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Case study on land resources, land resources case study:.
Land resources are the territories, like forests, plains, wetlands, hills, valleys, which exist without the influence of human beings, or are used for certain purposes like agriculture. Every country possesses vast lands, which are used in different ways. Some territories are protected for the wildlife and people are forbidden to log wood and hunt there. Then, plains are generally used for the agricultural purposes. People grow vegetables, fruits, crops if the soil is enough good for this purpose. It is obvious that people should use land resources wisely. Unfortunately, the situation is often dramatic nowadays, because people do not use the soil professionally.
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Since the dawn of the human civilization people have created a special system and rules of growing crops. For example, every year the kind of crops grown on the definite field should be changed (one year corn, the second year wheat, the third beet, etc); otherwise the soil will be exhausted and very soon the territory will become a wasteland. Then, vast lands are used for house building and the development of cities and villages. Sometimes, lands with rich soil or endangered species of animals and plants are devastated in order to build a block of flats, hypermarket, a highway, etc. The problem is that the government often fails to weigh the importance of the land soberly and allows cutting down forests, which are the homes of various species of animals, and devastating the river basins, which are also the important centers of flora and fauna.
Numerous national and international organizations try to influence the human society to use land resources wisely. Most of people do not realize that careless growing of crops or spontaneous building of a district of a big city will affect the nature seriously. Only the real professionals and scientists are able to predict and weigh the entire impact of the human activity on the environment and land resources in particular. So, if the government starts following the advice of the scientists, land resources of the country will stay in safety and will even bring profit to people. A good land resources case study should be interesting and thought provoking. One should research the cause and effect of the problem related to land resources and persuade the reader to take care of the environment.
If a student wants to complete the case study well and provide the teacher with the reasonable solutions and rich methodology, he should take advantage of the free example case study on land resources in the web. Due to a well-analyzed free sample case study on land resources in India one will learn to investigate the topic of the example of the definite place or the case site and format the paper according to the general requirements.
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Case studies tagged with Land management
More than cork: cultural landscapes in the montado.
Promoting the improved management of the "montado" multifunctional ecosystem, reconciling resources use with conservation interests. This will be achieved by bringing the ecosystem services and natural capital concepts into practice.
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Park 500 Natural Treatment System
The Park 500 Natural Treatment System (NTS) was constructed as a voluntary effort to provide a low-energy, low-maintenance alternative to reducing nitrogen and phosphorus in the process’s wastewater, which is high in nitrate-nitrogen, organic nitrogen and total phosphorus.
The project was initiated to reduce the environmental footprint of the tobacco production facility and help Philip Morris USA meet its environmental sustainability goals. The NTS reduces mass loading to the James River and creates a performance buffer for the existing plant discharge to ensure long-term...
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Operationalising ecosystem services in regional and national forest management planning in the multifunctional landscape of the French Alps
Designing conservation strategies and adaptive management for the French Alps region. In particular, management options are targeted to support stakeholders and policymakers in making choices.
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Abandoned lands: Agricultural shifts in the Mediterranean
This exemplar examines how changes in the way farmers manage their land in the Mediterranean area lead to changes in sustainable provisioning of ecosystem services. Land management needs to respond to threats such as economic crises, poverty, climate change, changing water availability, increasing dependency on technology, urbanization and pollution. In the countries around the Mediterranean Sea, all of these issues are present. Governments, farmers and land owners are searching for information to make the best decisions possible for the future.
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Bioenergy production in Saxony, Germany
Assessing how current and expected future land use changes affect the synergies or trade-offs between bioenergy provision and other ecosystem services. This will assist Germany in its aim to increase renewable energy provision up to 35% in 2020.
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Devon/Cornwall Beaver Projects
To reintroduce beavers into the wild and to assess their potential to provide natural flood management, water quality improvements and improved biodiversity.
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Urban gardens in Barcelona: multifunctional green to enhance Nature-Based Thinking in cities
The Programme for Enhancing the Urban Green Infrastructure is an ambitious government measure approved in 2017. It establishes the main strategies for enhancing the quality and quantity of green infrastructure in Barcelona till 2030. Barcelona wants to renature the city and create, in this period, 165 ha of new green spaces, which increases the green spaces/inhabitant ratio by 1m 2 . As Barcelona is a compact city, there are various strategies to improve, transform or create new green spaces. The actions will take place at various urban scales (street, district or city scale) and...
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All eyes on the future; Matching regional supply of and demand for mountain ecosystem services in the Swiss Alps
Exploring which policy strategies can balance the supply of and demand for mountain ecosystem services in the future? Mountains provide many ecosystem services to both, people living in and outside the mountains. In the Swiss Alps study area, the number of farms abandoned is increasing and traditional farming systems are in decline. Therefore, as in many European mountain regions, the provision of essential services is at risk. At the same time, touristic activities and settlement development enhance local demand for ecosystem services. New and integrated strategies in agricultural,...
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CONFLUENCE Project: Creating a Periurban Park in Prague
The objectives are create long term conditions for a metropolitan periurban park Confluence (Soutok in Czech) and introduce tools for coordinated and sustainable development of periurban landscapes.
The main aim is to create harmony in between supported natural processes, economical interests and the visitors activities. Set conditions for formation of landscapes rich on natural biotop diversity, transparent and penetrable suburban areas with alive flowing river, side by side agriculture, integrated flood protection and management, and economic and sport activities....
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Izta - Popo - Replenishing Groundwater through Reforestation in Mexico
The Volkswagen Group (the Group) is one of the world’s leading automobile manufacturers. The Group is comprised of twelve brands (Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Audi, SEAT, ŠKODA, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche, Ducati, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles, Scania and MAN), operating 118 production plants in 20 countries across Europe and 11 countries in the Americas, Asia, and Africa.
The Group aims to create lasting value for the Company, its employees, and its shareholders, but also for the countries and regions in which they operate. This all-embracing view of sustainability is...
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Golden Hill Community Garden
To create a community allotment that anyone can visit and is accessible to people with physical and/or mental ill health.
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Medmerry, West Sussex coastal flooding
- Sustainable flood risk management: It will provide a higher standard of protection to the area
- Creation of compensatory intertidal habitat: Delivering 183ha of intertidal habitat, including mudflat, saltmarsh and transitional grassland.
- Involvement of local communities: Creating new access routes and viewpoints
- Read more about Medmerry, West Sussex coastal flooding
Land use legacies: Land use and ecosystem service scenarios in the Grenoble Urban Area
Analysing future land use trajectories and their effects on networks of biodiversity and ecosystem services for the Grenoble urban area. It will offer a better knowledge of mechanisms underpinning ecosystem services as well as analysing trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity, critical ecosystem services and territorial management. Further it will facilitate appropriation of tools and concepts by stakeholders and support the integration of the complexity of ecological functioning into debates on territorial planning and management.
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Arnos Vale Cemetery
To restore a Victorian cemetery from a state of neglect to provide a community green space, whilst maintaining and celebrating the heritage of the site as well as its conservation and ecological value.
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GENeco - Biofertilizer
To provide farmers with a sustainable alternative to traditional fertilizer and to help close the loop between food waste, sewage and agriculture to sustain a circular economy.
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Quito: Urban Agriculture as Nature Based Solution for facing Climate Change and Food Sovereignty
The project aims to tackle climate change, poverty and food provision, by supporting urban gardens on public or private land with community participation. The aims being food security and sovereignty, environmental management, employment and income improvement, social inclusion, sustainability and resilience.
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Pan European Policy: Conflicts and synergies across Europe
Evaluating how recent and forthcoming EU policy developments affect the levels of ecosystem services (ES) and natural capital (NC) in Europe. Many of Europe's natural habitats and species are in decline. While the EU has a number of policies in place to safeguard habitats and species, losses are ongoing for many habitats, species and associated ecosystem services.
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Reintroducing green corridors in the agricultural land of the Province of Limburg, Belgium
Enabling more rational farm management and planning space for green corridors in the agricultural land, together with all relevant stakeholders at landscape level. The context of this case study is explained by a short YouTube clip: http://youtu.be/sD0gVUmmwnE
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Improved, integrated management of the natural resources within the Cairngorms National Park, Scotland
Involving managers and residents in designing an integrated land management plan for biodiversity and tourism. Biodiversity and visiting people.
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Wine exemplar: Translating from consumer values to environmental structures and functions
The wine exemplar seeks to understand how different players in the wine value chain (producers, retailers, consumers) influence wine production and thus the ecosystem services provided by vineyard ecosystems.
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Traversing waters : Recognizing Wetland Ecosystems Value in the Lower Danube
Persina Nature Park has high conservation value but is also of importance to local economies through its fish resources, climate regulation and biomass production. However, the societal, economic and environmental value of this wetland is not well recognized by local and national stakeholders and decision-makers. This exemplar aims to explore the link between Danube ecosystems and a range of environmental benefits for local and Danube-region communities, given the application of an appropriate set of instruments to safeguard or improve them.
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Optimising ecosystem service delivery: what to do where to gain best bang for buck
Viridian were asked to model an entire lowland catchment of approximately 750 km2 for a basket of ecosystem services, so the client could better understand where to focus effort on the ground, assist with planning, inform stakeholder engagement and influence policy formation.
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Newport Wetlands Nature Reserve
To create a new wetland reserve on a brown field site and agricultural land to mitigate the loss of mudflats in Cardiff Bay and the two designated species that were displaced when the Taff/Ely SSSI was destroyed.
- Read more about Newport Wetlands Nature Reserve
Healthy reefs for recreation, fisheries and flood protection on St.Eustatius
Identification of the health of the coral reef of St.Eustatius. The reefs are important drivers for dive tourism, they support local fisheries and they protect against storms.
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Milan: Bosco verticale (vertical garden)
- Increasing carbon sequestration through nature-based solutions
- Enhancing sustainable urbanization
- Developing climate change mitigation
The studio led by Italian architect Stefano Boeri came up with the concept of Bosco Verticale, or Vertical Forest, as a way to combine high-density residential development with tree planting in city centres.
Vertical Forest is a model for a sustainable residential building, a project for metropolitan reforestation contributing to the regeneration of the environment and urban biodiversity without the implication of...
- Read more about Milan: Bosco verticale (vertical garden)
North Somerset Levels and Moors Partnership Project
To work with landowners to improve habitat management for wildlife and to promote soil management to help mitigate flooding, improve water quality and increase habitat for wetland birds.
- Read more about North Somerset Levels and Moors Partnership Project
CASE STUDIES OF LAND
See more case study collections on …. Agroecology , Pastoralism , Seed sovereignty.
In a continent where 70% of the population depends on agriculture, secure access to productive land and natural resources should be an unassailable right for all. But that is far from the case.
Customary governance of farmland, forests and pasturelands by traditional community leaders has been overlain with colonial and post-colonial land laws, leaving rural communities uncertain of their rights to the land they rely upon for their food, livelihoods and cultural integrity. Land grabs by investors have been associated with multiple human rights abuses and social injustices, with thousands of communities forcibly evicted and left destitute.
These case studies demonstrate how African communities have been able to find solutions, take back control, organize and carry out integrated activities, and restore the productive base of their land and soils.
Food forests in Kenya create food sovereignty
Ugandan women securing land for agroecology
Agroecology saves soil and boosts yield in the hills
Indigenous knowledge proves superior in Ethiopia
Changing the fortunes of farmers in Kenya
Restoring community farmland in Uganda
Agroecology improves women’s livelihoods
aquaculture provides an answer for women
Combating climate change with agroecology
BRINGING LIFE BACK TO THE LAND IN ZIMBABWE
Rehabilitating prisoners through agroecology
Strengthening advocacy capacity in Tanzania
Restoring land to pastoralist control in Kenya
AGRO-ECOLOGY AND WATER HARVESTING IN ZIMBABWE
SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION ON KILIMANJARO
SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION IN BURKINA FASO
RESTORING ECOLOGICAL BALANCE IN NIGER
REGENERATIVE AGRICULTURE IN SENEGAL
Reclaiming life in marginal areas in Burkina Faso
Overcoming the constraints of agriculture
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Joyce Brown is the Director of Programs and lead on Hunger Politics work at Health of Mother Earth Foundation (HOMEF) in Nigeria.
She also coordinates the youth forum of the Alliance for Food Sovereignty in Africa and co-coordinates the Alliance for Action on Pesticides in Nigeria. Joyce is a passionate food sovereignty and public health activist who has worked to resist the spread of GMOs and corporate control of the Nigerian food system.
She believes that systemic problems, driven by false narratives, are at the root of global and African issues and her work focuses on exposing these narratives and promoting real, people-centered, contextual, and sustainable solutions. Joyce holds a Bachelor’s degree in Microbiology and a Master’s degree in Public Health and is skilled in program coordination, communication, research, writing, and editing.
Amadou C. KANOUTE is the head of CICODEV Africa, a Pan-African Institute for Consumer Citizenship and Development. The organization aims to inform, educate, protect, and represent consumers and has a vision of a world where citizens and decision makers are aware of the impacts of their choices as consumers and the impact of production models on trade, the environment, and development.
In 2007, Amadou joined Greenpeace International and served as Project Leader and then Executive Director, helping to develop Greenpeace Africa’s three-year development plan and establish the organization’s first permanent base on the continent.
Previously, he was the Regional Director of Consumers International’s Office for Africa for seven years and Director of the sub-regional office for West and Central Africa for nine years. Under his leadership, Consumers International’s membership grew from 5 consumer organizations in 3 countries to 120 organizations in 46 countries in Africa.
He initiated programs that built the capacity of African consumer organizations to participate in and influence policy formulation in areas such as public utility reform and food and nutrition security. Amadou holds an MBA in project management and evaluation and is fluent in English and French. He was born in 1954 in Thies, Senegal and is married with 4 children.
Hakim Baliraine has a strong background in agriculture and advocacy, having completed various training programs and obtaining certifications in sustainable agriculture, soil and water conservation, land use management, and agroecology.
Currently, Hakim holds multiple leadership positions nationally, regionally, and globally. Nationally, He chairs ESAFF Uganda and sits on the National Steering Committee of Agroecology and Organic Agriculture.
At the regional level, he is the current Chairperson of ESAFF region and the Vice Co.Chair of the regional steering Committee of AU EOA-I. And globally, he represents the People Coalition on Food Sovereignty in Africa to the Global Executive Committee, he represents ESAFF Uganda in World Rural Forum and was recently elected as the Chairperson of the Alliance for Food Sovereignty in Africa (AFSA).
Hakim Baliraine possède une solide expérience dans le domaine de l’agriculture et du plaidoyer, ayant suivi divers programmes de formation et obtenu des certifications en agriculture durable, conservation des sols et de l’eau, gestion de l’utilisation des terres et agroécologie.
Actuellement, Hakim occupe plusieurs postes de direction au niveau national, régional et mondial. Au niveau national, il préside l’ESAFF Ouganda et siège au comité directeur national de l’agroécologie et de l’agriculture biologique.
Au niveau régional, il est l’actuel président de la région ESAFF et le vice-président du comité de pilotage régional de l’AU EOA-I. Au niveau mondial, il représente la Coalition populaire pour la souveraineté alimentaire en Afrique au Comité exécutif mondial, il représente l’ESAFF Ouganda au Forum rural mondial et a récemment été élu président de l’Alliance pour la souveraineté alimentaire en Afrique (AFSA).
Fifamè Fidèle Houssou-Gandonou is the Regional Coordinator of the Campaign on Food Security in the Association of Councils of Churches in West Africa, based in Lomé, Togo.
Fidele is a parish priest and a teacher at the Protestant University of West Africa. Born on 23 April 1974 in Cotonou, Benin, Fidele is married and mother of a boy. She studied theology in Porto-Novo (Benin), Yaoundé (Cameroon) and Paris (France).
She is a pastor of the Protestant Methodist Church of Benin (EPMB) and holds a doctorate in theology. The objective pursued in her research is to entrench feminism in Benin using ethical tools to demonstrate the validity of feminism.
Her thesis was published in the edition Globethics under the title: The ethical foundations of feminism: a reflection from the African context. Fidele is a member of the Circle of Concerned African Theologians, and a trainer in Animation and Applied Bible Studies.
Anne Wanjiku Maina is a development practitioner who has been actively working with communities and challenging false solutions being pushed in Africa like Genetic Engineering, the push for a green revolution in Africa and carbon markets as a strategy to cope with climate change in Africa.
Anne articulates these issues at the national, regional and international level in forums such as the UNFCCC and CBD.
She has over fifteen years’ experience and has been instrumental in the growth and development of various regional networks in Africa; the Eastern and Southern Africa Small Scale Farmers’ Forum (ESAFF), Participatory Ecological Land Use Management (PELUM) Association and the Alliance for Food Sovereignty in Africa (AFSA).
Anne is the National Coordinator of the Biodiversity and Biosafety Association of Kenya (BIBA Kenya) a member of AFSA. www.bibakenya.org
Mariama Sonko is a small-scale farmer, the treasurer of her AJAC LUKAAL grassroots association, the national coordinator in Senegal, and the chair of the international movement “We Are The Solution”. Mariama lives in Niaguiss, a village in southwestern Senegal.
In 1990 she joined the movement and since then she has been supporting local knowledge and farming practices. She has five children, and her own agricultural produce is the basis of her family’s diet. She fights for the human and socio-economic rights of women and youth. We are the Solution practices agroecology and family farming, encourages food sovereignty, farmer seeds, biodiversity and the demand for equitable access to resources.
‘We Are the Solution’ stemmed from a 2011 campaign for food sovereignty in Africa. In 2014, it became a rural women’s movement. The movement works for the promotion of farmer knowledge and practices, better agricultural governance by decision-makers and valorization of the production of African Family Farming (agroecology and farmer seeds), which have always preserved food sovereignty in Africa.
Fassil Gebeyehu Yelemtu (PhD) is the general coordinator of the African Biodiversity Network. ABN accompanies Africans in expressing their views on issues such as food and seed sovereignty, genetic engineering, agrofuels, biodiversity protection, extractive industries and smallholder farmers’ rights.
ABN focuses on indigenous knowledge, ecological agriculture and biodiversity rights, policies and legislation.
They are at the forefront of culturally centered approaches to social and ecological issues in Africa by sharing experiences, co-developing methodologies and creating a united African voice on the continent on these issues.
Mariama SONKO est une paysanne, trésorière de son Association de base AJAC LUKAAL, coordinatrice nationale au Sénégal, et présidente du mouvement international “Nous sommes la solution”.
Mariama vit à Niaguiss, un village du sud-ouest du Sénégal. En 1990, elle a rejoint le mouvement et depuis lors, elle soutient les connaissances locales et les pratiques agricoles. Elle a cinq enfants et ses propres produits agricoles sont à la base de l’alimentation de sa famille.
Elle lutte pour les droits humains et socio-économiques des femmes et des jeunes. Nous sommes la Solution pratique l’agroécologie et l’agriculture familiale, encourage la souveraineté alimentaire, les semences paysannes, la biodiversité et la demande d’accès équitable aux ressources. Nous sommes la solution ” est née d’une campagne 2011 pour la souveraineté alimentaire en Afrique. En 2014, il est devenu un mouvement de femmes rurales.
Le mouvement œuvre pour la promotion des connaissances et des pratiques paysannes, une meilleure gouvernance agricole par les décideurs et la valorisation de la production de l’agriculture familiale africaine (agroécologie et semences paysannes), qui ont toujours préservé la souveraineté alimentaire en Afrique.
Fifamè Fidèle Houssou-Gandonou est la coordinatrice régionale de la Campagne sur la sécurité alimentaire de l’Association des Conseils des Eglises en Afrique de l’Ouest, basée à Lomé, Togo. Fidele est curé de paroisse et professeur à l’Université protestante d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Née le 23 avril 1974 à Cotonou, au Bénin, Fidele est mariée et mère d’un garçon.
Elle a étudié la théologie à Porto-Novo (Bénin), Yaoundé (Cameroun) et Paris (France). Pasteur de l’Église méthodiste protestante du Bénin (EPMB), elle est titulaire d’un doctorat en théologie. L’objectif poursuivi dans sa recherche est d’enraciner le féminisme au Bénin en utilisant des outils éthiques pour démontrer la validité du féminisme.
Sa thèse a été publiée dans l’édition Globethics sous le titre : Les fondements éthiques du féminisme : une réflexion dans le contexte africain. Fidele est membre du Circle of Concerned African Theologians et formateur en animation et études bibliques appliquées.
Fassil Gebeyehu Yelemtu (PhD) est le coordinateur général du Réseau africain de la biodiversité. ABN accompagne les Africains dans l’expression de leurs points de vue sur des questions telles que la souveraineté alimentaire et semencière, le génie génétique, les agrocarburants, la protection de la biodiversité, les industries extractives et les droits des petits exploitants agricoles.
ABN se concentre sur les savoirs autochtones, l’agriculture écologique et les droits, politiques et législations liés à la biodiversité.
Ils sont à l’avant-garde des approches culturellement centrées sur les problèmes sociaux et écologiques en Afrique en partageant leurs expériences, en co-développant des méthodologies et en créant une voix africaine unie sur le continent sur ces questions.
Juriste de formation, Jean-Paul SIKELI est titulaire d’un DESS en droits de l’homme et d’un DEA en droit public, option droit international.
Ses recherches ont porté sur la tension entre les droits de l’homme et la biotechnologie moderne dans le contexte de la sécurité alimentaire d’une part, et la lutte contre le terrorisme en droit international, d’autre part.
Il est l’auteur de plusieurs articles et d’un ouvrage sur les OGM publié aux Editions Universitaires Européennes. Au niveau professionnel, Jean-Paul SIKELI a été consultant pour la FAO à l’occasion d’un projet national sur les semences et consultant à l’Inades-Formation International.
Il a occupé les postes de Chargé de Programme puis de Secrétaire Exécutif de la Coalition pour la protection du Patrimoine Génétique Africain (COPAGEN), poste qu’il occupe depuis août 2014.
COPAGEN est un mouvement associatif citoyen qui défend les droits des communautés sur les ressources génétiques contre diverses formes de menaces, y compris les OGM et le phénomène d’accaparement des terres et des ressources naturelles. Jean-Paul SIKELI a mené de nombreuses initiatives de plaidoyer pour sauvegarder le patrimoine génétique africain.
Ali Aii Shatu détient un diplôme national supérieur en soins infirmiers vétérinaires. En octobre 2000, elle a été recrutée en tant que coordonnatrice du programme de promotion des femmes et des femmes à MBOSCUDA et a occupé ce poste pendant six ans et a été élue au conseil d’administration de MBOSCUDA en tant que présidente du sous-comité des finances en 2010, poste qu’elle détient encore.
Pour sa vaste expérience et son excellence, Ali a été élu pour représenter le Comité de coordination des peuples autochtones d’Afrique (IPACC), un réseau de 150 organisations de peuples autochtones dans 20 pays africains de l’AFSA. Elle a également été le point focal de l’IPACC sur les questions liées à l’alimentation et à l’agriculture.
En novembre 2016, elle a été élue pour servir l’Alliance en tant que trésorière. Une mère de trois, deux fils et une fille, Mme Ali s’est consacrée au mouvement de souveraineté alimentaire qui promet à ses enfants un avenir meilleur.
Josephine Atangana est basée au Cameroun. Elle représente la Plate-forme sous-régionale de l’Afrique centrale des organisations de producteurs – PROPAC au sein de AFSA. Fondé en 2005, PROPAC regroupe des plates-formes nationales de 10 pays dans la sous-région de l’Afrique centrale.
PROPAC est un membre fondateur de l’Organisation panafricaine des agriculteurs (PAFO). La mission de PROPAC est d’aider au positionnement des producteurs et de leurs organisations comme de véritables entrepreneurs et partenaires dans l’élaboration, la mise en œuvre et l’évaluation des politiques agricoles en Afrique Centrale.
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Common Land Resources for Poverty Alleviation: A Case Study
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MOHD SADIQ SALMAN
As the name indicates the common land resources (CLR) have “common access” to all and are used for various economic gains. They include community land, community pastures, community forest, wildlife, wasteland, common dumping, threshing ground, the banks and beds of rivers regulated by social conventions and legally enforceable rules. The forests provide timber; pastures support the livestock whereas agro-forestry and social forestry is also practiced. In general, they account for a substantial share of income, socio-economic development, and livelihood of the poor households in rural India. The present study is an attempt to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution and change in CLR of Bulandshahr district in the Indo-gangetic plain since last decade. Further, it investigates the role of common lands in providing livelihood to rural poor. The study reveals that there is a decrease in the common land resources during the last decade. The continuous decline in agricultural profits ha...
South Asia remains the region with the highest prevalence of undernourishment with India accounting for 255 million food insecure people. A worsening of child nutritional outcomes has been observed in many Indian states recently and children in rural areas have poorer nutrition compared to those in urban areas. This paper investigates the relationship between land ownership, non-farm livelihoods, food security, and child nutrition in rural India, using the Young Lives Survey. The survey covers the same rural households and children over the period 2002–2013 in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Our empirical analysis uses a sample of 1209 children (and their households) who were aged around 1 year in 2002. Our results show that large agricultural land ownership is significantly associated with better child nutrition (measured using height-for-age and stunting) and household food security. A transition from farm to non-farm work improves child nutrition, but only among landless households. While access to land is still critical for improving household food and nutrition security among rural households, there is a trend towards greater non-farm livelihoods, and a decline in reliance on farming, particularly among landless and marginal farmers.
Dr. Bishnu Prasad Mohapatra
1998, Environmental Conservation
Common lands, being a significant form of natural resource endowment in many developing countries, play a vital role in maintaining the ecological balance, and more particularly in supporting the people, especially the rural poor, in eking out their livelihood. However, the contributions of common lands to the rural economy and ecology have remained unappreciated which has led to the depletion and degradation of these lands. In an attempt to examine the nature and extent of contribution of common lands to household economies, 432 sample households from eight sample villages across four ecological regions in Haryana, northwest India, were surveyed using a structured questionnaire during 1995. We found that common lands still hold an important place in the household economy of rural people of this state. A significant proportion of the sample households obtained substantial biomass resources, income and employment from common lands. The contributions of these lands in terms of variety...
2016, The Land Question in India: State, Dispossession and Capitalist Transition
Capitalist transformation in post-colonial societies follows an all together different path. The resolution to agrarian question no longer seems necessary for capitalism. This leaves large number of petty commodity producer precariously surviving in agriculture in India. Further, not only this class but also area operated by them is increasing, in spite of the fact that their agriculture is essentially unviable. Farmers suicides reflect the distress faced by the bottom of the pyramid. Yet, this class survives through various strategies. There is, however, change in their status coming from considerable diversification in terms of dependence on farming. This can displace land as central from their survival. Post-colonial state manages their conditions through welfare transfers, providing some succor. This paper brings evidence for changing profile of rural farm households which can leave their implications for the land question. (
2009, Voice of Dalit
2004, Pakistan Development Review
Although reducing rural poverty has been the key agenda of economic reforms in Pakistan, the rural poverty continues to rise during the 1990s. The causes of rural poverty are complex and multidimensional. The rural poor are quite diverse both in the problems they face and the possible solutions to these problems. The rural poor are not homogeneous in terms of their natural or economic environments or their sources of income. The paper uses the most recent household data set available—PIHS 2001-02 to examine the causes of rural poverty and what accounts for its persistence and what policy measures should be taken to alleviate it. Poverty estimates using official poverty line suggest the high prevalence of rural poverty ranging from 39 % to 48 % in all provinces. Rural poverty is found to be strongly correlated with lack of asset in rural areas. The unequal land ownership in the country is found to be one of the major causes of poverty as poverty level was the highest among the landle...
2000, SSRN Electronic Journal
Kailash Nath Pyakuryal , Purna Nepali
2011, Pak. J. Agri. Sci
2000, The Pakistan Development Review
There has been much debate over the extent to which economic growth reduces poverty and augments human development among the poor. This paper describes ongoing research using survey data on the Green Revolution experience in India that focuses on this issue. The research is based on a general-equilibrium model of labour markets for adults and children that differentiates households by whether they own land and incorporates a public sector that chooses the amount of school building. The empirical results suggest, consistent with the model, that expectations of improvements in agricultural productivity increase the schooling of children in landed households and reduce schooling in landless households, in part because of the operation of the child labour market, as landless child labour is used to replace landed child labour lost due to increased child school attendance in landed households. The results also show, however, that school construction in India was undertaken at higher leve...
This paper surveys the status of food security in the South Asian countries, particularly India. Particular attention has been paid to small landholders (those households owning less than 2 hectares of land). Using NSS data from 1993–94 and 2004–05 the paper shows that small landholders are an increasing proportion of i) total rural households, ii) rural households who are poor, and iii) rural households who are undernourished. The paper then singles out five disconnects in India’s recent economic performance as constituting the reason for this outcome. It advances some policy conclusions on how these disconnects can be addressed.
Christopher Edmonds , Nobuhiko Fuwa
The Indian economy's strong growth in recent years has given new impetus to long-standing efforts to develop the country's poorest rural areas. Growth has increased government resources and raised expectations among the rural poor for improvements in their well-being. Findings of a long-term study of farming households in Eastern India suggest the importance of local circumstances in developing policies intended to raise the welfare of poor families in remote, agriculturally unfavorable, areas. The history of government rural development efforts in India is largely disappointing, but recent policies, including the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, signal a reversal of top-down national policies and improve prospects for these agricultural areas. Program decentralization and allowing localities broad latitude in developing interventions that encompass agricultural, manufacturing, and labor market-based pathways for raising rural livelihoods are critical in these eff...
Land is the most critical factor of production for a myriad of economic activities for human settlement worldwide although it is in limited supply. It is therefore, essential that its allocation across different economic activities and uses should be based on sound theoretical premises, combined with the ground realities of multiple objectives-a few of which regularly exceed the narrowly defined goals of economic growth per se. For traditional communities, 'access to lands is directly associated with civilization paradigms and cultural ethos, which rather decide their 'economics', and not one other way round that could be true for modern, techno-centric civilizations. Most mainstream discourses of history have, however, tried to find the crisis in the 'absence of state interventions and a dig into the social history points to deeper roots of the crisis, which rather intensified after the entry of the 'welfare' state. In a predominantly, agrarian economy such as for example in India and Odisha, the entitlement to livelihood and access to the factors of production, especially land and forests, are essential objectives that require to ascertain allocation of land across different uses and users.
Euro Asia International Journals
Land and property rights reforms are receiving new and renewed attention as instruments to redress rural poverty by enhancing the land access and tenure security of poor households. The scheme has implementation bottle necks and it has to implement with right approach, then only the benefits will reach the intended. This paper intended to find the new initiative taken in Telangana state and any implementation problems in this regard. The initiatives taken by the government is appreciated and it very much need in the present scenario. The scheme has implementation bottle necks and it has to implement with right approach, then only the benefits will reach the intended.
Dr. Amarender reddy
This article examines and compares the status of landrights and their impacts on agricultural productivity, food security and well-being in a set of tribal and non-tribal villages in Telangana. Based on an intensive field survey, the research confirms that tribals without formal land rights remain largely unable to benefit from government support and access to private institutions in terms ofgetting credit and farm extension, whereas in non-tribal villages, government organisations are pro-active in providing such support. These findings confirm the need to increase the effectiveness of land rights and title documentation in India’s tribal villages to protectlocal people’s investments in land, enhance agricultural productivity and strengthen the long-term effectiveness of government programmes, which include avoidance of migration to the big cities.
2009, The Journal of Development Studies
2021, Open Journal of Social Sciences
Kailash Nath Pyakuryal
2011, Studies (IJRS)
India is one of the most progressive nations of the world, making waves in the field of science and technology, nuclear energy etc. Global multinationals and growing industries have changed the face of urban India with people being employed in corporate, having a fairly high standard of living and an increased purchasing power. But this just shows the glorious side of the story for India. But the rural country still struggles for its basic necessities of life like food, drinking water, shelter and education. Despite the country's meteoric GDP growth rate, poverty in India is still pervasive; especially in rural areas where 70% of India's 1.2 billion populations live. It is one of the fastest growing economies in the world and yet its wealth is hardly redistributed across the population. Major determinants of poverty are low levels of per capita income, high population growth, unequal distribution of wealth, inadequacy of infrastructure, unproductive employment, and under employment and disguised unemployment etc. The objectives of the present paper is to review the poverty definition, causes of poverty, effects, policy perspectives of poverty alleviation programmes and to analyze various programmes, emphasis of Five Year Plans (FYPs) on poverty alleviation, gains of poverty alleviation programmes in India and remedies. The poverty alleviation programmes, recycles the overall standard of living of the people. As these programmes ensures better health, better education to their children. Hence the income generation through employment gives minimum hopes to take care of the future generation in respect of their education, public health including adaption of a family planning and other developmental aspects in growing economies, indirectly gives a way to remove poverty.
The study used primary data from 100 households following multistage random sampling process. Minimum consumption expenditure per person was used as standard of measurement to categorize households into poor and non-poor. To address principal determinants of household poverty in the study area, the study used, logit model.In the district the poverty headcount is 15%, the poverty gap index was 0.025 and the squared poverty gap index was 0.0048.Logit analysis results show, as family sizeincreases by one adult equivalent, citrus paribus, the probability that a household falls into poverty increases by 3 percent. As irrigated landholding increases by one hectare, the probability of the household falling into poverty decreases by 11.4 percent and as farm sizeincreases by one hectare,the probability that a household falls into poverty decrease by 4.1 percent. Similarly, as livestock ownership increases by one TLU, the probability that a household falls into poverty decrease by 5.4 percent. If income increases by one lakh, probability of household falling into poverty will decrease by 0.02 percent. As decision maker education measured by years of schooling increases by one unit, the probability that a household falls into poverty decrease by 3.5 percent and similarly, as decision maker wife educationincreases by one unit the probability that a household falls into poverty also decrease by 3 percent.
NITIN KUMAR NAG , arun solanki
2022, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences
This research has accomplished an enlightenment on “Employment Pattern of Landless Labour in baraut block of Baghpat district (UP)” by conducting a survey on selected study area based on family size, education status, employment pattern and employment generation. This survey screened out that the majority of landless labours in study area are not aware with the maximum government schemes. They are unupdated and following the same old pattern in their employment and family too. They are not trying to upgrade themselves and taking advantages of government schemes in agricultural sector‟s employment. They are more attracted towards non-agricultural employment sectors comparing to agricultural sector jobs because it is easily available on lower pay scale. As they are not upgrading themselves which resulted improper or irregular employment in their basic sectors. Findings showed that those landless labours need to be aware with the upgraded government schemes made for agricultural labours as much as possible by which they will get able to find more ideas of employment in the sector of agriculture. By taking these steps they would be able to take advantages by upgrading their lives and improving agricultural sectors in our country too.
Muhammad Khalid Bashir
Rural development has assumed global attention especially in the developing nations. It has great significance for a country India where majority of the population, around 65% of the people standing in rural areas. The present strategy of rural development in India mainly focuses on poverty alleviation i.e., for better livelihood opportunities, provision of basic facilities like infrastructure through innovative programmes of self-employment and salary. I describe the role and function of the Government and its’ programmes for rural development in India. The technology interventions in the field of rural development have been discussed briefly and efforts being made to give an innovative idea. The poverty alleviation programmes were not successful in most parts of India but still government putting efforts to make strategy successful. Especially to cover the lack of proper implementation and right targeting, overcome the overlapping of schemes, control population to renders the sche...
Rural society is the primitive society of man. India is well-known in the world because of Indian rural culture and society. Farmers are the backbone of country.65% Indian economy is depending on agriculture. Therefore really if we want to develop India, there is a need to develop the rural society. Today Indian farmers are having so many social, familiar and economical problems. Farmer’s suicide is crucial and serious problem in current scenario. Poverty is main and basic problem in rural society. This research is also useful to government sociologist, social workers and economist for study and makes a arrangement for framing the different schemes for farmers. With the help of this research, the strategy and direction can make for improvement in agriculture sector. The policy, method and direction of education can be framed after referring such type of research.
2012, AFRICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEEARCH
Dr Geetha R
Nearly 70 percent of the people in India live in rural areas and of them almost 25.7 percent live Below Poverty Line (based on NSSO 2011-12 report). The number of rural people in India is 833.1 million of which 216.5 million are estimated to be Below Poverty Line (BPL). There is pressing need to develop rural India to ensure balanced and sustainable economic growth in the country. A plethora of Rural Development initiatives have been formulated developed and implemented from time to time by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), Government of India in order to alleviate poverty from the face of India so as to ensure sustainable livelihood to the rural populace. This paper explains through a framework, the context, dimensions, policies and schemes considered by the MoRD for enabling access to sustainable livelihood to rural dwellers in India. The framework based analysis enables to easily comprehend the way the public sector delivery mechanism functions towards realizing the objective of equitable and sustainable development. The framework has been developed on the basis of Meta-analytic survey of government reports and websites. An effort is also made to briefly describe the rationale, dimensions and schemes considered for enabling access to sustainable livelihood with the help of statistical data obtained from macro data sources.
2021, Developing Country Studies
2016, British Journal of Applied Science & Technology
Sarhad Journal of Agriculture
Ghulam Muhammad Arif
The Pakistan Development Review
The quantification of landlessness is a formidable task. Conceptual ambiguities involved in the classification of landlessness and data limitations compound the difficulties in the estimation. Landlessness, which is an elusive concept, tends to acquire interpretations which vary with the objectives, context and estimation procedures adopted in different research endeavours. The denotation and connotation of the concept of landlessness, the population of interest (or at risk) and the objectives of measurement therefore need to be spell out very clearly for a meaningful and policy-relevant exercise. Identification of the state of landlessness using the criterion of ownership and access to land, has often been made. While the 'ownership' may be clear in certain contexts, that of 'access' needs further explanations in terms of the nature, extent and type of access. A related question, is the demarcation of the population or its subset whose landlessness is to be estimate...
2023, International Journal of Scientific Development and Research
This study presents a critical evaluation of the poverty alleviation programmes that the Indian government specifically implemented in rural areas after independence. This study's aim is to evaluate the effects of various poverty alleviation initiatives on the socioeconomic status and standard of living of rural residents of India as well as the reasons why some of these initiatives have failed and have drawn criticism. The paper is based on secondary data sources, including reports and documents from the government. Bar graphs, line graphs, and images have been used to present quantitative data throughout the entire paper, which is based on a qualitative methodology. This paper has provided a critical assessment of programmes like TRYSEM, IRDP, MGNREGA, etc. These programmes highlight achievements in generating income and building infrastructure while highlighting problems like corruption and poor targeting. The results paint a complex picture of rural India's efforts to reduce poverty. There are still issues like administrative roadblocks, corruption, poor targeting, and low awareness, despite the fact that some programmes have produced commendable results in terms of creating income, improving livelihoods, and developing infrastructure. Additionally, there are concerns about the sustainability and long-term effects of these interventions, necessitating a more thorough investigation of the structural barriers to holistic advancement.
2009, Journal of Agrarian Change
2020, South Asia Research
This article examines and compares the status of land rights and their impacts on agricultural productivity, food security and well-being in a set of tribal and non-tribal villages in Telangana. Based on an intensive field survey, the research confirms that tribals without formal land rights remain largely unable to benefit from government support and access to private institutions in terms of getting credit and farm extension, whereas in non-tribal villages, government organisations are pro-active in providing such support. These findings confirm the need to increase the effectiveness of land rights and title documentation in India’s tribal villages to protect local people’s investments in land, enhance agricultural productivity and strengthen the long-term effectiveness of government programmes, which include avoidance of migration to the big cities.
Yogesh N Vansiya
Al-Fatin Fatin , Shuvo Poddar , Md. Mehedi Hasan , Masud Parvege Rubel
Poverty, especially rural poverty is one of the most renounced words in developing, under developed countries and even in developed countries. Rural poverty refers to poverty found in rural areas, including factors of rural society, rural economy, and rural political systems that give rise to the poverty found there. Eradicating rural poverty through effective change in rural economic activities has become a major challenge for the international community. This report gives a detail description about role of non-farm activity in poverty reduction in rural area of Bangladesh. The study aims to identify the factors for shifting to rural non-farm activity and to establish a linkage between non-farm activities and farm activities. It also aims to determine the ways through which non-farm activity can contribute to poverty alleviation. The research design adopted in this study was cross-sectional field survey in which both probability and non-probability sampling methods had been employed. Questioner survey was conducted in Baneshwar union of Puthia upazilla, Rajshahi and thus the opinions of people about shifting from farm to non-farm activity and its effect on their income had been collected. Opinions of key informants and group discussion were conducted for further justification of the information. Frequency distribution, standard deviation and multiple response analysis had been conducted to analyze the data. The result indicates a number of findings: first, the factors affecting the performance of non-farm activities include inadequate capital, poor utility facility and inefficient transport to and from markets. Second, rural farm and non-farm activities are interlinked as the former in most cases provide capital for starting and running non-farm activities and the later provide source of capital for purchasing farm inputs. Third, rural non-farm activities contribute in alleviating poverty of rural people by contributing a significant share to the income earned by them. Depending on the findings some recommendations had been provided and finally poverty alleviation logic model was developed. The logic model shows how the implementation of the recommendation may contribute in reducing poverty in rural area. At last, the study concludes that rural non-farm activities play an important role in poverty alleviation. Therefore, efforts should be made to promote this sector so as to realize its full potential towards rural poverty alleviation.
Journal of AgriSearch (JAS)
his study is based on the longitudinal information collected in the selected villages of Bihar. The data collected during 2010-11 and 2014-15 were analyzed using descriptive and econometric techniques. An attempt was made to analyze employment generation, the income of different marginal farmers and labour households and the extent of indebtedness and earning prevalent among rural labour and marginal farm households in rural Bihar. The result indicated that the average size of landholding of labour and marginal farmers increased in villages understudy because some of these households purchased land from other categories of households through their meagre savings possible due to increase in employment opportunity and wages, particularly in non- farm sector in Bihar. The levels of livelihood parameter are low on labour households, but they performed impressively during the recent past. The total values of assets of labour and marginal farms’ households understudy have considerably enhanced during five years due to either possession of new assets, rejuvenation, and/ or value appreciation of the existing assets. Labour households earned a higher income than a marginal household in 2014- 15 due to availability of non - farm employment and grants under social security schemes. There has been significant improvement in education level, asset possession and availability of facilities. However, social security programmes seem to be more robust than economic development programmes including agricultural development. The investment in human capital or skill development in the rural area will be equally important in the endeavour for alleviating poverty and improving livelihood status. The complementarities among various types of infrastructures, institutions and development programmes need to be ensured to accelerate the process of poverty alleviation and improving livelihood in rural Bihar.