47 case interview examples (from McKinsey, BCG, Bain, etc.)

Case interview examples - McKinsey, BCG, Bain, etc.

One of the best ways to prepare for   case interviews  at firms like McKinsey, BCG, or Bain, is by studying case interview examples. 

There are a lot of free sample cases out there, but it's really hard to know where to start. So in this article, we have listed all the best free case examples available, in one place.

The below list of resources includes interactive case interview samples provided by consulting firms, video case interview demonstrations, case books, and materials developed by the team here at IGotAnOffer. Let's continue to the list.

  • McKinsey examples
  • BCG examples
  • Bain examples
  • Deloitte examples
  • Other firms' examples
  • Case books from consulting clubs
  • Case interview preparation

Click here to practise 1-on-1 with MBB ex-interviewers

1. mckinsey case interview examples.

  • Beautify case interview (McKinsey website)
  • Diconsa case interview (McKinsey website)
  • Electro-light case interview (McKinsey website)
  • GlobaPharm case interview (McKinsey website)
  • National Education case interview (McKinsey website)
  • Talbot Trucks case interview (McKinsey website)
  • Shops Corporation case interview (McKinsey website)
  • Conservation Forever case interview (McKinsey website)
  • McKinsey case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)
  • McKinsey live case interview extract (by IGotAnOffer) - See below

2. BCG case interview examples

  • Foods Inc and GenCo case samples  (BCG website)
  • Chateau Boomerang written case interview  (BCG website)
  • BCG case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)
  • Written cases guide (by IGotAnOffer)
  • BCG live case interview extract (by IGotAnOffer) - See below

3. Bain case interview examples

  • CoffeeCo practice case (Bain website)
  • FashionCo practice case (Bain website)
  • Associate Consultant mock interview video (Bain website)
  • Consultant mock interview video (Bain website)
  • Written case interview tips (Bain website)
  • Bain case interview guide   (by IGotAnOffer)
  • Bain live case interview extract (by IGotAnOffer) - See above

4. Deloitte case interview examples

  • Engagement Strategy practice case (Deloitte website)
  • Recreation Unlimited practice case (Deloitte website)
  • Strategic Vision practice case (Deloitte website)
  • Retail Strategy practice case  (Deloitte website)
  • Finance Strategy practice case  (Deloitte website)
  • Talent Management practice case (Deloitte website)
  • Enterprise Resource Management practice case (Deloitte website)
  • Footloose written case  (by Deloitte)
  • Deloitte case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

5. Accenture case interview examples

  • Case interview workbook (by Accenture)
  • Accenture case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

6. OC&C case interview examples

  • Leisure Club case example (by OC&C)
  • Imported Spirits case example (by OC&C)

7. Oliver Wyman case interview examples

  • Wumbleworld case sample (Oliver Wyman website)
  • Aqualine case sample (Oliver Wyman website)
  • Oliver Wyman case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

8. A.T. Kearney case interview examples

  • Promotion planning case question (A.T. Kearney website)
  • Consulting case book and examples (by A.T. Kearney)
  • AT Kearney case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

9. Strategy& / PWC case interview examples

  • Presentation overview with sample questions (by Strategy& / PWC)
  • Strategy& / PWC case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

10. L.E.K. Consulting case interview examples

  • Case interview example video walkthrough   (L.E.K. website)
  • Market sizing case example video walkthrough  (L.E.K. website)

11. Roland Berger case interview examples

  • Transit oriented development case webinar part 1  (Roland Berger website)
  • Transit oriented development case webinar part 2   (Roland Berger website)
  • 3D printed hip implants case webinar part 1   (Roland Berger website)
  • 3D printed hip implants case webinar part 2   (Roland Berger website)
  • Roland Berger case interview guide   (by IGotAnOffer)

12. Capital One case interview examples

  • Case interview example video walkthrough  (Capital One website)
  • Capital One case interview guide (by IGotAnOffer)

13. Consulting clubs case interview examples

  • Berkeley case book (2006)
  • Columbia case book (2006)
  • Darden case book (2012)
  • Darden case book (2018)
  • Duke case book (2010)
  • Duke case book (2014)
  • ESADE case book (2011)
  • Goizueta case book (2006)
  • Illinois case book (2015)
  • LBS case book (2006)
  • MIT case book (2001)
  • Notre Dame case book (2017)
  • Ross case book (2010)
  • Wharton case book (2010)

Practice with experts

Using case interview examples is a key part of your interview preparation, but it isn’t enough.

At some point you’ll want to practise with friends or family who can give some useful feedback. However, if you really want the best possible preparation for your case interview, you'll also want to work with ex-consultants who have experience running interviews at McKinsey, Bain, BCG, etc.

If you know anyone who fits that description, fantastic! But for most of us, it's tough to find the right connections to make this happen. And it might also be difficult to practice multiple hours with that person unless you know them really well.

Here's the good news. We've already made the connections for you. We’ve created a coaching service where you can do mock case interviews 1-on-1 with ex-interviewers from MBB firms . Start scheduling sessions today!

The IGotAnOffer team

Interview coach and candidate conduct a video call

35 Case Interviews Examples from MBB / Big Four Firms

Studying case interview examples is one of the first steps in preparing for the  management consulting  recruitment process. If you don’t want to spend hours searching the web, this article presents a comprehensive and convenient list for you – with 35 example cases, 16 case books, along with a case video accompanied by detailed feedback on tips and techniques.

A clear understanding of “what is a case interview” is essential for effective use of these examples. I suggest reading our  Case Interview 101  guide, if you haven’t done so.

McKinsey case interview examples

Mckinsey practice cases.

  • Diconsa Case
  • Electro-Light Case
  • GlobaPharm Case
  • National Education Case

What should I know about McKinsey Case interviews?

At McKinsey, case interviews often follow the interviewer-led format , where the interviewer asks you multiple questions for you to answer with short pitches.

How do you nail these cases? Since the questions can be grouped into predictable types, an efficient approach is to master each question type. However, do that after you’ve mastered the case interview fundamentals!

For a detailed guide on interviewer-led cases, check out our article on McKinsey Case Interview .

BCG & Bain case interview examples

Bcg practice cases.

  • BCG – Written Case – Chateau Boomerang

Bain practice cases

  • Bain – Coffee Shop Co.
  • Bain – Fashion Co.
  • Bain – Mock Interview – Associate Consultant
  • Bain – Mock Interview – Consultant

What should I know about BCG & Bain case interviews?

Unlike McKinsey, BCG and Bain case interviews typically follow the candidate-led format – which is the opposite of interviewer-led, with the candidate driving the case progress by actively breaking down problems in their own way.

The key to acing candidate-led cases is to master the case interview fundamental concepts as well as the frameworks.

Some BCG and Bain offices also utilize written case interviews – you have to go through a pile of data slides, select the most relevant ones to answer a set of interviewer questions, then deliver those answers in a presentation.

For a detailed guide on candidate-led cases, check out our article on BCG & Bain Case Interview .

Deloitte case interview examples

Deloitte practice cases.

Undergrad Cases

  • Human Capital – Technology Institute
  • Human Capital – Agency V
  • Strategy – Federal Benefits Provider
  • Strategy – Extreme Athletes
  • Technology – Green Apron
  • Technology – Big Bucks Bank
  • Technology – Top Engine
  • Technology – Finance Agency

Advanced Cases

  • Human Capital – Civil Cargo Bureau
  • Human Capital – Capital Airlines
  • Strategy – Club Co
  • Strategy – Health Agency
  • Technology – Waste Management
  • Technology – Bank of Zurich
  • Technology – Galaxy Fitness

What should I know about Deloitte case interviews?

Case interviews at Deloitte also lean towards the candidate-led format like BCG and Bain.

The Deloitte consultant recruitment process also features group case interviews , which not only test analytical skills but also place a great deal on interpersonal handling.

Accenture case interview examples

Accenture divides its cases into three types with very cool-sounding names.

Sorted in descending order of popularity, they are:

These are similar to candidate-led cases at Bain and BCG. albeit shorter – the key is to develop a suitable framework and ask the right questions to extract data from the interviewer.

These are similar to the market-sizing and guesstimate questions asked in interviewer-led cases – demonstrate your calculations in structured, clear-cut, logical steps and you’ll nail the case.

These cases have you sort through a deluge of data to draw solutions; however, this type of case is rare.

Capital One case interview examples

Capital One is the odd one on this list – it is a bank-holding company. Nonetheless, this being one of the biggest banks in America, it’s interesting to see how its cases differ from the consulting ones.

Having gone through Capital One’s guide to its cases, I can’t help but notice the less-MECE structure of the sample answers. Additionally, there seems to be a greater focus on the numbers.

Nonetheless, having a solid knowledge of the basics of case interviews will not hurt you – if anything, your presentation will be much more in-depth, comprehensive, and understandable!

See Capital One Business Analyst Case Interview for an example case and answers.

Other firms case interview examples

Besides the leading ones, we have some examples from other major consulting firms as well.

  • Oliver Wyman – Wumbleworld
  • Oliver Wyman – Aqualine
  • LEK – Cinema
  • LEK – Market Sizing
  • Kearney – Promotional Planning
  • OC&C – Imported Spirits
  • OC&C – Leisure Clubs

Consulting clubs case books

In addition to official cases, here are a few case books you can use as learning materials.

Do keep in mind: don’t base your study on frameworks and individual case types, but master the fundamentals so you can tackle any kind of case.

  • Wharton Consulting Club Case Book
  • Tuck Consulting Club Case Book
  • MIT Sloan Consulting Club Case Book
  • LBS Consulting Club Case Book
  • Kellogg Consulting Club Case Book
  • INSEAD Consulting Club Case Book
  • Harvard Consulting Club Case Book
  • ESADE Consulting Club Case Book
  • Darden Consulting Club Case Book
  • Berkeley Consulting Club Case Book
  • Notre-Dame Consulting Club Case Book
  • Illinois Consulting Club Case Book
  • Columbia Consulting Club Case Book
  • Duke Consulting Club Case Book
  • Ross Consulting Club Case Book
  • Kearney Case Book

case studies for interview examples

Case interview example – Case video

The limitation of most official case interview examples is that they are either too short and vague, or in text format, or both.

To solve that problem for you, we’ve extracted a 30-minute-long, feedback-rich case sample from our Case Interview End-to-End Secrets Program .

This is a candidate-led, profitability case on an internet music broadcasting company called Pandora.

In 30 minutes, this candidate demonstrates the exact kind of shortcoming that most candidates suffer during real case interviews – they come in with sharp business senses, then hurt their own chances with inadequate techniques.

Here are seven notable areas where the candidate (and you) can improve:

Thanking Throughout the case, as especially in the opening, he should have shown more appreciation for the time the interviewer spent with him.

Structured opening The candidate’s opening of the case feels unstructured. He could have improved it by not mixing the playback and clarification parts. You can learn to nail the case in a 3-minute start through this video on How to Open Any Case Perfectly .

Explicitness A lot of the candidate’s thought process remains in his head; in a case interview, it’s better to be as explicit as possible – draw your issue tree out and point to it as you speak; state your hypothesis when you move into a branch; when you receive data, acknowledge it out loud.

Avoiding silence The silence in his case performance is too long, including his timeout and various gaps in his speech; either ask for timeout (and keep it as short as possible) or think out loud to fill those gaps.

Proactivity The candidate relies too much on the interviewer (e.g: asking for data when it can easily be calculated); you don’t want to appear lazy before your interviewer, so avoid this.

Avoiding repeating mistakes Making one mistake twice is a big no-no in consulting interviews; one key part of the consulting skill set is the ability to learn, and repeating your mistakes (especially if the interviewer has pointed it out) makes you look like someone who doesn’t learn.

Note-taking Given the mistakes this candidate makes, he’s probably not taking his notes well. I can show you how to get it right if you watch this video on Case Interview Note-Taking .

Nonetheless, there are three good points you can learn from the candidate:

The candidate sums up what he’s covered and announces his upcoming approach at the start and at key points in the case – this is a very good habit that gives you a sense of direction and shows that you’re an organized person.

The candidate performs a “reality check” on whether his actions match the issue tree; in a case interview it’s easy to lose track of what you’re doing, so remember to do this every once in a while.

The candidate prompts the interviewer to give out more data than he asked for; if anything, this actually matches a habit of real consultants, and if you’re lucky, your interviewer may actually give out important pieces you haven’t thought of.

These are only part of the “ninja tips” taught In our Case Interview E2E Secrets Program – besides the math and business intuition for long-term development, a key feature is the instant-result tips and techniques for case interviews.

Once you’ve mastered them, you can nail any case they throw at you!

For more “quality” practice, let’s have a mock case interview with former consultants from McKinsey, BCG, Bain, Oliver Wyman, Strategy& and many other consulting firms. They will help you identify your problem areas and give you actionable feedback, making your preparation much easier and faster.

Hi! This is Kim and welcome to another performance in the Tips & Techniques part of our amazing End-to-end program. You are about to hear a really interesting performance.

There is a common Myth that Profitability cases are easier. Well, for beginners, that’s may make sense, but I would argue that Profitability cases can be really tricky and candidates without good foundation will make about the same level of mistakes regardless of type of cases given.

The profitability case we are about to watch will show that. It’s a very unconventional

Profitability. It started out like a typical one but getting more and more tricky toward the end.

The candidate is fairly good in term of business intuition, but the Tips & Techniques aspect needs a lot of fine tune! Now let’s go ahead and get started! 

It’s actually a little better to playback the case information and ask clarifications. The candidate does not distinguish between the two and do both at a same time. Also, the candidate was asking these clarifications in an unorganized and unstructured fashion. This is not something terrible, but could have been better, especially when this is the very first part of the case, where the crucial first impression is being formed.

My pitch would sound like this:

“That’s a very interesting problem and I am happy to get the chance to solve it. First of all let me tell you my understanding of the case context and key objectives. Then I would like to ask a few clarifying questions regarding a few terminology and concepts. Both of these are to make sure that I will be solving the right problem.

So here is my understanding of the case: The client is ABC. Here are some DEF facts about the situation we just talked about. And the key case question is XYZ.

Does that correctly and adequately summarize the case?”

Once the interviewer confirms, I would move to the clarification part as follows: “Now I would like to ask a few clarification questions. There are three of them: No 1, … No 2, … and No 3, …”

You may see above pitch as obvious but that’s a perfect example of how you should open any cases. Every details matters. We will point out those details in just a second. But before we do that, it’s actually very helpful if you can go back, listen carefully to the above pitch, and try to point out the great components yourselves. Only after that, go back to this point and learn it all together.

Alright, let’s break down the perfect opening.

First of all, you hear me say: “That’s a very interesting problem and I am happy to get a chance to solve it”. This seems trivial but very beneficial in multiple ways:

1. I bought myself a couple of seconds to calm down and get focused. 2. By nature, we as human unconsciously like those who give us compliments. Nothing better than opening the case with a modest compliment to the interviewer.

And (c) I showed my great attitude towards the case, which the interviewer would assume is the same for real future consulting business problems.

You should do that in your interviews too. Say it and accompany it with the best smile you can give. It shows that you are not afraid of any problems. In fact, you love them and you are always ready for them.

Secondly, I did what I refer to as the “map habit”, which is to always say what you are about to do and then do it. Just like somebody in the car showing the drivers the route before cruising on the road. The driver would love it. This is where I said: “Let me tell you my understanding of the case context and key objectives. Then ABC…”.

Third, right at the beginning of the case, I try to be crystal clear and easy to follow. I don’t let the interviewer confused between playing the case vs. asking clarification questions. I distinguish between the two really carefully. This habit probably doesn’t change the outcome of how the case goes that much, but it certainly significantly changes the impression the interviewer has of me.

Fourth, in playing back the case, each person would have a different way to re-phrase. But there are three buckets to always include:

1. Who is the client 2. The facts regarding the client and the situation and (c) The key question and the objective of the case.

Fifth, after playing the case context and objectives, I pause for a second and ALIGN with the interviewer: “Does it correctly and adequately summarize the case?”. This is a habit that every consulting manager loves for young consultants to do. Nobody wants first-year folks to spend weeks of passion and hard-work building an excel model that the team can’t use. This habit is extensively taught at McKinsey, Bain and BCG, so therefore interviewers would love somebody that exhibits this habit often in case interview.

Lastly, when asking clarification questions, you hear me number them very carefully to create the strong impression that I am very organized and structured. I said I have three clarifying questions. Then I number them as I go through each. No.1, No.2, and No.3.

Sometimes, during interviews it’s hard to know exactly how many items you are going to get. One way is to take timeout often to carefully plan your pitch. If this is not possible in certain situations, you may skip telling how many items you have; but you should definitely still number your question: No.1, No.2; and so on. 

Just a moment ago, the candidate actually exhibited a good habit. After going through his clarification questions, the candidate ended by asking the “is there anything else” question. In this case, I actually give out an important piece of data.

Though this is not very common as not every interviewer is that generous in giving out data. But this is a habit management consultants have to have every day when talking to experts, clients, or key stakeholders. The key is to get the most data and insights out of every interview and this is the type of open-ended question every consultant asks several times a day.

To show of this habit in a case interview is very good!

There are three things I would like you to pay attention to:

First, it took the candidate up to 72 seconds to “gather his thoughts”. This is a little too long in a case interview. I intentionally leave the 72 seconds of silence in the recording so you get an idea of how long that is in real situations. But it’s worth-noting here is not only that. While in some very complicated and weird cases, it’s ok to take that long to really think and gather ideas. In this case, the approach as proposed by the candidate is very simple. For this very approach, I think no more than 15 to 20 seconds should be used.

No.2, with that said, I have told I really like the fact that this candidate exhibits the “map” habit. Before going straight to the approach he draws the overall approach first.

No.3. You also see here that the candidate tried to align the approach with me by asking my thoughts on it. As I just said on the previous comment, this is a great habit to have. Not only does it help reduce chance of going into the wrong direction in case interviews, but it also creates a good impression. Consulting interviewers love people doing it often!

Here we see a not-really-bad response that for sure could be much better. The candidate was going into the first branch of the analysis which is Revenue. I would fix this in 3 aspects:

First, even though we just talked about the overall approach, it’s still better to briefly set up the issue tree first then clearly note that you are going into one branch.

Second, this is not a must, but I always try to make my hypothesis as explicitly clear as possible. Here the candidate just implicitly made a hypothesis that the problem is on the revenue side. The best way to show our hypothesis-driven mindset is to explicitly say it.

Third, you hear this a ton of times in our End-to-End program but I am going to repeat it again and again. It is better to show the habit of aligning here too. Don’t just go into revenue, before doing that, give the interviewer a chance to agree or to actually guide you to Cost.

So, summarizing the above insights, my pitch would sound something like this:

“So as we just discussed, a profit problem is either caused by revenue or by cost. Unless you would like to go into cost first, let’s hypothesize that the problem is on revenue side. I would like to look deeper into Revenue. Do we have any data on the revenue?”

And while saying this, you should literally draw an issue tree and point to each as you speak.

There is an interesting case interview tip I want to point out here. Notice how the candidate responds after receiving two data points from me. He went straight into the next question without at least acknowledging the data received and also without briefly analyzing it.

I am glad that the candidate makes this mistakes… well, not glad for him but for the greater audience of this program. I would like to introduce to you the perfect habit of what you should react and do every time you have any piece of data during case interviews. So three things you need to do:

Step 1: Say … that’s an interesting piece of data. This helps the interviewer acknowledge that you have received and understand the data. This also buys you a little time. And furthermore, it’s always a good thing to give out modest compliments to the interviewer.

Step 2: Describe the data, how it looks, is there any special noteworthy trend? In this case, we should point out that revenue actually grew by more than 50%.

Also notice here that I immediately quantified the difference in specific quantitative measurement (in this case, percentage). Saying revenue went up is good, but it’s great to be able to say revenue went up by more than 50%.

Step 3: Link the trend identified back to the original case question and the hypothesis you have. Does it prove, disprove, or open up new investigation to really test the hypothesis? In this case, this data piece actually opened up new investigating areas to test the hypothesis that the bottleneck is within revenue.

My sample pitch for this step 3 would sound like this: “It’s interesting that revenue went up quite a bit. However, to be able to fully reject our hypothesis on the revenue, I would like to compare our revenue to that of the competitors as well.”

Then only at this point, after going through 3 steps above, I ask for the competitors’ revenue like the candidate did.

Notice here that I ended up asking the same question the candidate did. This shows that the candidate does have a good intuition and thought process. It’s just that he did all of these implicitly on his head.

In consulting case interview, it’s always good to do everything as explicitly as possible. Not only is it easier to follow but it helps show your great thought process.

… the rest of the transcript is available in our End To End Case Interview

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100 Best Case Study Questions for Your Next Customer Spotlight

Brittany Fuller

Published: November 29, 2022

Case studies and testimonials are helpful to have in your arsenal. But to build an effective library, you need to ask the right case study questions. You also need to know how to write a case study .

marketing team coming up with case study questions

Case studies are customers' stories that your sales team can use to share relevant content with prospects . Not only that, but case studies help you earn a prospect's trust, show them what life would be like as your customer, and validate that your product or service works for your clients.

Before you start building your library of case studies, check out our list of 100 case study questions to ask your clients. With this helpful guide, you'll have the know-how to build your narrative using the " Problem-Agitate-Solve " Method.

Download Now: 3 Free Case Study Templates

What makes a good case study questionnaire?

The ultimate list of case study questions, how to ask your customer for a case study, creating an effective case study.

Certain key elements make up a good case study questionnaire.

A questionnaire should never feel like an interrogation. Instead, aim to structure your case study questions like a conversation. Some of the essential things that your questionnaire should cover include:

  • The problem faced by the client before choosing your organization.
  • Why they chose your company.
  • How your product solved the problem clients faced.
  • The measurable results of the service provided.
  • Data and metrics that prove the success of your service or product, if possible.

You can adapt these considerations based on how your customers use your product and the specific answers or quotes that you want to receive.

What makes a good case study question?

A good case study question delivers a powerful message to leads in the decision stage of your prospective buyer's journey.

Since your client has agreed to participate in a case study, they're likely enthusiastic about the service you provide. Thus, a good case study question hands the reins over to the client and opens a conversation.

Try asking open-ended questions to encourage your client to talk about the excellent service or product you provide.

Free Case Study Templates

Tell us about yourself to access the templates..

case-study-questions_3

Categories for the Best Case Study Questions

  • Case study questions about the customer's business
  • Case study questions about the environment before the purchase
  • Case study questions about the decision process
  • Case study questions about the customer's business case
  • Case study questions about the buying team and internal advocates
  • Case study questions about customer success
  • Case study questions about product feedback
  • Case study questions about willingness to make referrals
  • Case study question to prompt quote-worthy feedback
  • Case study questions about the customers' future goals

Case Study Interview Questions About the Customer's Business

Knowing the customer's business is an excellent way of setting the tone for a case study.

Use these questions to get some background information about the company and its business goals. This information can be used to introduce the business at the beginning of the case study — plus, future prospects might resonate with their stories and become leads for you.

  • Would you give me a quick overview of [company]? This is an opportunity for the client to describe their business in their own words. You'll get useful background information and it's an easy prompt to get the client talking.
  • Can you describe your role? This will give you a better idea of the responsibilities they are subject to.
  • How do your role and team fit into the company and its goals? Knowing how the team functions to achieve company goals will help you formulate how your solution involves all stakeholders.
  • How long has your company been in business? Getting this information will help the reader gauge if pain points are specific to a startup or new company vs. a veteran company.
  • How many employees do you have? Another great descriptor for readers to have. They can compare the featured company size with their own.
  • Is your company revenue available? If so, what is it? This will give your readers background information on the featured company's gross sales.
  • Who is your target customer? Knowing who the target audience is will help you provide a better overview of their market for your case study readers.
  • How does our product help your team or company achieve its objectives? This is one of the most important questions because it is the basis of the case study. Get specifics on how your product provided a solution for your client. You want to be able to say "X company implemented our solution and achieved Y. "
  • How are our companies aligned (mission, strategy, culture, etc.)? If any attributes of your company's mission or culture appealed to the client, call it out.

How many people are on your team? What are their roles? This will help describe key players within the organization and their impact on the implementation of your solution.

case-study-questions_5

Case Study Interview Questions About the Environment Before the Purchase

A good case study is designed to build trust. Ask clients to describe the tools and processes they used before your product or service. These kinds of case study questions will highlight the business' need they had to fulfill and appeal to future clients.

  • What was your team's process prior to using our product? This will give the reader a baseline to compare the results for your company's product.
  • Were there any costs associated with the process prior to using our product? Was it more expensive? Was it worth the cost? How did the product affect the client's bottom line? This will be a useful metric to disclose if your company saved the client money or was more cost-efficient.
  • What were the major pain points of your process prior to using our product? Describe these obstacles in detail. You want the reader to get as much information on the problem as possible as it sets up the reasoning for why your company's solution was implemented.
  • Did our product replace a similar tool or is this the first time your team is using a product like this? Were they using a similar product? If so, having this information may give readers a reason to choose your brand over the competition.
  • What other challenges were you and your team experiencing prior to using our product? The more details you can give readers regarding the client's struggles, the better. You want to paint a full picture of the challenges the client faced and how your company resolved them.
  • Were there any concerns about how your customers would be impacted by using our product? Getting answers to this question will illustrate to readers the client's concerns about switching to your service. Your readers may have similar concerns and reading how your client worked through this process will be helpful.
  • Why didn't you buy our product or a similar product earlier? Have the client describe any hesitations they had using your product. Their concerns may be relatable to potential leads.
  • Were there any "dealbreakers" involved in your decision to become a customer? Describing how your company was able to provide a solution that worked within those parameters demonstrates how accommodating your brand is and how you put the customer first. It's also great to illustrate any unique challenges the client had. This better explains their situation to the reader.
  • Did you have to make any changes you weren't anticipating once you became a customer? Readers of your case study can learn how switching to your product came with some unexpected changes (good or bad) and how they navigated them. If you helped your client with troubleshooting, ask them to explain that here.

How has your perception of the product changed since you've become a customer? Get the interviewee to describe how your product changed how they do business. This includes how your product accomplished what they previously thought was impossible.

case-study-questions_7

Case Study Interview Questions About the Decision Process

Readers of the case study will be interested in which factors influenced the decision-making process for the client. If they can relate to that process, there's a bigger chance they'll buy your product.

The answers to these questions will help potential customers through their decision-making process.

  • How did you hear about our product? If the client chose to work with you based on a recommendation or another positive case study, include that. It will demonstrate that you are a trusted brand with an established reputation for delivering results.
  • How long had you been looking for a solution to this problem? This will add to the reader's understanding of how these particular challenges impacted the company before choosing your product.
  • Were you comparing alternative solutions? Which ones? This will demonstrate to readers that the client explored other options before choosing your company.
  • Would you describe a few of the reasons you decided to buy our product? Ask the interviewee to describe why they chose your product over the competition and any benefits your company offered that made you stand out.
  • What were the criteria you used when deciding to buy our product? This will give readers more background insight into the factors that impacted their decision-making process.
  • Were there any high-level initiatives or goals that prompted the decision to buy? For example, was this decision motivated by a company-wide vision? Prompt your clients to discuss what lead to the decision to work with you and how you're the obvious choice.
  • What was the buying process like? Did you notice anything exceptional or any points of friction? This is an opportunity for the client to comment on how seamless and easy you make the buying process. Get them to describe what went well from start to finish.
  • How would you have changed the buying process, if at all? This is an opportunity for you to fine-tune your process to accommodate future buyers.
  • Who on your team was involved in the buying process? This will give readers more background on the key players involved from executives to project managers. With this information, readers can see who they may potentially need to involve in the decision-making process on their teams.

case-study-questions_10

Case Study Interview Questions About the Customer's Business Case

Your case study questions should ask about your product or solution's impact on the customer's employees, teams, metrics, and goals. These questions allow the client to praise the value of your service and tell others exactly what benefits they derived from it.

When readers review your product or service's impact on the client, it enforces the belief that the case study is credible.

  • How long have you been using our product? This will help readers gauge how long it took to see results and your overall satisfaction with the product or service.
  • How many different people at your company use our product? This will help readers gauge how they can adapt the product to their teams if similar in size.
  • Are there multiple departments or teams using our product? This will demonstrate how great of an impact your product has made across departments.
  • How do you and your team currently use the product? What types of goals or tasks are you using the product to accomplish? Get specifics on how the product actively helps the client achieve their goals.
  • If other teams or departments are using our product, do you know how they're using it? With this information, leads can picture how they can use your product across their teams and how it may improve their workflow and metrics.
  • What was the most obvious advantage you felt our product offered during the sales process? The interviewee should explain the benefits they've gained from using your product or service. This is important for convincing other leads you are better than the competition.
  • Were there any other advantages you discovered after using the product more regularly? Your interviewee may have experienced some additional benefits from using your product. Have them describe in detail what these advantages are and how they've helped the company improve.
  • Are there any metrics or KPIs you track with our product? What are they? The more numbers and data the client can provide, the better.
  • Were you tracking any metrics prior to using our product? What were they? This will allow readers to get a clear, before-and-after comparison of using your product.
  • How has our product impacted your core metrics? This is an opportunity for your clients to drive home how your product assisted them in hitting their metrics and goals.

case-study-questions_1

Case Study Interview Questions About the Buying Team and Internal Advocates

See if there are any individuals at the customer's company who are advocates for your product.

  • Are there any additional team members you consider to be advocates for our product? For example, does anyone stick out as a "power user" or product expert on your team? You may want to interview and include these power users in your case study as well. Consider asking them for tips on using your service or product.
  • Is there anyone else on your team you think we should talk to? Again, the more people can share their experience using your product, the better.
  • Are there any team members who you think might not be the biggest fans of our product or who might need more training? Providing extra support to those struggling with your product may improve their user experience and turn into an opportunity to not only learn about their obstacles but turn them into a product fan
  • Would you share some details about how your team implemented our product? Get as much information as possible about the rollout. Hopefully, they'll gush about how seamless the process was.
  • Who from your company was involved in implementing our product? This will give readers more insight into who needs to be involved for a successful rollout of their own.
  • Were there any internal risks or additional costs involved with implementing our product? If so, how did you address them? This will give insight into the client's process and rollout and this case study question will likely provide tips on what potential leads should be on the lookout for.
  • Is there a training process in place for your team's use of our product? If so, what does it look like? If your company provided support and training to the client, have them describe that experience.
  • About how long does it take a new team member to get up to speed with our product? This will help leads determine how much time it will take to onboard an employee to your using your product. If a new user can quickly get started seamlessly, it bodes well for you.
  • What was your main concern about rolling this product out to your company? Describing their challenges in detail will provide readers with useful insight.

case-study-questions_8

Case Study Interview Questions About Customer Success

Has the customer found success with your product? Ask these questions to learn more.

  • By using our product can you measure any reduced costs? If it has, you'll want to emphasize those savings in your case study.
  • By using our product can you measure any improvements in productivity or time savings? Any metrics or specific stories your interviewee can provide will help demonstrate the value of your product.
  • By using our product can you measure any increases in revenue or growth? Again, say it with numbers and data whenever possible.
  • Are you likely to recommend our product to a friend or colleague? Recommendations from existing customers are some of the best marketing you can get.
  • How has our product impacted your success? Your team's success? Getting the interviewee to describe how your product played an integral role in solving their challenges will show leads that they can also have success using your product.
  • In the beginning, you had XYZ concerns; how do you feel about them now? Let them explain how working with your company eliminated those concerns.
  • I noticed your team is currently doing XYZ with our product. Tell me more about how that helps your business. Illustrate to your readers how current customers are using your product to solve additional challenges. It will convey how versatile your product is.
  • Have you thought about using our product for a new use case with your team or at your company? The more examples of use cases the client can provide, the better.
  • How do you measure the value our product provides? Have the interviewee illustrate what metrics they use to gauge the product's success and how. Data is helpful, but you should go beyond the numbers. Maybe your product improved company morale and how teams work together.

case-study-questions_6

Case Study Interview Questions About Product Feedback

Ask the customer if they'd recommend your product to others. A strong recommendation will help potential clients be more open to purchasing your product.

  • How do other companies in this industry solve the problems you had before you purchased our product? This will give you insight into how other companies may be functioning without your product and how you can assist them.
  • Have you ever talked about our product to any of your clients or peers? What did you say? This can provide you with more leads and a chance to get a referral.
  • Why would you recommend our product to a friend or client? Be sure they pinpoint which features they would highlight in a recommendation.
  • Can you think of any use cases your customers might have for our product? Similar industries may have similar issues that need solutions. Your interviewee may be able to provide a use case you haven't come up with.
  • What is your advice for other teams or companies who are tackling problems similar to those you had before you purchased our product? This is another opportunity for your client to talk up your product or service.
  • Do you know someone in X industry who has similar problems to the ones you had prior to using our product? The client can make an introduction so you can interview them about their experience as well.
  • I noticed you work with Company Y. Do you know if they are having any pain points with these processes? This will help you learn how your product has impacted your client's customers and gain insight into what can be improved.
  • Does your company participate in any partner or referral programs? Having a strong referral program will help you increase leads and improve customer retention.
  • Can I send you a referral kit as a thank-you for making a referral and give you the tools to refer someone to us? This is a great strategy to request a referral while rewarding your existing customers.
  • Are you interested in working with us to produce additional marketing content? The more opportunities you can showcase happy customers, the better.

case-study-questions_11

Case Study Interview Questions About Willingness to Make Referrals

  • How likely are you to recommend our product to a friend or client? Ideally, they would definitely refer your product to someone they know.
  • Can you think of any use cases your customers might have for our product? Again, your interviewee is a great source for more leads. Similar industries may have similar issues that need solutions. They may be able to provide a use case you haven't come up with.
  • I noticed you work with Company Y; do you know if they are having any pain points with these processes? This will help you learn how your product has impacted your client's customers and gain insight into what can be improved.

case-study-questions_4

Case Study Interview Questions to Prompt Quote-Worthy Feedback

Enhance your case study with quotable soundbites from the customer. By asking these questions, prospects have more insight into other clients and their success with your product — which helps build trust.

  • How would you describe your process in one sentence prior to using our product? Ideally, this sentence would quickly and descriptively sum up the most prominent pain point or challenge with the previous process.
  • What is your advice to others who might be considering our product? Readers can learn from your customer's experience.
  • What would your team's workflow or process be like without our product? This will drive home the value your product provides and how essential it is to their business.
  • Do you think the investment in our product was worthwhile? Why? Have your customer make the case for the value you provide.
  • What would you say if we told you our product would soon be unavailable? What would this mean to you? Again, this illustrates how integral your product is to their business.
  • How would you describe our product if you were explaining it to a friend? Your customers can often distill the value of your product to their friends better than you can.
  • What do you love about your job? Your company? This gives the reader more background on your customer and their industry.
  • What was the worst part of your process before you started using our product? Ideally, they'd reiterate how your product helped solve this challenge.
  • What do you love about our product? Another great way to get the customer's opinion about what makes your product worth it.
  • Why do you do business with us? Hopefully, your interviewee will share how wonderful your business relationship is.

case-study-questions_0

Case Study Interview Questions About the Customers' Future Goals

Ask the customer about their goals, challenges, and plans for the future. This will provide insight into how a business can grow with your product.

  • What are the biggest challenges on the horizon for your industry? Chances are potential leads within the same industry will have similar challenges.
  • What are your goals for the next three months? Knowing their short-term goals will enable your company to get some quick wins for the client.
  • How would you like to use our product to meet those challenges and goals? This will help potential leads understand that your product can help their business as they scale and grow.
  • Is there anything we can do to help you and your team meet your goals? If you haven't covered it already, this will allow your interviewee to express how you can better assist them.
  • Do you think you will buy more, less, or about the same amount of our product next year? This can help you gauge how your product is used and why.
  • What are the growth plans for your company this year? Your team? This will help you gain insight into how your product can help them achieve future goals.
  • How can we help you meet your long-term goals? Getting specifics on the needs of your clients will help you create a unique solution designed for their needs.
  • What is the long-term impact of using our product? Get their feedback on how your product has created a lasting impact.
  • Are there any initiatives that you personally would like to achieve that our product or team can help with? Again, you want to continue to provide products that help your customers excel.
  • What will you need from us in the future? This will help you anticipate the customer's business needs.
  • Is there anything we can do to improve our product or process for working together in the future? The more feedback you can get about what is and isn't working, the better.

case-study-questions_2

Before you can start putting together your case study, you need to ask your customer's permission.

If you have a customer who's seen success with your product, reach out to them. Use this template to get started:

Thank you & quick request

Hi [customer name],

Thanks again for your business — working with you to [solve X, launch Y, take advantage of Z opportunity] has been extremely rewarding, and I'm looking forward to more collaboration in the future.

[Name of your company] is building a library of case studies to include on our site. We're looking for successful companies using [product] to solve interesting challenges, and your team immediately came to mind. Are you open to [customer company name] being featured?

It should be a lightweight process — [I, a product marketer] will ask you roughly [10, 15, 20] questions via email or phone about your experience and results. This case study will include a blurb about your company and a link to your homepage (which hopefully will make your SEO team happy!)

In any case, thank you again for the chance to work with you, and I hope you have a great week.

[Your name]

case studies for interview examples

If one of your customers has recently passed along some praise (to you, their account manager, your boss; on an online forum; to another potential customer; etc.), then send them a version of this email:

Hey [customer name],

Thanks for the great feedback — I'm really glad to hear [product] is working well for you and that [customer company name] is getting the results you're looking for.

My team is actually in the process of building out our library of case studies, and I'd love to include your story. Happy to provide more details if you're potentially interested.

Either way, thank you again, and I look forward to getting more updates on your progress.

case studies for interview examples

You can also find potential case study customers by usage or product data. For instance, maybe you see a company you sold to 10 months ago just bought eight more seats or upgraded to a new tier. Clearly, they're happy with the solution. Try this template:

I saw you just [invested in our X product; added Y more users; achieved Z product milestone]. Congratulations! I'd love to share your story using [product] with the world -- I think it's a great example of how our product + a dedicated team and a good strategy can achieve awesome results.

Are you open to being featured? If so, I'll send along more details.

case studies for interview examples

Case Study Benefits

  • Case studies are a form of customer advocacy.
  • Case studies provide a joint-promotion opportunity.
  • Case studies are easily sharable.
  • Case studies build rapport with your customers.
  • Case studies are less opinionated than customer reviews.

1. Case studies are a form of customer advocacy.

If you haven't noticed, customers aren't always quick to trust a brand's advertisements and sales strategies.

With every other brand claiming to be the best in the business, it's hard to sort exaggeration from reality.

This is the most important reason why case studies are effective. They are testimonials from your customers of your service. If someone is considering your business, a case study is a much more convincing piece of marketing or sales material than traditional advertising.

2. Case studies provide a joint-promotion opportunity.

Your business isn't the only one that benefits from a case study. Customers participating in case studies benefit, too.

Think about it. Case studies are free advertisements for your customers, not to mention the SEO factor, too. While they're not promoting their products or services, they're still getting the word out about their business. And, the case study highlights how successful their business is — showing interested leads that they're on the up and up.

3. Case studies are easily sharable.

No matter your role on the sales team, case studies are great to have on hand. You can easily share them with leads, prospects, and clients.

Whether you embed them on your website or save them as a PDF, you can simply send a link to share your case study with others. They can share that link with their peers and colleagues, and so on.

Case studies can also be useful during a sales pitch. In sales, timing is everything. If a customer is explaining a problem that was solved and discussed in your case study, you can quickly find the document and share it with them.

4. Case studies build rapport with your customers.

While case studies are very useful, they do require some back and forth with your customers to obtain the exact feedback you're looking for.

Even though time is involved, the good news is this builds rapport with your most loyal customers. You get to know them on a personal level, and they'll become more than just your most valuable clients.

And, the better the rapport you have with them, the more likely they'll be to recommend your business, products, or services to others.

5. Case studies are less opinionated than customer reviews.

Data is the difference between a case study and a review. Customer reviews are typically based on the customer's opinion of your brand. While they might write a glowing review, it's completely subjective and there's rarely empirical evidence supporting their claim.

Case studies, on the other hand, are more data-driven. While they'll still talk about how great your brand is, they support this claim with quantitative data that's relevant to the reader. It's hard to argue with data.

An effective case study must be genuine and credible. Your case study should explain why certain customers are the right fit for your business and how your company can help meet their specific needs. That way, someone in a similar situation can use your case study as a testimonial for why they should choose your business.

Use the case study questions above to create an ideal customer case study questionnaire. By asking your customers the right questions, you can obtain valuable feedback that can be shared with potential leads and convert them into loyal customers.

Editor’s Note: This article was originally published in June 2021 and has been updated for comprehensiveness.

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Showcase your company's success using these free case study templates.

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case studies for interview examples

280 Free Case Interview Examples

Do you want to get access to over 280 free case interview examples (with answers)?

If you have interviews planned at McKinsey ,  The Boston Consulting Group , or any other consulting firm, you are probably looking for case interview examples.

So, to help you prepare, I have compiled a list of 280 free case interview examples:

  • Over 30 free case interview examples (+ interview prep tips) from the websites of top consulting firms
  • More than 250 free case interview examples from top business school case books

Moreover, you’ll get  my take on which case studies you will likely have in interviews.

In short, the resources listed hereafter will be very helpful if you are starting out or have already made good progress in preparing for your case interviews.

Let’s get started!

Table of Contents

Consulting salaries report: what happened since 2020, get the latest data about salaries in consulting, mckinsey: tips and case interview examples.

McKinsey & Company’s website is definitely one of my favorites.

Because this gives so much insightful information about the role of a consultant and what the hiring process looks like.

Therefore, I highly recommend spending time on their website, even if you are not targeting McKinsey.

In the meantime, here are 8 McKinsey case interview examples

  • Electro-light
  • GlobaPharma
  • National Education
  • Talbot trucks
  • Shops corporation
  • Conservation forever

McKinsey hub

Check out the McKinsey Hub : A library of 20+ free resources that cover everything you need to secure a job offer at McKinsey.

Besides, here is another McKinsey case interview example.

This case interview question has been recently asked in a real interview:

𝘦𝘊𝘢𝘳𝘊𝘰, 𝘢 𝘑𝘢𝘱𝘢𝘯𝘦𝘴𝘦 𝘭𝘦𝘢𝘥𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘮𝘢𝘯𝘶𝘧𝘢𝘤𝘵𝘶𝘳𝘦𝘳 𝘰𝘧 𝘦𝘭𝘦𝘤𝘵𝘳𝘪𝘤 𝘱𝘢𝘴𝘴𝘦𝘯𝘨𝘦𝘳 𝘷𝘦𝘩𝘪𝘤𝘭𝘦𝘴, 𝘩𝘢𝘴 𝘣𝘦𝘦𝘯 𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘶𝘨𝘨𝘭𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘸𝘪𝘵𝘩 𝘢 𝘭𝘰𝘸 𝘮𝘢𝘳𝘬𝘦𝘵 𝘴𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘦 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘉2𝘉 𝘴𝘦𝘨𝘮𝘦𝘯𝘵. 𝘛𝘩𝘦𝘺 𝘦𝘯𝘫𝘰𝘺 𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘰𝘯𝘨 𝘱𝘰𝘴𝘪𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘉2𝘊 𝘴𝘱𝘢𝘤𝘦, 𝘣𝘰𝘵𝘩 𝘥𝘰𝘮𝘦𝘴𝘵𝘪𝘤𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘺 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘦𝘳𝘯𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘢𝘭 𝘮𝘢𝘳𝘬𝘦𝘵. 𝘏𝘰𝘸𝘦𝘷𝘦𝘳, 𝘦𝘊𝘢𝘳𝘊𝘰’𝘴 𝘴𝘢𝘭𝘦𝘴 𝘵𝘰 𝘴𝘮𝘢𝘭𝘭 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘮𝘦𝘥𝘪𝘶𝘮 𝘴𝘪𝘻𝘦 𝘣𝘶𝘴𝘪𝘯𝘦𝘴𝘴𝘦𝘴 𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘵𝘪𝘯𝘶𝘦 𝘴𝘵𝘢𝘺𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘧𝘢𝘳 𝘣𝘦𝘭𝘰𝘸 𝘦𝘹𝘱𝘦𝘤𝘵𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴. 𝘛𝘩𝘦 𝘊𝘌𝘖 𝘩𝘢𝘴 𝘪𝘯𝘷𝘪𝘵𝘦𝘥 𝘺𝘰𝘶 𝘵𝘰 𝘩𝘦𝘭𝘱 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘮 𝘰𝘶𝘵.

How would you approach this business problem?

When ready, check this video below where I present how to approach this problem.

BCG: Tips And Case Interview Examples

The Boston Consulting Group website  states something very important: the goal of the hiring process is to get to know you better, which means, in the context of Consulting interviews, understanding how you solve problems .

Remember this: in case interviews,  to show how you think is MUCH MORE IMPORTANT than to find an answer to the case .

As a result, you will have case study questions to showcase your problem-solving skills. Likewise, fit interviews have the same purpose: to show what problems you faced and how you resolved them.

  • BCG interview prep tips
  • BCG’s interactive case tool
  • BCG case interview example: climate change challenge
  • BCG case interview example: GenCo
  • BCG case interview example: FoodCo

case studies for interview examples

Check out the BCG Hub : A library of 20+ free resources that cover everything you need to secure a job offer at BCG.

Bain: Tips And Case Interview Examples

Bain & Company’s website highlights something very important: successful applicants manage to turn a case interview into a conversation between two consultants .

In other words, you don’t want to appear as a candidate but as a consultant !

To do this, you need to master the main problem-solving techniques that consulting firms want to see.

  • Bain interview prep tips here and here
  • Bain case interview examples: coffee , fashioco
  • Bain case interview sample videos: a first video , a second video

case studies for interview examples

Check out the Bain Hub : A library of 20+ free resources that cover everything you need to secure a job offer at Bain & Company.

Deloitte: Tips And Case Interview Examples

As for the BCG’s section above, the Deloitte website clearly states that in case interviews , it is much more important to show how you think and interact with your interviewer than to find the right answer to the case.

  • Deloitte interview prep tips
  • Deloitte case interview examples: here (more than 15 case interview examples)
  • Deloitte case interview example: Federal Agency
  • Deloitte case interview example: Recreation Unlimited
  • Deloitte case interview example: Federal benefits Provider
  • Deloitte case interview example: Federal Civil Cargo protection Bureau

Get 4 Complete Case Interview Courses For Free

case studies for interview examples

You need 4 skills to be successful in all case interviews: Case Structuring, Case Leadership, Case Analytics, and Communication. Join this free training and learn how to ace ANY case questions.

Oliver Wyman: Tips And Case Interview Examples

Like the Deloitte website, Oliver Wyman’s website points out that, above all,  you must demonstrate your ability to think in a structured, analytical, and creative way.

In other words, there are no right or wrong answers, but only showing how you solve problems matters.

  • Oliver Wyman interview prep tips
  • Oliver Wyman case interview examples: here (Aqualine) and here (Wumbleworld)

Kearney: Tips And Case Interview Examples

Now it’s time to tell you something you could have heard a hundred times.

Yet too many candidates do it.

Do NOT force your solution to adapt to a standard framework . As a result, this will only take you to a place you don’t want to go: the pool of rejected candidates .

To learn more about this, check the “What Not To Do” section on the AT Kearney website .

  • Kearney interview prep tips
  • Kearney case interview examples: here and here
  • Kearney case book: here

Strategy&: Interview Prep Tips

Strategy& doesn’t provide case study examples on its website, but it shares insights on career progression, which I recommend reading when you prepare for your fit interviews.

  • Strategy& interview prep tips

Roland Berger: Tips And Case Interview Examples

I like the examples of case studies presented on the Roland Berger website .

Because the two examples of case studies are very detailed and illustrate the kind of solutions your interviewers expect during case discussions.

  • Roland Berger interview prep tips
  • A first Roland Berger case interview example: part 1 and part 2
  • A second Roland Berger case interview example: part 1 and part 2

Alix Partners: Interview Prep Tips

Like Strategy&, Alix Partners doesn’t provide case study examples on its website.

However, they give an overview of what they are looking for: they want entrepreneurial, self-starter, and analytical candidates, which are skills that all consulting firms highly appreciate .

  • Alix Partners interview prep tips

OC&C: Interview Prep Tips

Here are two case study examples from OC&C:

  • Imported spirit
  • Leisure clubs

253 Case Studies From Business School Case Books

Most of these 253 case study examples are based on case interviews used by consulting firms in real job interviews .

As a result, you can have a good idea of the case study questions you can have when interviewing at these firms .

The Full List Of 253 Free Case Study Examples

  • Chicago business school
  • Australian Graduate School of Management
  • Columbia business school
  • Harvard business school
  • Wharton business school (2009)
  • Wharton busines school (2017)
  • Darden business school

Do you want to practice a specific type of case study? Now you can…

I have sorted this list of 253 case studies by type:  profitability, market expansion, industry analysis, pricing, investment or acquisition,  and guesstimates (also known as market sizing questions).

Full list of case study examples sorted by type

Bonus #1: Know The Types Of Cases You Are Likely To have During Your Interviews

  • Profitability cases (29% of cases from that list)
  • Investment cases (19% of cases from that list)
  • Market sizing questions (15% of cases from that list)

As a result, assuming you’ll have 6 interviews (and therefore 6 case interviews) during the recruitment process:

  • “Profitability cases are 29%”  means that chances to have 2x profitability case studies during your recruitment process are very high
  • “Investment cases are 19%”  means that chances to have 1x investment case study during your recruitment process are very high
  • “ Guesstimates are 15%”  means that chances to have 1x market sizing question during your recruitment process are high

Bonus #2: The 10x Cases I Recommend You Doing Now

Over 250 examples of case interviews is a great list, and you may not know where to start.

So I’ve put a list of my 10x favorite case studies.

The 5 case studies I recommend doing if you are a BEGINNER

1. stern case book: drinks gone flat (starting at page 24).

This is a good introduction to a common type of case (declining sales here). I liked the solution presented for this case, particularly how it started by isolating declining sales (what range of products? Volumes or prices, or both?).

2. Stern case book: Sport bar (starting at page 46)

This is an investment case (should you invest in a new bar). Even if the solution presented in this case book is not MECE , it covers the most common quantitative questions you might have in such a case. I recommend doing this case.

3. Stern case book: MJ Wineries (starting at page 85)

This is a profitability case. I liked the solution presented in this case because it illustrates how specific good candidates should be. The case concerns wine, so a good candidate should mention the quality of lands and grapes as important factors.

4. AGSM case book: Piano tuners (starting at page 57)

This is a typical market sizing question. How to answer this type of question is a must-know before going to your interviews.

5. Darden case book: National Logistics (starting at page 49)

Again, this is a very common case (how to reduce costs). I liked the broad range of questions asked in this case, covering key skills assessed by consulting firms during case interviews: brainstorming skills (or creativity), quantitative skills, and business sense.

The 5 case studies I recommend if you are more ADVANCED in your preparation

1. stern: the pricing games (starting at page 55).

This case study asks you to help your client assess different business models. I liked this case because the range of issues to tackle is quite broad.

2. Wharton 2017: Engineer attrition at SLS Oil & Gas Services (starting at page 55)

I liked this case study because the case prompt is uncommon: your client has been facing a very high attrition rate among its population of Engineers. As a result, it’s very unlikely that your solution fits a well-known framework, and you’ll have to demonstrate your problem-solving skills by developing a specific solution.

3. Wharton 2017: Pharma Company Goes International, Outsources Benefits, Integrates New Technology (starting at page 95)

This case is about a client considering outsourcing a part of their activity. Even though I don’t know if this type of case study is very common, I had many case studies like this when I passed my interviews a few years ago. And I always found them difficult!

4. Insead: Gas retail case (starting at page 73)

The question in the problem statement is very broad, making this case difficult. So, only good candidates can have a structured case discussion here.

5. Darden: Fire Proof (starting at page 84)

This is a market entry case. Try to solve it by developing a structure as MECE as possible.

CareerInConsulting.com's Free Resources

Access my exclusive free training to help you prepare for your case interviews .

Besides, you can learn my step-by-step guide to answering market sizing questions .

You’ll get my formula to solve all market sizing questions.

Moreover, if you are a beginner, you can read my article on how to solve business cases (+ a 4-week prep plan to get case interview ready).

Also, check these 11 must-know frameworks to ace your case interviews.

Finally, you can read the articles in the blog section of my website.

That’s quite a list.

Now, I’d like to hear from you.

Which key insights were new to you?

Or maybe I have missed something.

Either way, let me know by leaving a comment below.

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Whenever you prepare for case interviews, you have to practice as realistically as possible and mimic the real case study interview at McKinsey , BCG , Bain , and others. One way to do this and make your preparation more effective is to practice real cases provided by the firms you apply to.

It will help you to understand what the differences are across firms, how they structure and approach their cases, what dimensions are important to them, and what solutions they consider to be strong.

Below is a steadily expanding selection of real case interview examples provided by different management consulting firms.

Before wasting your money on case interview collection books that use generic cases, use original cases first. Additionally, use professional case coaches, who interviewed for the top firms , to mimic the real interview experience and get real, actionable feedback to improve.

Please be aware that cases are just one part of a typical consulting interview. It is equally important to prepare for behavioral interview questions .

McKinsey case interview examples

  • Transforming a national education system
  • Electro-light

We have written a detailed article on the McKinsey application process, the McKinsey interview timeline, the typical McKinsey case interview, and the McKinsey Personal Experience interview here . You can expect similar cases regardless of your position (e.g. in a McKinsey phone case interview or interviewing for a McKinsey internship as well as a full-time BA, Associate, or Engagement Manager role).

Boston Consulting Group (BCG) case interview examples

  • Crafting a Distribution Strategy
  • Interactive Airline Case
  • Interactive Drug Case

Bain and Company case interview examples

  • FashionCo .

Ace the case interview with our dedicated preparation packages.

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Deloitte case interview examples

  • Retail Strategy: Club Co.
  • Finance Strategy: Federal Health Agency
  • Talent Management: Federal Civil Cargo Protection Bureau
  • Change Management: Capital Airlines
  • Global Data Strategy: Bank of Zurich
  • Enterprise Resource Management Upgrade: Federal Quality Waste Management
  • E-commerce Platform: Galaxy Fitness
  • Strategic Vision: Federal Benefits Provider
  • Strategy: Extreme Athletes World Games
  • Higher Education Merger: Technology Institute of the West
  • Engagement Strategy: Federal Agency V
  • Digital Engineering: Green Apron
  • Technology Transformation: Big Bucks Bank
  • Data Analytics: Top Engine
  • Architecture Strategy: Federal Finance Agency

Accenture case interview examples

  • Accenture interview tips and examples

Kearney case interview examples

  • Promotional planning

Roland Berger case interview examples

  • Transit-oriented development Part 1
  • Transit-oriented development Part 2
  • 3D printed hip implants Part 1
  • 3D printed hip implants Part 2

Oliver Wyman case interview examples

  • Wumbleworld – theme park
  • Aqualine – boats

LEK case interview examples

  • Video case interview example
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  • Brainteaser

OC&C case interview examples

  • Imported whiskey in an emerging market – business strategy
  • Leisure clubs – data interpretation

Capital One case interview examples

  • How to crack case interviews with Capital One

Consulting clubs case interview books

Contact us at [email protected] for a collection of consulting club case interview books (from Harvard, ESADE, LBS, Columbia, etc.).

How we can help you ace your case interviews

We have specialized in placing people from all walks of life with different backgrounds into top consulting firms both as generalist hires as well as specialized hires and experts. As former McKinsey consultants and interview experts, we help you by

  • tailoring your resume and cover letter to meet consulting firms’ highest standards
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  • preparing your math to be bulletproof for every case interview
  • helping you structure creative and complex case interviews
  • teaching you how to interpret charts and exhibits like a consultant
  • providing you with cheat sheets and overviews for 27 industries .

Reach out to us if you have any questions! We are happy to help and offer a tailored program to help you break into consulting.

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Florian spent 5 years with McKinsey as a senior consultant. He is an experienced consulting interviewer and problem-solving coach, having interviewed 100s of candidates in real and mock interviews. He started StrategyCase.com with the goal to make top-tier consulting firms more accessible for top talent, using tailored and up-to-date know-how about their recruiting. He ranks as the most successful consulting case and fit interview coach, generating more than 450 offers with MBB, tier-2 firms, Big 4 consulting divisions, in-house consultancies, and boutique firms through direct coaching of his clients over the last 3 years. His books “The 1%: Conquer Your Consulting Case Interview” and “Consulting Career Secrets” are available via Amazon.

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  • Types of Interviews in Research | Guide & Examples

Types of Interviews in Research | Guide & Examples

Published on March 10, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on June 22, 2023.

An interview is a qualitative research method that relies on asking questions in order to collect data . Interviews involve two or more people, one of whom is the interviewer asking the questions.

There are several types of interviews, often differentiated by their level of structure.

  • Structured interviews have predetermined questions asked in a predetermined order.
  • Unstructured interviews are more free-flowing.
  • Semi-structured interviews fall in between.

Interviews are commonly used in market research, social science, and ethnographic research .

Table of contents

What is a structured interview, what is a semi-structured interview, what is an unstructured interview, what is a focus group, examples of interview questions, advantages and disadvantages of interviews, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about types of interviews.

Structured interviews have predetermined questions in a set order. They are often closed-ended, featuring dichotomous (yes/no) or multiple-choice questions. While open-ended structured interviews exist, they are much less common. The types of questions asked make structured interviews a predominantly quantitative tool.

Asking set questions in a set order can help you see patterns among responses, and it allows you to easily compare responses between participants while keeping other factors constant. This can mitigate   research biases and lead to higher reliability and validity. However, structured interviews can be overly formal, as well as limited in scope and flexibility.

  • You feel very comfortable with your topic. This will help you formulate your questions most effectively.
  • You have limited time or resources. Structured interviews are a bit more straightforward to analyze because of their closed-ended nature, and can be a doable undertaking for an individual.
  • Your research question depends on holding environmental conditions between participants constant.

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Semi-structured interviews are a blend of structured and unstructured interviews. While the interviewer has a general plan for what they want to ask, the questions do not have to follow a particular phrasing or order.

Semi-structured interviews are often open-ended, allowing for flexibility, but follow a predetermined thematic framework, giving a sense of order. For this reason, they are often considered “the best of both worlds.”

However, if the questions differ substantially between participants, it can be challenging to look for patterns, lessening the generalizability and validity of your results.

  • You have prior interview experience. It’s easier than you think to accidentally ask a leading question when coming up with questions on the fly. Overall, spontaneous questions are much more difficult than they may seem.
  • Your research question is exploratory in nature. The answers you receive can help guide your future research.

An unstructured interview is the most flexible type of interview. The questions and the order in which they are asked are not set. Instead, the interview can proceed more spontaneously, based on the participant’s previous answers.

Unstructured interviews are by definition open-ended. This flexibility can help you gather detailed information on your topic, while still allowing you to observe patterns between participants.

However, so much flexibility means that they can be very challenging to conduct properly. You must be very careful not to ask leading questions, as biased responses can lead to lower reliability or even invalidate your research.

  • You have a solid background in your research topic and have conducted interviews before.
  • Your research question is exploratory in nature, and you are seeking descriptive data that will deepen and contextualize your initial hypotheses.
  • Your research necessitates forming a deeper connection with your participants, encouraging them to feel comfortable revealing their true opinions and emotions.

A focus group brings together a group of participants to answer questions on a topic of interest in a moderated setting. Focus groups are qualitative in nature and often study the group’s dynamic and body language in addition to their answers. Responses can guide future research on consumer products and services, human behavior, or controversial topics.

Focus groups can provide more nuanced and unfiltered feedback than individual interviews and are easier to organize than experiments or large surveys . However, their small size leads to low external validity and the temptation as a researcher to “cherry-pick” responses that fit your hypotheses.

  • Your research focuses on the dynamics of group discussion or real-time responses to your topic.
  • Your questions are complex and rooted in feelings, opinions, and perceptions that cannot be answered with a “yes” or “no.”
  • Your topic is exploratory in nature, and you are seeking information that will help you uncover new questions or future research ideas.

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Depending on the type of interview you are conducting, your questions will differ in style, phrasing, and intention. Structured interview questions are set and precise, while the other types of interviews allow for more open-endedness and flexibility.

Here are some examples.

  • Semi-structured
  • Unstructured
  • Focus group
  • Do you like dogs? Yes/No
  • Do you associate dogs with feeling: happy; somewhat happy; neutral; somewhat unhappy; unhappy
  • If yes, name one attribute of dogs that you like.
  • If no, name one attribute of dogs that you don’t like.
  • What feelings do dogs bring out in you?
  • When you think more deeply about this, what experiences would you say your feelings are rooted in?

Interviews are a great research tool. They allow you to gather rich information and draw more detailed conclusions than other research methods, taking into consideration nonverbal cues, off-the-cuff reactions, and emotional responses.

However, they can also be time-consuming and deceptively challenging to conduct properly. Smaller sample sizes can cause their validity and reliability to suffer, and there is an inherent risk of interviewer effect arising from accidentally leading questions.

Here are some advantages and disadvantages of each type of interview that can help you decide if you’d like to utilize this research method.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Student’s  t -distribution
  • Normal distribution
  • Null and Alternative Hypotheses
  • Chi square tests
  • Confidence interval
  • Quartiles & Quantiles
  • Cluster sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Data cleansing
  • Reproducibility vs Replicability
  • Peer review
  • Prospective cohort study

Research bias

  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Placebo effect
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Hindsight bias
  • Affect heuristic
  • Social desirability bias

The four most common types of interviews are:

  • Structured interviews : The questions are predetermined in both topic and order. 
  • Semi-structured interviews : A few questions are predetermined, but other questions aren’t planned.
  • Unstructured interviews : None of the questions are predetermined.
  • Focus group interviews : The questions are presented to a group instead of one individual.

The interviewer effect is a type of bias that emerges when a characteristic of an interviewer (race, age, gender identity, etc.) influences the responses given by the interviewee.

There is a risk of an interviewer effect in all types of interviews , but it can be mitigated by writing really high-quality interview questions.

Social desirability bias is the tendency for interview participants to give responses that will be viewed favorably by the interviewer or other participants. It occurs in all types of interviews and surveys , but is most common in semi-structured interviews , unstructured interviews , and focus groups .

Social desirability bias can be mitigated by ensuring participants feel at ease and comfortable sharing their views. Make sure to pay attention to your own body language and any physical or verbal cues, such as nodding or widening your eyes.

This type of bias can also occur in observations if the participants know they’re being observed. They might alter their behavior accordingly.

A focus group is a research method that brings together a small group of people to answer questions in a moderated setting. The group is chosen due to predefined demographic traits, and the questions are designed to shed light on a topic of interest. It is one of 4 types of interviews .

Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings.

Quantitative methods allow you to systematically measure variables and test hypotheses . Qualitative methods allow you to explore concepts and experiences in more detail.

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5 Benefits of Learning Through the Case Study Method

Harvard Business School MBA students learning through the case study method

  • 28 Nov 2023

While several factors make HBS Online unique —including a global Community and real-world outcomes —active learning through the case study method rises to the top.

In a 2023 City Square Associates survey, 74 percent of HBS Online learners who also took a course from another provider said HBS Online’s case method and real-world examples were better by comparison.

Here’s a primer on the case method, five benefits you could gain, and how to experience it for yourself.

Access your free e-book today.

What Is the Harvard Business School Case Study Method?

The case study method , or case method , is a learning technique in which you’re presented with a real-world business challenge and asked how you’d solve it. After working through it yourself and with peers, you’re told how the scenario played out.

HBS pioneered the case method in 1922. Shortly before, in 1921, the first case was written.

“How do you go into an ambiguous situation and get to the bottom of it?” says HBS Professor Jan Rivkin, former senior associate dean and chair of HBS's master of business administration (MBA) program, in a video about the case method . “That skill—the skill of figuring out a course of inquiry to choose a course of action—that skill is as relevant today as it was in 1921.”

Originally developed for the in-person MBA classroom, HBS Online adapted the case method into an engaging, interactive online learning experience in 2014.

In HBS Online courses , you learn about each case from the business professional who experienced it. After reviewing their videos, you’re prompted to take their perspective and explain how you’d handle their situation.

You then get to read peers’ responses, “star” them, and comment to further the discussion. Afterward, you learn how the professional handled it and their key takeaways.

HBS Online’s adaptation of the case method incorporates the famed HBS “cold call,” in which you’re called on at random to make a decision without time to prepare.

“Learning came to life!” said Sheneka Balogun , chief administration officer and chief of staff at LeMoyne-Owen College, of her experience taking the Credential of Readiness (CORe) program . “The videos from the professors, the interactive cold calls where you were randomly selected to participate, and the case studies that enhanced and often captured the essence of objectives and learning goals were all embedded in each module. This made learning fun, engaging, and student-friendly.”

If you’re considering taking a course that leverages the case study method, here are five benefits you could experience.

5 Benefits of Learning Through Case Studies

1. take new perspectives.

The case method prompts you to consider a scenario from another person’s perspective. To work through the situation and come up with a solution, you must consider their circumstances, limitations, risk tolerance, stakeholders, resources, and potential consequences to assess how to respond.

Taking on new perspectives not only can help you navigate your own challenges but also others’. Putting yourself in someone else’s situation to understand their motivations and needs can go a long way when collaborating with stakeholders.

2. Hone Your Decision-Making Skills

Another skill you can build is the ability to make decisions effectively . The case study method forces you to use limited information to decide how to handle a problem—just like in the real world.

Throughout your career, you’ll need to make difficult decisions with incomplete or imperfect information—and sometimes, you won’t feel qualified to do so. Learning through the case method allows you to practice this skill in a low-stakes environment. When facing a real challenge, you’ll be better prepared to think quickly, collaborate with others, and present and defend your solution.

3. Become More Open-Minded

As you collaborate with peers on responses, it becomes clear that not everyone solves problems the same way. Exposing yourself to various approaches and perspectives can help you become a more open-minded professional.

When you’re part of a diverse group of learners from around the world, your experiences, cultures, and backgrounds contribute to a range of opinions on each case.

On the HBS Online course platform, you’re prompted to view and comment on others’ responses, and discussion is encouraged. This practice of considering others’ perspectives can make you more receptive in your career.

“You’d be surprised at how much you can learn from your peers,” said Ratnaditya Jonnalagadda , a software engineer who took CORe.

In addition to interacting with peers in the course platform, Jonnalagadda was part of the HBS Online Community , where he networked with other professionals and continued discussions sparked by course content.

“You get to understand your peers better, and students share examples of businesses implementing a concept from a module you just learned,” Jonnalagadda said. “It’s a very good way to cement the concepts in one's mind.”

4. Enhance Your Curiosity

One byproduct of taking on different perspectives is that it enables you to picture yourself in various roles, industries, and business functions.

“Each case offers an opportunity for students to see what resonates with them, what excites them, what bores them, which role they could imagine inhabiting in their careers,” says former HBS Dean Nitin Nohria in the Harvard Business Review . “Cases stimulate curiosity about the range of opportunities in the world and the many ways that students can make a difference as leaders.”

Through the case method, you can “try on” roles you may not have considered and feel more prepared to change or advance your career .

5. Build Your Self-Confidence

Finally, learning through the case study method can build your confidence. Each time you assume a business leader’s perspective, aim to solve a new challenge, and express and defend your opinions and decisions to peers, you prepare to do the same in your career.

According to a 2022 City Square Associates survey , 84 percent of HBS Online learners report feeling more confident making business decisions after taking a course.

“Self-confidence is difficult to teach or coach, but the case study method seems to instill it in people,” Nohria says in the Harvard Business Review . “There may well be other ways of learning these meta-skills, such as the repeated experience gained through practice or guidance from a gifted coach. However, under the direction of a masterful teacher, the case method can engage students and help them develop powerful meta-skills like no other form of teaching.”

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How to Experience the Case Study Method

If the case method seems like a good fit for your learning style, experience it for yourself by taking an HBS Online course. Offerings span seven subject areas, including:

  • Business essentials
  • Leadership and management
  • Entrepreneurship and innovation
  • Finance and accounting
  • Business in society

No matter which course or credential program you choose, you’ll examine case studies from real business professionals, work through their challenges alongside peers, and gain valuable insights to apply to your career.

Are you interested in discovering how HBS Online can help advance your career? Explore our course catalog and download our free guide —complete with interactive workbook sections—to determine if online learning is right for you and which course to take.

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Writing a scope of work for an oral history project, introduction.

In addition to conducting oral history projects, National Park Service employees supervise oral history research completed by contractors. Historians in the South Atlantic-Gulf region know this well. In recent years the region has added several sites related to the Civil Rights Movement, and oral history interviews have been central to preserving the memories of people who promoted social and economic change. The historians—William M. Hunter, Deanda M. Johnson, and Cesar A. Vasquez—noted that it’s important and challenging to write comprehensive Scopes of Work that include all elements of an oral history project.

The Challenge

Could we create a document that could help them and all NPS staff write Scopes of Work that cover all the bases of a project?

Historians in the region had already drafted a document that offered sound guidance for oral history projects. All it needed was a few revisions. Note that the document covers the entire oral history process . That process begins with taking stock of related interviews already in an archive and includes creating a preservation plan.

Elements of a Scope of Work for an Oral History Project

An oral history project includes many steps, and it’s important that Scopes of Work pertaining to oral history interviewing capture key elements of the process. This checklist offers guidance for contractors on major steps that an oral history SOW might include, interview procedures and release forms, and oral history project deliverables.

Adhere to professional standards as outlined by the Oral History Association in its Principles and Best Practices.

Determine if oral history interviews about the topic already exist, what their content is, and how existing interviews affect the research agenda. Create inventories and brief descriptions of existing oral histories and their archival location.

Prepare for interviews by completing background research in relevant primary and secondary sources.

Be familiar with oral history interview techniques and legal release forms.

Understand technical specifications for audio and video recordings.

Collaborate with NPS archival/curatorial staff to create a plan for preserving and archiving the interview recordings, transcripts, and other materials.

Be prepared to collect copies of donated supplementary materials such as still photographs of interviewees and related memorabilia.

Make sure that narrators sign the legal release form and the proper form for donated materials. Note: oral history projects following the ethics and protocols of ethnography may need to modify the NPS legal release form.

Write a final/summary report that highlights key findings and future research needs.

Make a copy of the recording and transcript and share them with narrators to acknowledge the time and expertise they donated to the National Park Service.

Label all materials and create metadata and associated documentation in adherence to Oral History Association Archiving Oral History: Manual of Best Practices.

Interview Procedures and Release Forms

Before conducting an oral history interview, make sure that each narrator understands the research goals of the project, why they have been chosen for an interview, that they can decline to answer any question, where the interviews will be archived, and the multiple ways they may be used.

Obtain written consent from narrators that they agree to be interviewed and to have a transcript made of the interview. No oral histories will be used if the narrator does not consent to the information being used by the Principal Investigator (PI) and the NPS for educational, planning, and management purposes.

Prepare and use an interview guide that includes topics or questions to be explored with each narrator. Ask narrators what topics they think are important to explore. Be ready to pursue new topics as they arise.

Index and transcribe recorded oral history recordings to enhance their future use.

Share a copy of the interview transcript so the narrators can review the content and make any necessary corrections. Encourage the narrator to review the transcript within 30 days.

Share copies of the interview recording and transcript with the narrator as a way to honor the time and expertise they have shared.

Provide to the NPS all original recordings, transcriptions, and indexes so they can be archived appropriately.

Assure narrators that interviews will not be used if they do not consent to their use by the PI and the NPS for educational, planning and management purposes. No direct quotes will be included from any individual in the study unless they fully understand the potential effects of being identified.

A release form should state that the NPS has the signer's permission to identify them by name and may use the material for educational, planning and management purposes, except under conditions they may specify. For certain situations in which the information is important and not otherwise available to the project, the identity of the discussant will be kept confidential and indicated only with a code. The recipient is responsible for holding the list of such consultants confidential. No information about sensitive issues and resources will be made public by the PI without explicit permission from the NPS and the individual interviewee. An image consent and release form will be required if photographs are taken of individuals and groups, or for materials offered by the narrator.

Oral History Project Deliverables

A survey of existing oral history collections that includes annotated list of relevant interviews, pertinent archives and archival deposits to be utilized, and a catalogue of oral history interviews the collections hold to determine which interviews to prioritize.

A final prospective interview list chosen by NPS in consultation with the contractor, with priority placed on narrators that have not previously been interviewed on this topic.

The interview guide(s) in consultation with NPS staff and the narrators.

NPS Release/Consent Form, or equivalent.

Archival quality video/audio recorded interviews with identified and agreed upon interviewees/narrators and transcriptions in accordance with the Oral History Association guidelines and standards.

A collection of still current photographs of each interviewee/narrator.

Collection and digitization of any relevant historical materials/photographs that interviewees are willing to share.

A summary report that summarizes the process/methodology and interviews, includes a description of gaps in existing archives and how the newly collected interviews are addressing the gaps, major/common themes, identified associated resources (objects, places, structures, landscapes and natural resources), recommendations for future research, lessons learned, as well as appendices that include interview guide(s), transcripts, and release/consent forms. Upload the completed summary report to IRMA.

Final raw recording files, transcriptions, release forms, and summary report of findings submitted on two external hard drives, one to the park and one to the regional office. The contractor will submit any structured data sets created to analyze the materials and all metadata formatted to adhere to the OHA Archiving Oral History: Manual of Best Practices.

Evidence that narrators have received a copy of the recorded interview and transcript.

Historians in the South Atlantic-Gulf Region and the legacy Intermountain Region shared Scopes of Work for specific oral history projects they have supervised. Sometimes oral history projects stand alone, and in other cases they are a research component for an Administrative History. Thanks to Cesar A. Vasqez, historian for South Atlantic-Gulf Region, and Angie Sirna, regional historian for the legacy Intermountain Region, and for sharing these examples.

Statements of Work

Oral History of Events Commemorated in National Monument

Oral History Collection

Administrative History

Last updated: November 27, 2023

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  • Importance of parental involvement in paediatric palliative care in Hong Kong: qualitative case study
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  • Frances Kam Yuet Wong 1 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2069-9694 Jacqueline Mei Chi Ho 1 ,
  • Tsz Chui Lai 1 ,
  • Lilian Po Yee Lee 2 ,
  • Eva Ka Yan Ho 1 ,
  • Susanna Wai Yee Lee 3 ,
  • Stephan C W Chan 4 ,
  • Cheuk Wing Fung 5 ,
  • Assunta Chi Hang Ho 6 ,
  • Chak-Ho Li 7 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2810-5758 Chi Kong Li 6 ,
  • Annie Ting Gee Chiu 5 ,
  • Kwing Wan Tsui 8 ,
  • Katherine Ka Wai Lam 1
  • 1 School of Nursing , The Hong Kong Polytechnic University , Kowloon , Hong Kong
  • 2 Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine , United Christian Hospital , Kowloon , Hong Kong
  • 3 Nursing Administrative Office , Hong Kong Baptist Hospital , Kowloon , Hong Kong
  • 4 Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine , Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital , Hong Kong , Hong Kong
  • 5 Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine , Hong Kong Children's Hospital , Kowloon , Hong Kong
  • 6 Department of Paediatrics , CUHK Faculty of Medicine , Shatin , Hong Kong
  • 7 Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine , Tuen Mun Hospital , Tuen Mun , Hong Kong
  • 8 Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine , Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital , Tai Po , Hong Kong
  • Correspondence to Professor Frances Kam Yuet Wong, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong; frances.wong{at}polyu.edu.hk

Objective To compare and contrast the perceived care needs of children with life-limiting conditions (CLLC) from the perspectives of the children, parents and healthcare providers.

Design A qualitative case study method using semistructured interviews was employed with a within-case and across-case analysis. Themes and subthemes emerging from the cases were compared and contrasted in the across-case analysis to explore the similarities and variations in participant perceptions.

Setting/participants The setting was the paediatric departments of five regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Twenty-five sets of informants (CLLC–parent–healthcare provider) were recruited, with 65 individual interviews conducted.

Results A total of 3784 units of analysis were identified, resulting in three themes with subthemes. ‘Living with the disease’ (55.8%) occupied the largest proportion, followed by ‘information and understanding about the disease’ (27.4%), and ‘care support and palliative care’ (16.8%). Healthcare provider support mainly focused on physical concerns. Family and social support were present, but carer stress created tension between couples. Doctors were the primary source of medical information, but the parents had to seek further information via the internet and support from patient groups. There was a perceived need for better coordination and collaboration of care. The palliative care approach coordinated by nurses was seen as helpful in addressing the care needs of the CLLC.

Conclusions This original study identified the importance of palliative care with active engagement of parents which can address the service gap for CLLC.

  • palliative care
  • child health
  • paediatrics

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2023-325810

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WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS TOPIC

Children with life-limiting condition (CLLC) require complex medical interventions due to their multiple care needs in their relatively short lifespan.

Parents of CLLC often compromise their own well-being as caring for their children is a lifelong commitment.

A palliative care approach is recommended to address CLLC’s physical and psychosocial needs.

WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS

This study simultaneously examining perspectives of the CLLC, parents and healthcare providers found that care is fragmented, and the voices of the parents were missing.

The palliative care approach is a promising way to address the service gap of fragmented care and provide holistic care with coordinated multidisciplinary efforts.

A nurse coordinator could be instrumental in addressing care fragmentation in an interdisciplinary team with the partnership of the parents and CLLC.

HOW THIS STUDY MIGHT AFFECT RESEARCH, PRACTICE OR POLICY

The triangulated findings in Hong Kong revealed that parental voice was missing in palliative care for CLLC despite the literature consistently highlights its importance.

A coordinated and proactive care model with a nurse coordinator could potentially save costs by streamlining compartmentalised hospital services.

The study’s findings support the clinical guidelines proposed by international experts and could assist policymakers and healthcare professionals in designing future paediatric palliative care services.

Introduction

Children with life-limiting condition (CLLC) face many challenges that affect themselves, their families and healthcare providers. Research has shown an increase in the number of CLLC in recent years. 1 Caring for CLLC is a life project for the parents. Despite having a shorter life expectancy than healthy children, CLLC continue to grow up encountering wide-ranging developmental needs. 2 Evidence suggests that parents require both support from people (eg, family, healthcare professionals) and community resources (eg, hospital care, school and social services) when caring for CLLC. 3 A qualitative meta-summary analysis 4 revealed that both parents and healthcare providers emphasised the need for services from the time of diagnosis until the child’s death. The provision of psychosocial support, such as counselling and patient group networking, was helpful and while living with a challenging day-to-day reality, a more family-centred approach was preferred. 2 5

These parents play a key role throughout their child’s life journey and have a considerable need for information to help them understand the disease and treatment choices. Provision of informational support can prepare parents for what to expect in terms of the progression of their children’s illness and potential treatment. 6 Early and regular engagement in communication between parents and healthcare providers was seen as important. 3 Parents in one study found that decisions relating to advance care planning were made relatively late in the illness. 7 Studies also revealed a discrepancy between the views of children/families and those of healthcare providers in terms of information content and amount, 4 availability of information in easily understandable language 8 and their engagement in shared decision-making. 9

Evidence suggests that CLLC benefit from a palliative care approach that advocates holistic care supported by an interdisciplinary team. The initiation of paediatric palliative care (PPC) is recommended once a life-limiting diagnosis is confirmed or even prior to diagnosis where appropriate. 10 The implementation of PPC embraces the physical, psychological, social and spiritual well-being of both the children and their families. 2 In Hong Kong, the Hospital Authority issued a Strategic Service Framework in 2017. This framework guides the development of adult and paediatric palliative care services, aiming to support patients with life-limiting conditions by addressing their physical, psychological and spiritual needs and improve their quality of life. 11 However, it was noted in the document that PPC, unlike the adult group, is underdeveloped and not carried out in a structured manner.

Several studies have investigated the perceived needs of children, families and healthcare providers separately, but no study has been identified that compares the views of children, parents and healthcare providers simultaneously. This study was therefore conducted to compare and contrast the perceived care needs of CLLC from perspectives of these three stakeholders in Hong Kong.

Study design

This study uses a qualitative case study method, allowing researchers to study complex phenomena in depth within their context while involving these different perspectives and providing rich data. 12

Setting and participants

The study took place in the paediatric departments of five regional hospitals in Hong Kong from August 2019 to October 2021. Purposive sampling was used with the aim of recruiting 25 sets of participants (CLLC–parent–healthcare provider). Site paediatricians, not involved in the interviews, identified eligible participants and the researchers provided potential participants with information sheets with an explanation of the study. In total, 65 individual interviews were conducted, comprising 25 CLLC, 25 parents and 15 healthcare providers who looked after more than one of the interviewed children.

The inclusion criteria were: (1) families with diagnosed CLLC, as guided by Together for Short Lives 13 ; (2) eligible CLLC between 8 and 19 years of age and not in active treatment; (3) paediatricians and nurses with experience of caring for the CLLC; (4) parents aged 18 years or above; and (5) ability to communicate in Chinese or English.

The exclusion criteria included: (1) hospitalised children; (2) newly diagnosed CLLC within the previous 12 months; (3) children in the stage of active dying/facing imminent death; and (4) parents with cognitive impairment.

Data collection

Audio-recorded semistructured interviews lasting 25–60 min were conducted individually in private meeting rooms or online during the pandemic by trained researchers who were not familiar with the participants (JMCH: a female PhD student; TCL: a female research associate). Field notes were taken.

Participant demographic information was collected. The interview guide was constructed based on a literature review reporting the needs of CLLC and validated by an expert panel team composed of three paediatricians and five paediatric nurses. A pilot interview was conducted with a child with spinal muscular atrophy, her mother, and the primary paediatrician to test its clarity and relevance to the participants. The interview guide (see online supplemental file ) explored the dimensions of informational, physical–psychological–social needs and healthcare support of the informants. The informants were reassured of confidentiality and anonymity.

Supplemental material

Data analysis.

The recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim for data analysis with the aid of NVivo V.12. The strategy of within-case and across-case analysis was employed, 12 where cases were the CLLC, parents and healthcare professionals. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. Two researchers independently reviewed the transcripts and segregated each portion of data containing one idea or piece of information into units of analysis. 14 The units of analysis with similar meaning were then organised into themes by two researchers. The initial agreement was 62.6% and improved to 88.7% with discussion. Participants were contacted for clarification of the transcripts where there was uncertainty between the researchers. Deliberation with the involvement of the experienced research team members helped to resolve any discrepancies of the codes. The themes and subthemes were compared and contrasted in the across-case analysis to explore similarities and variations in the perceived care needs of the three groups of participants. 12

Table 1 shows the participant demographics. The mean ages of children, parents and healthcare professionals were, respectively, 13.5, 45.4 and 47.7 years. The gender split was 44.0% female CLLC, 68.0% mothers and 46.7% female healthcare providers. Twenty-eight per cent of the parents were in full-time employment. Among the 15 healthcare professionals, 86.7% were physicians and 15.3% were nurses; 66.7% of them had received palliative care training.

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Demographic characteristics of the study participants

Table 2 shows the distribution by diagnoses and categories defined by Together for Short Lives. 13 There was a wide range of diagnoses. The distribution of categories were: I—curative treatment feasible (8.0%), II—long periods of intensive treatment needed (20%), III—without curative treatments (32.0%) and IV—irreversible but non-progressive (40.0%).

Distribution of cases (n=25) by categories and diagnoses

A total of 3784 units of analysis were analysed, resulting in three themes, namely ‘information and understanding about the disease’, ‘living with the disease’, and ‘care support and palliative care’ which, respectively, occupied 27.4%, 55.8% and 16.8% of the units. The parents’ interviews (51.8%) provided the largest number of units of analysis, followed by healthcare professionals (24.7%) and children (23.5%). The richness of the data collected allowed the researchers to gain in-depth insights into the CLLC’s perceived care needs. Tables 3–5 provide anonymised supporting quotes of each of the themes and their subthemes. In each of the tables, the quotes from the three groups of participants are provided side by side for easy cross-reference. Similarities and differences between the care perceptions among the participants are shown at the end column of the table. Below is a description of each theme and subtheme.

Quotes for ‘information and understanding about the disease’

Quotes for ‘living with the disease’

Quotes for ‘care support and palliative care’

Information and understanding about the disease

This theme concerns the information delivered regarding the disease or condition and how the information was understood. There are two subthemes, ‘information and communication process’ and ‘understanding the child’s condition and treatment process’. The first subtheme revealed that doctors were the main source of information, and they believed they provided adequate necessary information. Nevertheless, parents often had to seek further information from the internet. Self-initiated connections with patient groups with the same condition were very useful. Medical information from different specialists was reported as being fragmented and some participants did not fully understand the overall management plan. Doctors acknowledged both the limited time for consultations and the fact they usually focused on treatment while relying on nurses for subsequent elaboration and counselling ( table 3 ).

Findings in the second subtheme, ‘understanding the child’s diagnosis and treatment process’, showed that the process of delineating diagnosis was lengthy and often involved extensive investigations. Parents reflected that treatment plans were demanding and complicated. Parents often had to evaluate the treatment options themselves. Some parents sought out alternative therapies, which they believed were more readily acceptable and effective.

Living with the disease

This theme captured how the CLLC and their parents lived with the disease. There are three subthemes: living with physical concerns , living with non-physical concerns , and life perspectives . The subtheme ‘living with physical concerns’ revealed that CLLC faced various distressing symptoms. Parents had to perform special nursing care at home, with prior training provided by healthcare professionals. The parental caring burden was worsened with the lack of community resources such as limited availability of respite care. Caring for the CLLC significantly impacted parents’ quality of life ( table 4 ).

The subcategory ‘living with non-physical concerns’ made up the largest portion of difficulty living with the disease. CLLC and parents experienced fear, worries and stigma. Healthcare professionals recognised the children’s and parents’ emotions, but time constraints in the clinic meant doctors had limited time to address their psychosocial concerns. Nurses frequently filled the gap providing emotional support. Carers’ stress led to tension and conflicts between couples. Participants said that social support and financial assistance provided by social workers could ease their stress. Some parents also found spiritual support from church helpful.

The subtheme ‘life perspectives’ revealed that the children interpreted quality of life as being able to eat, play and be happy, whereas parents were already grateful for seeing the CLLC able to study in school. Healthcare professionals were generally supportive in facilitating the CLLC and their parents to pursue their wishes. The CLLC and parents reported grasping every opportunity to achieve a reasonable quality of life and maximise normalcy during the children’s limited lifespan.

Care support and palliative care

This theme explored the availability of care support and the participants’ understanding of palliative care. The subtheme ‘care support and coordination’ revealed that both the CLLC and parents opined hospital support focused primarily on the physical aspects of care. However, opinions from different professional consultations were often divided and even contradictory. There was a perceived need for better coordination and collaboration among multiple specialties. Poor transitional care from paediatric to adult service was noted by healthcare professionals ( table 5 ).

The second subtheme was ‘understanding of palliative care’. Informants said that palliative care could be helpful in addressing the CLLC’s needs in a holistic manner but some parents misunderstood palliative care as only applying to patients with cancer or the elderly. Palliative care services were not available in all settings, but those who received palliative care valued it highly. Some healthcare professionals said that in an ideal world, services and palliative care coordinated by a key worker preferably provided by a primary nurse were crucial to facilitate interdisciplinary communication.

By simultaneously investigating the perspectives of these three important informant groups, this innovative study using within-case and across-case analysis has identified an important service gap in addressing the care needs of the CLLC. Previous studies were limited by focusing on only one or two groups. Although the CLLC, parents and healthcare providers identified similar care needs for the CLLC, they varied in how they interpreted them. Perhaps unsurprisingly given their roles, healthcare providers viewed the care concerns from medical perspectives, while the CLLC and parents contextualised the needs in overcoming challenges in their daily living environments. These differing perceptions of care problems result in a significant service gap, and parents and children expressed confusion about the fragmentation of care. Narrowing this gap requires a strategy that integrates multidisciplinary team efforts, particularly including the voices of parents and CLLC with shared decision-making in formulating the care plan.

The palliative care approach is a promising way to address the service gap. This approach advocates improving the quality of life for those with life-threatening illnesses through early identification and management of problems in a holistic manner with coordinated multidisciplinary efforts. 15 Dewan and Cohen 16 have proposed engagement of a key worker as a single point of contact to assist care coordination. A narrative review suggests that the nurse is most appropriate to assume the care coordination role. 17 The nurse adopts a multifaceted role in PPC, acting as a direct care provider, counsellor, and advocate for the patient and family while functioning as a coordinator within the healthcare team. Care coordination by the nurse facilitates effective communication among multiple specialists, and between the care team and the clients. 18 Informants of this study who experienced the advantages of a nurse coordinator attested to this.

Early integration of PPC can support the CLLC and family in making sound and realistic decisions, 6 symptom management facilitated by better care coordination. 19 It is advocated that PPC should be introduced at the time of diagnosis of the life-limiting condition, or prior to diagnosis where it can be challenging for rare conditions. 10 The Strategic Service Framework for palliative care introduced in Hong Kong in 2017 helped promote PPC, but the service remains underdeveloped. Not all hospitals have designated teams to provide PPC. Only two out of the five study hospitals had designated PPC team, and other hospitals provided PPC services alongside day-to-day services.

Parents often act as surrogate decision-makers, with the children as passive recipients. 20 The CLLC here wanted to live a normal life like other children, enjoy friends and schooling and make plans for the future. 2 There is an urgent appeal to involve parents as essential members of the caring team. 21 Formation of true partnerships requires healthcare experts to flatten the hierarchical relationships, to enhance reciprocal information exchange 22 and involve the families as co-creators in the care coordination processes with shared decision-making. 23 Caretaking of CLLC bears impacts on the quality of life of families. 20 Studies have frequently reported long hours in caregiving lead to changes in employment status, income 24 and quality of life 25 of parents. As the present findings imply, the outcomes could be poor family functioning 6 and increased carer burden. 26 Goldhagen et al 27 suggested reinforcement of community support and community-based PPC is essential to help attain the health-related quality of life of caretakers.

Conclusions

This original study examining the perspectives of the CLLC, parents and healthcare providers disclosed an important service gap in addressing the care needs of the CLLC. The palliative care approach with active engagement of the parents is a promising way to address the gap. The results showed that all three stakeholders agreed that the most pressing need was support for living with the disease. Parents are identified as the main caregivers, and their involvement in care plan formulation was deemed essential. This study recommends improved coordination of care with a designated nurse and advocates introduction of PPC at an early stage even before the diagnosis can be confirmed. The findings have provided evidence for policymakers to consider allocating appropriate resources to fill the service gap for this vulnerable group.

Ethics statements

Patient consent for publication.

Not required.

Ethics approval

This study involves human participants and was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HSEARS20180123003-01), Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster (UW 19-225), Kowloon Central/Kowloon East Cluster (KC/KE-17-0174FR-2), Kowloon West Cluster (KW/FR-17-161(118-09)), New Territories East (2017.963) and West Clusters (NTWC/REC/19024). Participants gave informed consent to participate in the study before taking part.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the participants and families for sharing their experiences and all those who assisted with recruitment.

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Supplementary materials

Supplementary data.

This web only file has been produced by the BMJ Publishing Group from an electronic file supplied by the author(s) and has not been edited for content.

  • Data supplement 1

Contributors Conceptualisation and design—FKYW, JMCH, TCL, KKWL and EKYH. Recruitment—LPYL, SCWC, CWF, ACHH, C-HL, CKL, ATGC and KWT. Data collection—JMCH and TCL. Data analysis and interpretation—FKYW, JMCH, TCL, KKWL and EKYH. Manuscript preparation—FKYW. Manuscript review and approval—all authors. Guarantor—FKYW.

Funding This work was supported by Health and Medical Research Fund, Food and Health Bureau, Hong Kong (grant number 16172581).

Competing interests None declared.

Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.

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    Whether you're looking for a case study example that will prepare you for interviews at McKinsey London, BCG New York, or Bain Shanghai, this case library will give you case interview practice that simulates what you'll see in an actual case study interview. Does this Case Library include sample case study interview questions & answers? Yes!

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    The best way to prepare for a case interview is to study examples and practice interviewing with friends or family. In this story, we will help familiarize readers with the basic types of...

  9. How To Succeed in a Case Study Interview

    1. Research the framework of case study interviews. A case study interview, also known as a "fit interview, " is laid out like a brief. You'll be informed about a business scenario. You, in turn, need to review the necessary materials and present a solution to the interviewer.

  10. 7 Ways To Prepare for a Case Study Interview

    Role play with a friend or colleague. Another great way to prepare for a case study interview is to practice role playing with a friend, family member or colleague. Give the person you are practicing with several potential case study questions to ask you and then practice answering these questions out loud. Be sure to include each step in your ...

  11. Case Interview Prep Guide

    Case Interview Examples - See what real consulting applicants experienced during the case interview process. Case Interview Prep - Ordered steps to prepare for your management consulting interview. Case Interview 102 What are Firms Looking for in Interviews? - First step: practice for case interviews to proficiently break down problems.

  12. 280 Free Case Interview Examples

    Over 280 case interview examples and sample answers from all the top consulting firms such as McKinsey, The BCG, Bain & Company, Roland Berger, or Deloitte. ... Most of these 253 case study examples are based on case interviews used by consulting firms in real job interviews.

  13. PDF Case Interview Workbook

    During a case interview, an interviewer presents a situation or case and then asks the applicant to explore the underlying causes of the problem and suggest recommendations to remedy the problem. The cases given tend to be realbusiness situations, often drawn from the interviewer's actual project experience.

  14. Preparing for the case interview

    More case interviewing tips Learn a few more ways to stand out in your case study interview. Explore Your Fit The impact you'll make through your career begins by finding work that inspires you and puts your strengths front and center. We have thousands of possibilities at Deloitte. Which ones fit you? Check out our Explore Your Fit tool to ...

  15. Case Interview Prep

    An important step in the interview process for client-facing roles, case interviews are designed to simulate real-world problems faced by client teams, so you'll be able to experience the type of work we do, show off your ability to problem-solve, and demonstrate any technical or specialized skills related to the role for which you're applying.

  16. Case interview examples: McKinsey, BCG, Bain, Deloitte ...

    McKinsey case interview examples. Transforming a national education system. Electro-light. GlobaPharm. Diconsa. We have written a detailed article on the McKinsey application process, the McKinsey interview timeline, the typical McKinsey case interview, and the McKinsey Personal Experience interview here. You can expect similar cases regardless ...

  17. How to Impress at a Case Study Interview: What to Expect and ...

    5. Complete a sample case analysis. Use example business scenarios to create a mock case study interview. Search for case study interview prompts and sample business cases in your industry, then look for trends, make estimations and summarise your findings. After completing a practice case study, review your work and identify areas for improvement.

  18. How to Prep for a Case Study Interview

    For example, doctors and nurses use case studies to improve how they diagnose and treat patients. Using real patient information, the medical team analyzes the case to see what the team may have missed and why they missed it. Learning from these errors helps the team better prepare for similar cases in the future to improve patient care.

  19. Case Interview Examples: Master List

    Updated November 15, 2023 The case interview is the biggest challenge consulting candidates must overcome to receive an offer. Most aspiring consultants are coveting an offer from the likes of McKinsey, Bain, BCG, and Deloitte.

  20. Interviewing

    During your interview, you should share details about the challenges, goals, and actions you took to create change. If you are interested in McKinsey careers beyond consulting, you can learn more about the assessment process for our internal roles here. *Please note, not all interviews at McKinsey will require an expertise interview or follow ...

  21. Getting ready for your interviews

    At McKinsey, we strive to create an unrivalled environment for exceptional people. During many of our interviews, you will learn more about what this value means in practice at McKinsey. Your assessor may share details of how McKinsey is a non-hierarchical, diverse, inclusive meritocracy. They may touch on our formal and informal apprenticeship and mentor programs.

  22. Types of Interviews in Research

    There are several types of interviews, often differentiated by their level of structure. Structured interviews have predetermined questions asked in a predetermined order. Unstructured interviews are more free-flowing. Semi-structured interviews fall in between. Interviews are commonly used in market research, social science, and ethnographic ...

  23. 5 Benefits of the Case Study Method

    5. Build Your Self-Confidence. Finally, learning through the case study method can build your confidence. Each time you assume a business leader's perspective, aim to solve a new challenge, and express and defend your opinions and decisions to peers, you prepare to do the same in your career. According to a 2022 City Square Associates survey ...

  24. How to Write a Case Study Assignment: Examples & Tips

    Step 1: Select a topic. The initial phase of completing this document involves selecting a suitable topic. This decision should align with your interests and course requirements. Brainstorm various topic ideas related to your field of study, ensuring they match your academic goals. For example, if you're pursuing a course in environmental ...

  25. Case Study

    Create inventories and brief descriptions of existing oral histories and their archival location. Prepare for interviews by completing background research in relevant primary and secondary sources. Be familiar with oral history interview techniques and legal release forms. Understand technical specifications for audio and video recordings.

  26. 5 ChatGPT Prompts To Master Any Topic And Apply It To Your ...

    Using these prompts, you can master any new area of business in record time. Take your subject of interest and try to learn it using each of the following methods. Keep going with the one that ...

  27. Amplifying successes towards ending AIDS

    UNAIDS has compiled this set of 10 key success case studies from 5 countries in the region (Angola, Eswatini, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda) that have shown catalytic impact in the areas of HIV, male engagement, gender-based violence, and sexual and reproductive health and rights, and domestic strategies for sustaining resources.

  28. Importance of parental involvement in paediatric palliative care in

    Objective To compare and contrast the perceived care needs of children with life-limiting conditions (CLLC) from the perspectives of the children, parents and healthcare providers. Design A qualitative case study method using semistructured interviews was employed with a within-case and across-case analysis. Themes and subthemes emerging from the cases were compared and contrasted in the ...

  29. Geosciences

    Geoscientists are involved in both the upstream and downstream side of the extractive industries. As explorationists and field geologists, they are often the first technical people related to extractive industries that communities meet. It is imperative in an increasingly globalized and holistic world that geoscientists gain greater awareness of the socio-economic impact of extractive ...