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BibGuru CSE Citation Generator
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In-text citations in CSE
Cse reference list - name-year system, citation examples - name-year system, cse reference list - citation-sequence and citation-name system, citation examples - citation-sequence and citation-name system.
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The ultimate guide to citing in CSE
CSE style was developed by the Council of Science Editors (CSE), a US-based nonprofit organization that supports editorial practice among scientific writers. The CSE publishes a style guide for scientific papers: The CSE Manual . CSE style originated in the 1960s and is currently used in many fields of study in both the life sciences and physical sciences.
If you are not sure which citation style to use in your paper, ask your instructor. There are many different citation styles and using the style your instructor or institution has established correctly can have a positive impact on your grade.
The CSE Manual, 8th edition, is the basis of this guide. This guide focuses on crediting sources and aims at answering all of your questions about citing in CSE. But you don’t have to worry about getting your citations right with the BibGuru citation generator. We have created BibGuru to help you focus on the content of your work instead of worrying about how to get your reference list done correctly.
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The CSE style has three systems to cite sources in-text:
- Name-Year (N-Y) system: The author’s surname and year of the publication are placed in parentheses in the text e.g. (Rode 2012). The reference list is ordered alphabetically by author name.
- Citation-Name (C-N) system: Superscript numbers are used to identify in-text citations. In the alphabetized reference list, each numeral corresponds with a unique reference.
- Citation-Sequence (C-S) system: Superscript numbers are used to identify in-text citations. In the reference list, sources are numbered sequentially by the order in which they appear in the text (this differs from the C-N system because they might not be in alphabetical order by author).
These abbreviated references are called in-text references. They refer to a list of full references at the end of the document.
Which of the three citation systems above you use will determine the order of references at the end of your document. These end references essentially have the same format in all three systems. One exception is the placement of the date of publication in the name-year system. Ask your instructor which of the three systems to use in case you are unsure.
See below the format and examples for the most popular reference types in the name-year system:
- Dissertations and Theses
For the end reference, list authors in the order in which they appear in the original text, followed by the year of publication. Journal titles are generally abbreviated. Each element is separated by a period, and the location (usually the page range for the article) is preceded by a colon.
FORMAT Reference list entry format
Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.
FORMAT Reference list entry format for an online journal article
Author(s) of article. Date of publication. Title of article. Title of journal (edition). [date updated; date accessed];Volume(issue):location. Notes.
EXAMPLE Journal article with a DOI
Christopher MM. 2022. Comprehensive analysis of retracted journal articles in the field of veterinary medicine and animal health. BMC Vet Res. 18(1):73. doi:10.1186/s12917-022-03167-x.
For articles with 2 authors, names are separated by a comma in the end reference but by “and” in the in-text reference.
EXAMPLE Journal article with two authors
(McCauley and Christiansen 2019)
McCauley SM, Christiansen MH. 2019. Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychol Rev. 126(1):1–51. doi:10.1037/rev0000126.
For articles with 3 to 10 authors, list all authors in the end reference; in the in-text reference, list only the first, followed by “et al.” When there are more than 10 authors, list the first 10 in the end reference, followed by “et al.”
EXAMPLE Journal article with four authors
(Warren et al. 2018)
Warren R, Price J, Graham E, Forstenhaeusler N, VanDerWal J. 2018. The projected effect on insects, vertebrates, and plants of limiting global warming to 1.5°C rather than 2°C. Science. 360(6390):791–795. doi:10.1126/science.aar3646.
The basic format for books is as follows:
Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes.
Extent can include information about pagination or number of volumes and is considered optional. Notes can include information of interest to the reader, such as the language of publications other than English, and is also considered optional.
For books with 2 authors, names are separated by a comma in the end reference and by “and” in the in-text reference.
EXAMPLE Book with two authors
(Auerbach and Kotlikoff 1998)
Auerbach AJ, Kotlikoff LJ. 1998. Macroeconomics: An integrated approach. 2nd ed. London, England: MIT Press.
For books with 3 to 10 authors, list all authors in the end reference. In the in-text reference, list only the first, followed by “et al.” For books with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 in the end reference, followed by “et al.”
EXAMPLE Book with 6 authors
(Clayton et al. 2021)
Clayton D, Jackson TD, Stone N, Thomas A, Woodfolk A, Yoon N. 2021. Blackout. UK: HarperCollins.
EXAMPLE Book with an editor and multiple authors
(Raab et al. 2015)
Raab M, Lobinger B, Hoffmann SO, Pizzera A, Laborde S, editors. 2015. Performance psychology: Perception, action, cognition, and emotion. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
EXAMPLE Doctoral thesis
Pradhan S. 2021. Impacts of road construction on landsliding in Nepal [doctoral thesis]. Durham University. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/14069/.
Website references follow the same general principles as printed references. In addition, a date of update/revision (if available), access date, and URL need to be provided. The format for a website reference looks like this:
Title of Homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.
For the in-text reference, include only the first word or two of the title (enough to distinguish it from other titles in the reference list), followed by an ellipsis.
WWF - endangered species conservation. 2022. World Wildlife Fund. [accessed 2022 May 27]. https://www.worldwildlife.org/.
The format for a blog article is as follows:
FORMAT Blog post
Author’s name. Date of publication. Title of post [descriptive word]. Title of blog. [accessed date]. URL.
EXAMPLE Blog post
Liegl J. 2021. Communicating with humanity. Several people are typing. [accessed 2022 Feb 22]. https://slack.com/blog/collaboration/communicating-with-humanity.
An example of an CSE Name-Year reference page made with BibGuru's CSE citation generator:
How to use Bibguru for CSE citations
The citation-sequence and citation-name systems are identical except for the order of references. In both systems, numbers in the text refer to references in the reference list.
In the citation-sequence system , the end references are listed in the order in which they appear in the text. Once a reference is numbered, the same number is used for all following in-text citations in the same document, e.g. if Meyer is the first mentioned in-text, their work will be number 1 in the end references and also in all following in-text references.
In the citation-name system , references in the reference list are listed alphabetically by author. Multiple works by one author are listed alphabetically by title. The end references are numbered in alphabetical order and the number assigned to an author in the reference list is then used for the in-text citations, regardless of the order in which they appear in the text. So, if a work by Meyer is number 43 in the reference list, each in-text reference to Meyer will also be number 43.
See below for the format and examples of the most popular reference types in the citation-sequence and citation-name systems:
Authors are listed in the order in which they appear in the original text, followed by a period. Journal titles are generally abbreviated.
Author(s). Article title. Journal title. Date;volume(issue):location.
Author(s) of article. Title of article. Title of journal (edition). Date of publication [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue):location. Notes.
2. Christopher MM. Comprehensive analysis of retracted journal articles in the field of veterinary medicine and animal health. BMC veterinary research. 2022;18(1):73. doi:10.1186/s12917-022-03167-x
For articles with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma.
3. McCauley SM, Christiansen MH. Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological review. 2019;126(1):1–51. doi:10.1037/rev0000126
For articles with more than 10 authors, the first 10 are listed, followed by “et al.”
4. Warren R, Price J, Graham E, Forstenhaeusler N, VanDerWal J. The projected effect on insects, vertebrates, and plants of limiting global warming to 1.5°C rather than 2°C. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2018;360(6390):791–795. doi:10.1126/science.aar3646
This is the standard format for a book citation:
Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent. Notes.
For books with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma.
5. Auerbach AJ, Kotlikoff LJ. Macroeconomics: An integrated approach. 2nd ed. London, England: MIT Press; 1998.
When there are more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by “et al.”
6. Raab M, Lobinger B, Hoffmann SO, Pizzera A, Laborde S, editors. Performance psychology: Perception, action, cognition, and emotion. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2015.
7. Pradhan S. Impacts of road construction on landsliding in Nepal [doctoral thesis]. Durham University; 2021. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/14069/.
Website references follow the same general principles as for printed references. In addition, a date of update/revision (if available), access date, and URL need to be provided. The format for a website reference looks like this:
Title of Homepage. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.
8. WWF - endangered species conservation. World Wildlife Fund. 2022 [accessed 2022 May 27]. https://www.worldwildlife.org/
Author’s name. Title of post [descriptive word]. Title of blog. Date of publication. [accessed date]. URL.
8. Liegl J. Communicating with humanity. Several people are typing. 2021 Jul 2. [accessed 2022 Feb 22]. https://slack.com/blog/collaboration/communicating-with-humanity.
An example of an CSE Citation-Name reference page made with BibGuru's CSE citation generator:
While all the specific rules and variations of CSE citation style might sound very complicated, you don't need to worry about getting them wrong with BibGuru. Use our CSE citation maker to create the fastest and most accurate CSE citations possible.
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Helpful resources, from our blog.
CSE stands for Council of Science Editors, formerly known as Council of Biology Editors, CBE. It is a US-based non-profit organization supporting editorial practice among scientific writers. The CSE was established in 1957 by the National Science Foundation and the American Institute of Biological Sciences. The CSE publishes a style guide for scientific papers, the CSE Manual.
The Council of Science Editors (CSE), a US-based non-profit organization supporting editorial practice among scientific writers publishes a style guide for scientific papers: The CSE Manual. The style is used in many fields of study including the life sciences and physical sciences.
The CSE style has three systems to cite sources. The Name-Year system uses in-text citations. In the Citation-Name system and the Citation-Sequence system, superscript numbers are used in-text to identify citations, corresponding with references in the reference list. Those are similar to footnotes but different in that they are not listed separately but integrated into the text.
Interviews and other forms of unpublished personal communications (for example emails) are not included in the reference list in the CSE style. Instead, they should be cited in parentheses within the text of your paper.
The reference list (or bibliography) at the end of your CSE paper can be titled "References" or "Cited References". The arrangement of those references depends on which of the three style systems you picked for the citations of your paper.
Citation guides, alternative to.
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Referencing is the backbone of any well-defined structured science paper and the correct reference formatting is important for good marks. The CSE citation style is a standard citation format developed by the Council of Science Editors . It is used for multiple ranges of science essays such as biology and life sciences. It’s also known as CBE – the Council of Biology Editors , so you’ll see both abbreviations on this page.
CBE/CSE citation can be a little confusing, but if you have all the information and once you know the format you need for your paper, our CSE citation format generator can do the rest. There are three different types of referencing that fall under the umbrella of CSE/CBE referencing. The three styles commonly used are:
- Name-Year: This is simply the second name of the author (s) of a publication you are referencing and the year it was published, in parenthesis, e.g. (Young, 2010)
- Citation-Name: When you have referenced authors in your paper, you arrange the bibliography in alphabetical order and assign a superscript number to each author, you then go back to your paper and insert the assigned superscript number to each author.
- Citation-Sequence: For this format, you give a superscript number a reference as you use them. This number is then used whenever you use the same reference. Your bibliography for this citation style is not in alphabetical order but in order of the superscript numbers.
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Advantages of using a cse/cbe citation generator.
When writing a paper, whether it’s for your biology class or other science classes, correct CSE citation is an important part of your marks. Grading takes references into consideration and a bad bibliography, misused book, or website reference, can have an impact on your overall grade. A CSE format citation generator will save you time and is a simple way to guarantee you are formatting your reference list correctly. Using a generator means you’re guaranteed to adhere to the correct council of science editors formatting. Your focus can be on quality proofreading and research. A CSE citation generator puts your references in the correct order, no matter what citation CSE format you need.
Why it’s easy to use a CSE citation generator?
Science disciplines can be difficult and scientific papers are complex. Our free automatic CBE/CSE citation generator is easy to use, simply enter the information you have for your references: name, author, year of publication, etc. in the generator. Then, select the format you need (Citation-Name, Name-Year, Citation Sequence) and your references can be copied to your reference list. Easy!
If you have a lot of work to do, from proofreading, making sure your paper makes sense, is researched correctly, or your points are valid, a generator can cut referencing timeout completely. Referencing is always the most tedious part of an essay. It feels like you’re finished, but they take a lot of time to get in order. Our recommendation is to make sure you use our website for the whole process of essay writing, which means at the end you don’t have to worry about gathering every little detail and our fast, automatic generator will cut out the unnecessary tedious task at the end of an already long process.
Need More Help With References and Citation?
Our CSE/CBE generator is ideal for science papers, but we understand there’s a lot more to college than one citation method. If you are writing essays for lots of different modules, different referencing styles might be needed like Harvard, or ASA ( American Sociological Association referencing ). If you need help with sociology referencing, our free ASA citation generator is ideal and can format your ASA bibliography fast. Our ASA citation generator complies with the ASA code of ethics, which means every detail will be documented in the referencing format and correctly, according to each individual source.
In-text citation reference lists are important for your overall college performance, but we know that there’s more to getting good grades. We also provide trusted writing services. We take what you have learned and adapt it to the correct format you need. Our skilled team of writers can craft comprehensive, well thought out, and developed papers with the knowledge you have, and the time you don’t.
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Cite any page or article with a single click right from your browser. The extension does the hard work for you by automatically grabbing the title, author(s), publication date, and everything else needed to whip up the perfect citation.
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Are you using a LaTex editor like Overleaf? If so, you can easily export your references in Bib(La)TeX format with a single click.
Change the typeface used for your reference list to match the rest of your document. Options include Times New Roman, Arial, and Calibri.
Scribbr’s Citation Generator is built using the same citation software (CSL) as Mendeley and Zotero, but with an added layer for improved accuracy.
Describe or evaluate your sources in annotations, and Scribbr will generate a perfectly formatted annotated bibliography .
Scribbr’s popular guides and videos will help you understand everything related to finding, evaluating, and citing sources.
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- Finding sources
- Integrating sources
Tools and resources, a quick guide to working with sources.
Working with sources is an important skill that you’ll need throughout your academic career.
It includes knowing how to find relevant sources, assessing their authority and credibility, and understanding how to integrate sources into your work with proper referencing.
This quick guide will help you get started!
Finding relevant sources
Sources commonly used in academic writing include academic journals, scholarly books, websites, newspapers, and encyclopedias. There are three main places to look for such sources:
- Research databases: Databases can be general or subject-specific. To get started, check out this list of databases by academic discipline . Another good starting point is Google Scholar .
- Your institution’s library: Use your library’s database to narrow down your search using keywords to find relevant articles, books, and newspapers matching your topic.
- Other online resources: Consult popular online sources like websites, blogs, or Wikipedia to find background information. Be sure to carefully evaluate the credibility of those online sources.
When using academic databases or search engines, you can use Boolean operators to refine your results.
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In academic writing, your sources should be credible, up to date, and relevant to your research topic. Useful approaches to evaluating sources include the CRAAP test and lateral reading.
CRAAP is an abbreviation that reminds you of a set of questions to ask yourself when evaluating information.
- Currency: Does the source reflect recent research?
- Relevance: Is the source related to your research topic?
- Authority: Is it a respected publication? Is the author an expert in their field?
- Accuracy: Does the source support its arguments and conclusions with evidence?
- Purpose: What is the author’s intention?
Lateral reading means comparing your source to other sources. This allows you to:
- Verify evidence
- Contextualize information
- Find potential weaknesses
If a source is using methods or drawing conclusions that are incompatible with other research in its field, it may not be reliable.
Integrating sources into your work
Once you have found information that you want to include in your paper, signal phrases can help you to introduce it. Here are a few examples:
Following the signal phrase, you can choose to quote, paraphrase or summarize the source.
- Quoting : This means including the exact words of another source in your paper. The quoted text must be enclosed in quotation marks or (for longer quotes) presented as a block quote . Quote a source when the meaning is difficult to convey in different words or when you want to analyze the language itself.
- Paraphrasing : This means putting another person’s ideas into your own words. It allows you to integrate sources more smoothly into your text, maintaining a consistent voice. It also shows that you have understood the meaning of the source.
- Summarizing : This means giving an overview of the essential points of a source. Summaries should be much shorter than the original text. You should describe the key points in your own words and not quote from the original text.
Whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize a source, you must include a citation crediting the original author.
Citing your sources is important because it:
- Allows you to avoid plagiarism
- Establishes the credentials of your sources
- Backs up your arguments with evidence
- Allows your reader to verify the legitimacy of your conclusions
The most common citation styles are APA, MLA, and Chicago style. Each citation style has specific rules for formatting citations.
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Scribbr offers tons of tools and resources to make working with sources easier and faster. Take a look at our top picks:
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- Proofreading services : Have a human editor improve your writing.
- Knowledge Base : Explore hundreds of articles, bite-sized videos, time-saving templates, and handy checklists that guide you through the process of research, writing, and citation.
Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
Research and Citation Resources
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
If you are having trouble locating a specific resource please visit the search page or the Site Map . The Citation Chart provides a detailed overview of MLA Style, APA Style, and Chicago Manual of Style source documentation by category.
These OWL resources will help you conduct research using primary source methods, such as interviews and observations, and secondary source methods, such as books, journals, and the Internet. This area also includes materials on evaluating research sources.
These OWL resources will help you use the research you have conducted in your documents. This area includes material on quoting and paraphrasing your research sources, as well as material on how to avoid plagiarism.
APA Style (7th Edition)
These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.
These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the Works Cited page, as well as MLA sample papers, slide presentations, and the MLA classroom poster
Chicago Manual of Style
This section contains information on the Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Style
These resources describe how to structure papers, cite sources, format references, and handle the complexities of tables and figures according to the latest Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) guidelines.
American Medical Association (AMA) Style
These resources provide guidance on how to cite sources using American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 10th Ed., including examples for print and electronic sources.
We live in an age overflowing with sources of information. With so many information sources at our fingertips, knowing where to start, sorting through it all and finding what we want can be overwhelming! This handout provides answers to the following research-related questions: Where do I begin? Where should I look for information? What types of sources are available?
Conducting Primary Research
Primary research involves collecting data about a given subject directly from the real world. This section includes information on what primary research is, how to get started, ethics involved with primary research and different types of research you can do. It includes details about interviews, surveys, observations, and analysis.
Evaluating Sources of Information
Evaluating sources of information is an important step in any research activity. This section provides information on evaluating bibliographic citations, aspects of evaluation, reading evaluation, print vs. online sources, and evaluating Internet sources.
This section covers finding information online. It includes information about search engines, Boolean operators, Web directories, and the invisible Web. It also includes an extensive, annotated links section.
This page contains links and short descriptions of writing resources including dictionaries, style manuals, grammar handbooks, and editing resources. It also contains a list of online reference sites, indexes for writers, online libraries, books and e-texts, as well as links to newspapers, news services, journals, and online magazines.
This resource discusses conducting research in a variety of archives. It also discusses a number of considerations and best practices for conducting archival research.
This resources was developed in consultation with Purdue University Virginia Kelly Karnes Archives and Special Collections staff.
CSE Quick Citation Guide
Cse citation style.
- Format In-Text and End References
- Format End References
- In-Text Citations
- Formatting End References
Scientific Style and Format presents three systems for referring to references (also known as citations) within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication:
These abbreviated references are called in-text references. They refer to a list of references at the end of the document.
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- URL: https://libguides.libraries.wsu.edu/csecitation
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Easybib® guides & resources, mla format guide.
This is the total package when it comes to MLA format. Our easy to read guides come complete with examples and step-by-step instructions to format your full and in-text citations, paper, and works cited in MLA style. There’s even information on annotated bibliographies.
Works Cited | In-Text Citations | Bibliography | Annotated Bibliography | Website | Book | Journal | YouTube | View all MLA Citation Examples
APA Format Guide
Get the facts on citing and writing in APA format with our comprehensive guides. Formatting instructions, in-text citation and reference examples, and sample papers provide you with the tools you need to style your paper in APA.
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Chicago Format Guide
Looking to format your paper in Chicago style and not sure where to start? Our guide provides everything you need! Learn the basics and fundamentals to creating references and footnotes in Chicago format. With numerous examples and visuals, you’ll be citing in Chicago style in no time.
Footnotes | Website | Book | Journal
Harvard Referencing Guide
Learn the requirements to properly reference your paper in Harvard style. The guides we have provide the basics and fundamentals to give credit to the sources used in your work.
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CSE Citation-Sequence and CSE Citation-Name
In both CSE citation systems described here, numbers in a sentence refer to sources listed at the end of the document. These two systems differ only in how sources are numbered in the reference list: sequentially (citation-sequence) or alphabetically by author’s name (citation-name).
Format in-text references.
The style advocated by CSE suggests that numbers appear in superscript, and appear before punctuation marks (commas or periods).
Example from The CSE Manual:
Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are endemic among American civilians 1.
However, many scientific journals format these numbers differently, using square brackets or parentheses, or putting superscript numbers after the period.
Example from Communicative & Integrative Biology (2011) :
The most fundamental specialization of the eusocial insects is the division of colony members into two castes, workers (functionally sterile individuals) and reproductives.1
Example from Current Opinion in Cell Biology (2012):
The classical cadherin system connects cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton via b-catenin and a-catenin to maintain tissue integrity in metazoans .
Example from mBio (2012) :
Although xylem is considered a nutrient-limiting, low-oxygen environment (1), R. solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to cell densities of 108 to 109 CFU/g stem while still remaining limited to xylem (2).
For consistency, the examples that follow have been reformatted to match CSE’s preferred style (superscripted numerals before punctuation).
Number in-text references
- In the citation-sequence system, sources are numbered by order of reference so that the first reference cited in the paper is 1, the second 2, and so on.
- In citation-name, the sources are numbered alphabetically so that 1 refers to the first source in an alphabetical list, 2 refers to the second source in that list, and so on.
When possible, put numbers immediately after the relevant word or phrase rather than at the end of a sentence.
Cite multiple sources in one sentence
If the numbers are not in a continuous sequence, use commas (with no spaces) between numbers. If you have more than two numbers in a continuous sequence, use the first and last number of the sequence joined by a hyphen.
Example from A new model for caste development in social wasps by UW-Madison Professor Robert Jeanne (Entomology) and postdoc Sainath Suryanarayanan (Community and Environmental Sociology):
For the non-dimorphic polistines such as Polistes, Ropalidia and others, the long-standing view is that differences in the quantity of nourishment received during the larval stage act as a “nutritional switch” to bias development toward one caste or the other 7,8,11-14.
Example from Cadherin complexity: recent insights into cadherin superfamily function in C. elegans by UW-Madison graduate student Timothy Loveless (Cellular and Molecular Biology) and Professor Jeff Hardin (Zoology):
Basolateral foci of HMP-1 and DLG-1 accumulate despite unperturbed localization of LET-413/Scribble 19, which normally excludes AJ components from basolateral surfaces 23,24.
Cite one source in multiple sentences
Once you have assigned a source a number, use that same number every time you cite it.
Example from Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Synthesized with Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization by UW-Madison Biochemistry postdoc Matthew J. Allen and Professors Ronald J. Raines and Laura L. Kiessling:
Moreover, the use of ROMP is advantageous because it can yield polymers of well-defined length 6. To synthesize the target polymers 8a and 8b we employed the ruthenium initiator (H2IMes)(3-Br-py)2(Cl)2RudCHPh. Its rate of initiation relative to propagation affords polymers of well-defined average lengths 6,8.
Example from The Role of Secretion Systems and Small Molecules in Soft-Rot Enterobacteriaceae Pathogenicity by UW-Madison Professor Amy Charkowski (Plant Pathology) et al.
Once associated with an insect, some isolates of Pectobacterium carotovorum can infect and persist in D. melanogaster and activate an immune response 8,9. The protein Evf (Erwinia virulence factor), present only in insect-associated strains, promotes the persistence of bacteria in the insect midgut. Evf synthesis is regulated by SlyA (Hor), which also regulates plant virulence genes 1,9.
Cite sources in tables and figures
Avoid using superscripted numerals in figures where they might be misconstrued as exponents. Instead, use superscripted letters like a,b for tables and figures. List them sequentially after all the text citations.
Quote or excerpt a source
Although CSE provides rules for how to quote or excerpt sources, in practice almost no scientists publishing in journals that use CSE documentation choose to quote sources. Instead, these authors paraphrase or simply cite authors.
When you quote or excerpt a source, include an in-text reference to help your reader see what source you are quoting from. The seventh edition of the CSE Manual does not provide specific rules for identifying the page number or other location information for that source.
Cite a work cited by your source (secondary citation)
Secondary citations refer to material that you have not seen in its original form but rather have obtained from another document that cited the original source. In the 2006 edition of the CSE Manual, secondary citations are not listed as a valid form of citation. Instead, find and cite the original source.
End references and the reference list
The goal of your reference list is to help your reader identify each numbered source quickly and clearly. CSE has standardized the information to be provided for ease and predictability of reading.
What to call your reference list
“Reference list” is CSE’s generic term for the list of sources at the end of your document. Your list should be given a more formal title: References or Cited References . If you used some documents as sources but did not cite them in your paper, list them alphabetically by author under the heading Additional References.
Format your end references
Otegui MS, Kiessling LL, Batzli J.
The fat-soluble vitamins: handbook of lipid research 2.
In vitro and in vivo reconstitution of the cadherin-catenin-actin complex from Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2010 Aug 17;107(33):14591-6.
Livestock Prod Sci. Biochem Mol Biol Educ. J Dairy Sci.
Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2012;50:425-49. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011 Jul;24(7):773-86.
Examples of end references
References for books follow the order Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent.
1 Allen C, Prior P, Hayward AC. Bacterial wilt: the disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. St. Paul (MN): APS Press; 2005. 508 p.
[A book’s extent in number of pages (“508 p.” in the example above) is optional but provides useful information.]
References for chapters or other parts of a book follow the order Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book title. Place of publication: publisher; year. Page numbers for that chapter.
2 Otegui MS. Endosperm: development and molecular biology. In: Olson OA, editor. Endosperm cell walls: formation, composition, and functions. Heidelberg (Germany): Springer-Verlag; 2007. p. 159-178. 3 Allen, C. Bacteria, bioterrorism, and the geranium ladies of Guatemala. In: Cabezas AL, Reese E, Waller M, editors. Wages of empire: neoliberal policies, repression, and women’s poverty. Boulder (CO): Paradigm Press; 2007. p. 169-177.
References for journal articles follow the order Author(s). Article title. Abbreviated journal title. Date;volume(issue):pages.
To save space, CSE suggests that writers abbreviate the titles of journals in according to the ISO 4 standard, which you can read about at ISSN . You can also search ISSN’s List of Title Word Abbreviations.
4 Wang Y, Zhu J, DeLuca HF. Where is the vitamin D receptor? Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012 Jul 1;523(1):123-33. 5 Powell JM, Wattiaux MA, Broderick GA. Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a management tool to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy farms. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94(9):4690-4694 6 Flores-Cruz Z, Allen C. Necessity of OxyR for the hydrogen peroxide stress response and full virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77(18):6426-6432.
Reference list information for articles found online adds a medium designator—[Internet], including the brackets—at the end of the title of the journal, as well as a citation date and a URL. The CSE Manual does not explicitly require this information if the online content is identical to the print content.
7 Werling BP, Lowenstein DM, Straub CS, Gratton C. Multi-predator effects produced by functionally distinct species vary with prey density. J Insect Sci [Internet]. 2012 [cited 12 Sep 2013]; 12(30). Available from: insectscience.org/12.30 8 Bennett AB, Gratton C. Floral diversity increases beneficial arthropod richness and decreases variability in arthropod community composition. Ecol Appl [Internet]. 2013 [cited 12 Sep 2013];23(1):86-95. Available from: http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2013/03/Ecological-Applications.pdf
9 Williamson RC. Deciduous tree galls [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; 2004 Apr 25 [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/pddc/files/Fact_Sheets/FC_PDF/Deciduous_Tree_Galls.pdf 10 ASAP: systematic annotation package for community analysis of genomes [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; c2013 [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://www.genome.wisc.edu/tools/asap.htm 11 Stem Cell Research Oversight Committee. University of Wisconsin-Madison policy for multisite research studies using human pluripotent stem cells [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; 2009 [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://www.grad.wisc.edu/admin/committees/scro/documents/MultisiteresearchpolicyFinal.pdf
12 Working Group on Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce (US). Draft report diversity in the biomedical research workforce [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2012 Jun 13 [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://acd.od.nih.gov/Diversity%20in%20the%20Biomedical%20Research%20Workforce%20Report.pdf
13 Oliver SS. Context dependent protein interpretation of the histone language [dissertation]. University of Wisconsin-Madison; 2012. 238 p.
Conference presentation or lecture
If a conference paper is subsequently published, either in the proceedings of the conference or in a journal, cite as a chapter in a book or as an article in a journal. Otherwise, cite as follows.
14 Vierstra R. Atomic perspectives on phytochrome photoactivation and signaling. Paper presented at: Steenbock 35. Proceedings of the 35th Steenbock Symposium on Advances in Biomolecular NMR; 2011 June 26-28; Madison, WI.
References for this page
Formatted in Citation-Name style. All examples on this page are taken from publications by UW-Madison professors, postdocs, and graduate students. Note that CSE doesn’t call for hyperlinks.
1 Allen C, Bent A, Charkowski AO. Underexplored niches in research on plant pathogenic bacteria . Plant Physiol [Internet]. [Cited 20 June 2013.] 2009;150(4):1631-1637. Available from http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/150/4/1631.full 2 Bennett AB, Gratton C. Measuring natural pest suppression at different spatial scales affects the importance of local variables . Environ Entomol. 2012;41(5):1077-85. 3 Bennett AB, Gratton C. Floral diversity increases beneficial arthropod richness and decreases variability in arthropod community composition. Ecol Appl. 2013;23(1):86-95. 4 Charkowski A, Blanco C, Condemine G, Expert D, Franza T, Hayes C, Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N, Lopez Solanilla E, Low D, Moleleki L, et al. The role of secretion systems and small molecules in soft-rot enterobacteriaceae pathogenicity . Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2012;50:425-49. 5 Dreyer J, Hoekman D, Gratton C. Lake-derived midges increase abundance of shoreline terrestrial arthropods via multiple trophic pathways. Oikos [Internet]. [Cited 20 June 2013.] 2012;121:252-258. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2012/04/Dreyer-et-al.-2012-Lake%E2%80%90derived-midges-increase-abundance-of-shorelin.pdf 6 Gratton C, Vander Zanden MJ. Flux of aquatic insect productivity to land: comparison of lentic and lotic ecosystems . Ecology 2009;90(10):2689-2699. 7 Lyon A, Bell MM, Croll NS, Jackson R, Gratton C. Maculate conceptions: power, process, and creativity in participatory research . Rural Sociology [Internet]. 2010 [cited 20 Jun 2013];75(4):538-559. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2012/01/Lyons-et-al-2010-Rural-Soc-Maculate-conceptions.pdf 8 Lyon A, Bell MM, Gratton C, Jackson R. Farming without a recipe: Wisconsin graziers and new directions for agricultural science. J Rural St [Internet]. 2011 [cited 20 June 2013];27:384-393. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2012/01/Lyon_Farmingworecipe2011.pdf 9 Mattupalli C, Genger RK, Charkowski AO. Evaluating incidence of Helminthosporium solani and Colletotrichum coccodes on asymptomatic organic potatoes and screening potato lines for resistance to silver scurf . Am J Potato Res [Internet]. 2013 [cited 20 June 2013]. Available from http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs12230-013-9314-3.pdf 10 Thomas DL. Utilization and potential of estimates of genetic value from an industry perspective. Sheep & Goat [Internet]. 2012;27:13-15. Available from http://www.sheepusa.org/user_files/file_1014.pdf 11 Wang Y, DeLuca HF. Is the vitamin d receptor found in muscle? Endocrinology. 2011;152(2):354-63. 12 Wang Y, Borchert ML, Deluca HF. Identification of the vitamin D receptor in various cells of the mouse kidney . Kidney Int. 2012;81(10):993-1001. 13 Wang Y, Marling SJ, Zhu JG, Severson KS, DeLuca HF. Development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice requires vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 29;109(22):8501-4. 14 Wang Y, Zhu J, DeLuca HF. Where is the vitamin D receptor? Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;523(1):123-33.
Council of Science Editors Documentation
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CSE Table of Contents
Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name
Scientific Style (CSE) Citation Examples
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END REFERENCE (ONE AUTHOR)
(Geggel 2016 ) .
[Author abbreviation] Author. Date. Title. Place of publication: Publisher; [updated date; accessed date]. URL.
[IRPC] Industrial Psychology Research Centre. 2010. Aberdeen (UK): University of Aberdeen. [updated 2010 Oct 6; accessed 2019 Jan 22]. http://www.abdn.ac.uk/iprc/ .
(Human Biology . . . c2002-2016).
Organizations and memberships. 2016. Reston (VA): American Institute of Biological Sciences, [accessed 2016 Jul 1]. http://access.aibs.org/organizations.html.
(Organizations . . . 2016).
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In academia, bibliographies are graded on their accuracy against the official APA rulebook, so it is important for students to ensure their citations are formatted correctly. Special attention should also be given to ensure the entire document (including main body) is structured according to the APA guidelines. Our complete APA format guide has everything you need know to make sure you get it right (including examples and diagrams).
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MyBib supports the following for APA style:
Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.
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Consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.
- Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
- Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
- Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
- Book: What have reviews said about it?
- What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
- Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
- Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
- Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
- Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
- Are there ads?
- When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
- Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
- Does the source even have a date?
- Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
- If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?
MLA Format: Everything You Need to Know and More
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What Is Cite This For Me's Citation Generator?
Cite This For Me’s open-access generator is an automated citation machine that turns any of your sources into citations in just a click. Using a citation generator helps students to integrate referencing into their research and writing routine; turning a time-consuming ordeal into a simple task.
A citation machine is essentially a works cited generator that accesses information from across the web, drawing the relevant information into a fully-formatted bibliography that clearly presents all of the sources that have contributed to your work.
If you don’t know how to cite correctly, or have a fast-approaching deadline, Cite This For Me’s accurate and intuitive citation machine will lend you the confidence to realise your full academic potential. In order to get a grade that reflects all your hard work, your citations must be accurate and complete. Using a citation maker to create your references not only saves you time but also ensures that you don’t lose valuable marks on your assignment.
Not sure how to format your citations, what citations are, or just want to find out more about Cite This For Me’s citation machine? This guide outlines everything you need to know to equip yourself with the know-how and confidence to research and cite a wide range of diverse sources in your work.
Why Do I Need To Cite?
Simply put, referencing is the citing of sources used in essays, articles, research, conferences etc. When another source contributes to your work, you have to give the original owner the appropriate credit. After all, you wouldn’t steal someone else’s possessions so why would you steal their ideas?
Any factual material or ideas you take from another source must be acknowledged in a reference, unless it is common knowledge (e.g. President Kennedy was killed in 1963). Failing to credit all of your sources, even when you’ve paraphrased or completely reworded the information, is plagiarism. Plagiarizing will result in disciplinary action, which can range from losing precious points on your assignment to expulsion from your university.
What’s more, attributing your research infuses credibility and authority into your work, both by supporting your own ideas and by demonstrating the breadth of your research. For many students, crediting sources can be a confusing and tedious process, but it’s a surefire way to improve the quality of your work so it’s essential to get it right. Luckily for you, using Cite This For Me’s citation machine makes creating accurate references easier than ever, leaving more time for you to excel in your studies.
In summary, the referencing process serves three main functions:
- To validate the statements and conclusions in your work by providing directions to other sound sources that support and verify them.
- To help your readers locate, read and check your sources, as well as establishing their contribution to your work.
- To give credit to the original author and hence avoid committing intellectual property theft (known as ‘plagiarism’ in academia).
How Do I Cite My Sources With The Cite This For Me's Citation Machine?
Cite This For Me’s citation generator is the most accurate citation machine available, so whether you’re not sure how to format in-text citations or are looking for a foolproof solution to automate a fully-formatted works cited list, this citation machine will solve all of your referencing needs.
Referencing your source material doesn’t just prevent you from losing valuable marks for plagiarism, it also provides all of the information to help your reader find for themselves the book, article, or other item you are citing. The accessible interface of this citation builder makes it easy for you to identify the source you have used – simply enter its unique identifier into the citation machine search bar. If this information is not available you can search for the title or author instead, and then select from the search results that appear below the citation generator.
The good news is that by using tools such as Cite This For Me, which help you work smarter, you don’t need to limit your research to sources that are traditional to cite. In fact, there are no limits to what you can reference, whether it be a YouTube video, website or a tweet.
To use the works cited generator, simply:
- Select from APA, MLA, Chicago, ASA, IEEE and AMA * styles.
- Choose the type of source you would like to cite (e.g. website, book, journal, video).
- Enter the URL , DOI , ISBN , title, or other unique source information into the citation generator to find your source.
- Click the ‘Cite’ button on the citation machine.
- Copy your new reference from the citation generator into your bibliography or works cited list.
- Repeat for each source that has contributed to your work.
*If you require another referencing style for your paper, essay or other academic work, you can select from over 7,500 styles.
Once you have created your Cite This For Me account you will be able to use the citation machine to generate multiple references and save them into a project. Use the highly-rated iOS or Android apps to create references in a flash with your smartphone camera, export your complete bibliography in one go, and much more.
What Will The Citation Machine Create For Me?
Cite This For Me’s citation maker will generate your reference in two parts; an in-text citation and a full reference to be copied straight into your work.
The citation machine will auto-generate the correct formatting for your works cited list or bibliography depending on your chosen style. For instance, if you select a parenthetical style on the citation machine it will generate an in-text citation in parentheses, along with a full reference to slot into your bibliography. Likewise, if the citation generator is set to a footnote style then it will create a fully-formatted reference for your reference page and bibliography, as well as a corresponding footnote to insert at the bottom of the page containing the relevant source.
Parenthetical referencing examples:
In-text example: A nation has been defined as an imagined community (Anderson, 2006).* Alternative format: Anderson (2006) defined a nation as an imagined community.
*The citation machine will create your references in the first style, but this should be edited if the author’s name already appears in the text.
Bibliography / Works Cited list example: Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined Communities. London: Verso.
Popular Citation Examples
- Citing archive material
- Citing artwork
- Citing an audiobook
- Citing the Bible
- Citing a blog
- Citing a book
- Citing a book chapter
- Citing a comic book
- Citing conference proceedings
- Citing a court case
- Citing a database
- Citing a dictionary entry
- Citing a dissertation
- Citing an eBook
- Citing an edited book
- Citing an email
- Citing an encyclopedia article
- Citing a government publication
- Citing an image
- Citing an interview
- Citing a journal article
- Citing legislation
- Citing a magazine
- Citing a meme
- Citing a mobile app
- Citing a movie
- Citing a newspaper
- Citing a pamphlet
- Citing a patent
- Citing a play
- Citing a podcast
- Citing a poem
- Citing a presentation
- Citing a press release
- Citing a pseudonym
- Citing a report
- Citing Shakespeare
- Citing social media
- Citing a song
- Citing software
- Citing a speech
- Citing translated book
- Citing a TV Show
- Citing a weather report
- Citing a website
- Citing Wikipedia article
- Citing a YouTube video
What Are Citation Styles?
A citation style is a set of rules that you, as an academic writer, must follow to ensure the quality and relevance of your work. There are thousands of styles that are used in different academic institutions around the world, but in the US the most common are APA, MLA and Chicago.
The style you need to use will depend on the preference of your professor, discipline or academic institution – so if you’re unsure which style you should be using, consult your department and follow their guidelines exactly, as this is what you’ll be evaluated on when it comes to grading.
Referencing isn’t just there to guard against plagiarism – presenting your research in a clear and consistent way eases the reader’s comprehension. Each style has a different set of rules for both page formatting and referencing. Be sure to adhere to formatting rules such as font type, font size and line spacing to ensure that your work is easily legible. Furthermore, if your work is published as part of an anthology or collected works, each entry will need to be presented in the same style to maintain uniformity throughout. It is important to make sure that you don’t jump from one style to another, so follow the rules carefully to ensure your reference page and bibliography are both accurate and complete.
If you need a hand with your referencing then why not try Cite This For Me’s citation builder? It’s the quickest and easiest way to reference any source, in any style. The citation generator above will create your references in MLA format style as standard, but this powerful citation machine can generate fully-formatted references in thousands of the widely used global college styles – including individual university variations of each style. So, whether your subject requires you to use the APA citation , or your professor has asked you to adopt the Chicago style citation so that your work includes numbered footnotes, we’re sure to have the style you need. Cite This For Me also offers a citation machine and helpful formatting guide for styles such as ASA , IEEE or AMA . To access all of them, simply create your free account and search for your specific style.
Popular Citation Styles
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How Do I Format A Works Cited List Or Bibliography?
Drawing on a wide range of sources greatly enhances the quality of your work, and reading above and beyond your recommended reading list – and then using these sources to support your own thesis – is an excellent way to impress your reader. A clearly presented works cited list or bibliography demonstrates the lengths you have gone to in researching your chosen topic.
Typically, a works cited list starts on a new page at the end of the main body of text and includes a complete list of the sources you have actually cited in your paper. This list should contain all the information needed for the reader to locate the original source of the information, quote or statistic that directly contributed to your work. On the other hand, a bibliography is a comprehensive list of all the material you may have consulted throughout your research and writing process. Both provide the necessary information for readers to retrieve and check the sources cited in your work.
Each style’s guidelines will define the terminology of ‘ works cited ’ and ‘ bibliography ’, as well as providing formatting guidelines for font, line spacing and page indentations. In addition, it will instruct you on how to order your works cited list or bibliography – this will usually be either alphabetical or chronological (meaning the order that these sources appear in your work). Before submitting your work, be sure to check that you have formatted your whole paper – including your reference page and bibliography – according to your style’s formatting guidelines.
Sounds complicated? Referencing has never been so easy; Cite This For Me’s citation machine will automatically generate fully-formatted references for your works cited page or bibliography in your chosen style. Sign in to your Cite This For Me account to save and export your bibliography straight into Microsoft Word, Evernote, EndNote and more. If that sounds like too much work.
How Do Citations Actually Work?
Although the citation generator will create your bibliography and works cited list for you in record time, it is still useful to understand how this system works behind the scenes. Understanding how a citation machine actually generates references will greatly increase the quality of your work.
As well as saving you time with its citation maker, Cite This For Me provides the learning resources to help you fully understand the citing process and the benefits of adopting great referencing standards.
The referencing process:
- Find a book, journal, website or other source that will contribute to your work.
- Save the quote, image, data or other information that you will use in your work.
- Save the source information that enables you to find it again (i.e. URL, ISBN, DOI etc.).
- Format the source information into a reference.
- Copy and paste the reference into the body of the text.
- Repeat for each source that contributes to your work.
- Export or copy and paste the fully-formatted reference into your bibliography.
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CSE citation generator online
Create a spot-on reference in CSE
Select a source type:
- Journal article
- Video (online)
- All types...
- Archival document
- Book chapter
- Complete reference
- Conference paper
- Copyright certificate
- Dictionary entry
- Dissertation / Thesis
- Encyclopedia article
- Extended abstract of dissertation
- Newspaper article
- Press release
- Religious text
- Social media post
What is CSE Style?
CSE Style is an internationally used citation style developed by the American organisation Council of Science Editors. The latest edition of CSE Style to date is the 8th edition.
The CSE Style manual provides instructions on how to compile bibliographic references and in-text citations for various types of sources.
What are the specifics of CSE Style?
CSE Style is based largely on the rules of Vancouver Style developed by the US National Library of Medicine and stipulated in the manual Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers .
Just as in Vancouver (NLM Style), three reference systems exist in CSE Style (8th ed.). These are the following:
- citation-sequence : within this system, the bibliographic references are numbered and ordered sequentially by chronology of citation, the in-text citations are represented by the corresponding numbers;
- citation-name : this method requires the bibliographic references to be numbered but ordered alphabetically;
- name-year : this is the classical author-date approach, with the in-text citations represented by the name of the author and the year of publication of the work.
As CSE Style derives from NLM Style, the two standards’ specifics are very common. However, CSE Style has a number of different traits compared to Vancouver, namely in terms of punctuation, the approach to citing Internet sources, and so on.
What is the purpose of the CSE citation generator by Grafiati?
Just as with all our other reference generators, the CSE citation generator by Grafiati aims at delivering top-quality bibliographic references and in-text citations in accordance with the requirements of the Council of Science Editors.
We support the latest – 8th – edition of CSE Style, including all the three referencing systems of CSE: citation-sequence, citation-name, and name-year . Thanks to this, you can get the most accurate and up-to-date CSE references on the web spending minimum time. Moreover, thanks to our bibliography ordering engine, you get the correctly ordered list of references in any of the CSE citation systems which you can later simply paste into your paper.
Our CSE referencing generator allows you easily convert any of your CSE references into either Vancouver (NLM Style) or any other citation style in just one click.
How to start using the CSE reference generator by Grafiati?
Go to our homepage and select either of the CSE Style systems you would like to use. Next, search for a source in our catalogue, click on the button, and we will generate automatically the bibliographic reference and the in-text citation for you. Follow our interface to do all your bibliographic work.
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