APA Citation Style Guide (6th Ed.): 6 or More Authors
- In-text Citation
- Two Authors
- 3 - 5 Authors
- 6 or More Authors
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- Last Updated: Jul 6, 2020 9:13 AM
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Q. How do I cite a resource with six or more authors in APA Style?
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Answered By: Theresa Bell (she/her/hers) Last Updated: Jul 10, 2023 Views: 8729
APA Style (7th ed.)
Cite the first author plus “et al.” in every in-text citation; include all author names only in cases where "et al." is not enough information to identify which author in the references the citation refers to, such as duplicate citations for two different groups of authors (e.g., two resources with distinct authors share the citation "Patterson et al.").
If you have two works by six or more authors where the citations shorten to the same form, please refer to the examples in How Do I Cite a Resource by Three to Five Authors in APA Style? for instructions on the proper citation format. Also, please see How Should I Present the Author(s)'s and/or Editor(s)'s Names in My Reference in APA Style? for information on how to present the authors' names in a reference.
For other information regarding citing works by multiple authors, please see How Do I Cite a Resource by Two Authors in APA Style? and If I'm Using the APA Style Rules, When Should I Use "Et Al."? .
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
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- APA Style 6th edition
A complete guide to APA in-text citation (6th edition)
Published on November 4, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on May 19, 2022.
An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication, for example: (Smith, 2020). When quoting , also include page numbers, for example (Smith, 2020, p.170).
Here’s what an in-text citation looks like in a sentence:
- The author claims that “plagiarism is becoming a bigger problem” (Smith, 2014, p. 170) .
- As Smith (2014) has shown, plagiarism is a serious issue for universities.
- In 2014 , Smith found that plagiarism is becoming increasingly widespread.
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Table of contents, apa in-text citations with multiple authors, in-text citations explained in under 4 minutes, punctuation in apa in-text citations, when to include page numbers, apa in-text citations with lists, exceptions and missing information.
Multiple author names are separated using a comma. Only the final name in the list is preceded by an ampersand (“&”), for example: (Taylor, Johnson, & Parker, 2019) . Use “ et al .” to shorten in-text citations of sources with 6+ authors (first in-text citations) and 3+ authors (subsequent in-text citations), for example: (Taylor et al., 2019) .
Using “et al.” in APA in-text citations
Sources with three, four or five authors are shortened after the first citation. From the second citation onwards, include only the first author name followed by “et al.” (“and others”). Sources with six or more authors are always shortened, including in the first citation.
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- When using the abbreviation “et al . ,” always include a period (“.”).
- Include a comma between “et al.” and the publication date (e.g. Taylor et al., 2018).
- There should be no punctuation between “et al.” and the author’s name preceding it.
- The period ending the sentence always comes after the citation (even when quoting).
Never use an ampersand symbol (“&”) in the running text. Instead, use the full word “and.”
- According to research by Taylor & Kotler … (2018).
- Taylor and Kotler conclude … (2018).
Including the page number(s) in the in-text citation is required when quoting a source in APA . It is encouraged, but not required, when paraphrasing a source . Don’t include page numbers when referring to a work as a whole, e.g. “the study shows…”.
If the quote or paraphrase covers just one page, use “ p. 16. ” If it covers two or more pages, use a double ‘p’ followed by a page range (e.g. pp. 16-18 ).
The in-text citation can be included in three different ways:
- This is also confirmed by the business plan: “creating an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work but many students benefit from it” (Smith, 2014, pp. 14-15) .
- Smith (2014) states: “making an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work but many students benefit from it” (pp. 14-15) .
- In 2014 , Smith wrote: “making an APA Citation Generator is a lot of work but many students benefit from it” (pp. 14-15) .
Sources with no page numbers
When quoting a source that has no pages or page numbers, you can include a chapter or paragraph number instead.
If the source uses headings, cite the heading and the paragraph number following it. Long headings may be shortened, but then they should be enclosed in quotation marks.
- (Johnson, 2019, Chapter 3)
- (McCombes, 2016, para. 4)
- (Smith, 2014, Conclusion, para. 2 )
- (Streefkerk, 2019, “No Page Numbers,” para. 2)
If the cited list originates from one source, put the in-text citation after the last list item. If the list comes from several different sources, add the in-text citations after each list item.
- Wired lifestyle
- Time pressure
- Risk aversion
- Internet experience
- Social interaction (Johnson, 2016, p. 18) .
- Consumers experience greater risk for online purchases (Writers et al., 2016, p. 47) .
- Young consumers experience no risk for online purchases (Porter, 2016, pp. 63-64) .
The basic APA guidelines are not applicable to every source. Information can be missing, confusing for the reader or simply different. The most common exceptions are listed below.
If the author is unknown, cite the first few words of the reference list entry instead (usually the title). Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, reports and brochures.
- ( “U.S. Flood Risk Could Be Worse Than We Thought,” 2015)
- ( Thinking, Fast and Slow , 2017)
For sources without a year of publication, use “n.d.” (no date) instead: (Johnson, n.d. ).
Multiple sources in the same parentheses
If you’re using multiple sources to support a statement, you can combine the in-text citations and separate them using semicolons. Order the sources alphabetically.
If you’re using multiple sources from the same author, you don’t have to repeat the author. Just add the other years and separate them with a comma.
Multiple publications from the same author(s) in the same year
To differentiate between two publications from the same author published in the same year, add a suffix after the publication year.
Repeated use of the same source
For citing the same source multiple times in a paragraph there are specific APA guidelines. The first mention should include the author and publication year. For subsequent mentions in the running text, you only have to include the author’s last name, not the year. However, citations in parentheses should always include the year.
Different authors with the same last name
To differentiate between two (or more) authors with the same last name, include the initials. This rule applies even if the year of publication is different.
Citing a source within a source (secondary source)
If you want to cite a source that you found in another source, you can do one of two things. First of all, you should try to find the original source ( primary source ). If you’re able to find it you can use regular APA guidelines.
If you are not able to find the primary source, you should cite it through the source that led you to it ( secondary source ). The in-text citation looks like this:
Note that you only need to include the publication year of the source you consulted (here Johnson).
Personal communication such as phone calls, emails and conversations are not cited in the reference list because they can’t be found anywhere. However, you should still cite them using an in-text citation.
Give the initials and the last name of the person you communicated with and provide as exact a date as possible.
Sales are declining in the second quarter (P. G. Brown, personal communication, June 13, 2018).
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Streefkerk, R. (2022, May 19). A complete guide to APA in-text citation (6th edition). Scribbr. Retrieved November 14, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/6th-edition/archived-in-text-citation/
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APA Citation Style Guide (6th Edition): In-text: Multiple Authors
- APA 6th Edition Home
- In-text: Multiple Authors
- In-text: First and Subsequent Citations
- In-text: Authors and Dates Matching
- APA Examples- Print
- APA Examples- Electronic
- APA Examples- Multimedia
- Step 1- Author (Names)
- Step 2- Date
- Step 3- Titles
- Step 4- Publication Info
- Step 5- Retrieval Info
- Citing Sources
How to Use This Guide
Citations are a two part system: in-text citations connected to reference list citations.
This guide will help you create in-text citations that correlate with the corresponding Reference list citations. Please see the References guide for more details on the Reference list.
First and Subsequent Citations
Authors and Dates Matching
If you are citing a source that has multiple authors, follow these basic steps.
Always cite both authors' names in-text everytime you reference them. Example : Johnson and Smith (2009) found...
Provide all the authors' last names when you first refer to a document with 3-5 authors. Only list the first author with the Latin abbreviation "et al." for any subsequent references.
Jones, Chavez, Jackson, and Chen (2010) duplicated...
Jones et al. (2010) further described...
6 or More Authors:
If a document has six or more authors, simply provide the last name of the first author with "et al." from the first citation to the last.
Thomas et al. (2007) likened abnormal psychology to...
... distractions (Thomas et al., 2007).
Important Note: If you have two or more documents that look the same when shortened, please follow the guidelines set out in the Authors and Dates Matching section.
APA Manual p.175, Section 6.12
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APA Citation Style 6th Edition: Quotes & Paraphrasing
- Quotes & Paraphrasing
- References Guidelines
- A. One Author or Editor
- B. Two Authors or Editors
- C. Three to Five Authors or Editors
- D. Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
- E. Article in a Reference Book
- F. No Author
- H. Edition other than the First
- I. Translation
- J. Government Publication
- A. Journal Article with One Author
- B. Journal Article with 2 Authors
- C. Journal Article with 3-5 Authors
- D. Journal Article with 6 or more Authors
- E. Magazine Article
- F. Newspaper Article
- A. Basic Web Page
- B. Web page from a University site
- C. No Author
- D. Blog post
- E. Entry in a Reference Work
- F. Government Document
- A. Motion Picture
- B. YouTube Video
- C. Audio Podcast
- A. Electronic Image
- A. Interview
- D. Classical Works
- E. Secondary Sources
- F. Twitter Moment
Quotes & Paraphrasing: Citations In Text
Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.
How to Cite a Direct Quote ( pp.170-171 )
How to Cite Summaries or Paraphrases
Even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing, you must cite the original author or researcher and the date of publication. You are also encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number; check with your instructor to see if page numbers are required.
For example, a paraphrase of Gibaldi’s earlier quotation might be identified as follows:
Within the research paper, quotations will have more impact when used judiciously (Gibaldi, 2003, p. 109).
You may want to check out The Owl at Purdue for more tips on paraphrasing.
How to Cite Sources when the Primary Authors have the same Surname ( p.176 )
How to Cite Different Numbers of Authors
How to Cite Information When You Have Not Seen the Original Source ( p.178 )
How to Cite when you are Altering a Direct Quote
Printable APA Handouts
- APA 6th Edition Guidelines A handout which provides simple guidelines for using APA style.
- APA References Page Sample What your APA References Page should look like.
- APA In-Text Citation Tips for creating in-text citations in APA style.
- Creating a Hanging Indent How to create hanging indents using MS Word 2010.
- Inserting a Running Head How to insert a running head using MS Word.
- APA Electronic Resources Tips for creating a reference list in APA style from electronic resources.
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How to Reference Single and Multiple Authors in APA Format
Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."
Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.
- Multiple Authors
APA format establishes a number of clear rules for how to list reference works using author information. How you reference different sources varies depending on the number of authors to whom the source is attributed. For example, the way that you reference a single author will differ somewhat from how you reference a source with multiple authors.
Before you create a reference section for a psychology paper, it is important to know how to properly list books, articles, and other sources as well as in-text citations in APA format. The following guidelines can help you prepare a reference section for your APA format paper.
These guidelines are sometimes referred to as APA 7 since the guidebook for APA formatting is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition .
APA Format for No Author
Articles and other works that do not provide an author attribution should begin with the title of the work . If the title is a book, list the title in italics. The volume number, issue number (if available), and page numbers should follow journal titles, while book titles should be followed by the publisher's name.
- A student guide to APA format. (1997). Psychology Weekly, 8, 13-27.
- The ultimate APA format guidebook. (2006). Student Press.
For in-text citations or those referenced within the body of the text, you will also use the title, either in italics (for books) or in quotation marks (for articles). For example: Using proper APA format ("A student guide to APA format," 1997).
APA Format for One Author
Works by a single author should list the author's last name and initials. The date of publication should be enclosed in parentheses and followed by the title of the article or book. Books and journal titles should be listed in italics. The volume number, issue number, and page numbers of the article should follow journal titles, while book titles should be followed by the name of the publisher.
- McCrae, R. R. (1993). Moderated analyses of longitudinal personality stability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 (3), 577-585.
- Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Prentice-Hall.
One-author in-text citations should include the surname without any suffixes (Jr.) and the date of publication in parenthesis. For example: As Bandura (1997) mentions... or (Bandura, 1977). If you are citing different authors with the same last name, include the first initial: (A. Alper, 2004) and (B. Alper, 2005).
APA Format for Multiple Authors
The APA format for multiple authors varies depending on how many authors a publication has.
Works by two authors should list the last names and first initials separated by an ampersand (&). These names should be followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses.
If the work is a journal article, the title of the article should immediately follow the publication date. Next, the title of the book or journal should be listed in italics. If the reference is a journal article, provide the volume number, issue number, and page numbers. For books, list the name of the publisher.
- Kanfer, F. H., & Busemeyer, J. R. (1982). The use of problem-solving and decision-making in behavior therapy . Clinical Psychology Review, 2 (2) , 239-266.
- Buss, A. H., & Pomin, R. (1975). A temperament theory of personality development . Erlbaum.
In-text citations of works by two authors should include the surnames of both authors separated by the word "and" or by an ampersand if using parenthesis. For example: Studies by Buss and Pomin (1975) support... or (Buss & Pomin, 1975).
Three to 20 Authors
According to APA 7 guidelines, works by three to 20 authors are cited by listing the last names and first initials of each author separated by an ampersand. Author names should be followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses.
If the work is a journal article, include the title of the article immediately following the publication date. The title of the book or journal should then be listed in italics. If the reference is a journal article, provide the volume number, issue number, and page numbers. For books, list the name of the publisher.
- Abma, J. C., Chandra, A., Mosher, W. D., Peterson, L. S., & Piccinino, L. J. (1997). Fertility, family planning, and women’s health: New data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital and Health Statistics, 23 (9), 1-67.
- Alper, S., Schloss, P. J., Etscheidt, S. K., & Macfarlane, C. A. (1995). Inclusion: Are we abandoning or helping students? Corwin Press.
In-text citations for works by three or more authors should list the first author's name, followed by "et al." in every citation. For example: Alper, et al. (1995) supports...or (Alper, et al, 1995).
However, if you are citing multiple works by similar groups of authors, you may need to include multiple names to avoid confusion. For example: Alper, Schloss, Etscheidt, et al. (1995) discovered...or (Alper, Schloss, Etscheidt, et al., 1995).
Whether citing a source with three, five, seven, or 20 authors, the APA format is the same.
More Than 20 Authors
When a work is credited to more than 20 authors, the reference is listed by providing the names of the first 19 authors followed by . . . and then the final author. The remainder of the reference follows the same format as that for 20 or fewer authors.
Authors' last names and initials are followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses. The name of the article is listed immediately after the publication date. The title of the journal or the book title should be provided in italics. The volume number, issue number, and page number should follow journal titles, while book titles should be followed by the publisher's name.
- Pegion, K., Kirtman, B. P., Becker, E., Collins, D. C., LaJoie, E., Burgman, R., Bell, R., DelSole, R., Min, D., Zhu, Y., Li, W., Sinsky, E., Guan, H., Gottschalck, J., Metzger, E. J., Barton, N. P., Achuthavarier, D., Marshak, J., Koster, R., . . . Kim, H. (2019). The subseasonal experiment (SubX): A multimodel subseasonal prediction experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 100 (10), 2043-2061.
- Arlo, A., Black, B., Clark, C., Davidson, D., Emerson, E., Fischer, F., Grahmann, G., Habib, H., Ianelli, I., Juarez, J., Kobayashi, K., Lee, L., Martin, M., Naim, N., Odelsson, O., Pierce, P., Qiang, Q., Reed, R., Scofield, S., . . . Thatcher, T. (2001). Instructive falsehoods: Examples and sources . Thommel-Reed.
In-text citations should list the first author's name, followed by "et al." in every citation. You can read more about a few different aspects of referencing sources in APA format if you have book references , article references , and electronic sources .
Frequently Asked Questions
How do i cite a website with no author in apa format.
If a website has no author, cite the title (or the first few words of the reference list entry) followed by the year. APA website citations will also include the website name and URL.
How do I cite a publication with no author in APA format?
If there's no author, the title of the work is listed first followed by the volume number, issue number (if available), and page numbers. If it's a book, the title should be in italics and followed by the publisher's name.
How do I cite an author with two last names?
Works by an author with two last names should list both names. If the name is hyphenated, include both names and the hyphen.
American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2019.
Purdue Online Writing Lab. In-text citations: Author/authors .
Purdue Online Writing Lab. Reference list: Author/authors .
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APA Citation Style, 6th Edition: Three to Five Authors/Editors
- One Author/Editor
- Two Authors/Editors
- Three to Five Authors/Editors
- Chapter in a Book
- Edition Other Than the First
- Electronic Books
- Journal Article with One Author
- Journal Article with Two Authors
- Journal Article with Three to Six Authors
- Journal Article with Seven or More Authors
- Government Publication
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Article
- Reference List
Books with Three to Five Authors
(this libguide is for apa 6th edition, click here to visit our new apa 7th edition libguide ).
The formatting guidelines below refer to books with three authors. If the book has four or five authors, you would follow this format and add the fourth and fifth author's after the third.
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
(Author's Last Name, Author's Last Name, & Author's Last Name, year)
In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):
(Author's Last Name, Author's Last Name, & Author's Last Name, year, page number)
Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Location of publication: Publisher.
In-text Citation (Paraphrase):
(Ledlow, Manrodt, & Schott, 2017)
Note: In the first in-text citation, include all of the three to five author's last names. After the first in-text citation, all subsequent in-text citations include the first author's last name, et al., and the year. For example: (Ledlow et al., 2017). See table below for more information.
In-text Citation (Direct Quote):
(Ledlow, Manrodt, & Schott, 2017, p. 52)
Ledlow, G. R., Manrodt, K. B., & Schott, D. (2017). Health care supply chain management: Elements, operations, and strategies. Burlington, MA: Bartlett & Jones Learning.
Books with Three to Five Editors
The formatting guidelines below refer to books with three editors. If the book has four or five editors, you would follow this format and add the fourth and fifth editor's name after the third.
(Editor's Last Name, Editor's Last Name, & Editor's Last Name, year)
(Editor's Last Name, Editor's Last Name, & Editor's Last Name, year, page number)
Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., & Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Eds.). (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Location of publication: Publisher.
(Blumenthal, Diclemente, Braithwaite & Smith, 2013)
Note: In the first in-text citation, include all of the three to five editor's last names. After the first in-text citation, all subsequent in-text citations include the first editor's last name, et al., and the year. For example: (Blumenthal et al., 2013). See table below for more information.
(Blumenthal, Diclemente, Braithwaite, & Smith, 2013, p. 52)
Blumenthal, D. S., Diclemente, R.J., Braithwaite, D., & Smith, S.A. (Eds.). (2013). Community-based participatory health research : Issues, methods, and translation to practice. New York: Springer Pub.
More than Five Authors or Editors?
If you are looking to cite a book with more than five authors or editors, follow the same format as three to five authors/editors. The only difference is with in-text citations. Even in your first in-text citation, you can shorten to the last name of the first author followed by et al., and the year. For example: Rodgers, Chung, Hightower, Collins, Long, Carr, & Thomas (2016) would be (Rodgers et al., 2016) starting with the first in-text citation. See the table below for more information or page 177 of the APA Manual, 6th Edition.
Citing References in Text
Carrie forbes, mls.
Citation information has been adapted from the APA Manual (6th Edition). Please refer to pages 176-177 and 184 of the APA Manual (6th Edition) for more information.
-If two or more references of three or more authors/editors and publication year short to the same in-text citation, cite as many last names as needed to differentiate them. Example from p.175 of APA Manual: both Ireys, Chernoff, DeVet, & Kim, 2001 and Ireys, Chernoff, Stein, DeVet, & Silver, 2001 shorten to (Ireys et al., 2001). Instead, use Ireys, Chernoff, DeVet, et al. (2001) and Ireys, Chernoff, Stein, et al. (2001) respectively. Please refer to page 175 of the APA Manual, 6th Edition for more in depth information.
-Be mindful of hyphenated names, particularly hyphenated first names in your reference list. If an author or editor has a hyphenated first name, include first initials for both separated by a hyphen. For example: Lamour, J.-B. for Jean-Baptiste Lamour.
-If your reference list includes publications by two or more authors with the same last name, you should include the first initial in all in-text citations in order to help the reader avoid confusion.
-Suffixes like "Jr." or "III" are not included in in-text citations but are included in the reference list.
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Reference List: Author/Authors
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
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APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).
Note: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here .
The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.).
Last name first, followed by author initials.
Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11 , 7-10.
List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and."
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66 , 1034-1048.
Three to Seven Authors
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.
Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 , 1190-1204.
More Than Seven Authors
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipsis in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.
Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57 , 323-335.
Organization as Author
Also known as a "corporate author." Here, you simply treat the publishing organization the same way you'd treat the author's name and format the rest of the citation as normal.
American Psychological Association. (2009). Blog guidelines. APA Style Blog. Retrieved from https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/blog-guidelines.html
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
NOTE : When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: ( Merriam-Webster's , 1993).
Two or More Works by the Same Author
Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).
Berndt, T. J. (1981).
Berndt, T. J. (1999).
When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.
Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34 , 15-28.
Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66 , 1312-1329.
References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.
Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6 , 629-654.
Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24 , 25-43.
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year
If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: "Berdnt (1981a) makes similar claims..."
Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17 , 408-416.
Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52 , 636-643.
Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords
Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword (whatever title is applicable) as the chapter of the book.
Funk, R., & Kolln, M. (1998). Introduction. In E. W. Ludlow (Ed.), Understanding English grammar (pp. 1-2). Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
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- Census data
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- Mathematical equation
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- Book illustration, Figure or Diagram
- Inscription on a building
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- Interview (on the internet)
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Harvard referencing uses in-text citations, in an author-date format.
Sometimes you might be referencing a source that has more than one author. Or, you might reference several different sources by the same author published in the same year.
This page gives you guidelines and examples for using Harvard in these scenarios.
Multiple sources with the same author and year
If you are citing more than one source by the same author which are also published in the same year, you will need to differentiate between the sources in your in-text citations.
You can do this by adding a lower-case letter to the publication date in your in-text citation, and again in your reference list so that the dates and letters match. The first reference should appear as (Author, Yeara), the second as (Author, Yearb) and so on.
The rest of the reference should follow the usual style for the type of source you are citing.
Kubler-Ross, E. (1993a). AIDS: The ultimate challenge. New York, NY: Collier Books.
Kubler-Ross, E. (1993b). Questions and answers on death and dying. New York, NY. Collier Books.
Sources with two or three authors
If you are citing a source with two or three authors, the surname of all of the authors should be listed in your in-text citation. You should keep the names in the same order as they are in the source.
The surname and initial(s) of all the authors should appear in the full reference for the source.
(Reiss and White, 2013, p.6)
Reiss M.J. and White, J. (2013). An aims-based curriculum: the significance of human flourishing for schools. London: IOE Press.
Sources with four to seven authors
If you are citing a source with four, five, six or seven authors, the surname of only the first person attributed as one of the source's authors should be included in your in-text citation, followed by the words 'et al'.
(Rogers et al., 2018)
Rogers, L., Hallam, S., Creech, A. and Preti, C. (2018). ‘Learning about what constitutes effective training from a pilot programme to improve music education in primary schools’, Music Education Research , 10(4), pp.485-497.
Sources with eight or more authors
If you are citing a source with eight or more authors, the surname of only the first person attributed as one of the source's authors should be included in your in-text citation, followed by the words 'et al'.
The surname and initial(s) of the first eight attributed authors should appear in the full reference for the source, followed by the words 'et al'. If there are more than eight authors, do not include the word 'and' between the seventh and eight author.
(Clark et al., 2020)
Clark, K., Cletheroe, D., Gerard, T., Haller, I., Jozwik, K., Shi, K., Thomsen, B., Williams, H., et al. (2020). ‘Synchronous subnanosecond clock and data recovery for optically switched data centres using clock phase caching’, Nature Electronics , 3, pp.426-433.
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APA 6th referencing style
- About APA 6th
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One work by one author, one work with two authors, one work with three to five authors, one work with six or more authors, authors with same last name, different authors with same last name and first initial, work with groups as authors (with known abbreviation), work with groups as authors (no abbreviation), work with no author(s) or editor(s), work with anonymous designated as author, abbreviating groups as authors, one work with multiple authors with same last name & same year.
- Additional referencing information
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Six or seven authors
Eight or more authors.
Include each first author’s initials in all citations. Do this for the first author only when there are multiple authors in a single reference.
Initials are included even if year of publication differs.
For more than two authors, use as format as required by APA 6th (see above examples)
- Use author(s) full first name in square brackets if there are different authors with the same last name and first initial
- Place the first name after the first name initial eg. Lewis, J. [Jessica]
Also known as corporate authors
Groups as authors include government departments, professional associations, company names, organisations
For title of article, chapter or web page with no author, use double quotation marks ".....".
For the title of a journal, book, brochure or report with no author, italicise the title .
Only ever use Anonymous when it is the listed author. If no author is listed, use the title. See "Work with no author(s) or editor(s)".
“The names of groups that serve as authors (eg. corporations, associations, government agencies…) are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. The names of some groups are spelled out in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter . In deciding whether to abbreviate the name of a group author, use the general rule that you need to give enough information in the text citation for the reader to locate the entry in the reference list without difficulty. If the name is long… and the abbreviation is familiar…, you may abbreviate the name in the second and subsequent citations . If the name is short or if the abbreviation would not be readily understandable, write out the same each time it occurs”. (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 176)
Group author - organisation, association, company, government department
United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
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The 11th edition of the AMA Manual of style was created by the American Medical Association for the health, medical and scientific fields. This is a quick visual guide only. You must consult Chapter 3 in the online AMA manual for detailed explanations.
- In-text citing with superscripts
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Format to use when there is more than 6 authors
Go to AMA section 3.11 References to Journal Articles.
3.11.1 Complete Data.
A complete reference to a journal article includes the following:
■ Authors’ surnames and initials ( the names of all authors should be given unless there are more than 6, in which case the names of the first 3 authors are used, followed by “et al”)
■ Title of article and subtitle, if any
■ Abbreviated name of journal (see 13.10 , Abbreviations, Names of Journals)
■ Year (or online publication date [month and day, year] if article is published online first and has yet to appear in a paginated issue or is published in an online-only journal)
■ Volume number
■ Issue number
■ Part or supplement number, when pertinent
■ Location (page[s] or e-locator)
■ DOI (if supplied)
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to Cite Multiple Authors and Author Types in MLA
How to Cite Multiple Authors and Author Types in MLA
In this guide, you will learn how to format author names when creating an entry on a works cited page , according to guidelines in the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook (the Modern Language Association is not affiliated with this guide).
Real examples are included below to help you easily understand what to do with the various author situations you’ll find when citing sources.
Are you looking for author formatting in relation to in-text citations? Review the EasyBib MLA in-text citation guide.
What is an Author?
When creating a citation, the “author” is the individual credited with creating the source you are using. Usually, this is the individual(s) or organization who wrote the source. Sometimes, the “author” element could also be the work’s editor, translator, or performer ( MLA Handbook 107).
Here are general guidelines on formatting an author’s name:
- The author’s name is always the first thing listed in a works cited entry, unless there is no author.
- Entries on your works cited page should be listed in alphabetical order according to the author’s last name.
- The first (or only) author’s name is listed as Last Name, First Name.
Crystal, David. The Story of English in 100 Words . St. Martin’s Press, 2013.
Hunter, David J., et al. “Covid-19 and the Stiff Upper Lip – The Pandemic Response in the United Kingdom: NEJM.” New England Journal of Medicine , 17 Mar. 2020, www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2005755.
The “Works Cited: A Quick Guide” page from the official Modern Language Association Style Center calls each element of a works cited entry a “core element.” These elements (e.g., author, title, publisher, etc.) are the most common facts listed for most sources. They are assembled in a set order, starting with the author.
How to Format Author Names in MLA 9
It’s important that you must first correctly cite the last name of the author(s) whose work you’re referencing. To correctly cite the author, always begin the citation with the author’s last name, a comma, and the rest of the name as it appears on the source. Place a period after the author’s name. If your source has more than two authors, you’ll also need to know when to use et al. in MLA . Below are examples for citing one or more authors.
How to Cite One Author
List the author’s last name, add a comma, then add the author’s first name or initials ( Handbook 111). Use the author’s name as it appears on the source.
King, Laurie R.
How to Cite Two Authors
Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source ( Handbook 111). Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name:
Shields, David, and Caleb Powell.
How to Cite Three or More Authors
List the first author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add “et al.” in place of the additional authors’ names ( Handbook 112):
Beck, Isabel L., et al.
How to Cite Works by Individuals Other Than the Author
In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name ( Handbook 147):
Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors.
When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on whom you’ve focused ( Handbook 147):
Byrne, Rose, performer.
*Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title. Contributors can be listed separately following the title if necessary.
How to Cite Translated Works
When your focus is on the translated text rather than the original, use the translator as the author ( Handbook 147). Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”:
Rojas, Carlos, translator. The Four Books. By Yan Lianke.
How to Cite Using Pseudonyms in MLA 9
If an author has published a work under a different, lesser-known name, there are a few different ways you can list the author in your citation (Handbook 115-117). You can list the author only under their more well-known name; you can list the author’s more well-known name in square brackets; or you can use the author’s more well-known name in the author field, followed by a “ published by ” note and their pseudonym in square brackets.
King, Stephen [ published as Richard Bachman].
Alternatively, you can choose to use the author’s lesser-known name in the author field (be it their given name or a pseudonym), and include the author’s more well-known name in square brackets before the period.
Clemens, Samuel [Mark Twain].
Bachman, Richard [Stephen King].
- Citing no authors or an organization author
- In-text citations
Notes on Titles and Suffixes
Some authors will also have additional information tied to their names. It could either be a title (e.g., Sir, Saint, President, etc.), a degree (e.g., MLIS, PhD, etc.), or a suffix (e.g., Jr., III, etc.).
According to the official Handbook, leave out titles and degrees from the works cited list (49).
For suffixes, include them. Add a comma after the full author’s name, then add the suffix. No comma is needed before the suffix if it is numerical.
- King, Martin Luther, Jr.
- Eaton, Maxwell III
MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.
“Works Cited: A Quick Guide”. The MLA Style Center , Modern Language Association, 2020, style.mla.org/works-cited-a-quick-guide/. Accessed 26 Mar 2020.
“How Do I Cite A Source That Has No Author?” The MLA Style Center , Modern Language Association, 2017, style.mla.org/source-with-no-author/. Accessed 26 Mar 2020.
Published April 14, 2016. Updated May 18, 2021.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.
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To cite a book in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the authors, publication year, book title, and publisher. The templates for in-text citations and works cited list entries for a book written by multiple authors, along with examples, are given below:
In-text citation template and example:
For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues.” In subsequent citations, use only the surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues.” In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”
Citation in prose:
First mention: Ludivine Allegue and colleagues . . . or Ludivine Allegue and others . . .
Subsequent occurrences: Allegue and colleagues . . . or Allegue and others . . .
. . . (Allegue et al.)
Works cited list entry template and example:
The title of the book is set in italics and title case.
Surname, F. M. Title of the Book . Publisher, Publication Date.
Allegue, Ludivine, et al., Practice-as-Research in Performance and Screen . Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Use only the first author’s name in surname–first name order in the entry, followed by “et al.”
To cite a book with multiple editors (or authors) in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the authors or the editors, publication year, book title, and publisher. The templates for in-text citations and works cited list entries of a book with multiple editors (or authors), along with examples, are given below:
For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the first editor or the author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues.” In subsequent citations, use only the surname of the first editor or the author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues.” In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the first editor or the author followed by “et al.”
First mention: Annette Arlander and colleagues . . . or Annette Arlander and others . . .
Subsequent occurrences: Arlander and colleagues . . . or Arlander and others . . .
. . . ( Arlander et al.)
Works-cited-list entry template and example:
Arlander, Annette, et al., editors. Performance as Research: Knowledge, Methods, Impact . Routledge, 2017.
Use only the first editor’s or author’s name in surname–first name order in the entry, followed by “et al.” For a book with multiple editors, use the word “editors” after “et al.”
MLA Citation Examples
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Why is the closing scene in the Alchemist important
The closing scene in the Alchemist is important depending on how we interpret it. ‘The Alchemist’ provides an ambiguity for its ending. Santiago found the treasure at the place where he has dreamed about before his journey started. Meanwhile, the real treasure is the journey of pursuing his treasure. The process of achieving something is the value of this story.
It is not always easy to achieve something. We need to pass some ‘tests’ or obstacles before gaining our dream. We, indeed, need to develop ourselves to be better one to get what we want. This idea is conveyed through the end of the story. Santiago comes back to the place where all his journey started. It also means that his journey is not finished yet.
He must continue his journey to develop himself to be better one, not to mention that he needs to find Fatima. It shows that he needs to take another step to start his new journey in the place where he started his old journey to find the treasure. The main character of this story, Santiago, shows many things for us to learn from his journey. He is very determined and brave. At the end of the story, we can conclude the values of this story. Here are the few:
· Focus on your journey
· Always take action
· Everything is written
· Make your decision
· Everything has something to learn
· Success has a ripple-effect
· Luck comes in many forms
· Face the challenges
If you’re interested in learning more about this topic, we recommend you to also take a look at the following questions:
• Why is the opening scene important in the alchemist? https://brainly.com/question/4301662
• What is the author's purpose for writing the alchemist? https://brainly.com/question/5377994
Keywords : closing scene in the Alchemist
Subject : English
Class : 10-12
Sub-Chapter : Literature
Please help!! Which is the best version of the underlined portion of sentence 3 (reproduced below)? Much of the freight their trucks carried in the early years were fruit grown in the San Joaquin valley. A. (as it is now) B. have been C. are D. was
Details : Please help!! Which is the best version of the underlined portion
What does this mean ? There is no doubt that you will lead a good life .
which comment is an example constructive feedback A. The ending of your essay didnt make sense. Why dont you add something exciting? B. No one likes reading essays about dogs. Try picking maybe a different topic- maybe something about dating. C. This section isnt very descriptive. Try adding more adjectives to help describe your dog or his habits. D. You didnt choose the right words, so your essay wasnt clear. Can you find better ones?
The correct answer is C. This section isn't very descriptive. Try adding more adjectives to help describe your dog or his habits.
Constructive feedback is a judgment about some text or work that allows the author to know which aspects of his or her work are right and which ones need improvement and in which ways. Because of this constructive feedback implies praising, but also some criticism that supports an improvement or correction process and that is usually linked to specific suggestions on how to improve the aspects that are criticized.This means these type of feedback or judgments construct as they aim at improving and correcting instead of destroying with just criticism. Considering this, the best example of constructive feedback is "This section isn't very descriptive. Try adding more adjectives to help describe your dog or his habits" because it is clear which aspect of the work needs improvement, instead of criticizing rudely or saying all the work is wrong and also it provides suggestions on how to improving which helps the author to improve the work, also, the language use is aimed at helping rather than criticizing or destroying the work which is what the constructive feedback is about.
Explain one thing you will start doing as a passenger.
Which of the following best describes how the majority of content decisions are made by the media? Content is rarely regulated by readers, viewers, and listeners. Content is mainly regulated by ratings, subscriptions, and circulations. Content is mainly regulated by goverment rules made by the FCC.
Content is mainly regulated by ratings, subscriptions, and circulations.
Details : Which of the following best describes how the majority of content
Pre-Writing Rough Draft Final Draft Prompt Rubric | Checklist Who Was the Best US President?
what does build'em up with worn out tools mean in imagery
im not sure to be honest
Which part of the sentence is an adverbial dependent clause? when they arrived at the beach who had never seen the ocean before by the size of the foaming waves that rolled gracefully toward the shore
The part of the sentence that is an adverbial dependent clause is the following one: "When they arrived at the beach". Dependent clauses are a group of words that contain a subject and a verb yet they do not represent a complete thought so they can't stand alone.
Adverb dependent clauses modify verbs and are introduced by subordinating conjunctions. In this case, the subordinating conjunction introducing the dependent clause is "when".
Which term refers to the general meaning of a text that does not include specific references to characters, events, or actions? A.Classic tale B.Exposition C.Meaning D.Theme statement
Details : Which term refers to the general meaning of a text that does not
Nikki’s grandmother always made the most delicious baklava. It was perfectly sweet, perfectly flaky, and perfectly nutty. Nikki had always known that her grandmother would teach her how to make it one day. That day had finally come. As Nikki tied her apron strings, she couldn’t help smiling. One day, she teaches her own children and grandchildren this precious recipe! Which is the best replacement for the underlined sentence? One day, she had taught her own children and grandchildren this precious recipe! One day, she is teaching her own children and grandchildren this precious recipe! One day, she would teach her own children and grandchildren this precious recipe One day, she teaches her own children and grandchildren this precious recipe!
Answer: The best replacement for the sentence "One day, she teaches her own children and grandchildren this precious recipe!" is "One day, she would teach her own children and grandchildren this precious recipe".
Explanation: The best replacement for the sentence provided is "One day, she would teach her own children and grandchildren this precious recipe" because the speaker is looking forward in time or referring to something that she will do in the future but from a specific point in the past and "would" is a modal verb that can be used to express this idea . In other words, "would" , together with a bare infinitive such as "teach", can be used to speak about the future in the past . In contrast, "had taught", "is teaching" and "teaches" cannot be used in this way.
What type of sentence is this? Ashley wants peperoni pizza, but her friend Toni is a vegetarian. a-Compound b-Simple c-Complex d-Compound-complex
Answer: A) Compound
A compound sentence is formed by joining two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction - for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
"Ashley wants peperoni pizza, but her friend Toni is a vegetarian" is constituted of two independent clauses. The clauses are related, and they were joined by the coordinating conjunction "but". Thus, we have a compound sentence.
A simple sentence is constituted of a single independent clause. It has a subject and a predicate, and it expresses a complete thought.
A complex sentence is formed by joining an independent clause and a dependent one. A dependent clause needs the independent one to give it context, so that it makes sense. It does not express a complete thought on its own.
A compound-complex sentence is formed by two independent clauses and a dependent one, at least.
What impression did Gulliver make on his majesty and the whole board?
how can a writer’s use of figurative language benefit and improve his or her story? Write your response in about two paragraphs.
Details : how can a writers use of figurative language benefit and improve
I was in the National Forest with my camera. The day was crisp and the leaves were bright with fall colors. When I spotted the white-tailed buck, I froze. He was less than 15 yards from where I was standing. The wind must have been right, because he kept on grazing on the mossy ground. I lifted my camera very slowly. Carefully, holding my breath, I lifted the camera to my eye. Turning the focus ring, I framed the deer’s head. Just as I was ready to press the shutter release, the buck raised his head. He was looking my way with wide eyes. Click—I took the picture. An instant later the deer bounded away into the forest. He took off, but I had the shot. Today, the framed photo of that buck hangs above our fireplace. What is the main idea of this piece? What are the clues? What does the author imply? If you think it is about a photo that was very important to the writer, you’re right. How does the last line help you make that inference?
fall is your answer
In a short response of at least three complete sentences, define flashback and explain its effect on a traditional plot structure.
What is a Horatian ode?
Answer: Contains one type of stanza in GP!
Which is a sentence? are being studied to learn more about human impact. the exotic species that live there. examining the water and pollution levels. rain forests and swamps are fragile ecosystems?
Considering that a sentence, or a full sentence, implies both a subject and a verb, the correct answer in this case would be:
Rain forests and swamps are fragile ecosystems.
Rain forests and swamps is the subject, and are fragile ecosystems is the predicate, that includes the verb.
Moreover, to draw a distinction between a full sentence and a phrase or clause, we must bear in mind that a sentence always begins with a capital letter and ends with a period or a question or exclamation mark.
Details : Which is a sentence? are being studied to learn more about human
List three adjectives that describe tom sawyer
Tom was Brave, Spunk, Adventurous.
Tom was brave when he live away from Aunt Polly. Tom was adventurous when he and Betty in cave. And Tom was spunk when he wanted to make robbers gang.
Tom Sawyer is a young boy who is known to be mischievous, adventurous, and stubborn.
Who was Tom Sawyer?
Tom Sawyer is a full of mischief maker however, he is a pure-hearted person. Tom Sawyer is probably best remembered for the incidents in which he gets a number of other boys to whitewash his Aunt Polly's fence which is an unpleasant task in his eyes because of making the work which seem to be extremely absorbing.
Tom Sawyer is a young boy with a good upbringing. Throughout the story, Tom Sawyer is a mischievous, adventurous, stubborn and completely impractical boy . These traits really shine through in everything which he does.
Learn more about Tom Sawyer here:
Once macbeth agrees to murder the king, he and lady macbeth plan that:
Answer: Lady Macbeth will make sure the guards are drugged allowing Macbeth to sneak in and stab the king to death
PLZ HELP!!! 20PTS Describe THREE characteristics of the common memoir. (What are some of the elements that make a memoir a memoir?)
Why does Amy hint to her sisters that she needs extra money?
She feels obliged to buy limes for girls in her class.
Details : Why does Amy hint to her sisters that she needs extra money?
What does the "I" stand for in the acronym NINJA?A. Ignoring the importance of reading an entire text before determining the main idea B. Ignoring the importance of understanding the author's point of view C. Ignoring text that may contradict the interpretation D. Ignoring unfamiliar or difficult words
N1BB@P!LL@R is answers b.
but idk sooooo REEEEEEEE
An idea that’s intended to make the reader take notice and want to read on is called a
An idea that's intended to make the reader take notice and want to read on is called a: HOOK.
What is the rhyme scheme in this excerpt from the poem "the voice" by Thomas hardy?
Which type of pronoun is used in the following sentence? Anyone who had a ticket could enter the art show. A. demonstrative B. relative C. indefinite D. interrogative
the answer is actually C. indefinite
Details : Which type of pronoun is used in the following sentence?Anyone who
Book groups offer meeting on a regular basic (using direct and indirect object)
Throughout history, people have turned great ideas into useful inventions.which word is the direct object?
the answer is inventions
- How does trigonometry relate to astronomy?
- In "I Am Offering This Poem," what does Baca's use of the metaphor "so it is a pot full of yellow corn / to warm your belly in the winter" show that he wants for the poem's subject? A.That he believes corn is good for her to eat B.That he wants to make sure she has enough to eat C.That he wants to cook her a healthy meal D.That he wants to give her comfort and warmth
- Which is the graph of f(x) = 100(0.7)x?
- The heavier elements in the universe were formed by ________.
- A ________ virus changes its own code or periodically rewrites itself to avoid detection.
- Unlike two-dimensional compositions, three-dimensional objects such as sculptures often have ____.
- At what time t is the turtle second time a distance of 10.0 cm from its starting point?
- Which types of computers have all of the hardware integrated with the monitor?
- Factor the polynomial.5x^4+10x^3+15x^2A. 3x^2(5x^3+3x^2+2x)B. (5x^2+2x)(x^2+5x)C. 2x^3(x+2)+5x^2D. 5x^2(x^2+2x+3)
- In Li-Young Lee's "From Blossoms," words such as "dust" and "dusty" have what kind of connotation? A.Peaceful and calm B.Sad and sentimental C.Joyful and happy D.Angry and upset
- In what stp state does a port drop all received user traffic and not transmit user traffic but still listen for updated bpdus?
- Which word from Li-Young Lee's "From Blossoms" has the most positive connotation? A.nectar B.devour C.dust D.roadside
- Nora estaba muy guapa. Ella _____ con una falda negra y una camiseta rojaA. Vestida B. Se vistiaC. Se visteD. Se vistio
- A cone has a volume of 6 cubic inches. What is the volume of a cylinder that the cone fits exactly inside of
- Which is the graph of f(x) = 5(2)x?
- If you increase your time spent doing physical activity, how will it influence your diet and maintenance of a healthy weight?
- Based on the comparison of your calories consumed and expended, do you plan on making any changes in your diet or activity level? Explain your answer.
- Which word has the most negative connotation? A.Effort B.Triumph C.Failure D.Challenge
- In slope-intercept form, what is the equation of the line parallel to y = -7x 2 that passes through the point (3, -1)?
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Computer Science > Artificial Intelligence
Title: can llms follow simple rules.
Abstract: As Large Language Models (LLMs) are deployed with increasing real-world responsibilities, it is important to be able to specify and constrain the behavior of these systems in a reliable manner. Model developers may wish to set explicit rules for the model, such as "do not generate abusive content", but these may be circumvented by jailbreaking techniques. Evaluating how well LLMs follow developer-provided rules in the face of adversarial inputs typically requires manual review, which slows down monitoring and methods development. To address this issue, we propose Rule-following Language Evaluation Scenarios (RuLES), a programmatic framework for measuring rule-following ability in LLMs. RuLES consists of 15 simple text scenarios in which the model is instructed to obey a set of rules in natural language while interacting with the human user. Each scenario has a concise evaluation program to determine whether the model has broken any rules in a conversation. Through manual exploration of model behavior in our scenarios, we identify 6 categories of attack strategies and collect two suites of test cases: one consisting of unique conversations from manual testing and one that systematically implements strategies from the 6 categories. Across various popular proprietary and open models such as GPT-4 and Llama 2, we find that all models are susceptible to a wide variety of adversarial hand-crafted user inputs, though GPT-4 is the best-performing model. Additionally, we evaluate open models under gradient-based attacks and find significant vulnerabilities. We propose RuLES as a challenging new setting for research into exploring and defending against both manual and automatic attacks on LLMs.
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Natural flavonoids as promising 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase inhibitor candidates: In silico and in vitro assessments
- 1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Çankırı Karatekin University, Çankırı, Turkey.
- 2 Department of Medical Laboratory, Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey.
- 3 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Technology, UPES University, Dehradun, India.
- PMID: 37933686
- DOI: 10.1002/ardp.202300326
The primary strategy in the fight against cancer is to screen compounds that may be effective on different types of cancer. Compounds from plants seem to be a good source. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of some flavonoids on the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) enzyme. We determined that quercetin, myricetin, fisetin, morin, apigenin, and baicalein exhibited powerful inhibition effects with IC 50 values between 4.08 and 21.26 µM, while luteolin, kaempferol, apiin, galangin, and baicalin showed moderate effects with IC 50 values between 54.15 and 138.91 µM. Quercetin competitively inhibited the binding of NADP and 6-phosphogluconate to the 6-PGD enzyme with K i values of 0.527 ± 0.251 and 0.374 ± 0.138 µM, respectively. We calculated K i values using the Cheng-Prusoff equation as between 0.44 and 14.88 µM. The possible interaction details of polyphenols with the active site of 6-PGD were analyzed with docking software. In silico and in vitro studies indicated that the -OH groups on the A and C ring of flavonoids bind to the enzyme's active site via hydrogen bonding, while the -OH groups on the C ring contributed significantly to the increase in the inhibitory potentials of the molecules. Molecular dynamic simulations tested the stability of the 6-PGD-quercetin complex during 100 ns. These phytochemicals were suitable for drug use when optimized with absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) criteria. The effects of the studied compounds on cancer cell lines of potential targets were demonstrated by network analysis. In conclusion, this study suggests that flavonoids found to be potent inhibitors could serve as leading candidates to treat many cancers via 6-PGD inhibition.
Keywords: 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase; ADMET; cancer; flavonoid; molecular docking and dynamics.
© 2023 The Authors. Archiv der Pharmazie published by Wiley-VCH GmbH on behalf of Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft.
Grants and funding
- FF111115L34/Çankiri Karatekin University supported this study with project
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
Investigating structural properties and reaction mechanism of non-stoichiometric spinel lnmo via solid state nmr †.
* Corresponding authors
a Center for Cooperative Research on Alternative Energies (CIC energiGUNE), Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Alava Technology Park, Albert Einstein 48, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain E-mail: [email protected] , [email protected]
b Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, B° Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain
c Haldor A/S, Haldor Topsøes Allé 1, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
d Ikerbasque – Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013 Bilbao, Spain
In this study, 6,7 Li solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) has been used to characterize local disorder in LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) spinel cathodes and to understand their implications for the phase transformation mechanism during electrochemical cycling vs. lithium. By comparing NMR spectra of LNMO samples with slightly varying transition metal stoichiometries, we demonstrate the high sensitivity of ssNMR in the indirect detection of transition metal order and its ability to identify disorder induced by stoichiometric variations. Secondly, we investigate the lithiation reaction mechanism of the non-stoichiometric transition metal-ordered LNMO spinel cathode by ex situ 7 Li NMR and highlight that its reaction process involves primarily two successive biphasic reactions. However, our results suggest that stoichiometrically induced transition metal disorder promotes a mixed solid solution and biphasic reaction mechanism. Besides an extended solid solution region, we evince that the biphasic reaction involves the presence of intermediate transient species that make it possible to bridge the miscibility gap between the Li 1 and Li 0.5 phases. These results go beyond our operando XRD results, underlining that local structural analysis by 7 Li ssNMR can provide valuable additional insights into the complex reaction mechanism that are difficult to access by other techniques.
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Investigating structural properties and reaction mechanism of non-stoichiometric spinel LNMO via solid state NMR
N. E. Asres, N. Etxebarria, I. Monterrubio, D. Saurel, C. F. Elkjær, M. Casas-Cabanas, M. Reynaud, M. Fehse and J. M. López del Amo, J. Mater. Chem. A , 2023, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D3TA04649D
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