.
Example: (Boitani 89)
Augustine. The Confessions of St. Augustine . Translated by Edward Bouverie Pusey, eBook, Floating Press, 1921.
Example: (Augustine 65)
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Short Story, Essay, or Article." Title of Book: Subtitle if Any, edited by Editor's First Name and Last Name, Edition if given and is not first, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication, Page numbers of the essay, article, or short story.
Boys, Mary C. “Learning in the Presence of the Other: Feminisms and the Interreligious Encounter.” Faith and Feminism: Ecumenical Essays , edited by Diane B. Lipsett, Westminster John Knox Press, 2014, pp. 103-114.
Note: The first author's name listed is the author of the chapter/essay/short story.
Note: If there is no editor given you may leave out that part of the citation.
Example: (Boys 110)
When citing an introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword, write the name of the author(s) of the piece you are citing. Then give the name of the part being cited, which should not be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks; in italics, provide the name of the work and the name of the author of the introduction/preface/foreword/afterword. Finish the citation with the details of publication and page range.
Farrell, Thomas B. Introduction. Norms of Rhetorical Culture , by Farrell, Yale UP, 1993, pp. 1-13.
If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work, then write the full name of the principal work's author after the word "By." For example, if you were to cite Hugh Dalziel Duncan’s introduction of Kenneth Burke’s book Permanence and Change, you would write the entry as follows:
Duncan, Hugh Dalziel. Introduction. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose, by Kenneth Burke, 1935, 3rd ed., U of California P, 1984, pp. xiii-xliv.
For entries in encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference works, cite the entry name as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information. Also, if the reference book is organized alphabetically, as most are, do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item.
"Ideology." The American Heritage Dictionary , 3rd ed., Dell, 1997, p. 369.
Online Reference book
Isaacson, Joel. "Monet, Claude." Grove Art Online , Oxford Art Online , www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T059077.
- << Previous: Magazine/Newspaper Articles
- Next: Government & Legal Documents >>
- Last Updated: Nov 22, 2023 3:29 PM
- URL: https://libguides.up.edu/mla
How to cite a book.
To create a basic works-cited-list entry for a book, list the author, the title, the publisher, and the publication date. You may need to include other elements depending on the type of book you are citing (e.g., an edited book, a translation) and how it is published (e.g., in print, as an e-book, online). Below are sample entries for books along with links to posts containing many other examples.
Book by One Author
Mantel, Hilary. Wolf Hall . Picador, 2010.
Book by an Unknown Author
Beowulf . Translated by Alan Sullivan and Timothy Murphy, edited by Sarah Anderson, Pearson, 2004.
An Edited Book
Sánchez Prado, Ignacio M., editor. Mexican Literature in Theory . Bloomsbury, 2018.
- Next Example
MLA Citation Examples
- Volume and Issue Numbers
- Page Numbers
- Citing a Source within a Source
Citing a source within a source
- DOIs and URLs
- In-Text Citations
- Academic Journals
- Encyclopedia Articles
- Book, Film, and Product Reviews
- Online Classroom Materials
- Conference Papers
- Technical and Research Reports
- Dissertations and Theses
- Interviews and E-mail Messages
Scenario: You read an article by Robbins that on page 270 cites another article by Wills. You want to cite Will's article, but you have not read Wills's article itself.
Works cited list
Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology , vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR , https://doi.org/10.1086/663233.
Your Works Cited list will contain the article you read, by Robbins. Your Works Cited list will NOT contain a citation for Wills's article.
- Wills (qtd. in Robbins 270) notes that... Use the abbreviation "qtd. in" for "quoted in" at the beginning of the in-text citation. This will give credit to Wills and show the source in which you found Wills's idea.
Note: Whenever you can, take materials from the original and not a secondhand source.
- << Previous: Page Numbers
- Next: DOIs and URLs >>
- Last Updated: Nov 2, 2023 12:31 PM
- URL: https://libguides.umgc.edu/mla-examples
Penn State University Libraries
Mla quick citation guide.
- In-text Citation
- Citing Generative AI
- Citing Web Pages and Social Media
- Citing Articles
- Citing Books
- Other formats
- MLA Style Quiz
The 9th edition of the MLA Handbook recommends using the following core elements in every citation. If elements are missing from the source, they should be omitted from the citation.
Author. Title of source. Title of container, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date Location.
For information on citing books see the MLA Style Center.
Rollin, Bernard E. Science and Ethics. Cambridge UP, 2006.
Book by a group author:
American Medical Association. American Medical Association Family Medical Guide, 4th edition, Wiley, 2004.
Article or chapter within an edited book:
Winne, Philip H. “Self-regulated Learning Viewed from Models of Information Processing.” Self-regulated Learning and Academic Achievement, edited by Barry J. Zimmerman and Dale H. Schunk, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001, pp. 153-190.
Tolstoy, Leo. War and Peace. Translated by Anthony Briggs, Viking, 2006.
Tetlock, Phillip E., and Dan Gardner. Superforecasting: The Art and Science of Prediction. E-book ed., Crown, 2015.
Note: For more information on citing e-books see the MLA Style Center.
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- Next: Other formats >>
- Last Updated: Apr 11, 2023 1:55 PM
- URL: https://guides.libraries.psu.edu/mlacitation
Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to Cite a Book Chapter in MLA
How to Cite a Book Chapter in MLA
This page is a how-to guide for using individual book chapters as sources and citing them correctly in your papers. This guide will help you determine when to cite a chapter separately and teach you how to cite a chapter both in the text of your paper and in the Works Cited page.
The information below follows the guidelines of the MLA Handbook , 9th Edition, but it is not associated with the Modern Language Association.
Table of Contents
Why you need to cite sources.
- When to Cite a Chapter
Works cited citations/references.
- Core elements of MLA citations
- Note on containers
Chapter/Article in an Edited Book
Chapter in an anthology/compilation/reference.
- Chapter in an Encyclopedia or Multi-volume set
To write successful papers, you need to do research on your topic, and you include that research in your papers using citations. Citing a source in your paper means that you are using other people’s expertise to support your ideas. You “borrow” the credibility of these experts to increase your own credibility as a researcher. According to the Modern Language Association’s Handbook , “By giving credit to the precursors whose ideas they work with, scholars allow future researchers interested in the history of a conversation to trace the line of inquiry back to its beginning” (95).
In other words, when you cite sources properly, you are establishing and demonstrating your credibility as a researcher, and you ensure that you are not plagiarizing the material. This improves your writing and makes it more persuasive. The citations also allow readers to distinguish the information found in sources from your original thoughts on the topic.
When to Cite a Chapter
The main reason writers will cite a chapter of a book instead of the whole book is when the chapter is written by an author(s) different from the book’s editor(s). An editor compiles a selection of articles written by other experts in the field.
If the author of the book wrote all of the chapters, you do not need to cite the chapters separately even if the chapters have names, and can instead use the standard format for citing a book in MLA . You should, however, include page numbers.
How to Cite a Chapter in a Paper
You can use information from your research in three ways:
- Paraphrase – Take the information from a specific sentence, paragraph, or section of the chapter and rewrite it in your own words.
- Summarize – Take a larger view of the section or the chapter and rewrite it in your own words.
- Quote – Use the exact words written by the author and enclose the words in quotation marks.
With all the above methods of citing research in your paper, you need to follow that information with an in-text citation and create a corresponding reference for the source on the Works Cited page.
Creating correct in-text citations within your text are important. Each in-text citation
- Alerts your reader that you are using information from an outside source.
- Usually appears in parentheses at the end of a sentence.
- Is short and only has enough information to help the reader find the complete reference listed in the Works Cited page at the end of the paper.
An in-text citation in the Modern Language Association (MLA) style has two parts (227-228):
- Name of the author or authors
- While many online sources do not have a page number, academic journals almost always do, even when they are available online.
In most cases, the in-text citation is at the end of the sentence in parentheses. When you cite the author’s name in your text, you don’t have to repeat it in the parentheses at the end. Do not separate the author’s name and the page number with a comma. See below for examples.
In-text citations are helpful, but they do not give a lot of information on the source. That’s where your works cited citations come in handy. The works cited citations are designed to provide enough information so that your reader can find the original source, if needed. Every full citation follows the core elements outlined below.
Core Elements of MLA Citations
The outline for any MLA citation follows this format. Please note the punctuation at the end of each section.
Note on Containers
The 9th edition of the official Handbook uses a term for citing references that was first introduced in the 8th edition: c ontainers .
In books that have individual chapters written by different authors, the book is considered the container because it contains parts of a larger whole. The title of the first container, the book name, is printed in italics and follows the chapter name.
When accessing book chapters through a database, the database is considered the second container. This title is also printed in italics.
Below, let’s look at how to cite different types of chapters.
An edited book contains chapters that are written by authors different from the editor. When citing from a book that has been edited by someone other than the writer of the chapter, the chapter writer’s name is cited first, followed by the title of the chapter. The chapter is the source article, and the book is the first container. The editor’s name follows the name of the book.
Example citations for a chapter in an edited print book
Cite your source
Example citations for the same chapter accessed through an online source/database
Anthologies or compilations are collected works of literature such as poems or stories. An anthology can contain a selection of work from one author or from many authors. The editor of the book chooses the pieces to include and usually writes a foreword or introduction. When citing work from an anthology or compilation, the original creator of the work is listed first, followed by the title of the piece. The anthology is the first container and is listed in italics after the name of the individual piece. The editor’s name follows the name of the book.
Example of citations from a chapter in an anthology
Chapter in an Encyclopedia or Multivolume Set
Encyclopedias are reference works that provide summaries of information from all branches of knowledge or all branches of knowledge in a particular field. Entries in an encyclopedia often have a title, but no author listed. When citing a section of an encyclopedia, the section or chapter name is listed first. The name of the encyclopedia is the first container. The publisher of the encyclopedia follows its name.
Encyclopedia sections often do not have author names. If no author is listed, start the citation with the section name. Online sources will also not have page numbers, so omit them as well.
Examples of citations from an encyclopedia
Multivolume sets can have one title for the entire set and may have individual titles for each volume. When citing these sources, cite the title of the entire multi-volume set followed by the volume number.
Example of citations from a multivolume work
Books that are edited or are part of an anthology or compilation often have additional sections that are written by the book’s editor or another writer. These pieces can be an introduction, a preface, or a foreword, which is at the beginning of the book, or an afterword, which is at the end. When citing information from one of these sections, the writer of that section is listed first, followed by the name of the section (Introduction, Preface, etc.). This section name is not enclosed in quotation marks. The title of the book is the first container, and it is listed in italics after the section name. The editor’s name follows the name of the book.
Examples of Citations from an Introduction/Preface/Foreword/Afterword
MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.
Published October 31, 2011. Updated June 19, 2021.
Written by Catherine Sigler . Catherine has a Ph.D. in English Education and has taught college-level writing for 15 years.
MLA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Page Numbers
- Sample Paper
- Works Cited
- MLA 8 Updates
- MLA 9 Updates
- View MLA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all MLA Examples
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It’s 100% free to create MLA citations. The EasyBib Citation Generator also supports 7,000+ other citation styles. These other styles—including APA, Chicago, and Harvard—are accessible for anyone with an EasyBib Plus subscription.
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Yes, there’s an option to download source citations as a Word Doc or a Google Doc. You may also copy citations from the EasyBib Citation Generator and paste them into your paper.
Creating an account is not a requirement for generating MLA citations. However, registering for an EasyBib account is free and an account is how you can save all the citation you create. This can help make it easier to manage your citations and bibliographies.
Yes! Whether you’d like to learn how to construct citations on your own, our Autocite tool isn’t able to gather the metadata you need, or anything in between, manual citations are always an option. Click here for directions on using creating manual citations.
If any important information is missing (e.g., author’s name, title, publishing date, URL, etc.), first see if you can find it in the source yourself. If you cannot, leave the information blank and continue creating your citation.
It supports MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, and over 7,000 total citation styles.
To cite a book chapter in MLA style with an editor and/or a translator, you need to have basic information including the authors, chapter title, editors and/or translators, publication year, book title, publisher, and page numbers. The templates for in-text citations and a works-cited-list entry of a book chapter (edited and translated) and examples are given below:
In-text citation template and example:
For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the author on the first occurrence. For subsequent citations, use only the surname. In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the author(s).
Citation in prose:
First mention: Chris Rojek states that ….
Subsequent occurrences: Rojek confirms ….
Works-cited-list entry template and example:
Enclose the chapter title in double quotation marks and use title case. The title of the book is given in italics and title case.
Surname, First Name. “Title of the Chapter.” Title of the Book , edited and translated by Name of the Editor(s)/Translator(s), Publisher, Publication Date, page range.
Rojek, Chris. “Indexing, Dragging and the Social Construction of Tourist Sights.” Touring Cultures: Transformations of Travel and Theory , edited and translated by Chris Rojek and John Urry, Routledge, 1997, pp. 52–74.
To cite a chapter in an edited book in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the authors, chapter title (unique title and/or generic label), editors, publication year, book title, publisher, and page numbers. The templates for in-text citations and works-cited-list entries for a chapter in an edited book written by a single author and some examples are given below:
First mention: Gayatri Gopinath ….
Subsequent occurrences: Gopinath ….
Include the unique chapter title in title case and enclose it in double quotation marks. If the chapter does not have a unique title and instead uses a generic label, do not enclose it in quotation marks.
Include the book title in title case and in italics.
Surname, First Name. Generic Label. Title of the Book , edited by Editor(s) Name, Publisher, Publication Date, page range.
Surname, First Name. “Unique Chapter Title.” Title of the Book , edited by Editor(s) Name, Publisher, Publication Date, page range.
Surname, First Name. “Unique Chapter Title.” Generic Label. Title of the Book , edited by Editor(s) Name, Publisher, Publication Date, page range.
Notice that the last template uses a chapter with both a unique chapter title and a generic label. In this case, use the unique chapter title first and enclose it in double quotation marks and follow it with the generic label (as shown in the third example below).
Gopinath, Gayatri. Introduction. Political Emotions , edited by Ann Cvetkovich et al., Routledge, 2010, pp. 167–92.
Gopinath, Gayatri. “Archive, Affect, and the Everyday: Queer Diasporic Re-Visions.” Political Emotions , edited by Ann Cvetkovich et al., Routledge, 2010, pp. 167–92.
Gopinath, Gayatri. “Archive, Affect, and the Everyday: Queer Diasporic Re-Visions.” Introduction. Political Emotions , edited by Ann Cvetkovich et al., Routledge, 2010, pp. 167–92.
MLA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
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MLA Citation Style Guide: Article in a Reference Book
- Parenthetical Citations
- Works Cited
- Journal Article from an Online Periodical
- Journal Article from an Online Database
- Magazine Article
- Magazine Article from a Database
- Newspaper Article
- Newspaper Article from a Database
- Newspaper Article from a Website
- Two or Three Authors
- More Than Three Authors
- Anthology, Compilation, or Edited Book
- Corporate Author
- Book with No Author
- Article in a Reference Book
- Multivolume Work
- Basic Web Page
- Document from a Web Site
- Listserv, Blog, or Tweet
- Audiovisual Media
- Images and Art
- Indirect Source
- Government Publication
Article in a Reference Book (p.160-161)
When citing articles in a reference book, you generally follow the same format as you would for a work in an anthology.
However, you do not need to supply full publication information for well-known reference books in your Works Cited list. Instead, you need only include the edition, publication year, and medium (see general format 2 and example 2 ).
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Cite a Book in MLA
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Citing books in mla.
How do you cite a book? What information do you need to include and where does it go? Citation Machine citing tools can help you easily create formatted citations for your research paper.
First, find your book using the search box above. The book’s author, title, or ISBN will work. If there are books with similar titles, authors, different editions, etc., you will be shown all possibilities, so you can choose the correct book. From there, the citing tools will automatically pull information on the source and help you create a citation.
Books aren’t just in print. They can be electronic, too. You can find them in online databases, websites, audiobooks, and other forms of media. Citation Machine citing tools can handle those, as well.
Standard book citation:
Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. Scholastic, 2008.
Translated works in MLA format:
If the focus was on the text, rather than the actual translation, cite the source like this:
Vila-Matas, Enrique. Never Any End to Paris. Translated by Anne McLean, New Directions, 2011.
If the focus was on the translation, include the translator’s name first in the citation.
McLean, Anne, translator. Never Any End to Paris. By Enrique Vila-Matas, New Directions, 2011.
Wish you had an automatic MLA citation generator to do all of the heavy lifting for you? Try out our generator, at the top of this page.
How to cite a textbook in print:
To cite a full textbook in print in MLA format, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information:
- Name of the author(s) or editor(s)
- Title of the textbook, including any subtitles
- Version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition)
- Name of the publisher
- Year the textbook was published
Place the pieces of information in this format:
Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. Title of the Textbook. Version, Publisher, Year published.
If the textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at the beginning of the citation:
Last name, First name, editor.
Examples of how to cite a textbook in print:
Lilly, Leonard S. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: Review and Assessment . 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012.
Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine . 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015.
E-books in MLA format:
Citing an e-book (a digital book that lacks a URL and that you use software to read on a personal e-reader):
Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. E-book ed., Barnes & Noble Classics, 2004.
In the “version” section of the citation, include “E-book ed.” to specify that you used an e-book version of a printed book.
You can also use the “final supplemental” section of the citation to specify the file type of the electronic edition of the work if you know the work varies by file format.
Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. E-book ed., Barnes & Noble Classics, 2004. EPUB.
If you’re citing a book available from a website, here’s an example in MLA format:
Doyle, Arthur Conan. “A Scandal in Bohemia.” The Complete Sherlock Holmes, Internet Archive, archive.org/details/deysayan844_gmail_Cano/mode/2up?ref=ol&view=theater&q=119.
The website is the container, which is found in the third position of the citation, in italics.
Wish you had a second set of eyes to review your citations? Use our MLA citation generator and compare the output to yours.
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MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)
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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
The MLA Handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. Thus, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any source regardless of whether it’s included in this list.
However, this guide will highlight a few concerns when citing digital sources in MLA style.
Best Practices for Managing Online Sources
Because online information can change or disappear, it is always a good idea to keep personal copies of important electronic information whenever possible. Downloading or even printing key documents ensures you have a stable backup. You can also use the Bookmark function in your web browser in order to build an easy-to-access reference for all of your project's sources (though this will not help you if the information is changed or deleted).
It is also wise to keep a record of when you first consult with each online source. MLA uses the phrase, “Accessed” to denote which date you accessed the web page when available or necessary. It is not required to do so, but it is encouraged (especially when there is no copyright date listed on a website).
Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA
Include a URL or web address to help readers locate your sources. Because web addresses are not static (i.e., they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the web (e.g., on multiple databases), MLA encourages the use of citing containers such as Youtube, JSTOR, Spotify, or Netflix in order to easily access and verify sources. However, MLA only requires the www. address, so eliminate all https:// when citing URLs.
Many scholarly journal articles found in databases include a DOI (digital object identifier). If a DOI is available, cite the DOI number instead of the URL.
Online newspapers and magazines sometimes include a “permalink,” which is a shortened, stable version of a URL. Look for a “share” or “cite this” button to see if a source includes a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that instead of a URL.
Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources
If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation. Par. would be used for a single paragraph, while pars. would be used for a span of two or more paragraphs.
Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases)
Here are some common features you should try to find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. Not every web page will provide all of the following information. However, collect as much of the following information as possible:
- Author and/or editor names (if available); last names first.
- "Article name in quotation marks."
- Title of the website, project, or book in italics.
- Any version numbers available, including editions (ed.), revisions, posting dates, volumes (vol.), or issue numbers (no.).
- Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.
- Take note of any page numbers (p. or pp.) or paragraph numbers (par. or pars.).
- DOI (if available, precede it with "https://doi.org/"), otherwise a URL (without the https://) or permalink.
- Date you accessed the material (Date Accessed). While not required, saving this information it is highly recommended, especially when dealing with pages that change frequently or do not have a visible copyright date.
Use the following format:
Author. "Title." Title of container (self contained if book) , Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink). 2 nd container’s title , Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).
Citing an Entire Web Site
When citing an entire website, follow the same format as listed above, but include a compiler name if no single author is available.
Author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), DOI (preferred), otherwise include a URL or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).
Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site . Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).
The Purdue OWL Family of Sites . The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008.
Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory . Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006.
Course or Department Websites
Give the instructor name. Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics. Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title.
Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England . Purdue U, Aug. 2006, web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html. Accessed 31 May 2007.
English Department . Purdue U, 20 Apr. 2009, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/. Accessed 31 May 2015.
A Page on a Web Site
For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. Usually, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once.
Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow , www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.
“ Athlete's Foot - Topic Overview. ” WebMD , 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.
Citations for e-books closely resemble those for physical books. Simply indicate that the book in question is an e-book by putting the term "e-book" in the "version" slot of the MLA template (i.e., after the author, the title of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors).
Silva, Paul J. How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. E-book, American Psychological Association, 2007.
If the e-book is formatted for a specific reader device or service, you can indicate this by treating this information the same way you would treat a physical book's edition number. Often, this will mean replacing "e-book" with "[App/Service] ed."
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince , translated by W. K. Marriott, Kindle ed., Library of Alexandria, 2018.
Note: The MLA considers the term "e-book" to refer to publications formatted specifically for reading with an e-book reader device (e.g., a Kindle) or a corresponding web application. These e-books will not have URLs or DOIs. If you are citing book content from an ordinary webpage with a URL, use the "A Page on a Web Site" format above.
An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)
Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, and the date of access.
Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV . 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado , www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006.
Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine . 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive , www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.
If the work cited is available on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.
Adams, Clifton R. “People Relax Beside a Swimming Pool at a Country Estate Near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928.” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com/.
An Article in a Web Magazine
Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.
Bernstein, Mark. “ 10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. ” A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites , 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.
An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal
For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a DOI if available, otherwise provide a URL or permalink to help readers locate the source.
Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal
MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information.
Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.
Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print
Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article . Provide the URL and the date of access.
Wheelis, Mark. “ Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. ” Emerging Infectious Diseases , vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.
An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)
Cite online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Thus, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL instead. Provide the date of access if you wish.
Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “ Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates. ” Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library , https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20155. Accessed 26 May 2009.
Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.
E-mail (including E-mail Interviews)
Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom the message was sent with the phrase, “Received by” and the recipient’s name. Include the date the message was sent. Use standard capitalization.
Kunka, Andrew. “ Re: Modernist Literature. ” Received by John Watts, 15 Nov. 2000.
Neyhart, David. “ Re: Online Tutoring. ” Received by Joe Barbato, 1 Dec. 2016.
A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting
Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. If both names are known, place the author’s name in brackets.
Author or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.” Name of Site , Version number (if available), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), URL. Date of access.
Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek , 29 Sept. 2008, boardgamegeek.com/thread/343929/best-strategy-fenced-pastures-vs-max-number-rooms. Accessed 5 Apr. 2009.
Begin with the user's Twitter handle in place of the author’s name. Next, place the tweet in its entirety in quotations, inserting a period after the tweet within the quotations. Include the date and time of posting, using the reader's time zone; separate the date and time with a comma and end with a period. Include the date accessed if you deem necessary.
@tombrokaw. “ SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign. ” Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.
@PurdueWLab. “ Spring break is around the corner, and all our locations will be open next week. ” Twitter , 5 Mar. 2012, 12:58 p.m., twitter.com/PurdueWLab/status/176728308736737282.
A YouTube Video
Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA style. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the source you are citing. If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.
McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube , uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.
“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.
A Comment on a Website or Article
List the username as the author. Use the phrase, Comment on, before the title. Use quotation marks around the article title. Name the publisher, date, time (listed on near the comment), and the URL.
Not Omniscient Enough. Comment on “ Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘Shut Up’ After Argument Over Pasta. ” ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 p.m., abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story?id=39704050.
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- How to cite a journal article in MLA style
How to Cite a Journal Article in MLA | Format & Examples
Published on April 16, 2019 by Courtney Gahan . Revised on June 16, 2022.
An MLA Works Cited entry for a journal article contains the author(s); article title; journal name; volume and issue; month and year; page range; and a DOI if accessed online. In the in-text citation, include the author’s last name and the page number.
Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr
Table of contents, citing an online journal article, articles with multiple authors, articles in special issue journals, frequently asked questions about mla style.
When citing an online journal article, first look for a DOI , as this is more stable and less likely to change than a URL. A DOI should be formatted as a full link beginning with “https://”, even if not listed as such on the page with the article.
If there is no DOI, you can add a URL instead. If the article is in PDF form, you can optionally note this in your reference .
Citing an article in a database
For sources that you accessed via a database, include the database name along with the DOI or permanent URL.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
In MLA style, up to two authors are included in citations. List them in the order they appear in the source, separated by commas, and don’t invert the second author’s name.
If an article has three or more authors, include only the first author’s name, followed by “ et al. ”
Special issue journals focus on a specific theme, are written by a specific group of authors, or are compiled from a special event.
In these cases, include the special issue name, the phrase “special issue of,” and the journal’s regular name. If the special issue lists editors or other contributors, their names should also be included.
The title of an article is not italicized in MLA style , but placed in quotation marks. This applies to articles from journals , newspapers , websites , or any other publication. Use italics for the title of the source where the article was published. For example:
Use the same formatting in the Works Cited entry and when referring to the article in the text itself.
If a source has two authors, name both authors in your MLA in-text citation and Works Cited entry. If there are three or more authors, name only the first author, followed by et al.
In MLA style citations , format a DOI as a link, including “https://doi.org/” at the start and then the unique numerical code of the article.
DOIs are used mainly when citing journal articles in MLA .
Some source types, such as books and journal articles , may contain footnotes (or endnotes) with additional information. The following rules apply when citing information from a note in an MLA in-text citation :
- To cite information from a single numbered note, write “n” after the page number, and then write the note number, e.g. (Smith 105n2)
- To cite information from multiple numbered notes, write “nn” and include a range, e.g. (Smith 77nn1–2)
- To cite information from an unnumbered note, write “un” after the page number, with a space in between, e.g. (Jones 250 un)
You must include an MLA in-text citation every time you quote or paraphrase from a source (e.g. a book , movie , website , or article ).
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Gahan, C. (2022, June 16). How to Cite a Journal Article in MLA | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 21, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/mla/journal-citation/
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- Types of Annotated Bibliographies
- Published Annotated Bibliographies
- What to Include in your Annotations
- Want Help with Citations? This link opens in a new window
This page includes basic guidelines and examples from MLA, APA, and Chicago citation styles. Please follow your instructor's requirements above all.
Modern language association (mla) 9th edition.
The following information comes from MLA 9th Edition chapter 5.132 (page 226 in the print edition).
- Your source should be formatted how it would appear in a works cited list.
- Annotations should be indented one inch (as opposed to the half-inch hanging indent used in the citation itself).
- Generally, annotations should be one paragraph.
Example, from the MLA Handbook:
The book provides a comprehensive history of Australian print censorship and discusses its implications for questions of transnationalism and the construction of the reader.
American Psychological Association (APA) 7th Edition
The following information comes from APA 7th Edition chapter 9.51 (pages 307 and 308 in the print edition).
- "Most APA Style guidelines are applicable to annotated bibliographies."
- Include in-text citations if you reference other works within a single annotation.
- Format your citations in alphabetical order.
- Indent the whole annotation .5 inches.
Example, from the APA Manual:
This book chapter provides an overview of the psychosociological concept of work-life balance. The authors discuss findings from studies showing harmful effects of work-life conflict on psychological and behavioral health as well as beneficial effects of work-life facilitation, wherein one role makes a positive contribution to the other. The chapter concludes with a description of work-life balance initiatives that organizations have adopted to help employees manage their dual work and nonwork obligations and some of the key factors influencing their effectiveness.
The Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition
The following information comes from Chicago 17th Edition chapter 14.64 (page 779 in the print edition).
- Annotations are usually started on the line following citations.
- Annotations are usually indented.
Example, from the Chicago Manual:
Concentrates on the postwar period from 1945 to 1960 and presents the work of poets who identified themselves with antiformalist movements or waves, often associated with fugitive publications and little magazines ( Yugen, Neon, Kulchur, Big Table, etc.): the most prominent groups were the Black Mountain school (Olson, Duncan) and the experimental city poets from New York (like Frank O'Hara, LeRoi Jones, and Gilbert Sorrentino) and San Francisco (the "Beats" Kerouac, Corso, Ginsberg). John Ashbery, James Schuyler, Denise Levertov, and Gary Snyder are also represented... (continues on).
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- Last Updated: Nov 17, 2023 11:00 AM
- URL: https://libguides.luc.edu/annotatedbibliography
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