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- 07 Nov 2023
- Cold Call Podcast
How Should Meta Be Governed for the Good of Society?
Julie Owono is executive director of Internet Sans Frontières and a member of the Oversight Board, an outside entity with the authority to make binding decisions on tricky moderation questions for Meta’s companies, including Facebook and Instagram. Harvard Business School visiting professor Jesse Shapiro and Owono break down how the Board governs Meta’s social and political power to ensure that it’s used responsibly, and discuss the Board’s impact, as an alternative to government regulation, in the case, “Independent Governance of Meta’s Social Spaces: The Oversight Board.”
- 06 Jun 2023
The Opioid Crisis, CEO Pay, and Shareholder Activism
In 2020, AmerisourceBergen Corporation, a Fortune 50 company in the drug distribution industry, agreed to settle thousands of lawsuits filed nationwide against the company for its opioid distribution practices, which critics alleged had contributed to the opioid crisis in the US. The $6.6 billion global settlement caused a net loss larger than the cumulative net income earned during the tenure of the company’s CEO, which began in 2011. In addition, AmerisourceBergen’s legal and financial troubles were accompanied by shareholder demands aimed at driving corporate governance changes in companies in the opioid supply chain. Determined to hold the company’s leadership accountable, the shareholders launched a campaign in early 2021 to reject the pay packages of executives. Should the board reduce the executives’ pay, as of means of improving accountability? Or does punishing the AmerisourceBergen executives for paying the settlement ignore the larger issue of a business’s responsibility to society? Harvard Business School professor Suraj Srinivasan discusses executive compensation and shareholder activism in the context of the US opioid crisis in his case, “The Opioid Settlement and Controversy Over CEO Pay at AmerisourceBergen.”
- 02 May 2023
- What Do You Think?
How Should Artificial Intelligence Be Regulated—if at All?
Some AI pioneers say the technology could be a risk to humanity, and some governments have taken steps to rein it in. But who should set the rules and what details must they consider? asks James Heskett. Open for comment; 0 Comments.
- 24 Apr 2023
What Does It Take to Build as Much Buzz as Booze? Inside the Epic Challenge of Cannabis-Infused Drinks
The market for cannabis products has exploded as more states legalize marijuana. But the path to success is rife with complexity as a case study about the beverage company Cann by Ayelet Israeli illustrates.
- 21 Apr 2023
- Research & Ideas
The $15 Billion Question: Have Loot Boxes Turned Video Gaming into Gambling?
Critics say loot boxes—major revenue streams for video game companies—entice young players to overspend. Can regulators protect consumers without dampening the thrill of the game? Research by Tomomichi Amano and colleague.
- 31 Mar 2023
Can a ‘Basic Bundle’ of Health Insurance Cure Coverage Gaps and Spur Innovation?
One in 10 people in America lack health insurance, resulting in $40 billion of care that goes unpaid each year. Amitabh Chandra and colleagues say ensuring basic coverage for all residents, as other wealthy nations do, could address the most acute needs and unlock efficiency.
- 28 Mar 2023
The FDA’s Speedy Drug Approvals Are Safe: A Win-Win for Patients and Pharma Innovation
Expediting so-called breakthrough therapies has saved millions of dollars in research time without compromising drug safety or efficacy, says research by Ariel Stern, Amitabh Chandra, and colleagues. Could policymakers harness the approach to bring life-saving treatments to the market faster?
- 23 Mar 2023
As Climate Fears Mount, More Investors Turn to 'ESG' Funds Despite Few Rules
Regulations and ratings remain murky, but that's not deterring climate-conscious investors from paying more for funds with an ESG label. Research by Mark Egan and Malcolm Baker sizes up the premium these funds command. Is it time for more standards in impact investing?
- 14 Mar 2023
- In Practice
What Does the Failure of Silicon Valley Bank Say About the State of Finance?
Silicon Valley Bank wasn't ready for the Fed's interest rate hikes, but that's only part of the story. Victoria Ivashina and Erik Stafford probe the complex factors that led to the second-biggest bank failure ever.
- 14 Feb 2023
Does It Pay to Be a Whistleblower?
In 2013, soon after the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) had started a massive whistleblowing program with the potential for large monetary rewards, two employees of a US bank’s asset management business debated whether to blow the whistle on their employer after completing an internal review that revealed undisclosed conflicts of interest. The bank’s asset management business disproportionately invested clients’ money in its own mutual funds over funds managed by other banks, letting it collect additional fees—and the bank had not disclosed this conflict of interest to clients. Both employees agreed that failing to disclose the conflict was a problem, but beyond that, they saw the situation very differently. One employee, Neel, perceived the internal review as a good-faith effort by senior management to identify and address the problem. The other, Akash, thought that the entire business model was problematic, even with a disclosure, and believed that the bank may have even broken the law. Should they escalate the issue internally or report their findings to the US Securities and Exchange Commission? Harvard Business School associate professor Jonas Heese discusses the potential risks and rewards of whistleblowing in his case, “Conflicts of Interest at Uptown Bank.”
Is Sweden Still 'Sweden'? A Liberal Utopia Grapples with an Identity Crisis
Changing political views and economic forces have threatened Sweden's image of liberal stability. Is it the end of the Scandinavian business-welfare model as we know it? In a case study, Debora Spar examines recent shifts in Sweden and what they mean for the country's future.
- 17 Jan 2023
Nestlé’s KitKat Diplomacy: Neutrality vs. Shared Value
In February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine, and multinational companies began pulling out of Russia, in response. At Switzerland-based Nestlé, chief executive Mark Schneider had a difficult decision to make. Nestlé had a long tradition of neutrality that enabled it to operate in countries regardless of their political systems and human rights policies. But more recently the company had embraced Michael Porter’s “shared value” paradigm, which argues that companies have a responsibility to improve the business community and the health of their communities. What should Schneider do? Professor Geoffrey Jones discusses the viability of the shared value concept and the social responsibility of transnational corporations today in the case, “Nestlé, Shared Value and Kit Kat Diplomacy.”
- 04 Oct 2022
Cold Call: Corporate Governance and Growth Strategy at Capital SAFI
Jorge Quintanilla Nielsen started the independent asset management firm Capital SAFI in 2007. Now a leader in Bolivia’s closed-end funds industry with a total of $430 million in assets under management, Quintanilla planned to expand into other countries, like Peru and Colombia. He knew that governance would be one of the main aspects potential partners would evaluate. Capital SAFI’s board had evolved over time with the establishment of a governance committee, an assessment process for the board, professional development offerings for board members, tools to manage governance risk, and succession plans for board members and company executives. Would local and foreign investors be impressed by those measures or were additional improvements needed? Professor V. G. Narayanan discusses the importance of corporate governance in his case, “Building the Governance to Take Capital SAFI to the Next Level.”
- 20 Sep 2022
How Partisan Politics Play Out in American Boardrooms
The discord gripping the nation has reached the heights of corporate America, with costly consequences for companies and investors. Research by Elisabeth Kempf shows just how polarized the executive suite has become.
- 06 Sep 2022
Curbing an Unlikely Culprit of Rising Drug Prices: Pharmaceutical Donations
Policymakers of every leaning have vowed to rein in prescription drug costs, with little success. But research by Leemore Dafny shows how closing a loophole on drugmaker donations could eliminate one driver of rising expenses.
- 01 Sep 2022
Is It Time to Consider Lifting Tariffs on Chinese Imports?
Many of the tariffs levied by the Trump administration on Chinese goods remain in place. James Heskett weighs whether the US should prioritize renegotiating trade agreements with China, and what it would take to move on from the trade war. Open for comment; 0 Comments.
- 21 Jul 2022
Did Pandemic Stimulus Funds Spur the Rise of 'Meme Stocks'?
Remember the GameStop stock frenzy? Research by Robin Greenwood and colleagues shows how market speculation can flare up when you combine stimulus funds, trading platforms, and plain old boredom.
- 18 May 2022
Are Banks the ‘Bad Guys’? Overdraft Fees Are Crushing Low-Income Customers
Payday lenders have been accused of exploiting poor consumers, but traditional banks exact a similar toll through overdraft fees. Research by Marco Di Maggio and Emily Williams shows how seemingly innocuous checking accounts can become vehicles for financial distress.
- 13 May 2022
Company Reviews on Glassdoor: Petty Complaints or Signs of Potential Misconduct?
Online reviews by employees can signal internal factors that raise the risk of scandal. Research by Dennis Campbell, who analyzed reviews of 4,000 companies, offers insights for managers trying to prevent misdeeds long before they happen.
- 19 Apr 2022
What Role Do Individual Leaders Play in Corporate Governance?
From 1997 to 2012, Scott Tucker built a nationwide network of payday lending businesses, becoming a pioneer in online lending along the way. Many of his borrowers could not access credit from commercial banks and depended on payday loans as a financial lifeline to cope with emergency expenses. But in 2012 federal prosecutors indicted Tucker on several criminal charges that he violated disclosure requirements. He was later convicted on 14 charges, including racketeering, misleading disclosures, and fraud. Associate Professor Aiyesha Dey discusses how the case, “Scott Tucker: Race to the Top,” examines the role of individual leaders in the corporate governance system, as well as their responsibility for creating a positive corporate culture that embodies ethics, self-restraint, and a commitment to serve. Open for comment; 0 Comments.
Corporate Governance Case Study: Tesla, Twitter, and the Good Weed
Justin Slane, Sharon Makower and Joe Green are editors for the Capital Markets & Corporate Governance Service at Thomson Reuters Practical Law. This post is based on a Practical Law article by Mr. Slane, Ms. Makower and Mr. Green.
Perhaps no company in the world has the perception of its brand being tied to one person more than Tesla Inc. (Tesla) and its CEO and now former chairman of the board, Elon Musk. As at least one journalist phrased it, “ Elon Musk is Tesla. Tesla is Elon Musk .” And Musk is not just the face of Tesla, but a co-founder of PayPal and Solar City, the founder and current CEO of SpaceX and founder of its subsidiary, The Boring Company. He has crafted a “real-life Iron Man” persona, including all the eccentricity, and is undoubtedly one of the most recognizable and polarizing CEOs in the world.
But 2018 has not been the best year for Elon Musk. In what Musk would call negative propaganda pushed by short sellers, Tesla has faced heightened scrutiny and increasingly negative media attention related to a litany of issues, including cash burn , vehicle safety , production capabilities , and a string of employment-related lawsuits and executive exits ( only made worse recently ). Analysts and investors began to publicly cool on Tesla and question its long-term value, which Musk also attributed to short sellers .
In May, citing independence concerns and questioning whether Musk may be stretched too thin, proxy advisory giants Glass, Lewis & Company (Glass Lewis) and Institutional Shareholder Services, Inc. (ISS) opposed the re-election of current Tesla board members and supported splitting Musk’s roles as CEO and chairman.
As the pressure mounted, Musk became increasingly combative, especially on Twitter, lashing out at short sellers and anyone criticizing Tesla or him. Musk’s erratic behavior and obsession with short sellers and critics drew more criticism of his leadership and that of Tesla’s board of directors .
But it all came to a head on August 7, when in the middle of the trading day, without notice or warning to anyone (including other executives and directors at Tesla or contacts at Nasdaq, the exchange on which Tesla’s common stock is listed), Musk tweeted:
Then, for reasons still unknown, nobody took his phone away, and Musk continued tweeting and interacting with shareholders throughout the day:
The public reaction to Musk’s tweets was strong and immediate. Tesla’s stock soared before Nasdaq eventually halted trading for several hours later in the day, and there was instant speculation about whether Musk actually had the funding to take Tesla private (spoiler: he did not).
Musk’s drastic departure from normal public disclosure standards and the subsequent media circus arising from it unsurprisingly captured the attention of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which ultimately resulted in an enforcement action and settlement with Elon Musk over the tweets. Tesla also settled with the SEC. The end results of the settlements include the following:
- Musk must step down as chairman of the board and be replaced by an independent chairman, but Musk will be allowed to remain as CEO. On November 7, 2018, Tesla appointed an independent chairman.
- Musk and Tesla must each pay $20 million in fines.
- Tesla must add two independent directors and create a formal disclosure committee to oversee communications from Musk.
- Tesla must hire an experienced securities lawyer, subject to approval by the SEC Division of Enforcement (Tesla’s current general counsel was Elon Musk’s divorce attorney and worked primarily in family law before joining Tesla).
This post examines this corporate governance cautionary tale, focusing primarily on the Regulation FD (Reg FD) issues raised by Musk’s tweets and public statements. The full article from which this post is excerpted also examines a host of other issues including disclosure controls and procedures, stock exchange requirements, conflicts of interest, board independence, and more, highlighting for each issue where things went wrong and identifying resources that perhaps could have helped avoid this type of mess. To learn more about these issues, the full article can be accessed here .
Complying with Regulation FD
Much of the initial reporting surrounding Musk’s tweets questioned whether the use of his personal Twitter account violated Reg FD. Reg FD, which took effect in 2000, prohibits selective disclosure by requiring that material nonpublic information disclosed to securityholders or market professionals (including research analysts) must also be disclosed to the public in a broad, non-exclusionary manner. And in fact, in finally answering why he tweeted about taking Tesla private, Musk explained in an August 13 blog post that he wanted to have discussions with key shareholders and he felt it “wouldn’t be right to share information about going private with just [Tesla’s] largest investors.” While Musk’s intentions are noble and in line with the basic principle of nearly 20-year-old federal securities law, the reports were correct that Reg FD generally requires more than tweets.
SEC guidance issued in 2008 and 2013 regarding the use of company websites and social media for disclosure suggests that companies can still satisfy Reg FD requirements if they notify investors of where they can expect material information to be disclosed online, making it a “recognized channel of distribution.” In particular, the 2013 guidance dealt with the Netflix CEO disclosing monthly viewing hours on his personal Facebook page.
The SEC stated that disclosing material nonpublic information on the personal social media site of an individual corporate officer, without advance notice to investors that the site may be used for this purpose, is unlikely to satisfy Regulation FD because it is not likely a method “reasonably designed to provide broad, non-exclusionary distribution of the information to the public” that Reg FD requires. The SEC stated this is true even if “the individual in question has a large number of subscribers, friends or other social media contacts, so that the information is likely to reach a broader audience over time.”
The SEC used its 2013 guidance to highlight the concept that whether a Regulation FD violation occurred will turn on whether the investing public was alerted to the channels of distribution a company will use to disseminate material information. The SEC’s 2008 guidance on the use of company websites outlines the factors that indicate whether a particular channel (whether it be a corporate website or a corporate executive’s social media account) is a recognized channel of distribution for communicating with investors.
In this case, Tesla and Musk had a few factors in their favor:
- A Form 8-K filed on November 5, 2013 , encourages investors to follow Elon Musk’s personal Twitter account for material information being disclosed to the public. Ideally the notice would be repeated, including in Tesla’s annual reports on Form 10-K or additional Form 8-K reports, but at least some form of notice was provided to shareholders.
- Elon Musk also has nearly 23 million Twitter followers. His original tweet was widely picked up and further broadcast by major news sources within minutes, and within hours, former SEC Chairman Harvey Pitt was on major cable news networks discussing whether Musk committed securities fraud.
While it was far from a safe use of social media for Reg FD purposes, Musk and Tesla appear to have a decent argument that shareholders had notice that information could be disclosed through Musk’s personal Twitter account and his account was reasonably designed to provide broad, non-exclusionary disclosure of the information.
Most public companies typically adopt formal policies regarding compliance with Reg FD (as well as the use of social media by their employees and executives). A strong Reg FD policy should contain:
- A complete outline of the procedures and practices of the company concerning disclosure of information to the public.
- A formal limitation on which company personnel are permitted to communicate with analysts and securityholders on behalf of the company. These people should be well-versed in Reg FD and familiar with the company’s public disclosures. Ideally these people should also understand the concept of materiality and what may constitute securities fraud under Rule 10b-5.
- A restatement of the company’s policy on confidentiality of information.
- A guide to disclosing material information.
Companies should also address the use of social media by their employees and executives, whether in their Reg FD policies or in separate social media guidelines that cover both personal social media use and social media use as an authorized company spokesperson.
While a Tesla Reg FD policy, set of social media guidelines, or other corporate communications policy addressing these concerns does not seem to be publicly available, the Tesla Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (last revised in December 2017) refers to a “Communication Policy … [that covers] Tesla’s social media guidelines, media relations and marketing guidelines, and the circumstances and the extent to which individuals are allowed to speak on Tesla’s behalf.” Musk should have been aware of Tesla’s communications policy, ideally having been reminded frequently through regular training for Tesla officers regarding the company’s policy and their obligations under Regulation FD, and never tweeted to begin with.
Twitter Was Always a Bad Choice
Musk’s tweets are also an extreme, yet useful, example of why casual social media use and disclosure of material nonpublic information should not be mixed. Section 10(b) of the Exchange Act prohibits material misstatements and omissions of fact, and companies must always avoid making disclosures in informal social media posts that lack material information or the context necessary for investors to be fully informed. If a company decides that there is material information that should be disclosed to the public, it must then determine when that information must be disclosed. Information should only be disclosed when it is definitive, accurate, clear, and specific.
Twitter can be an excellent tool for supplementing more formal corporate disclosure, such as linking to SEC filings, the company’s website, or attaching a press release as an image. However, individual Twitter posts as the sole medium of disclosure might be the worst form of social media use for disclosing material nonpublic information. The primary differentiating factor between Twitter and other social media platforms is it limits user posts to just 280 characters. Musk used 61 characters in his original going private tweet (if you pro rate his $20 million SEC fine to the characters in that tweet, Musk spent over $2.6 million on spaces alone). While some may applaud his succinctness, Musk’s August 7 tweets and blog post are textbook examples of public disclosures that lack context and completeness.
What does “funding secured” and “investor support is confirmed” mean? Who is/are the buyer(s)? How was the $420 per share price calculated? Has the board received or approved a proposal? None of these basic questions had answers. We later learned in the SEC’s civil complaint against Musk:
- A Tesla investor texted Musk’s chief of staff “What’s Elon’s tweet about? Can’t make any sense of it….”
- A reporter emailed Musk to ask if his tweet was a 420 joke and whether “an actual explanation” was coming.
- The following investor relations exchange happened in real life seven hours, ten tweets, and one blog post after Musk’s initial “going private” tweet:
“After Tesla’s head of Investor Relations received another inquiry from another investment bank research analyst at approximately 7:20 PM EDT, he asked whether the analyst had read Tesla’s ‘official blog post on this topic.’ The analyst responded, ‘I did. Nothing on funding though?’ The head of Investor Relations replied, ‘The very first tweet simply mentioned ‘Funding secured’ which means there is a firm offer. Elon did not disclose details of who the buyer is.’ The analyst then asked, ‘Firm offer means there is a commitment letter or is this a verbal agreement?’ The head of Investor Relations responded, ‘I actually don’t know, but I would assume that given we went full-on public with this, the offer is as firm as it gets.'” (see SEC Complaint, par. 52 .)
It took six full days before Musk or Tesla provided any clarification about what Musk meant by “funding secured” and the rest of his going private tweets on August 7.
Corporate Disclosure or Personal Statements?
Musk’s claim he was making statements in his personal capacity as a potential buyer of Tesla as opposed to on Tesla’s behalf as CEO and Chairman adds another element to this case illustrating why disclosure of material nonpublic information requires full context. If his personal Twitter account is both a recognized channel for corporate communications and a means for him to make disclosures as a private individual, how are investors supposed to know what is corporate information and what is personal?
Nothing in the August 7 tweets or blog post definitively stated Musk was not speaking on behalf of Tesla as its CEO and Chairman. In fact, in the investor relations exchange mentioned above, Tesla’s head of Investor Relations says “… I would assume that given we went full-on public with this…” (emphasis added), phrasing that certainly implies he thought the statements were made on Tesla’s behalf.
It is generally good corporate governance practice that if a company discovers a Reg FD violation, to minimize risks, it should promptly disclose the information by a Reg FD-compliant method. For example, if an executive officer selectively discloses material nonpublic information, the company can correct the situation by filing a Form 8-K to disclose the information.
Given the potential confusion for investors resulting from Musk’s initial tweets and his claim that he made the statements in his “personal capacity,” Tesla should have immediately filed a Form 8-K (which also happens to allow for more than 280 characters) to correct any potentially selective or misleading disclosure made by Musk and provide any additional context necessary. No Form 8-K was filed though. Again, it was six days before Musk or Tesla provided any clarification or additional explanation for his statements on August 7.
The SEC Settlement and Ongoing Fallout
The ultimate fallout from Musk’s brief foray into a possible going private transaction is still ongoing:
- Class action lawsuits are still pending.
- The Department of Justice is still investigating Musk’s tweets.
- Significant investors are engaging with Tesla requesting changes to the board of directors (and other corporate governance practices).
Musk doesn’t seem to be fazed by any of this, and could do something tomorrow that turns this all on its head again. But the SEC settlement with Musk has now been approved by the Southern District of New York, and Tesla has settled separately with the SEC without a formal enforcement action. The terms of the settlements bring us full circle to where the year started, with the recognition that Tesla was facing an increasing battle between responsible corporate governance and Elon Musk’s persona. Tesla lost this round. If the added disclosure controls and expanded board continues losing battles, well, who knows? There is always Teslaquilla (or maybe not )!
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Case studies by Stanford GSB faculty that illustrate concepts and lessons in corporate governance.
This case is a follow up to HR-29A, and explains the actions taken by Keller Williams in response to the residential real estate market downturn in 2008 and 2009. The case explains the programs and initiatives put in place by the company to boost agent…
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This case is a follow up to CG-20A, and explains the actions taken by Tarco in response to threat from activist investor Barracuda. The case explains how the company relied on an analysis of its shareholder base and predictive proxy voting to inform its…
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In January 2004, the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies announced that it would reduce its estimate of proved oil reserves by nearly 4 billion barrels, or 20 percent. The announcement set off a series of events, including a drop in the company’s share…
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This case asks students to review the impact of SFAS 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, in the context of the AOL Time Warner merger. Under SFAS 142, companies were required to perform periodic testing to determine whether economic goodwill had…
This case reviews the recognition of goodwill impairment taken by AOL Time Warner following the adoption of SFAS 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets. This case is the successor of A-196A, AOL Time Warner (A): Accounting for Goodwill.
In 2007, there were three prominent corporate governance ratings firms—The Corporate Library (TCL), Governance Metrics International (GMI), and Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS). These firms assessed the effectiveness and deficiency of the…
The case study asks students to evaluate the role that the quarterly conference call plays in a company’s overall communications strategy with investors. In particular, students are asked to assess what additional information they can learn from the…
Eugene Isenberg, CEO of Nabors Industries, was listed in a 2006 Wall Street Journal article as one of the highest paid executives in the U.S. over the previous 14 years. He received this compensation as a result of a unique bonus arrangement and large…
In July 2002, a legal watchdog group, Judicial Watch, announced that it was suing Halliburton Company for overstating revenues during the period 1998 to 2001. The group’s contention was that Halliburton used fraudulent accounting practices to boost…
The case describes the economic and cultural models that have led to the success of Keller Williams Realty. By 2006 Keller Williams was one of the most profitable real estate companies in the United States (if not the most profitable); in addition it was…
By 2007, Gretchen Morgenson, assistant editor and columnist at The New York Times, had gained significant attention from business leaders, regulators, and academics for her coverage of a wide range of financial and governance issues. Morgenson wrote the…
In 2001, accounting regulators, especially those in the U.S., began to reconsider the rules of consolidation with a move toward a requirement based on “control,” with much less consideration of the size of the equity stake. The fundamental accounting and…
As the chief financial officer of The Walt Disney Company, Tom Staggs was responsible not only for the financial management of the company, but also for the communication of the company’s financial and strategic objectives to its investor base. Because of…
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Case Studies of Good Corporate Governance
This second fully revised edition of "Case Studies of Good Corporate Governance Practices" presents the experiences of a set of leading companies in Latin America in reforming and improving how their firms are governed, and the results these changes have achieved. Each chapter's contents reflect the views of one company's management and directors of the motivations, challenges, solutions and rewards for devising and putting in place better governance rules and practices.
The full publication download also includes the case studies translated into Spanish and Portuguese.
- © 2022
International Cases of Corporate Governance
- Jean Jinghan Chen 0
University of Macao, Macao, China
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
Provides case studies of corporate governance
Gives guidance for MNCs in an uncertain era
Explores international legal structures for corporations
- Table of contents
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Table of contents (14 chapters)
Front matter, introduction.
Jean Jinghan Chen
Wells fargo, comminsure, toshiba (japan), lee kum kee, yunnan baiyao, back matter.
- Corporate governance
- Discusses the case of Carillion, Wells Fargo, & CommInsure
- Addresses the unethical behavior of Volkswagen
- Addresses the financial scandal of Wirecard
- Examines the case of Toshiba, & GOME
“This book of corporate governance case studies provides a nice complement to existing courses or modules covering the topics of corporate governance, business ethics, and/or corporate social responsibility. There are several well established corporate governance textbooks in existence that included some cases, but this is one of the first stand-alone case books of which I am aware other than Mallin’s casebook published back in 2006. Many of us in the field of comparative corporate governance have our own conceptual framework from which we describe and explain corporate governance behavior and outcomes. This book provides the instructor with quite a bit of freedom to frame the issues around their own personal perspective. Furthermore, in these days of inflated book prices, students should benefit from a text that is fully utilized. I especially liked the relative recency of these cases – all case studies are less than ten years old. Given the turmoil within the global economy and deglobalization trends during the past decade, this book is timely. I also liked that fact that there was a wide range of geographic contexts captured in these cases given the Western bias in previous texts and case studies. Finally, the range of issues is impressive, ranging from dealing with accounting scandals, to ownership and control rights conflicts, to business ethics and corporate social responsibility challenges. If you are looking for a timely casebook on comparative corporate governance, this text should serve you well.” (William Q. Judge, E.V. Williams Professor of Strategic Leadership, Old Dominion University, USA)
“The release of Professor Chen’s new book of international corporate governance cases comes at a time when these new challenges are still defining the new business landscape. Companies are now expected to be more transparent and accountable to their stakeholders. This book not only provides us the insight of how and why corporate scandals occur, but also provides insight into the recurrence of corporate governance failures, offers practical guidance for remedying options. Practitioners and policy-makers will certainly learn, share and benefit from the critical thinking this book has provided.” (Qin Zou, Vice President, Stanley Black and Decker, USA)
Book Title : International Cases of Corporate Governance
Authors : Jean Jinghan Chen
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3238-0
Publisher : Palgrave Macmillan Singapore
eBook Packages : Business and Management , Business and Management (R0)
Copyright Information : The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2022
Hardcover ISBN : 978-981-19-3237-3 Published: 15 September 2022
Softcover ISBN : 978-981-19-3240-3 Published: 16 September 2023
eBook ISBN : 978-981-19-3238-0 Published: 14 September 2022
Edition Number : 1
Number of Pages : XX, 249
Number of Illustrations : 7 b/w illustrations, 18 illustrations in colour
Topics : Accounting/Auditing , Business Finance , Business and Management, general , Performers and Practitioners , Automotive Industry
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10 good governance cases
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Good governance and sustainability: a case study from Pakistan
- 1 Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. [email protected]
- PMID: 17175733
- DOI: 10.1002/hpm.852
Objective: On the basis of a case study in Pakistan, the paper argues that good governance, characterized by transparency, accountability and meaningful community participation, plays a critical role in the sustainability of donor-funded health systems projects in the public health sector.
Methods: The Family Health Project (FHP) (1992-1999), funded by the World Bank, has been used as a case study. Critical analysis of secondary data mainly obtained from the Department of Health (DoH) in the province of Sindh in Pakistan is the major tool used for the study. Data from other sources including the World Bank have also been used.
Results: The analysis reveals that the existing health care system could not fully absorb and sustain major "sociopolitical" thrusts of the project, meaningful community participation and "democratic" decision-making processes being the most important ones. The hierarchical structure and management process made it difficult to produce a sense of ownership of the project among all managers and the rank and file staff. The Provincial Health Development Center (PHDC) and District Health Development Centers (DHDCs) established by the FHP did not receive adequate financial and political support from DoH and the Ministry of Health to have much control of the project at the local level. Consequently, these Centers largely failed to institutionalize a continuing training program for district level health officials/professionals. Due to lack of political support, the District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) could not be institutionalized. Community participation in the DHMTs was symbolic rather than forceful. Improved coordination among all stakeholders, more stable and competent leadership, more meaningful community participation, greater devolution of project management to the district level, and better management of resources would have resulted in more effective and efficient implementation of the project. Based on these findings, the paper introduces a Sustainable Management Approach (SMA) as a tool that can be used to ensure the sustainability of health systems projects, particularly those funded by international organizations in developing countries.
Conclusions: Good governance and a conducive organizational culture are important prerequisites for incorporating any new project within an existing system. This includes prior consensus building among all stakeholders, a meaningful and inclusive participatory planning, implementation and evaluation process involving communities, political commitment, and the identification and use of appropriate leadership for project management.
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System risk in staffordshire and stoke-on-trent.
How do you manage risk across a complex, multi-organisation integrated care system?
England and Wales Cricket Board - Governance Improvement Programme
Prompted in part by a transformational change in its income thanks to a five-year broadcast media deal, GGI was hired by the ECB to improve its governance.
Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust - board development and clinical governance transformation
GGI was appointed as the dedicated governance partner to BHRUT, a large acute trust in north east London, to deliver a comprehensive programme of board development, together with a trust-wide quality and clinical governance transformation programme.
Hillingdon Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust - clinical services strategy development
GGI was appointed by The Hillingdon Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (THHT) to help the trust develop a strategic outline case (SOC) addressing all feasible options for the redevelopment of Hillingdon Hospitals.
Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust - supporting the implementation of a new quality governance structure
GGI was appointed to undertake a review that considered the quality governance aspects of Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust's overall governance arrangements and to work with the trust to implement the review’s recommendations.
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Corporate Governance And Ethics Case Study
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1. Outline the three most important points – in your opinion – in the Chairman’s statement [pages 2]
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Federalism as a system of government in the United States of America is one democratic governance. It ensures that power is vested in the people, as opposed to a central government and the political structure that come with it. Federalism has played a great role in the economic development of the Union. It is believed that it is in America that one would find the most stable democracy in the whole world. So below is a case study of three states with distinctive types of federal governments within them.
California State Government
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This paper is going to present a discussion on Nike’s main officers, their compensations and some corporate governance issues that the company is facing.
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This paper is a strategic case analysis of Calveta Dining Services, a US based catering and cooking services that is specialized in providing various culinary services to nursing homes around the United States. The company commenced as a small family business and has grown into a major entity. This paper critiques trends in the business by applying principles of strategic management and strategic planning to the case at hand
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The case addresses the challenges that made Barclays lose its competitive superiority. The company was previously enjoying dominance in the European market and was ranked ninth among other banks with key resource capabilities (Buechel 49). However, internal organizational issues as well as failure to take advantage of the opportunities in the market limited the growth of Barclays to the extent that it was facing major challenges including loss of investor confidence, plummeting staff morale, and poor decision-making by the executives (Buechel 50).
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What Is Good Governance
- Harvard Case Studies
Harvard Business Case Studies Solutions – Assignment Help
In most courses studied at Harvard Business schools, students are provided with a case study. Major HBR cases concerns on a whole industry, a whole organization or some part of organization; profitable or non-profitable organizations. Student’s role is to analyze the case and diagnose the situation, identify the problem and then give appropriate recommendations and steps to be taken.
To make a detailed case analysis, student should follow these steps:
STEP 1: Reading Up Harvard Case Study Method Guide:
Case study method guide is provided to students which determine the aspects of problem needed to be considered while analyzing a case study. It is very important to have a thorough reading and understanding of guidelines provided. However, poor guide reading will lead to misunderstanding of case and failure of analyses. It is recommended to read guidelines before and after reading the case to understand what is asked and how the questions are to be answered. Therefore, in-depth understanding f case guidelines is very important.
Harvard Case Study Solutions
porter’s five forces model
STEP 2: Reading The What Is Good Governance Harvard Case Study:
To have a complete understanding of the case, one should focus on case reading. It is said that case should be read two times. Initially, fast reading without taking notes and underlines should be done. Initial reading is to get a rough idea of what information is provided for the analyses. Then, a very careful reading should be done at second time reading of the case. This time, highlighting the important point and mark the necessary information provided in the case. In addition, the quantitative data in case, and its relations with other quantitative or qualitative variables should be given more importance. Also, manipulating different data and combining with other information available will give a new insight. However, all of the information provided is not reliable and relevant.
When having a fast reading, following points should be noted:
- Nature of organization
- Nature if industry in which organization operates.
- External environment that is effecting organization
- Problems being faced by management
- Identification of communication strategies.
- Any relevant strategy that can be added.
- Control and out-of-control situations.
When reading the case for second time, following points should be considered:
- Decisions needed to be made and the responsible Person to make decision.
- Objectives of the organization and key players in this case.
- The compatibility of objectives. if not, their reconciliations and necessary redefinition.
- Sources and constraints of organization from meeting its objectives.
After reading the case and guidelines thoroughly, reader should go forward and start the analyses of the case.
STEP 3: Doing The Case Analysis Of What Is Good Governance:
To make an appropriate case analyses, firstly, reader should mark the important problems that are happening in the organization. There may be multiple problems that can be faced by any organization. Secondly, after identifying problems in the company, identify the most concerned and important problem that needed to be focused.
Firstly, the introduction is written. After having a clear idea of what is defined in the case, we deliver it to the reader. It is better to start the introduction from any historical or social context. The challenging diagnosis for What Is Good Governance and the management of information is needed to be provided. However, introduction should not be longer than 6-7 lines in a paragraph. As the most important objective is to convey the most important message for to the reader.
After introduction, problem statement is defined. In the problem statement, the company’s most important problem and constraints to solve these problems should be define clearly. However, the problem should be concisely define in no more than a paragraph. After defining the problems and constraints, analysis of the case study is begin.
STEP 4: SWOT Analysis of the What Is Good Governance HBR Case Solution:
- Pest analysis
SWOT analysis helps the business to identify its strengths and weaknesses, as well as understanding of opportunity that can be availed and the threat that the company is facing. SWOT for What Is Good Governance is a powerful tool of analysis as it provide a thought to uncover and exploit the opportunities that can be used to increase and enhance company’s operations. In addition, it also identifies the weaknesses of the organization that will help to be eliminated and manage the threats that would catch the attention of the management.
This strategy helps the company to make any strategy that would differentiate the company from competitors, so that the organization can compete successfully in the industry. The strengths and weaknesses are obtained from internal organization. Whereas, the opportunities and threats are generally related from external environment of organization. Moreover, it is also called Internal-External Analysis.
In the strengths, management should identify the following points exists in the organization:
- Advantages of the organization
- Activities of the company better than competitors.
- Unique resources and low cost resources company have.
- Activities and resources market sees as the company’s strength.
- Unique selling proposition of the company.
- Improvement that could be done.
- Activities that can be avoided for What Is Good Governance.
- Activities that can be determined as your weakness in the market.
- Factors that can reduce the sales.
- Competitor’s activities that can be seen as your weakness.
- Good opportunities that can be spotted.
- Interesting trends of industry.
- Change in technology and market strategies
- Government policy changes that is related to the company’s field
- Changes in social patterns and lifestyles.
- Local events.
Following points can be identified as a threat to company:
- Company’s facing obstacles.
- Activities of competitors.
- Product and services quality standards
- Threat from changing technologies
- Financial/cash flow problems
- Weakness that threaten the business.
Following points should be considered when applying SWOT to the analysis:
- Precise and verifiable phrases should be sued.
- Prioritize the points under each head, so that management can identify which step has to be taken first.
- Apply the analyses at proposed level. Clear yourself first that on what basis you have to apply SWOT matrix.
- Make sure that points identified should carry itself with strategy formulation process.
- Use particular terms (like USP, Core Competencies Analyses etc.) to get a comprehensive picture of analyses.
STEP 5: PESTEL/ PEST Analysis of What Is Good Governance Case Solution:
Pest analyses is a widely used tool to analyze the Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Environmental and legal situations which can provide great and new opportunities to the company as well as these factors can also threat the company, to be dangerous in future.
Pest analysis is very important and informative. It is used for the purpose of identifying business opportunities and advance threat warning. Moreover, it also helps to the extent to which change is useful for the company and also guide the direction for the change. In addition, it also helps to avoid activities and actions that will be harmful for the company in future, including projects and strategies.
To analyze the business objective and its opportunities and threats, following steps should be followed:
- Brainstorm and assumption the changes that should be made to organization. Answer the necessary questions that are related to specific needs of organization
- Analyze the opportunities that would be happen due to the change.
- Analyze the threats and issues that would be caused due to change.
- Perform cost benefit analyses and take the appropriate action.
- Next political elections and changes that will happen in the country due to these elections
- Strong and powerful political person, his point of view on business policies and their effect on the organization.
- Strength of property rights and law rules. And its ratio with corruption and organized crimes. Changes in these situation and its effects.
- Change in Legislation and taxation effects on the company
- Trend of regulations and deregulations. Effects of change in business regulations
- Timescale of legislative change.
- Other political factors likely to change for What Is Good Governance.
- Position and current economy trend i.e. growing, stagnant or declining.
- Exchange rates fluctuations and its relation with company.
- Change in Level of customer’s disposable income and its effect.
- Fluctuation in unemployment rate and its effect on hiring of skilled employees
- Access to credit and loans. And its effects on company
- Effect of globalization on economic environment
- Considerations on other economic factors
- Change in population growth rate and age factors, and its impacts on organization.
- Effect on organization due to Change in attitudes and generational shifts.
- Standards of health, education and social mobility levels. Its changes and effects on company.
- Employment patterns, job market trend and attitude towards work according to different age groups.
case study solutions
- Social attitudes and social trends, change in socio culture an dits effects.
- Religious believers and life styles and its effects on organization
- Other socio culture factors and its impacts.
- Any new technology that company is using
- Any new technology in market that could affect the work, organization or industry
- Access of competitors to the new technologies and its impact on their product development/better services.
- Research areas of government and education institutes in which the company can make any efforts
- Changes in infra-structure and its effects on work flow
- Existing technology that can facilitate the company
- Other technological factors and their impacts on company and industry
These headings and analyses would help the company to consider these factors and make a “big picture” of company’s characteristics. This will help the manager to take the decision and drawing conclusion about the forces that would create a big impact on company and its resources.
STEP 6: Porter’s Five Forces/ Strategic Analysis Of The What Is Good Governance Case Study:
To analyze the structure of a company and its corporate strategy, Porter’s five forces model is used. In this model, five forces have been identified which play an important part in shaping the market and industry. These forces are used to measure competition intensity and profitability of an industry and market.
porter’s five forces model
These forces refers to micro environment and the company ability to serve its customers and make a profit. These five forces includes three forces from horizontal competition and two forces from vertical competition. The five forces are discussed below:
- THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS:
- as the industry have high profits, many new entrants will try to enter into the market. However, the new entrants will eventually cause decrease in overall industry profits. Therefore, it is necessary to block the new entrants in the industry. following factors is describing the level of threat to new entrants:
- Barriers to entry that includes copy rights and patents.
- High capital requirement
- Government restricted policies
- Switching cost
- Access to suppliers and distributions
- Customer loyalty to established brands.
- THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES:
- this describes the threat to company. If the goods and services are not up to the standard, consumers can use substitutes and alternatives that do not need any extra effort and do not make a major difference. For example, using Aquafina in substitution of tap water, Pepsi in alternative of Coca Cola. The potential factors that made customer shift to substitutes are as follows:
- Price performance of substitute
- Switching costs of buyer
- Products substitute available in the market
- Reduction of quality
- Close substitution are available
- DEGREE OF INDUSTRY RIVALRY:
- the lesser money and resources are required to enter into any industry, the higher there will be new competitors and be an effective competitor. It will also weaken the company’s position. Following are the potential factors that will influence the company’s competition:
- Competitive advantage
- Continuous innovation
- Sustainable position in competitive advantage
- Level of advertising
- Competitive strategy
- BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS:
- it deals with the ability of customers to take down the prices. It mainly consists the importance of a customer and the level of cost if a customer will switch from one product to another. The buyer power is high if there are too many alternatives available. And the buyer power is low if there are lesser options of alternatives and switching. Following factors will influence the buying power of customers:
- Bargaining leverage
- Switching cost of a buyer
- Buyer price sensitivity
- Competitive advantage of company’s product
- BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS:
- this refers to the supplier’s ability of increasing and decreasing prices. If there are few alternatives o supplier available, this will threat the company and it would have to purchase its raw material in supplier’s terms. However, if there are many suppliers alternative, suppliers have low bargaining power and company do not have to face high switching cost. The potential factors that effects bargaining power of suppliers are the following:
- Input differentiation
- Impact of cost on differentiation
- Strength of distribution centers
- Input substitute’s availability.
STEP 7: VRIO Analysis of What Is Good Governance:
Vrio analysis for What Is Good Governance case study identified the four main attributes which helps the organization to gain a competitive advantages. The author of this theory suggests that firm must be valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable and perfectly non sustainable. Therefore there must be some resources and capabilities in an organization that can facilitate the competitive advantage to company. The four components of VRIO analysis are described below: VALUABLE: the company must have some resources or strategies that can exploit opportunities and defend the company from major threats. If the company holds some value then answer is yes. Resources are also valuable if they provide customer satisfaction and increase customer value. This value may create by increasing differentiation in existing product or decrease its price. Is these conditions are not met, company may lead to competitive disadvantage. Therefore, it is necessary to continually review the What Is Good Governance company’s activities and resources values. RARE: the resources of the What Is Good Governance company that are not used by any other company are known as rare. Rare and valuable resources grant much competitive advantages to the firm. However, when more than one few companies uses the same resources and provide competitive parity are also known as rare resources. Even, the competitive parity is not desired position, but the company should not lose its valuable resources, even they are common. COSTLY TO IMITATE: the resources are costly to imitate, if other organizations cannot imitate it. However, imitation is done in two ways. One is duplicating that is direct imitation and the other one is substituting that is indirect imitation. Any firm who has valuable and rare resources, and these resources are costly to imitate, have achieved their competitive advantage. However, resources should also be perfectly non sustainable. The reasons that resource imitation is costly are historical conditions, casual ambiguity and social complexity. ORGANIZED TO CAPTURE VALUE: resources, itself, cannot provide advantages to organization until it is organized and exploit to do so. A firm (like What Is Good Governance) must organize its management systems, processes, policies and strategies to fully utilize the resource’s potential to be valuable, rare and costly to imitate.
STEP 8: Generating Alternatives For What Is Good Governance Case Solution:
After completing the analyses of the company, its opportunities and threats, it is important to generate a solution of the problem and the alternatives a company can apply in order to solve its problems. To generate the alternative of problem, following things must to be kept in mind:
- Realistic solution should be identified that can be operated in the company, with all its constraints and opportunities.
- as the problem and its solution cannot occur at the same time, it should be described as mutually exclusive
- it is not possible for a company to not to take any action, therefore, the alternative of doing nothing is not viable.
- Student should provide more than one decent solution. Providing two undesirable alternatives to make the other one attractive is not acceptable.
Once the alternatives have been generated, student should evaluate the options and select the appropriate and viable solution for the company.
STEP 9: Selection Of Alternatives For What Is Good Governance Case Solution:
It is very important to select the alternatives and then evaluate the best one as the company have limited choices and constraints. Therefore to select the best alternative, there are many factors that is needed to be kept in mind. The criteria’s on which business decisions are to be selected areas under:
- Improve profitability
- Increase sales, market shares, return on investments
- Customer satisfaction
- Brand image
- Corporate mission, vision and strategy
- Resources and capabilities
Alternatives should be measures that which alternative will perform better than other one and the valid reasons. In addition, alternatives should be related to the problem statements and issues described in the case study.
STEP 10: Evaluation Of Alternatives For What Is Good Governance Case Solution:
If the selected alternative is fulfilling the above criteria, the decision should be taken straightforwardly. Best alternative should be selected must be the best when evaluating it on the decision criteria. Another method used to evaluate the alternatives are the list of pros and cons of each alternative and one who has more pros than cons and can be workable under organizational constraints.
STEP 11: Recommendations For What Is Good Governance Case Study (Solution):
There should be only one recommendation to enhance the company’s operations and its growth or solving its problems. The decision that is being taken should be justified and viable for solving the problems.