• Subject List
  • Take a Tour
  • For Authors
  • Subscriber Services
  • Publications
  • African American Studies
  • African Studies
  • American Literature
  • Anthropology
  • Architecture Planning and Preservation
  • Art History
  • Atlantic History
  • Biblical Studies
  • British and Irish Literature
  • Childhood Studies
  • Chinese Studies
  • Cinema and Media Studies
  • Communication
  • Criminology
  • Environmental Science
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • International Law
  • International Relations
  • Islamic Studies
  • Jewish Studies
  • Latin American Studies
  • Latino Studies
  • Linguistics
  • Literary and Critical Theory
  • Medieval Studies
  • Military History

Political Science

  • Public Health
  • Renaissance and Reformation
  • Social Work
  • Urban Studies
  • Victorian Literature
  • Browse All Subjects

How to Subscribe

  • Free Trials

In This Article Expand or collapse the "in this article" section Democracy in Latin America

Introduction, general overviews.

  • Between Hybrid Regimes and Alternative Definitions of Democracy
  • Electoral Corruption
  • Political Behavior and Public Opinion
  • Presidentialism and Its Consequences
  • Constitutions, Courts, and the Rule of Law
  • Political Parties and Party Systems
  • Social Movements
  • Business Interests and Political Inequality
  • Popular Inclusion and Representation
  • Democratic Innovations
  • Local Democracy

Related Articles Expand or collapse the "related articles" section about

About related articles close popup.

Lorem Ipsum Sit Dolor Amet

Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae; Aliquam ligula odio, euismod ut aliquam et, vestibulum nec risus. Nulla viverra, arcu et iaculis consequat, justo diam ornare tellus, semper ultrices tellus nunc eu tellus.

  • Brazilian Foreign Policy
  • Democratic Transitions in Latin America
  • Democratization in Central America
  • Democratization in Mexico
  • Electoral Change in Latin America
  • Electoral Reform in Latin America
  • Governmental Responses to Political Corruption
  • Indigenous Politics and Representation in Latin America
  • Organized Criminal Syndicates and Governance in Mexico and Central America
  • Political Institutions and the Policymaking Process in Latin America

Other Subject Areas

Forthcoming articles expand or collapse the "forthcoming articles" section.

  • Gender, Indigenous, and Ethnic Political Representation in Oceania
  • Politics of School Reform
  • Spanish Politics and Government
  • Find more forthcoming articles...
  • Export Citations

Democracy in Latin America by Agustín Goenaga LAST REVIEWED: 04 December 2020 LAST MODIFIED: 12 January 2022 DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756223-0189

For decades, Latin America’s troubled experience with democracy has served as a testing ground for theories on democratization and political regimes. Today, most countries in the region have established democratic institutions, and a return to full-fledged authoritarianism is unlikely. However, these regimes are often at odds with the electoral, constitutional, liberal, and representative attributes that are associated with democratic regimes. Even though elections are the only means of access to public office in most of the region, they frequently involve high levels of clientelism, harassment of the opposition, and unfair advantages for incumbents. Although the separation of powers is central to the constitutional design in most countries, a generalized tendency exists toward the concentration of power in the national executive through formal or informal mechanisms. In some countries, party systems have collapsed (e.g., Peru and Venezuela); in other countries, parties have become increasingly detached from civil society (e.g., Chile and Mexico), and, in others, social movements have transformed the party system (e.g., Bolivia). The institutional ecology of many of these countries has also become one of the most diverse in the world, as representative institutions coexist with other forms of democratic decision making, such as plebiscites, participatory budgeting, citizen assemblies, national conferences, community councils, local and indigenous autonomies, town hall meetings, and constituent processes. These challenges to the liberal model of democratic governance have in many cases followed victories by left-wing parties and candidates, who have launched major efforts to overhaul their political systems. As a result, Latin America’s experience with democracy since the 1980s has thrown new light on old questions in political science, such as the relationship between institutional design and democratic stability, the performance of democratic institutions in contexts of low state capacity, or the interaction between political and economic inequalities. The region has also inspired new research agendas on the rise of ethnic-based social movements and democratic consolidation, on the electoral consequences of neoliberalism, and on the implications of direct and participatory democracy for effective governance. Most importantly, the particularities of Latin American democracies have problematized our definitions of democracy itself. This has generated new scholarly efforts to replace the democratic/authoritarian dichotomy with more fine-grained classifications of hybrid regimes, to identify multiple “varieties of democracy” or “democratic systems,” and to develop more precise measurement instruments to evaluate regime types around the world. This article offers an overview of current research on Latin American democracies. The first section presents general introductions to the topic, as well as efforts to produce normative assessments of changes in the quality of democracy in each country. The second section cites works that have drawn on the peculiarities of the Latin American experience to reconceptualize the notion of democracy itself. In the rest of the article, empirical research on specific aspects of democratic politics is organized in eight general categories: elections, separation of powers, popular participation, interest representation and political inequalities, state capacity and democratic responsiveness, new democratic institutions, local democracy, and the rise and fall of leftist governments.

Since the early 2000s, academic and nonacademic publications have highlighted a puzzling aspect of Latin American democracy: its resilience despite adverse conditions and high levels of citizen dissatisfaction. Despite economic crises, popular revolts, corruption, crime, insecurity, low-quality public services, and generalized distrust against political institutions, openly authoritarian regimes have become increasingly unlikely. The works in this section examine, at a general level, the survival of democratic institutions as well as their chronic underperformance. Kingstone and Yashar 2012 is the best point of entry to the literature on Latin American politics and democracy. The other sources in this section evaluate the interaction among democratic institutions, their contexts, and their outputs. United Nations Development Programme 2004 , a report influenced by the work of Guillermo O’Donnell, is a major landmark in the study of new democracies, since it established that democratic quality could not be reduced to the presence of free and fair elections, but also involved the degree of responsiveness of the state to citizens’ demands. Mainwaring and Welna 2003 also expands O’Donnell’s insights about the multiple dimensions of political accountability and presents the first systematic discussion on the topic. Hagopian and Mainwaring 2005 explores the effects of political and social conditions on the consolidation of democratic institutions, while Payne, et al. 2007 evaluates the effects of institutions on democratic performance. Levine and Molina 2011 and Morlino 2014 adopt a more normative purpose, developing a framework to substantiate claims about lower or higher levels of democratic quality in specific countries. Finally, the index provided by Polilat is a useful source of data about changes in the quality of democracy in the region since 2002.

Hagopian, Frances, and Scott Mainwaring, eds. The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

An authoritative volume on the consolidation of democracy in the region by the mid-2000s. Through case studies, the contributors to this volume explore the conditions under which democratic institutions can survive poor governmental performance and economic adversities. The editors argue that strong links among civil society, political parties, and the state contribute to the survival of democracy even under inhospitable circumstances.

Kingstone, Peter, and Deborah J. Yashar, eds. Routledge Handbook of Latin American Politics . New York: Routledge, 2012.

A comprehensive discussion of Latin American politics and the best point of entry to the literature. Offers overviews of academic debates on political institutions, economic development, social policy, civil society, interest groups, social movements, and international relations. It includes chapters about how the study of Latin American politics has influenced research methods in comparative politics.

Levine, Daniel, and José Molina, eds. Quality of Democracy in Latin America . Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2011.

A useful edited volume that evaluates the quality of democracy in terms of five dimensions: (1) elections, (2) participation, (3) responsiveness, (4) accountability, and (5) sovereignty. The book opens with two theoretical chapters about how to measure the quality of democracy, then presents country-specific chapters for Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Colombia, and Venezuela, and concludes with a discussion by the editors on the general trends in the region.

Mainwaring, Scott, and Christopher Welna, eds. Democratic Accountability in Latin America . New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

This volume addresses nonelectoral forms of accountability as a determinant of the quality of democracy and citizen satisfaction. The contributors develop, in detail, the concept of accountability and then analyze how the interaction between different institutions—elections, checks and balances, and oversight agencies—and civil society organizations affect democratic accountability.

Morlino, Leonardo, ed. La calidad de las democracias en América Latina: Informe para IDEA Internacional . San José, Costa Rica: IDEA Internacional, 2014.

This report offers a thorough effort to define and operationalize the concept of the “quality of democracy.” Morlino proposes procedural, substantive, and outcome-based aspects of democratic quality and evaluates them for fifteen countries to generate a highly disaggregated picture of the challenges and strengths of democracy in each case. This framework has influenced the work of the “Red de Estudios sobre la Calidad de la Democracia en América Latina.”

Payne, J. Mark, Daniel Zovatto, and Mercedes Mateo Díaz. Democracies in Development: Politics and Reform in Latin American Countries . Rev. ed. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, 2007.

This report focused on the effects of institutional features on democratic performance, in particular electoral rules and institutional design, parties and party systems, and popular participation and public opinion. The authors argue that more democratic and efficient institutions can, over time, mitigate the negative effects of antidemocratic factors related to political culture, socioeconomic development, or international pressures.

Polilat. Índice de Desarrollo Democrático de América Latina .

The private consulting firm Polilat has created with the support of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation the Índice de Desarrollo Democrático de América Latina (IDD-LAT) as a composite index of the quality of democracy for eighteen countries, aggregating several indicators that measure: (1) respect for political and civil rights, (2) quality of government, (3) social well-being, and (4) economic performance. IDD-LAT also publishes yearly reports about the situation in the region using this approach.

United Nations Development Programme. Democracy in Latin America: Toward a Citizens’ Democracy . New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2004.

This United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) report was an agenda-setting document for the evaluation of democratic performance. Based on a theoretical framework by Guillermo O’Donnell, the report goes beyond the procedural focus on elections to assess citizens’ satisfaction with their democratic governments, using new indicators on the quality of democratic institutions, interviews of elites, and large public opinion surveys.

back to top

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login .

Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here .

  • About Political Science »
  • Meet the Editorial Board »
  • Advanced Democracies, Electoral System Reform in
  • Advanced Democracies, Public Opinion and Public Policy in
  • Advertising and Election Campaigns in the United States
  • Africa, Comparative Politics of
  • Africa, Public Opinion in
  • Africa, Women’s Political Representation in
  • African Development, Politics of
  • American Indian Politics
  • Ancient Chinese Political Thought
  • Arab Spring, The
  • Arab-Israel Conflict, The
  • Arendt, Hannah
  • Argentine Government and Politics
  • Aristotle's Political Thought
  • Arms Race Modeling
  • Asia, Water Politics in
  • Asian American Mobilization and Political Identities
  • Australia and New Zealand, Comparative Politics of
  • Authoritarian Regimes, Lawyers in
  • Authoritarianism in Russia
  • Authoritarianism in the Public
  • Authoritarianism in Turkey
  • Bicameralism in Stable Democracies
  • Big Data in Political Science Research
  • Biopolitics and State Regulation of Human Life
  • Birthright Citizenship
  • Brazilian Political Development
  • Brexit, British Politics, and European Integration
  • Business-State Relations in Europe
  • Campaign Finance in the Era of Super-PACS
  • Canadian Foreign Policy
  • Canadian Government and Politics
  • Candidate Emergence and Recruitment
  • Caribbean, Elections and Democracy in the
  • Celebrities in US Politics
  • Channels of Electoral Representation in Advanced Industria...
  • China, Political Economy of
  • China's One-Child Policy
  • China-Taiwan Relations
  • Chinese Communist Party
  • Chinese Economic Policy
  • Chinese Nationalism
  • Civil Society in South Asia
  • Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Civil-Military Relations in Asia
  • Civil-Military Relations in Latin America
  • Class in American Politics
  • Climate Change and Politics
  • Collective Memory
  • Colombian Politics and Government
  • Comparative Capitalism Theory
  • Comparative Industrial Relations in Europe
  • Comparative Political Economy of Resource Extraction
  • Comparative Politics of Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea-Bis...
  • Comparative Politics of Chile and Uruguay
  • Comparative Politics of Federalism
  • Comparative Politics of the Middle East and North Africa
  • Computational Social Science
  • Congress, Defense, and Foreign Policy
  • Congressional Reassertion of Authority
  • Conservative Litigation Strategies and Groups in US Judici...
  • Constitutional Politics in Asia
  • Constitutionalism
  • Corruption in China
  • Cosmopolitan Political Thought
  • Crisis of European Integration in Historical Perspective, ...
  • Critical Elections, Partisan Realignment, and Long-Term El...
  • Critical Theory and the Frankfurt School
  • Cuban Political Development
  • Cycles of Protest
  • Democracy and Authoritarianism, Empirical Indicators of
  • Democracy and Authoritarianism in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Democracy and Dictatorship in Central Asia
  • Democracy and Minority Language Recognition
  • Democracy in Latin America
  • Democratic Citizenship
  • Democratic Consolidation
  • Democratic Peace Theory
  • Democratic Theory
  • Democratization
  • Democratization in Africa
  • Democratization in the Muslim World
  • Development of Survey Research
  • Diasporas and Politics
  • Direct Democracy in the United States
  • Dual Citizenship
  • East Africa, Politics of
  • East and Southeast Asia, Political Party Systems in
  • East and Southeast Asia, Women and Politics in
  • East Asia, Civil Society and Social Movements in
  • Economic Voting
  • Effects of the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks on American Public O...
  • Egalitarianism
  • Election Forecasting
  • Election Laws in Democracies
  • Election Observation and the Detection of Fraud
  • Electoral and Party System Development in Sub-Saharan Afri...
  • Electoral Assistance
  • Electoral Institutions and Women’s Representation
  • Electoral Reform and Voting in the United States
  • Electoral Volatility in the New Democracies of Latin Ameri...
  • Electronic Voting Systems
  • Emotion and Racial Attitudes in Contemporary American Poli...
  • Environmental Governance
  • Environmental Politics among Advanced Industrial Democraci...
  • Ethnic Diasporas and US Foreign Policy
  • Ethnic Politics
  • Eurasia, Comparative Politics of
  • European Parliament, The
  • European Social Democracy
  • European Union, Politics of the
  • Extension of Voting Rights to Emigrants
  • Failed and Weak States in Theory and Practice
  • Far-Right Parties in Europe
  • Federalism in the United States
  • Feminist Political Thought
  • Field Experiments
  • Filibuster, The
  • Framing Effects in Political Communication
  • Gender and Electoral Politics in the United States
  • Gender and International Relations
  • Gender and Political Violence
  • Gender and Politics in South Asia
  • Gender, Behavior, and Representation
  • Gender Gap in US Public Opinion
  • Gender Stereotypes in Politics
  • Genetic Underpinnings of Political Attitudes and Behaviors
  • German Politics and Government
  • Global Inequality
  • Globalization and the Welfare State
  • Globalization, Health Crises, and Health Care
  • Governance in Africa
  • Gridlock and Divided Government in the U.S.
  • Health-Care Politics in the United States
  • Historiography of Twentieth-Century American Conservatism,...
  • Hobbes’s Political Thought
  • Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of
  • Hume’s Political Thought
  • Hybrid Regimes
  • Ideal Point Estimation
  • Identity and Political Behavior
  • Ideological Reasoning in Politics
  • Illiberal Democracies and Democratic Backsliding
  • Immigrant Incorporation in Canada
  • Immigrant Incorporation in Western Europe
  • Immigration and European Politics
  • Immigration and International Relations
  • Immigration Politics and Policy in the United States
  • Impact of Campaign Contributions on Congressional Behavior...
  • Impact of C-SPAN on US Democracy
  • Implicit Attitudes in Public Opinion
  • Income Dynamics and Politics in North America and Europe
  • Income Inequality and Advanced Democracies
  • Income Inequality in the United States, The Politics of
  • Independent Voters, The Study of
  • Indian Democracy
  • Indigenous Rights and Governance in Canada, Australia, and...
  • Indonesia, Politics of
  • Informal Practices of Accountability in Urban Africa
  • Institutional Change in Advanced Democracies
  • Institutional Factors Affecting Women’s Political Engageme...
  • Intellectual Property in International Relations
  • Interest Groups and Inequality in the United States
  • Interest Groups in American Politics
  • Interethnic Contact and Impact on Attitudes
  • International Conflict Management
  • International Criminal Justice
  • International NGOs
  • International Political Economy of Illegal Drugs
  • Internet and Politics, The
  • Intersectionality in Political Science
  • Interstate Border Dispute Management in the Indo-Pacific
  • Iran, Political Development of
  • Israeli Politics
  • Italian Politics and Government
  • Judicial Supremacy and National Judicial Review
  • Judiciaries and Politics in East Asia
  • Kant's Political Thought
  • Labor Migration: Dynamics and Politics
  • Labor Politics in East Asia
  • Land Reform in Latin America
  • Latin America, Democratic Transitions in
  • Latin America, Electoral Reform in
  • Latin America, Environmental Policy and Politics in
  • Latin America, Guerrilla Insurgencies in
  • Latin America, Social Movements in
  • Legal Mobilization
  • LGBT Politics in the United States
  • Liberal Pluralism
  • Libertarianism
  • Local Governments in the United States
  • Machiavelli’s Political Thought
  • Malaysian Politics and Government
  • Marx's Political Thought
  • Mass Incarceration and US Politics
  • Mechanisms of Representation
  • Media Effects in Politics
  • Media Politics in South Asia
  • Mexican Political Development
  • Mexican Politics and Government
  • Minority Governments
  • Minority Political Engagement and Representation in the Un...
  • Mixed-Member Electoral Systems
  • Modern Dynastic Rule
  • Modern Elections and Voting Behavior in Europe
  • Motivated Reasoning
  • Narrative Analysis
  • National Interbranch Politics in the United States
  • Nationalism
  • NATO, Politics of
  • Negative Campaigning
  • Neoclassical Realism
  • New Institutionalism Revisited, The
  • Nigerian Politics and Government
  • North America, Comparative Politics of
  • Oil, Politics of
  • Online Public Opinion Polling
  • Organized Criminal Syndicates and Governance in Mexico and...
  • Origins and Impact of Proportional Representation, The
  • Outcomes of Social Movements and Protest Activities
  • Partisan and Nonpartisan Theories of Organization in the U...
  • Partisan Polarization in the US Congress
  • Partisan Polarization in the US Electorate
  • Party Networks
  • Party System Institutionalization in Democracies
  • Peace Operations
  • Personality and Politics
  • Personalization of Politics
  • Philippine Politics and Government
  • Plato’s Political Thought
  • Policy Feedback
  • Policy Responsiveness to Public Opinion
  • Political Ambition
  • Political Economy of Financial Regulation in Advanced Ind...
  • Political Economy of India
  • Political Economy of Taxation, The
  • Political Geography in American Politics
  • Political Humor and Its Effects
  • Political Institutions and the Policymaking Process in Lat...
  • Political Obligation
  • Political Parties and Electoral Politics of Japan
  • Political Roles and Activities of Former Presidents and Pr...
  • Political Thought, Hegel's
  • Political Thought of the American Founders, The
  • Politics and Policy in Contemporary Argentina
  • Politics, Gender Quotas in
  • Politics of Anti-Americanism
  • Politics of Class Formation
  • Politics of Disaster Prevention and Management
  • Politics of Ethnic Identity in China
  • Politics of Financial Crises
  • Politics of Foreign Direct Investment in South Asia
  • Politics of Higher Education in the U.S.
  • Politics of Internal Conquest in the United States and Can...
  • Politics of Japan
  • Politics of Natural Disasters, The
  • Politics of North Korea
  • Politics of Science and Technology
  • Politics of South Africa
  • Politics of Southern Africa
  • Politics of the American South
  • Politics of the Philippines: From Rizal to Duterte
  • Politics of the US-Mexico Border
  • Populism in Latin America
  • Positive and Negative Partisanship
  • Postcolonial Political Theory
  • Postcolonialism and International Relations
  • Post-Communist Democratization
  • Preferential Trade Agreements, Politics of
  • Presidential Candidate Selection in Comparative Perspectiv...
  • Presidential Persuasion and Public Opinion
  • Presidential Primaries and Caucuses
  • Private Governance
  • Protest Participation
  • Public Opinion in Affluent  Democracies
  • Public Opinion in Europe toward the European Union
  • Public Opinion in New Democracies and Developing Nations
  • Public Opinion on Immigration
  • Public Opinion toward the Environment and Climate Change i...
  • Public Presidency, US Elections, and the Permanent Campaig...
  • Qualitative Methods, The Renewal of
  • Race in American Political Thought
  • Racial and Ethnic Descriptive Representation in the United...
  • Recruitment and Selection for Elected Office
  • Redistricting and Electoral Competition in American Politi...
  • Referendums and Direct Democracy
  • Regime Transitions and Variation in Post-Communist Europe
  • Regional Integration
  • Regional Integration in Latin America
  • Regional Security
  • Regulating Food Production
  • Religion and Politics in Latin America
  • Religion in American Political Thought
  • Religion in Contemporary Political Thought
  • Religion, Politics, and Civic Engagement in the United Sta...
  • Republicanism
  • Rousseau’s Political Thought
  • Rule of Law
  • Russia and the West
  • Science and Democracy
  • Science and Social Movements
  • Secession and Secessionist Movements
  • Semi-Presidential Systems
  • Social Networks, Mass Publics, and Democratic Politics
  • Social Policy and Immigrant Integration
  • South Asian Political Thought
  • South Korea, Politics of
  • Southeast Asia, International Relations in
  • Southeast Asian Politics
  • Spectacle, The
  • Sport and Politics
  • State Building in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • State Formation
  • State, The Nature of the
  • State-Society Relations in South Asia
  • Stereotypes in Political Reasoning
  • Supreme Court and Public Opinion
  • Supreme Court of the United States, The
  • Systemic Theories of International Politics
  • Taiwan, Politics of
  • Tea Party, The
  • Thailand, Politics of
  • The Crisis of European Integration in Historical Perspecti...
  • The New Right in American Political Thought
  • The Politics of Parenthood: Attitudes, Behavior, Policy, a...
  • The Politics of Waste and Social Inequalities in Indian Ci...
  • Third-Party Politics in the United States
  • Tocqueville’s Political Thought
  • Transboundary Pollution
  • Transitional Justice
  • Transnational Private Regulation
  • Trust in Latin American Governing Institutions
  • Turkey, Political Development of
  • US Military Bases Abroad
  • US Politics, Neoliberalism in
  • US Presidency, The
  • US Presidential Campaigns and Their Impact
  • Venezuela, The Path Toward Authoritarianism in
  • Voter Support for Women Candidates
  • Voter Turnout
  • Voter Turnout Field Experiments
  • Voting Technology and Election Administration in the Unite...
  • War, Factors Influencing Popular Support for
  • Welfare State Development
  • Welfare State Development in Latin America
  • Welfare State Development in Western Europe
  • West Africa, Politics of
  • White Identity Politics
  • Women and Conflict Studies
  • Women’s Inclusion in Executive Cabinets
  • Women’s Legal and Constitutional Rights
  • Women’s Political Activism and Civic Engagement in Latin A...
  • Women’s Representation in Governmental Office in Latin Ame...
  • Women’s Representation in the Middle East and North Africa
  • Workers’ Politics in China
  • Youth and Generational Differences in US Politics
  • Privacy Policy
  • Cookie Policy
  • Legal Notice
  • Accessibility

Powered by:

  • [|]

Chart: Evaluating Latin American Democracies in 2022

The region has witnessed a mix of stability and stagnation with several big setbacks and a couple bright spots.

As we settle into the third decade of the twenty-first century, how is democracy faring in Latin America? That depends on who you ask. Per IDEA’s Global State of Democracy Report 2021, released last November, most Latin American democracies are holding steady, if not stagnating, at mid-range levels of quality. But according to Latinobarómetro’s 2021 report published the same month, there’s a growing indifference among citizens in the region toward democracy on the whole.

Half of the countries in Latin America were showing signs of erosions to their democracies at the end of 2021 per the IDEA report , but none so great as Brazil, which is experiencing the world’s steepest democratic recession . The report also underscores an uptick in attacks against the press by both governing and opposition parties, as well as heads of state, particularly in Brazil, El Salvador, Mexico, and Peru.

On the flip side, the IDEA report singles out Ecuador and the Dominican Republic for making substantial improvements to their democracies since 2016. The two countries show that democracy in the region is “not only resilient but also has the potential to continue being perfected.”

According to Latinobarómetro , however, Ecuador was also the country where popular support for democracy fell the most in the region from 2010 to 2020. In 2010, about two-thirds of Latin Americans and Ecuadorans said that democracy was the most preferable form of government. Ten years later, just under half of Latin Americans—and a third of Ecuadorans—agreed. Despite overall declines, 11 countries ended the decade in 2020 with support for democracy on the upswing compared to 2018, compared to seven where it continued to trend downward.  

China's President Xi at a 2015 Latin America summit.

"We are in a global battle for hearts and minds, where decisions are being made today that will lock in relationships for the longer term," writes AS/COA's Eric Farnsworth in The National Interest . 

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

The Brazilian economy is improving this year. How sustainable is the trend of faster growth?

Milei and Massa

Learn about how the candidates differ when it comes to economic policy, endorsements, and coalitions.

Journal of Democracy

Comparing Latin Democracies

  • Diego Abente-Brun

Select your citation format:

The Quality of Democracy in Latin America . Edited by Daniel H. Levine and José E. Molina. Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2011. 299 pp.

W hat does it mean to speak of the “quality” of a country’s democracy, and how can this quality be measured and compared across cases? Since the early 2000s, a number of scholars have been trying to answer these questions. In mid-decade, Daniel Levine and José Molina gathered a distinguished group with the aim of systematically improving upon the existing expert literature. The group’s work focused on Latin America, but wider implications are not far to seek. The fruits of the effort are set forth in the present volume, which may safely be called an indispensable tool for all those interested in democracy’s fate, whether in Latin America or beyond.

The editors open with a pair of chapters that ask in detail what the quality of democracy is and how it can be gauged. To this they add a final chapter that attempts to draw some conclusions. In between are case-study chapters on Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Each chapter addresses the guiding questions posed by the editors, making the book a truly coherent comparative exercise. A brief review lends itself best to consideration of the general questions rather than the specific findings for each country.

About the Author

Diego Abente-Brun is deputy director of the International Forum for Democratic Studies at the National Endowment for Democracy.

View all work by Diego Abente-Brun

Levine and Molina’s curtain-raising theoretical overview is useful and much needed. They rightly insist on a crucial distinction between the quality of democracy as a political process for making decisions and the quality of the decisions and hence outcomes (as these affect security, prosperity, justice, and so on) that any given democracy actually produces.  [End Page 165]  In doing so, they resist a confusing tendency, visible since the late 1990s, to conflate these two concepts. The sad truth is that a society may be well governed from the procedural-democratic point of view, and yet be ill governed in any number of other, more substantive ways.

A second crucial point has to do with the definition of democracy. Levine and Molina insist on a procedural definition because it alone offers enough analytical precision and portability to make the exercise of comparison meaningful. Lastly, Levine and Molina define the focus of their inquiry as “the level of quality of any specific democracy” as “determined by  the extent  to which citizens can participate in an informed manner in processes of free, fair, and frequent elections; influence the making of political decisions; and hold those who govern accountable” (8, emphasis in original). The quality of democracy is thus a multidimensional continuum.

In operational terms, Levine and Molina posit that democratic quality can be measured along five dimensions: electoral decisions, participation, accountability, responsiveness, and sovereignty. Using these, the editors construct a general “Index of Quality of Democracy” (33). The Index uses data from 2005 or the nearest preceding year for which data were available and lists the seventeen Latin American countries that were considered “electoral democracies” by Freedom House that year. The Index consists of figures running along a 0-to-100 scale (with 100 representing a perfect score) to indicate how well each country did along each of the five dimensions of democratic quality.

According to the Index, Uruguay is the region’s highest-quality procedural democracy with an average score of 71.9, followed by Costa Rica, Chile, Argentina, and Mexico clustering together in the low 60s. Guatemala sits at the bottom with a score of 44.6, well below the 17-country average of 57.3. Eight countries—the five already mentioned plus Panama, the Dominican Republic, and Brazil—rank above that average. The remaining nine countries rank below.

The Index shows not only how the various countries rank, but also the relative strengths and weaknesses of each. For example, most countries do well in terms of electoral decisions and sovereignty, especially insofar as the latter can be gauged by the degree of civilian control over the military (no small consideration in a region with a long history of military coups). Participation (average score, 48.5) is a weak spot, which is surprising given the apparent strength of various social movements across Latin America.

The worst deficit, however, appears in the area of accountability. The average score on this measure is an abysmal 28.6, by far the lowest on any of the five dimensions of democratic quality. Each country’s lowest individual score, moreover, is found in this category, indicating a serious across-the-board democratic deficit. Levine and Molina explain this by noting how the region’s many young democracies, anxious to consolidate  [End Page 166]  and show that they can govern, have bolstered presidential powers even to the point of creating what Guillermo O’Donnell calls “delegative democracies.” The problem is acute, but one wonders how well the obvious solution—strengthening legislatures—will work given the drift toward factionalism and exaggerated pork-barrel politics that is evident in so many of these bodies today.

As persuasive as the volume generally is, some elements of its analytical framework are open to question. In a highly original move, Levine and Molina use the degree to which a country is sovereign as one of the indicators of the quality of its democracy. They gauge sovereignty in part by examining a country’s level of foreign indebtedness. But is such indebtedness really a dimension of the political process, or is it rather a policy outcome that sheds light not on a democracy’s quality, but on its performance?

Another indicator of sovereignty is the degree to which civilian officials control the military. Granted, civilian supremacy is vital to democracy. But if we include it, why not also bring in measures of “stateness” such as governmental control over the national territory, an effective bureaucracy, and significant regulatory capabilities? After all, are these not just as important as civilian supremacy when it comes to determining whether citizens can “influence the making of political decisions”? As Claudio Holzner notes in his chapter on Mexico, “Many of the weaknesses of democratic rule in Mexico do not have their origin in faulty rules of the game, but in institutional weaknesses within the Mexican state that make the implementation of those rules inconsistent, unpredictable, and, in some cases, nonexistent” (106).

The inclusion of Transparency International’s well-known Corruption Perception Index as a measure of horizontal accountability makes sense—corruption plainly affects the ability of institutions to control each other. Yet should not other signs of horizontal accountability or its lack (the presence or absence of effective national comptroller’s or ombudsman’s offices, for instance) be included too? As for vertical accountability, one chosen indicator is the average length of terms in elected office, but as this generally falls within a narrow range of four or five years one wonders how much difference it makes.

A perhaps more serious problem is the failure to include an indicator of the  effective  rule of law. It is one thing to have an  estado de derecho  (a formally law-based state, which every democracy must be), but quite another to live under the true  imperio de la ley  in which equal laws are equally applied as a general occurrence. How can citizens influence political decisions or hold those in positions of power accountable if the laws are applied according to who the plaintiff is? Perhaps one could take a position akin to Holzner’s and see uneven law enforcement as a general symptom of state weakness, but most observers would agree that the enforcement problem is to a large extent linked  [End Page 167]  to corruption, influence peddling, and pervasive bias against the poor and disadvantaged.

Finally, readers may want to take the fine print of some of these rankings with a grain of salt. As noted, Costa Rica (63.4), Chile (63.2), Argentina (62.7), and Mexico (61.3) have nearly identical above-average scores. With regard to the first two this seems quite plausible, but the close proximity to them of Argentina and Mexico is bound to raise eyebrows. Argentina, according to a recent UNDP and OAS study, saw a whopping 382 uses of presidential-decree powers between 2002 and 2007, while Chilean chief executives went the better part of a decade (2000 to 2007) without using such powers once. (In Costa Rica, any presidential decree requires legislative approval within a set period, while in Mexico decrees can only be used for commercial matters and must be approved by Congress in the annual budget law.) Although the compiling of indices may be a necessary task, anomalies such as these underline what a conceptually risky enterprise it remains.

Even taking all the foregoing cautions into account, one may conclude that Levine and Molina have produced a fine piece of scholarship. The theoretical chapters are solid and useful, the country chapters illuminating, and the Index an indispensable tool for comparative analysis and the development of a research agenda that, so far as I know, stands as the only one of its kind. Students of democracy, as well as those active in democratic political life, may regard this conceptually elegant and empirically rigorous volume as essential reading. Both audiences will find it a valuable source of information, debate, and guidance. As Gerardo Munck has said, Levine, Molina, and their contributors have authored a tome that “moves the debate forward,” and indeed substantially so.

Further Reading

Volume 25, Issue 1

The Legacies of 1989: The Transformative Power of Europe Revisited

  • Alina Mungiu-Pippidi

Improving governance in the EU’s new member states remains a huge challenge for the European project. Why has the EU succeeded in promoting democracy among its postcommunist members but failed in promoting…

Volume 5, Issue 3

Latin America’s Critical Elections: Brazil at an Impasse

  • Bolívar Lamounier

Volume 1, Issue 3

Three Paradoxes of Democracy

  • Larry Diamond

While democracy is the most admired form of government, maintaining it requires contending with its contradictions.

  • Harvard Business School →
  • Faculty & Research →

Democracy: A Case Study

  • Format: Print
  • Find it at Harvard

About The Author

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

David A. Moss

More from the author.

  • Faculty Research

The U.S. Secession Crisis as a Breakdown of Democracy

  • February 2016 (Revised July 2017)

An Australian Ballot for California?

  • February 2016 (Revised April 2017)

James Madison, the 'Federal Negative,' and the Making of the U.S. Constitution

  • The U.S. Secession Crisis as a Breakdown of Democracy  By: David Moss and Dean Grodzins
  • An Australian Ballot for California?  By: David Moss, Marc Campasano and Dean Grodzins
  • James Madison, the 'Federal Negative,' and the Making of the U.S. Constitution  By: David Moss and Marc Campasano

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

  • Politics & Social Sciences
  • Politics & Government

Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products. Something we hope you'll especially enjoy: FBA items qualify for FREE Shipping and Amazon Prime.

If you're a seller, Fulfillment by Amazon can help you grow your business. Learn more about the program.

Kindle app logo image

Download the free Kindle app and start reading Kindle books instantly on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required .

Read instantly on your browser with Kindle for Web.

Using your mobile phone camera - scan the code below and download the Kindle app.

QR code to download the Kindle App

Image Unavailable

Readings in Latin American Politics: Challenges to Democratization

  • To view this video download Flash Player

Readings in Latin American Politics: Challenges to Democratization 1st Edition

  • Paperback $4.95 18 Used from $0.96 1 New from $42.95
  • ISBN-10 0618371362
  • ISBN-13 978-0618371365
  • Edition 1st
  • Publisher Cengage Learning
  • Publication date February 3, 2005
  • Language English
  • Dimensions 6.5 x 1 x 9 inches
  • Print length 576 pages
  • See all details

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

Product details

  • Publisher ‏ : ‎ Cengage Learning; 1st edition (February 3, 2005)
  • Language ‏ : ‎ English
  • Paperback ‏ : ‎ 576 pages
  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0618371362
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-0618371365
  • Item Weight ‏ : ‎ 1.6 pounds
  • Dimensions ‏ : ‎ 6.5 x 1 x 9 inches
  • #3,962 in Caribbean & Latin American Politics
  • #24,125 in Political Science (Books)
  • #40,091 in Instruction Methods

Important information

To report an issue with this product, click here .

Customer reviews

Customer Reviews, including Product Star Ratings help customers to learn more about the product and decide whether it is the right product for them.

To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. It also analyzed reviews to verify trustworthiness.

No customer reviews

  • Amazon Newsletter
  • About Amazon
  • Accessibility
  • Sustainability
  • Press Center
  • Investor Relations
  • Amazon Devices
  • Amazon Science
  • Start Selling with Amazon
  • Sell apps on Amazon
  • Supply to Amazon
  • Protect & Build Your Brand
  • Become an Affiliate
  • Become a Delivery Driver
  • Start a Package Delivery Business
  • Advertise Your Products
  • Self-Publish with Us
  • Host an Amazon Hub
  • › See More Ways to Make Money
  • Amazon Visa
  • Amazon Store Card
  • Amazon Secured Card
  • Amazon Business Card
  • Shop with Points
  • Credit Card Marketplace
  • Reload Your Balance
  • Amazon Currency Converter
  • Your Account
  • Your Orders
  • Shipping Rates & Policies
  • Amazon Prime
  • Returns & Replacements
  • Manage Your Content and Devices
  • Your Recalls and Product Safety Alerts
  • Conditions of Use
  • Privacy Notice
  • Your Ads Privacy Choices

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

Democracy in America

Alexis de toqueville, everything you need for every book you read..

Welcome to the LitCharts study guide on Alexis de Toqueville's Democracy in America . Created by the original team behind SparkNotes, LitCharts are the world's best literature guides.

Democracy in America: Introduction

Democracy in america: plot summary, democracy in america: detailed summary & analysis, democracy in america: themes, democracy in america: quotes, democracy in america: characters, democracy in america: symbols, democracy in america: theme wheel, brief biography of alexis de toqueville.

Democracy in America PDF

Historical Context of Democracy in America

Other books related to democracy in america.

  • Full Title: Democracy in America
  • When Written: 1831-1840  
  • Where Written: France
  • When Published: 1835 (Part I); 1840 (Part II)
  • Genre: Political writing
  • Setting: Though writing from his native country of France, Tocqueville’s text primarily draws on his experiences traveling through the United States.
  • Point of View: The book is a work of political argumentation, but Tocqueville often explicitly invokes a first-person perspective, citing his own personal experiences in America.

Extra Credit for Democracy in America

In Real Time Between 1997 and 1998, the television network C-SPAN created 65 hours of live programming by traveling along Tocqueville’s route in America, timing the trip to coincide exactly with the days of his trip and the places he saw along the way.

Teenage Angst Although Tocqueville praises religion in America for its ability to keep order and authority, he himself lost his Catholic faith as a teenager as a result of reading the many books of the French Enlightenment that he came across in his father’s library.

The LitCharts.com logo.

Megan Sharp

Customer Reviews

Connect with the writers

Once paid, the initial draft will be made. For any query r to ask for revision, you can get in touch with the online chat support available 24X7 for you.

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

Research papers can be complex, so best to give our essay writing service a bit more time on this one. Luckily, a longer paper means you get a bigger discount!


You get wide range of high quality services from our professional team

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

Writing my essay with the top-notch writers!

The writers you are supposed to hire for your cheap essay writer service are accomplished writers. First of all, all of them are highly skilled professionals and have higher academic degrees like Masters and PhDs. Secondly, all the writers have work experience of more than 5 years in this domain of academic writing. They are responsible for

  • Omitting any sign of plagiarism
  • Formatting the draft
  • Delivering order before the allocated deadline

Customer Reviews

Once I Hire a Writer to Write My Essay, Is It Possible for Me to Monitor Their Progress?

Absolutely! Make an order to write my essay for me, and we will get an experienced paper writer to take on your task. When you set a deadline, some people choose to simply wait until the task is complete, but others choose a more hands-on process, utilizing the encrypted chat to contact their writer and ask for a draft or a progress update. On some occasions, your writer will be in contact with you if a detail from your order needs to be clarified. Good communication and monitoring is the key to making sure your work is as you expected, so don't be afraid to use the chat when you get someone to write my essay!

Final Paper

A standard essay helper is an expert we assign at no extra cost when your order is placed. Within minutes, after payment has been made, this type of writer takes on the job. A standard writer is the best option when you’re on a budget but the deadline isn’t burning. Within a couple of days, a new custom essay will be done for you from the ground up. Unique content, genuine research, spot-on APA/MLA formatting, and peerless grammar are guaranteed. Also, we’ll provide you with a free title page, bibliography, and plagiarism check. With a standard writer, you can count on a quality essay that will live up to all your expectations.

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

Finished Papers

Make the required payment

After submitting the order, the payment page will open in front of you. Make the required payment via debit/ credit card, wallet balance or Paypal.

My Custom Write-ups

Penmypaper: a student-friendly essay writing website.

We, at PenMyPaper, are resolute in delivering you professional assistance to write any kind of academic work. Be it marketing, business, or healthcare sector, we can prepare every kind of draft efficiently, meeting all the points of the question brief. Also, we believe in 'research before drafting'. Any work without ample research and evidence will be a flawed one and thus we aim to make your drafts flawless with exclusive data and statistics. With us, you can simply relax while we do the hard work for you.

  • History Category
  • Psychology Category
  • Informative Category
  • Analysis Category
  • Business Category
  • Economics Category
  • Health Category
  • Literature Category
  • Review Category
  • Sociology Category
  • Technology Category

Can I hire someone to write essay?

Student life is associated with great stress and nervous breakdowns, so young guys and girls urgently need outside help. There are sites that take all the responsibility for themselves. You can turn to such companies for help and they will do all the work while clients relax and enjoy a carefree life.

Take the choice of such sites very seriously, because now you can meet scammers and low-skilled workers.

On our website, polite managers will advise you on all the details of cooperation and sign an agreement so that you are confident in the agency. In this case, the user is the boss who hires the employee to delegate responsibilities and devote themselves to more important tasks. You can correct the work of the writer at all stages, observe that all special wishes are implemented and give advice. You pay for the work only if you liked the essay and passed the plagiarism check.

We will be happy to help you complete a task of any complexity and volume, we will listen to special requirements and make sure that you will be the best student in your group.

essays service writing company

Amount to be Paid

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

Finished Papers

PenMyPaper: a student-friendly essay writing website

We, at PenMyPaper, are resolute in delivering you professional assistance to write any kind of academic work. Be it marketing, business, or healthcare sector, we can prepare every kind of draft efficiently, meeting all the points of the question brief. Also, we believe in 'research before drafting'. Any work without ample research and evidence will be a flawed one and thus we aim to make your drafts flawless with exclusive data and statistics. With us, you can simply relax while we do the hard work for you.

Once your essay writing help request has reached our writers, they will place bids. To make the best choice for your particular task, analyze the reviews, bio, and order statistics of our writers. Once you select your writer, put the needed funds on your balance and we'll get started.

Who are your essay writers?

Write My Essay Service Helps You Succeed!

Being a legit essay service requires giving customers a personalized approach and quality assistance. We take pride in our flexible pricing system which allows you to get a personalized piece for cheap and in time for your deadlines. Moreover, we adhere to your specific requirements and craft your work from scratch. No plagiarized content ever exits our professional writing service as we care. about our reputation. Want to receive good grades hassle-free and still have free time? Just shoot us a "help me with essay" request and we'll get straight to work.

A writer who is an expert in the respective field of study will be assigned

We value every paper writer working for us, therefore we ask our clients to put funds on their balance as proof of having payment capability. Would be a pity for our writers not to get fair pay. We also want to reassure our clients of receiving a quality paper, thus the funds are released from your balance only when you're 100% satisfied.

offers three types of essay writers: the best available writer aka. standard, a top-level writer, and a premium essay expert. Every class, or type, of an essay writer has its own pros and cons. Depending on the difficulty of your assignment and the deadline, you can choose the desired type of writer to fit in your schedule and budget. We guarantee that every writer will be a subject-matter expert with proper writing skills and background knowledge across all high school, college, and university subjects. Also, we don’t work with undergraduates or dropouts, focusing more on Bachelor, Master, and Doctoral level writers (yes, we offer writers with Ph.D. degrees!)

Finished Papers

  • Dissertations
  • Business Plans
  • PowerPoint Presentations
  • Editing and Proofreading
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Book Review/Movie Review
  • Reflective Paper
  • Company/Industry Analysis
  • Article Analysis
  • Custom Writing Service
  • Assignment Help
  • Write My Essay
  • Paper Writing Help
  • Write Papers For Me
  • College Paper Writing Service

(415) 397-1966

John N. Williams

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

We are quite confident to write and maintain the originality of our work as it is being checked thoroughly for plagiarism. Thus, no copy-pasting is entertained by the writers and they can easily 'write an essay for me’.

Will You Write Me an Essay?

Students turn to us not only with the request, "Please, write my essay for me." From the moment we hear your call, homework is no longer an issue. You can count on our instant assistance with all essay writing stages. Just to let you know, our essay writers do all the work related to writing, starting with researching a topic and ending with formatting and editing the completed paper. We can help you choose the right topic, do in-depth research, choose the best up-to-date sources, and finally compose a brilliant piece to your instructions. Choose the formatting style for your paper (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, or Harvard), and we will make all of your footnotes, running heads, and quotations shine.

Our professional essay writer can help you with any type of assignment, whether it is an essay, research paper, term paper, biography, dissertation, review, course work, or any other kind of writing. Besides, there is an option to get help with your homework assignments. We help complete tasks on Biology, Chemistry, Engineering, Geography, Maths, Physics, and other disciplines. Our authors produce all types of papers for all degree levels.

Johan Wideroos

Q&A: Fostering Success

More related Essays

Didn`t find the right sample?

Admin Login

guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

By: The Art Institutes Filed under: General Education

August 23, 2018


  1. PPT

    guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

  2. Democracies in Development: Politics and Reform in Latin America

    guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

  3. PPT

    guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

  4. Democracy in Latin America Political Change in Comparative Perspective

    guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

  5. The State of Democracy in Latin America

    guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies

  6. Democracy in Latin America/democracy in Latin America descargar PDF

    guided reading democracy case study latin american democracies


  1. International Democracy Day and Preamble Reading

  2. American Democracy Lecture April 4, 2023

  3. Vol. 1. Part 3. Democracy in America (Chapter 8)

  4. Vol. 1. Part 1. Democracy in America


  1. Democracy Case Study: Latin American Democracies Section 1

    Institutional Revolutionary Party, which has controlled Mexico for most of the century. 1. Name at least four factors needed to make democracy work. For democracy to work, several conditions must exist. There must be free and fair elections. There must also be more than one political party. The people of the country should have a good education.

  2. 35.1

    what are the 4 practices of democracy? -free elections. -citizen participation. -majority rule. -constitutional government. what problems did colonial rule leave in Latin America? -powerful militaries. -economies that were too dependent on one single crop. -large gaps between rich and poor.

  3. Democracy in Latin America

    Mainwaring, Scott, and Christopher Welna, eds. Democratic Accountability in Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. This volume addresses nonelectoral forms of accountability as a determinant of the quality of democracy and citizen satisfaction. The contributors develop, in detail, the concept of accountability and then analyze ...

  4. Chart: Evaluating Latin American Democracies in 2022

    Per IDEA's Global State of Democracy Report 2021, released last November, most Latin American democracies are holding steady, if not stagnating, at mid-range levels of quality. But according to Latinobarómetro's 2021 report published the same month, there's a growing indifference among citizens in the region toward democracy on the whole ...

  5. Comparing Latin Democracies

    Participation (average score, 48.5) is a weak spot, which is surprising given the apparent strength of various social movements across Latin America. The worst deficit, however, appears in the area of accountability. The average score on this measure is an abysmal 28.6, by far the lowest on any of the five dimensions of democratic quality.

  6. Democracy in latin america

    Democracy in Latin America 58033000 152 views•25 slides. Mexican Revolution Greg Sill 19.8K views•42 slides. The mexican revolution Parham Haj Seyed Javadi 726 views•6 slides. Democracy in the philippine No L's 2.9K views•14 slides. Political Development of the Presidents from Roxas to Marcos (1946-1986) Ananda Wisely 6.8K views•30 ...

  7. PDF Democracy and human rights in Latin America

    Box 1 - Positive democratic trends . 1) Since the 1980s Latin America has become the third most democratic region in the world, and the first in the developing world. 2) Latin American democracies have proved very resilient (only 27% have suffered an interruption in the last four decades). 3) Elections are generally accepted as the only

  8. Democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Compilation of Selected

    For related information about democracy in Latin American and the Caribbean, see the following products: • CRS Report R46781, Latin America and the Caribbean: U.S. Policy and Key ... democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes, or authoritarian regimes based on an

  9. Democracy and Economic Crisis: The Latin American Experience

    The debt crisis has raised serious concerns about the future of democratic governance in Latin America. The prevailing assumption is not merely that economic decline undercuts prospects for democratic consolidation; because of their vulnerability to popular political pressures, democracies—particularly new democracies—have been seen as ...

  10. Democracy: A Case Study

    Democracy: A Case Study invites readers to experience American history anew and come away with a deeper understanding of the greatest strengths and vulnerabilities of the nation's democracy as well as its resilience over time. The book adapts the case method to revitalize conversations about governance and democracy and show how the United States has often thrived on political conflict.

  11. Readings in Latin American Politics: Challenges to Democratization

    Download the free Kindle app and start reading Kindle books instantly on your smartphone, tablet, or computer ... Readings in Latin American Politics: Challenges to Democratization 1st Edition . by ... examining how the central themes discussed in Part I play out in each particular case. Read more. Previous page. ISBN-10. 0618371362. ISBN-13 ...

  12. Democracy in America Study Guide

    Full Title: Democracy in America. When Written: 1831-1840. Where Written: France. When Published: 1835 (Part I); 1840 (Part II) Genre: Political writing. Setting: Though writing from his native country of France, Tocqueville's text primarily draws on his experiences traveling through the United States. Point of View: The book is a work of ...

  13. Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies

    Our writers will help with any kind of subject after receiving the requirements. One of the tasks we can take care of is research papers. They can take days if not weeks to complete. If you don't have the time for endless reading then contact our essay writing help online service. With EssayService stress-free academic success is a hand away.

  14. Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies Guided Reading

    Here are three tips for writing a winning college essay: Thoughts of the American Revolution were really out of fashion at the start of the Reagan era, and not just in the Reagan administration. Hollywood had put them in the closet for years, promoting to children Braveheart, which leaves its American heroes--Scots, Irish, English--feckless and ...

  15. Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies

    Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies, Essay About My Favorite Subject English, Esl Course Work Writers Services For College, Essay On Tolerance The Need Of Hour, Soal Essay Pkn Kelas 9, Resume Roumanie France Video, Essay On Rain Tourism

  16. Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies

    Therefore we require each and every paper writer to have a bachelor's, master's, or Ph.D., along with 3+ years of experience in academic writing. If the paper writer ticks these boxes, they get mock tasks, and only with their perfect completion do they proceed to the interview process. Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American ...

  17. Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies

    Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies - Password: Show More. 1-PAGE SUMMARY. REVIEWS HIRE. ... Bedrooms . 2. Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies: 7 Customer reviews. Education $ 10.91. Writingserv. Nursing Management Business and Economics Psychology +99. 12 Customer reviews. 4.7/5. Level ...

  18. Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies

    Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies, Atomic Bomb Essay Assignment, Custom Report Ghostwriters Sites Online, Quality Control Resume Objective Examples, Best Resume Model, Professional Speech Ghostwriting For Hire For University, The hook determines the general direction the research paper will take.

  19. Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies Guided Reading

    Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies Guided Reading - Essay. Hire a Writer. Technology Category. Password: 1(888)814-4206 1(888)499-5521. User ID: 231078 / Mar 3, 2021. Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies Guided Reading: Find a Writer. REVIEWS HIRE. 1514 Orders prepared. ASK ME A QUESTION ... Democracy Case Study Latin ...

  20. Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies Guided Reading

    Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies Guided Reading - ID 9011. 132 ... If reading 100-page-long academic articles and digging into every piece of information doesn't sound like something you'd want to do on a Sunday night, hire our essay writing company to do your research proposal. ... Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies ...

  21. Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies

    Emilie Nilsson. #11 in Global Rating. Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies, Visual Histography Memory Narrative Essay, Personal Statement Examples For A Levels, Resume Show Promotion, Writing A Accounting Resume, Marvels Of Science Essay, Freud's Essays On Sexuality. 10289.

  22. Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies Guided Reading

    We also want to reassure our clients of receiving a quality paper, thus the funds are released from your balance only when you're 100% satisfied. 1 (888)814-4206 1 (888)499-5521. 100% Success rate. 1423.

  23. Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies

    Guided Reading Democracy Case Study Latin American Democracies | Essay Service. Find Your People. In this Stanley Creates, we will use simple materials to create unique paper puppets with moveable joints. From fantasy creatures to historical figures, making paper puppets is a great way to stretch your drawing, coloring, construction, and ...