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- What is the difference between a footnote and a bibliography?
Footnotes or endnotes are used to provide acknowledgment to a source inside the text. Footnotes and bibliography citations are formatted differently. If you do not provide a bibliography, your footnotes and endnotes must be full citations.
Full citations include author's last name, year published, title of book/article/report, page numbers if applicable, and type of citation (endnote, reference).
In addition to the full citation, an endnote citation requires you to list all the information about the source that does not appear in the citation, including but not limited to: author(s), date written, title of document, publisher, location where printed, abbreviated version if any. Endnotes should be placed at the end of the paper, followed by a section header for "Endnotes". The body of this section should contain a listing of all notes with their corresponding references .
A reference citation is used when you want to give credit to another work that has been published or cited previously. A reference citation may be in the form of a author, date, or report number. The reference list should follow the instructions above for endnotes with two exceptions: 1 Only list one reference per entry; 2 List the reference directly after the note it refers to instead of at the end of the paper.
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How do i cite footnotes in mla, what is the use of endnotes and footnotes, do you put the full citation in footnotes.
How to Cite Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA You must include a source in the Works Cited list if you refer to it in a footnote or endnote. The author's last name, which opens the Works Cited item, should be mentioned in the remark. If there is no author, the title is used instead.
In addition, you must specify what file this reference is found in. Since notes are often included at the bottom of pages, use the Page number as the reference point. For example, if the note is on page 12 of your article , then cite it as 12n.
Finally, indicate the type of note it is. These options will help readers locate other works by you or similar materials.
Notes are usually cited in the text of your article using parentheses. For example, (Joshi 1996) is one way of citing an endnote. However, if you place these citations at the end of your article, they will not be recognized by most bibliographic databases. It is best to include the actual number within the text itself. For example, (Joshi 1996:12) refers to a footnote that occurs on page 12 of that document.
MLA requires that you provide a full citation for any material that is not identified as Unpublished or Non-Degree granting institutions may provide only a title and date range for unpublished materials.
In printed texts, footnotes and endnotes are used to explain, comment on, or offer references to material. Many individuals use footnotes for extensive remarks and endnotes for source citation.
Endnotes can be used in place of citations. An author uses her/ his endnote system to distinguish their own comments or interpretations from those of others. Endnotes also provide a way to cite sources within the body of the text. In academic writing , using endnotes is preferred over relying on footnotes because endnotes remain intact when taking notes during a lecture or seminar session. Footnotes disappear when you re-read the text.
Endnotes are often included with bibliographies or lists of sources. However, they can be used independently of these forms. For example, an author could choose to include all of her own commentary in endnotes without including a bibliography.
Footnotes are used within the body of the text to reference material that cannot be cited in another way. For example, if I were referencing some information in a book and did not want to risk missingpell ing the word, I would use a footnote to save space instead of quoting the word directly from the text. When you come to refer to this footnote later, you should give it a number and add the abbreviation fns. After it.
If you do not provide a bibliography, the first footnote from each work must have a complete citation and subsequent citations must have truncated footnotes. A full footnote has the same information as the citation in the bibliography, with minor formatting modifications including the page number of a specific quotation.
An example of a full citation in a footnote is "Smith, John. American Character: First Edition. New York: Modern Library, 1950. Page 33." This would be placed on the same line as the quotation it references.
An example of a truncated citation in a footnote is "Smith, John. American Character: First Edition. New York: Modern Library , 1950. Pg. 33." This would be placed on a separate line from the quotation it references.
Full citations are required for all works cited in the text or included in any reference lists . Truncated footnotes are acceptable when the entire work can be referenced by its title alone. They are also useful when referencing multiple editions of the same book that differ only slightly such as old and new editions. For example, if the old edition had more illustrations than the new one, then only the title and year would need to be cited (rather than the original name of the book's author and publisher).
Full citations appear in endnotes and bibliographies too.
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Citing Sources -- Chicago -- Bibliography style
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Chapter 14 of the Chicago Manual of Style presents Chicago's bibliography style of citation. This style uses a system of notes, whether footnotes or endnotes or both, and usually a bibliography.
Footnotes and endnotes are formulated in exactly the same way -- the only difference is that footnotes appear on the bottom of the page on which a work is cited, whereas endnotes appear at the end of a manuscript. Citations in a bibliography are formulated in a similar way to a footnote or endnote, but do have slight variations from the way a footnote or endnote is formulated.
Most courses at Chico State that use Chicago's bibliography style ask you to cite sources using footnotes as opposed to endnotes. All courses require a bibliography to accompany your notes. Ask your instructor if you have further questions about the elements of the Chicago style s/he wants you to use in completing your coursework.
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What Is the Difference Between a Footnote & a Bibliography for MLA Citation?
The Modern Language Association Handbook (7th edition) provides guidelines for how to incorporate specific components, such as footnotes and bibliographies, within your writing. Footnotes can provide your readers with additional ideas that are not part of the body of your paper but are still relevant to the content or they can immediately direct readers to additional sources that provide further discussion related to the topic of your paper. The bibliography includes the full citation information for all of the sources used within your paper -- both in the body and in the footnotes.
Content footnotes give additional information about the content, and bibliographic notes provide additional sources related to the content. The footnote is found at the bottom, or foot, of the page. It is marked by a superscript number within the body of the text. The superscript number also appears at the bottom of the page, along with the additional explanatory or bibliographic information.
If specific sources are used to write content footnotes, this information should be cited through parenthetical citations within the footnote and then with full citation information within the Works Cited, or Bibliography, page. Bibliographic footnotes point your readers to specific, related outside texts without providing much commentary on them. Full citation information for these sources should also be included on the Works Cited page.
The Bibliography, or Works Cited, page is the last section of a paper. It compiles the full citation information for any source cited in or consulted for the paper into one location and allows your readers to get an overview of the works informing your thinking.
The full citation information found in this section tells your readers when and where a source was published, whereas a footnote might only include the title of the work. Additionally, no information besides the citation information is included within the bibliography.
- MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed); The Modern Language Association
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Christine Maddox Martorana has been writing professionally since 2003. Martorana has been teaching college-level composition and journalism classes since 2007. She is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in English at Florida State University.
Gladhill Learning Commons FAQ: Citations
What is the difference between footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography when you are using the chicago manual of style.
In the Chicago Manual of Style (also known as Turabian), a bibliography is an alphabetical list of all of the sources that you have quoted, paraphrased, and/or summarized in the body of your research-based assignment. Bibliographies are usually included at the end of your paper. Bibliographies are optional in the Chicago Manual of Style, but be sure to ask your professor for their requirements.
Footnotes or endnotes are how you give credit to a source in the text itself. You use a superscript number in the text that corresponds to a note with citation information at the end of the document (endnotes) or at the bottom of the page (footnotes). Footnotes/endnotes are formatted differently than bibliography citations.
If you do not include a bibliography, the footnotes/endnotes in your paper must be full citations. If you include a bibliography, or if you are citing a source for the second time, you can use shortened citations for your footnotes or endnotes.
" Lincoln's vision of democracy—a vision, it should be noted, strongly shared by Tarbell—could only be saved if the Union was saved." 1
1 Robert G. Wick, “‘He Was a Friend of Us Poor Men’: Ida M. Tarbell and Abraham Lincoln’s View of Democracy,” Indiana Magazine of History 114, no. 4 (December 2018): 255, https://doi.org/10.2979/indimagahist.114.4.01.
1 Wick,"Poor Men," 256.
Citation in Bibliography
Wick, Robert G. “‘Poor Men’: Ida M. Tarbell and Abraham Lincoln’s View of Democracy.” Indiana Magazine of History 114, no. 4 (December 2018): 255–82. https://doi.org/10.2979/indimagahist.114.4.01.
For more examples, go to the Chicago Manual of Style website.
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Footnotes or Text Citations?
Footnote basics, text citations.
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Chicago style allows either footnotes or text citations (also called in-text citations or author-date citations). Ask your professor which style he or she prefers. (Personally, I loathe text citations, as they break up the text and make it very confusing to read. Some people love them. Go figure.)
Whichever style you use, be sure to cite every quotation you use and all information you borrow from other sources. Failure to cite your sources is plagiarism.
Use Word tools! In MS Word, select "References" and then "Insert footnote". This will place the footnote correctly and number it. If you later move the citation it refers to, the footnote will be moved and renumbered automatically.
- If you include a bibliography with complete citations of all the works you have used, you may use abbreviated footnotes throughout.
- If you don't include a bibliography, you must give a full citation for the first footnote from each work and abbreviated footnotes for subsequent citations.
- A complete footnote has the same information as the citation in the bibliography, with some differences in format, plus the page number of a particular quotation.
- An abbreviated footnote contains the author's last name, a brief title, and the page number of the quotation.
For a Book:
Guion, David M. The Trombone: Its History and Music, 1697-1811 . New York:
Gordon and Breach, 1988.
Author in normal order, followed by comma; publication information in parentheses, page of quotation at end. Not indented, single spaced; use 10-pt. type.
David M. Guion, The Trombone: Its History and Music, 1697-1811 (New York: Gordon
and Breach, 1988), 23.
Guion, The Trombone , 78.
For a Periodical Article:
Adair, Douglas. "A Note on Certain of Hamilton's Pseudonyms." The William and Mary Quarterly,
Third series 12, no. 2 (April 1955)): 282-297. JSTOR . Viewed 3 Oct. 2014.
Douglas Adair, "A Note on Certain of Hamilton's Pseudonyms," ( The William and Mary Quarterly, Third series 12, no. 2 (April 1955)): 282.
Adair, "A Note on Certain of Hamilton's Pseudonyms," 295.
- Text citations must agree exactly with entries in your bibliography.
- Include the last name(s) of the author(s) and the date of publication with no comma in between.
- If you are citing a specific page, put the page number after the date, separated by a comma.
- Put the text citation before a mark of punctuation.
- For more than three authors, use the first author with et al.
Star Trek "adapts its stories to incorporate familiar mythical paradigms" (Geraghty 2005, 191).
Recent literature has examined long-run price drifts following initial public offerings (Ritter 1991; Loughran and Ritter 1995), stock splits (Ikenberry, Rankine, and Stice 1996), seasoned equity offerings (Loughran and Ritter 1995), and equity repurchases (Ikenberry, Lakonishok, and Vermaelen 1995). [ex. from Chicago Manual of Style , 622]
Nanoparticulate formations "may ... ultimately reduce health-care costs" (Tartau et al. 2009).
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Chicago Style: Basics
Notes & bibliography: general formatting rules.
- Chicago Style Notes & Bibliography requires the use of notes, footnotes or endnotes, and a bibliography.
- The first note of a source should include author(s), title, publication information, and page number(s).
- Any subsequent notes of the same source need only to include a short form of the citation.
- Bibliographies are listed alphabetically by author last name.
- The second and subsequent lines of bibliographic entries are indented.
- The notes are not double-spaced; however, there is a space between each individual note.
- The bibliography entries are also not double-spaced, but there is a space between each individual entry.
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Chicago Style / Chicago Style Footnotes
Chicago/Turabian Basics: Footnotes
This is your how-to guide for footnotes following the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition. It will help you understand footnotes vs endnotes, teach you how to create them, and show real examples you can learn from.
Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:
What is a footnote?
- Footnotes vs. Endnotes
Why We Use Footnotes
- Creating footnotes
A footnote is a note that provides additional information or references for the reader.
A footnote is indicated with a superscript numeral (like this 1 ) within the text that corresponds to the same numeral at the bottom of the page, which is followed by the reference or additional information. The footnote should be included directly following the text it pertains to, usually after any punctuation.
In Chicago style (notes-bibliography style), footnotes are used instead of in-text citations to cite sources and to reduce interruption to the flow of the writing. However, footnotes can also be used to provide an additional explanation that would be difficult or distracting to include in the body of the text, to point the reader to additional reading or background information, to clarify a term or editorial decision, or to provide any other information that cannot be included within the text itself.
People working in the humanities—literature, history, and the arts—are the primary users of the Chicago footnotes and bibliography system.
Footnotes vs Endnotes
The main difference between footnotes and endnotes is that footnotes are included at the bottom of each page, whereas endnotes are included at the end of a chapter, article, or book.
Whether to use footnotes or endnotes depends on personal preference as well as the number of footnotes/endnotes needed. For example, in a text that has a significant number of notes, it may be better to format them as endnotes since the footnotes would take up a lot of room at the bottom of each page, making the text harder to read. This guide on footnotes, end notes, and parentheticals provides more information about the differences between these different types of notes and how to use them.
Here’s a quick overview of the two note styles:
Chicago footnotes provide a note each time a source is referenced and are often combined with a bibliography at the end. The footnote usually includes the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, and page number(s) if it is the first time the source is being used. For any additional usage, simply use the author’s last name, publication title, and date of publication.
Footnotes should match with a superscript number at the end of the sentence referencing the source. You should begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.
In the text:
Throughout the first half of the novel, Strether has grown increasingly open and at ease in Europe; this quotation demonstrates openness and ease. 1
In the footnote:
1. Henry James, The Ambassadors (Rockville: Serenity, 2009), 34-40.
When citing a source more than once, use a shortened version of the footnote.
2. James, The Ambassadors , 14.
Chicago footnotes provide a note each time a source is referenced and are often combined with a bibliography at the end.
- If you use a bibliography : You do not need to provide the full citation in the footnotes, but rather a shortened form of the citation. The reader can consult your bibliography to find the full reference.
- If you only include footnotes and not a bibliography : You must include the full citation the first time you reference the work. The next time you use the same work, you can just use the shortened citation form.
- Include the pages on which the cited information is found so that readers easily find the source.
- Match with a superscript number (example: 1 ) at the end of the sentence referencing the source.
- Begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.
Sometimes you may not be able to find all of the information generally included in a citation. This is common for online material and older sources. If this happens, just use the information you have to form the citation.
- No author : Use the title in the author’s position.
- No date of publication : “n.d.” (no date) can be used as a placeholder.
- You may use “n.p.” to indicate no publisher, no place of publication , or no page.
Looking for extra help creating footnotes? Check out the Chicago footnotes generator that comes with a subscription to EasyBib Plus .
Citing sources with more than 1 author
If there are two or three authors, include their full names in the order they appear on the source.
In the shortened form, list the last names of all authors of a work with two or three authors.
- 1st Author First name Last name and 2nd Author First name Last name, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), page number(s).
- 1st Author Last name and 2nd Author Last name, Shortened title , page number(s).
- Alexander Aciman and Emmett Rensin , Twitterature: The World’s Greatest Books in Twenty Tweets or Less (New York: Penguin Books, 2009), 47-48.
- Aciman and Rensin, Twitterature , 25.
Citing sources with 4 or more authors
If there are more than three authors, list only the first author followed by “et al.” List all the authors in the bibliography.
In the shortened form, if there are more than three authors, only give the last name of the first author followed by “et al.”
- 1st Author First name Last name et al., Title (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), page number(s).
- 1st Author Last name et al., Shortened title , page number(s).
- Karen White et al. , The Forgotten Room (New York: Berkley, 2016), 33-38.
- White, Forgotten , 52.
Get help with footnotes by using the EasyBib Plus Chicago footnotes generator.
Citing sources with other contributor information
You may want to include other contributor information in your footnotes such as editor, translator, or compiler. If there is more than one of any given contributor, include their full names in the order they appear on the source.
- Harry Mulisch, The Assault , trans. Claire Nicolas White (New York: Pantheon Books, 1985), 14.
- Mulisch, Assault , 29.If the contributor is taking place of the author, use their full name instead of the author’s and provide their contribution.
If the contributor is taking the place of the author, use their full name instead of the author’s and provide their contribution.
- Theo Hermans, ed., A Literary History of the Low Countries (Rochester: Camden House, 2009), 372.
- Hermans, Low Countries , 301.
If you have a corporate author, use that name in place of the author.
Citing sources with no author
It may not be possible to find the author/contributor information; some sources may not even have an author or contributor- for instance, when you cite some websites. Simply omit the unknown information and continue with the footnote as usual.
Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.
Citing a part of a work
When citing a specific part of a work in the Chicago footnotes format, for example, when citing an article in Chicago , provide the relevant page(s) or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, or volumes. If page numbers cannot be referenced, simply exclude them.
Article in a book:
- Kristen Poole, “Dr. Faustus and Reformation Theology,” in Early Modern English Drama: A Critical Companion , ed. G.A. Sullivan et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 100.
- Poole, “Dr. Faustus,” 102.
Chapter in a book:
- Garrett P. Serviss, “A Trip of Terror,” in A Columbus of Space (New York: Appleton, 1911), 17-32.
- Serviss, “Trip,” 20.
Introduction, afterword, foreword, or preface:
- Scott R. Sanders, introduction to Touchstone Anthology of Contemporary Creative Nonfiction: Work from 1970 to Present , ed. Lex Williford and Michael Martone (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007), x-xii.
- Sanders, “Introduction,” xi.
Article in a periodical:
- William G. Jacoby, “Public Attitudes Toward Public Spending,” American Journal of Political Science 38, no. 2 (May 1994): 336-61.
- Jacoby, “Public Attitudes,” 345.
Citing group or corporate authors
In your footnotes, cite a corporate author like you would a normal author. American Medical Association, Journal of the American Medical Association : 12-43.
Citing secondary sources
It is generally discouraged in Chicago style to cite material that you cannot examine in its original form. If this is absolutely necessary, you must cite both the original work and the secondary one in Chicago footnotes.
- Letter, J.B. Rhine to Aldous Huxley, August 15, 1957, Parapsychology Laboratory Records (1983-1984), Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, quoted in Stacy Horn, Unbelievable: Investigations into Ghosts, Poltergeists, Telepathy, and Other Unseen Phenomena, from the Duke Parapsychology Laboratory , (New York: HarperCollins, 2009).
Citing the Bible
When you cite the Bible, include the abbreviated title of the book, the chapter(s), and the verse(s) referenced. You use a colon between chapter and verse. Also, include the version you are referencing. The version must be spelled out for a general audience, but it may be abbreviated for specialists.
- Prov. 3:5-10 (AV).
- Prov. 3:5-10 (Authorized King James Version).
Citing online sources
For online sources, Chicago footnotes generally follow the same principles as printed works.The URL, database name, or DOI need to be included so that the reader can easily find the work cited.
Eliot Brown, “In Silicon Valley, the Big Venture Funds Keep Getting Bigger,” Wall Street Journal , July 25, 2017, https://www.wsj.com/articles/in-silicon-valley-the-big-venture-funds-keep-getting-bigger-1501002000.
Cynthia J. Cyrus, The Scribes for Women’s Convents in Late Medieval Germany (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009), ProQuest Ebook Central.
EasyBib (@EasyBib), “Writing a research paper?,” Twitter, January 21, 2020, 5:20 p.m., https://twitter.com/EasyBib/status/1219746511636049920.
Doritos, “The Cool Ranch Long Form feat. Lil Nas X and Sam Elliott,” YouTube video, 01:30, posted February 2, 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6qchztaw9g.
Electronic personal communication:
- Jane Smith, email message to author, January 1, 2020.
- John Smith, Facebook direct message to author, January 2, 2020.
The Chicago Manual of Style . 17ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2017.
Published June 28, 2012. Updated March 11, 2020.
Written by Janice Hansen . Janice has a doctorate in literature and a master’s degree in library science. She spends a lot of time with rare books and citations.
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The Use of Footnotes
Footnotes are the acceptable method of acknowledging material which is not your own when you use it in an essay. Basically, footnoted material is of three types:
- Direct quotations from another author's work. (These must be placed in quotation marks).
- Citing authority for statements which are not quoted directly.
- Material of an explanatory nature which does not fit into the flow of the body of the text.
In the text of an essay, material to be footnoted should be marked with a raised number immediately following the words or ideas that are being cited.
"The only aspect of Frontenac's conduct the king...did not condemn was his care for military security," Eccles stated, condemning Frontenac's administration. 2
The footnotes may be numbered in sequence on each page or throughout the entire essay.
I. Form and Content of Footnotes:
A. from a book:.
1 W. J. Eccles, Frontenac The Courtier Governor (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1959), 14.
[The information given in a footnote includes the author, the title, the place of publication, the publisher, the date of publication and the page or pages on which the quotation or information is found.]
B. From an article in a journal:
1 Peter Blickle, "Peasant Revolts in the German Empire in the Late Middle Ages," Social History , Vol. IV, No. 2 (May, 1979), 233.
C. From a book containing quotations from other sources:
1 Eugene A. Forsey, "Was the Governor General's Refusal Constitutional?", cited in Paul Fox, Politics: Canada (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Company of Canada Ltd., 1966), 186.
D. From a standard reference work:
1 Norman Ward, “Saskatchewan,” in The Canadian Encyclopedia , 2 nd ed., Vol. 3, 1935.
2 J. K. Johnson and P. B. Waite, “Macdonald, Sir John Alexander,” in The Dictionary of Canadian Biography , Vol. 12, 599
E. From the Internet:
In citing material read on the Internet, it is not sufficient to indicate the website alone. You must provide information about author, title, and date of the document you are using, as follows:
1 T. J. Pritzker, (1993). "An Early Fragment from Central Nepal" [Online]. Available: http://www.ingress.com/~astanart/pritzker/pritzker.html [1995, June].
The final date [1995, June] is the date the website was consulted.
For more information about how to cite electronic information see Xia Li and Nancy Crane, The Handbook for Citing Electronic Resources or http://www.uvm.edu/~ncrane/estyles/.
II. Rules to Remember in Writing Footnotes:
- Titles of books, journals or magazines should be underlined or italicized.
- Titles of articles or chapters—items which are only a part of a book--are put in quotation marks.
III. Abbreviating in Footnotes:
The first time any book or article is mentioned in a footnote, all the information requested above must be provided. After that, however, there are shortcuts which should be used:
(a) Several quotations in sequence from the same book:
The abbreviation to be used is "Ibid.," a Latin word meaning "in the same place." (Notice that Ibid. is not underlined). Ibid. can be used by itself, if you are referring to the same page as the previous footnote does, or it can be combined with a page number or numbers.
1 Gerald Friesen, The Canadian Prairies: A History (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984), 78.
3 Ibid., 351.
(b) Reference to a source that already has been cited in full form but not in the reference immediately preceding , is made by using the author's last name (but not the first name or initials unless another author of the same surname has been cited), the title--in shortened form, if desired--and the page number.
1 William Kilbourn, The Firebrand (Toronto: Clark, Irwin and Company Limited, 1956), 35.
2 John L. Tobias, "Canada's Subjugation of the Plains Cree, 1879-1885," in Sweet Promises: A Reader on Indian-White Relations in Canada , ed. J. R. Miller (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991), 224.
3 Kilbourn, The Firebrand , 87.
4 Tobias, "Canada's Subjugation of the Plains Cree," 226.
The bibliography should be on a separate page. It should list the relevant sources used in the research for the paper. This list should be arranged alphabetically by the surname of the author. (Unlike the footnote reference, the surname is shown first, set off from the rest of the information.) The information required is: author, title, place of publication, publisher and date of publication.
NOTE: The information is separated for the most part by periods (rather than by commas, as in the footnotes) and the parentheses enclosing the facts of publication are dropped.
Eccles, W. J. Frontenac The Courtier Governor . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1959.
Johnson, J. K. and P. B. Waite. “Macdonald, Sir John Alexander.” In The Dictionary of Canadian Biography , Vol. 12, 591-612.
Koenigsberger, H. G. and George L. Mosse. Europe in the Sixteenth Century . London: Longmans, 1971.
Laslett, Peter. "The Gentry of Kent in 1640," Cambridge Historical Journal , Vol. IX, No. 2 (Spring 1948): 18-35.
Pritzker, T. J. (1993). "An Early Fragment from Central Nepal," [Online]. http://www.ingress. com/~astanart/pritzker /pritzker.html. [1995 June].
Tobias, John L. "Canada's Subjugation of the Plains Cree, 1879-1885." In Sweet Promises: A Reader on Indian-White Relations in Canada , ed. J. R. Miller. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991: 212-240.
Ward, N. “Saskatchewan.” In The Canadian Encyclopedia , 2 nd ed., Vol. 3, 1931-1938.
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Formats for Footnotes and Bibliography
Table of contents.
- General Comments About Formats
- Comments About the General Rules for the Turabian Style
- Chapters and Essays in Edited Books
- Articles in Journals
- Material from the Internet
- Content Notes
- Other Model Examples
- Model Bibliography
1. General Comments About Formats
1.1 Manual of Style. All professors in the Department of Religious Studies require that religious studies majors and graduate students follow the Turabian Manual when writing papers in religious studies courses. You are expected to buy a copy of Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 7th revised edition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007).
1.2 General format for all papers. Unless given specific instructions to the contrary, format all papers in a standard font such as 12 point Times Roman, doubled spaced, with one-inch margins (top, bottom, left, and right). Do not justify the right-hand margin because that can create awkward spacing between words.
Single-space and block indent quotations of more than four lines. Do not put quotations marks at the beginning and end of a block quote, as you do in a short quotation. The block indentation lets your reader know that it is a direct quotation..
When you submit a multiple-paged paper, either staple it in the upper left hand corner or bind it in a clear plastic folder, as indicated by the individual professor. Typically a major research paper will include a formal cover sheet that includes the title of the paper, student’s name, course information, professor’s name, Department of Religious Studies, UNC Charlotte, and the date the paper is submitted. Again, if the instructor gives specific instructions for a paper, follow those instructions.
Always number the pages of a multiple-paged document. If the paper has a title page, the title page counts as the first page, but the number is not shown on it.
1.3 Title. Always give your paper a title and place it at the beginning of the paper. Even short papers should have a title to give your reader a quick indication of what the paper is about. Also, creating a title forces you to think about your main point. A specific title that reflects the main point of the paper is preferred over a clever title.
1.4 Academic Integrity. You must always give credit for quotations of material written by someone else. This includes both the use of quotations marks, or block quotation format, and formal documentation of the source with a footnote. If you are paraphrasing material written by someone else, you do not use quotation marks, but you still must give credit to the source of your information by use of a footnote. This applies as equally to material taken from the Internet as it does for material taken from a print source.
2. Comments About the General Rules for the Turabian Style
2.1 General Format of bibliographic entries and footnotes. There are two formats included in the Turabian Manual. One is the footnote and bibliography format and the other is the parenthetical reference and the reference list or works cited. In religious studies papers you are to use only the footnote and bibliography format.
You have the same information in the corresponding footnote, but the syntax is different.
Commas are used for separators rather than periods, and the first word following a comma is not capitalized unless it is a title or a proper name. For page numbers, indicate the number only and do not use “page” or “p.” All footnotes end with a period.
There is a basic syntax that applies to entries in a bibliography. There are usually three or four parts, and each part is separated by a period. The first word after a period is capitalized, just like sentences. All bibliographical entries end with a period.
Another difference between bibliographical entries and footnotes is the name order. In the bibliography the last name comes first because the bibliography is alphabetized. In the footnote the first name comes first.
2.2 Types of footnotes. There are three types of footnotes: primary footnotes, subsequent footnotes, and content footnotes.
a. Primary footnotes. The first time a work is referenced in a paper, the footnote contains all of the relevant information about the work. In this Writing Guide, the model example footnote is in its primary form.
b. Subsequent footnotes. After the first reference to a source, all subsequent references to that same source are given in a short form. Usually you give the last name of the author, a short form of the title, and the page number.
Here is an example footnote followed by its form as a subsequent footnote:
1. Ann Burlein, Lift High the Cross: Where White Supremacy and the Christian Right Converge (Durham: Duke University Press, 2002), 14.
2. [Intervening footnote referencing a different source.]
3. Burlein, Lift High the Cross, 23-24.
4. Ibid., 57.
If the footnote immediately before makes reference to the same source, use Ibid., which is the abbreviation for the Latin word ibidem (in the same place). Since it is an abbreviation, always follow it with a period. Footnote 4 above is a reference to Lift High the Cross since that was the immediately preceding reference.
c. Content footnotes. In addition to making citations, footnotes can also be used to add additional comments you want to include in the essay but do not want to include in the main body of the text. This can be a useful way to include additional information without breaking the flow of your argument in the main text. An example of a content footnote is found later in this manual.
2.3 Other general rules.
Make sure you have given enough information that will allow your reader to find the source you are documenting.
Be consistent with your format.
Titles of books and films are underlined or put in italics, without quotation marks.
Titles of journal articles and chapters in books are placed in quotation marks.
The heading for the alphabetical list of sources at the end of a footnoted paper is Bibliography. Do not use Works Cited because that is used for a parenthetical reference system rather than footnoted system.
In a short paper devoted to the analysis of one book or article, the instructor may give you special instructions to indicate page numbers in parentheses right after any quotes from the book. But if you are not given special instructions, use footnotes.
When you use the automatic footnote feature of your computer, it may begin the footnote with a superscripted number or with a regular number followed by a period, depending on which word processor you are using. Either style is acceptable. The examples in this manual use the regular number followed by a period.
2.4 Items you need to memorize.
You are not expected to memorize all the information about the exact forms of footnotes and bibliographical entries—you can look up the different formats in this Writing Guideline to make sure you have your references formatted correctly. There are, however, several general points that you should know without having to consult the Writing Guidelines or the Turabian manual.
Memorize the following:
- Titles of books and films are in italics, and titles of articles and chapters are in quotes.
- Do not put ‘page’ or ‘p.’ in front of page numbers—all you need are the numbers.
- When you cite an Internet source be sure to add a sentence at the end of the footnote that indicates the credibility of the author, if known, or otherwise the status of the organization that sponsors the Internet site. (See more details below under “Material from the Internet.”)
- End every footnote and bibliographical entry with a period.
- Do not rely too heavily on quotations and always place your quotations in a context for your reader. Do not have any floating quotations. (See more in Part II.)
3. Books by One or by Multiple Authors
The basic format for a footnote referencing a book by one author is:
1. First name Last name, Title of Book (City: Publisher, date), #.
The basic format for a bibliographical entry for a book is:
Last name, First name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, date.
Book by one author – examples footnote format
2. Sean McCloud, Making the American Religious Fringe: Exotics, Subversives, and Journalists, 1955-1993 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina University Press, 2004), 163.
Book by one author – examples of bibliographical format
Burlein, Ann. Lift High the Cross: Where White Supremacy and the Christian Right Converge. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.
McCloud, Sean. Making the American Religious Fringe: Exotics, Subversives, and Journalists, 1955-1993. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina University Press, 2004.
Book by two authors – footnote format
3. James D. Tabor and Eugene V. Gallagher, Why Waco?: Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 56-57.
Book by two authors – bibliographical format
Tabor, James D. and Eugene V. Gallagher. Why Waco?: Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
Translated book – footnote format
4. Emmanuel Levinas, New Talmudic Readings, trans. Richard A. Cohen (Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1999), 145.
Translated book – bibliographical format
Levinas, Emmanuel. New Talmudic Readings. Translated by Richard A. Cohen. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1999.
The basic separator in a bibliographical entry is a period rather than a comma. The first word after a period separator is capitalized just like a new sentence after a period. For more examples, see the Model Bibliography. All of the works that are used for footnote examples are also included in the Model Bibliography.
4. Chapters and Essays in Edited Books
The basic format for a footnote referencing an article or chapter in an edited book is:
1. First name Last name, “Title of Article,” in Title of Book, ed. First name Last Name (City: Publisher, date), #.
The basic separator in a footnote is a comma, and the first word after a comma is not capitalized unless it is a proper name.
The basic format for a bibliographical entry for an article or chapter in an edited book is:
Last name, First name. “Title of the Article.” In Title of Book, ed. First name Last name, ##-##. City: Publisher, date.
The basic separator in a bibliographical entry is a period, and the first word after a period is capitalized just like the first word in a next sentence after a period. Note that the inclusive page numbers of the entire article or chapter are included in the bibliographical entry.
Edited books – examples of footnote format
1. Kathryn Johnson, “The Lessons of the Garden: An Examination of the Scriptural Legacy of Islam,” in Living Traditions of the Bible, ed. James E. Bowley (St. Louis: Chalice Press, 1999), 108.
2. Reuven Firestone, “The Qur’ān and the Bible: Some Modern Studies of Their Relationship,” in Bible and Qur’an: Essays in Scriptural Intertextuality, ed. John C. Reeves (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003), 11.
Edited books – examples of bibliographical format
Johnson, Kathryn. “The Lessons of the Garden: An Examination of the Scriptural Legacy of Islam.” In Living Traditions of the Bible, edited by James E. Bowley, 103-31. St. Louis: Chalice Press,1999.
Firestone, Reuven. “The Qur’ān and the Bible: Some Modern Studies of Their Relationship.” in Bible and Qur’ān: Essays in Scriptural Intertextuality, edited by John C. Reeves, 1-22. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003.
Note: If you are citing text written by the editor of the book, the footnote references the editor, and the listing in the bibliography is placed under the editor’s name.
If you are citing an article written by a contributor other than the editor, the footnote references the author of the article, and the book is listed in the bibliography under the contributor’s name rather than the editor’s name.
5. Articles in Journals
The basic format referencing an article in a journal is:
1. First name Last name, “Title of Article,” Name of Journal volume # (year) : #.
The basic format for a bibliographical entry for an article in a journal is:
Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Name of Journal. volume # (year) : ##-##.
Note that the inclusive page numbers of the entire article are included in the bibliographical entry.
Journal Article – Examples of footnote format
1. John C. Reeves, “Exploring the Afterlife of Jewish Pseudepigrapha in Medieval Near Eastern Religious Traditions: Some Initial Soundings,” Journal for the Study of Judaism 30 (1999) : 150.
2. James D. Tabor, “Why 2K? The Biblical Roots of Millennialism,” Bible Review 15.6 (1999) : 26.
Journal Article – Examples of bibliographical format
Reeves, John C. “Exploring the Afterlife of Jewish Pseudepigrapha in Medieval Near Eastern Religious Traditions: Some Initial Soundings.” Journal for the Study of Judaism 30 (1999) : 148-177.
Tabor, James D. “Why 2K? The Biblical Roots of Millennialism.” Bible Review 15.6 (1999) : 16-27, 44-45.
The basic format for a footnote referencing a film is:
1. First name Last name, director, Film Title, Film Studio, date, medium.
Films – Examples of footnote format
1. Robert Duvall, director, The Apostle, October Films, 1997, DVD.
2. Andy Wachowski and Larry Wachowski, directors, The Matrix, Warner Bros., 1999, videocassette.
Films – Examples of bibliographical format
Duvall, Robert, director. The Apostle. October Films, 1997. DVD.
Wachowski, Andy and Larry Wachowski, directors. The Matrix. Warner Bros., 1999. Videocassette.
7. Material from the Internet
Important Note: Do not rely heavily on the Internet because these sources are often unedited and transitory, whereas, print sources are usually edited and more reliable.
Special requirement of the Department of Religious Studies: When you cite information from the Internet that is not from an edited, online scholarly journal or a well-known source such as the Encyclopedia Britannica or the New York Times, you are to extend the footnote with information about the author or the institution if the author is not known. If you cannot figure out the identity of the author or of the institution responsible for the website, you should not use it as a research resource.
The basic format for a footnote referencing material on the Internet is:
1. First name Last name, “Title,” Organization or Online Publication, http://URL (accessed date). Extended information about the author or source.
The basic format for a bibliographic entry for the Internet is:
Last Name, First Name. “Title.” Organization or Online Publication. \ http://URL (accessed date).
Internet – Examples of footnote format
1. John C. Reeves, “Shahrastānī on the Manichaeans,” The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, http://www.uncc.edu/jcreeves/shahra_on_manichaeans.htm (accessed January 29, 2004). John C. Reeves is the Blumenthal Professor of Judaic Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
2. Chris Bongie, “Exiles on Main Stream: Valuing the Popularity of Postcolonial Literature,” Postmodern Culture 14.1 (2003), http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pmc/current.issue/14.1bongie.html (accessed January 20, 2005). Chris Bongie is Professor of English at Queen's University in New York.
Also note: Do not underline the URL address (remove the hyperlink). If URL must continue on the next line, manually break it right after a slash mark.
Internet – Examples of bibliographical format
Bongie, Chris. “Exiles on Main Stream: Valuing the Popularity of Postcolonial Literature.” Postmodern Culture 14.1 2003. http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pmc/current.issue/14.1bongie.html (accessed January 20, 2005).
Reeves, John C. “Shahrastānī on the Manichaeans.” The University of North Carolina at Charlotte. http://www.uncc.edu/jcreeves/shahra_on_manichaeans.htm (accessed January 29, 2004).
8. Content Notes
In addition to making citations, footnotes can also be used to add additional comments that you do not want to include in the main text. Here is an example from Ann Burlein, Lift High the Cross: Where White Supremacy and the Christian Right Converge (Durham: Duke University Press), 228. In the context of discussing Pete Peters and biblical interpretation in the main body of her text, Dr. Burlein amplifies her comments in footnote 26.
26. Peters is more liberal in his literalism than many. He ridicules those who, claiming that its archaic language renders it closer to God, read only the King James Version. Peters acknowledges the mediated nature of translations. He uses multiple translations as well as an interlinear version that refers to the Greek and Hebrew text. He most often uses the North American Standard version because it is the most “relevant” translation, as it uses the language Americans speak. Unless otherwise noted, Bible references in this case study are taken from the North American Standard.
9. Other Model Examples
There are, of course, many other types of sources that are not included in the above examples, such as encyclopedias, newspapers, interviews, and videos. The format for these sources are in the Turabian Manual.
If you find yourself frequently having to look up a particular form in the Turabian Manual, add your own model example of the form in the space below.
Important Tip: Pages 143-145 in the 7th edition of the Turabian Manual provides a chart of the most commonly used types of footnote and bibliography entries. In chapter 17 of the manual you will find more details and examples of specific types not covered in this web version.
10. Model Bibliography Corresponding to the Example Footnotes
Cohen, Richard A. Elevations: The Height of the Good in Rosenzweig and Levinas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
________. Ethics, Exegesis and Philosophy: Interpretation After Levinas. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Firestone, Reuven. “The Qur’ān and the Bible: Some Modern Studies of Their Relationship.” In Bible and Qur’ān: Essays in Scriptural Intertextuality, ed. John C. Reeves, 1-22. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003.
Johnson, Kathryn. “The Lessons of the Garden: An Examination of the Scriptural Legacy of Islam.” In Living Traditions of the Bible, ed. James E. Bowley, 103-31. St. Louis: Chalice Press, 1999.
Meyer, Jeffrey F. Myths in Stone: Religious Dimensions of Washington, D.C. Berkley: University of California Press, 2001.
________. “Shahrastānī on the Manichaeans.” The University of North Carolina at Charlotte. http://www.uncc.edu/jcreeves/shahra_on_manichaeans.htm (accessed January 29, 2004.
________, ed. Tracing the Threads: Studies in the Vitality of Jewish Pseudepigrapha. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994.
Robinson, Joanne Maguire. Nobility and Annihilation in Marguerite Porete’s “Mirror of Simple Souls.” Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.
Difference between Footnote and Bibliography
When you read a book or do research, you might have seen some small numbers or words at the bottom of the page or at the end of the book. These are called Footnotes and Bibliography.
The main difference is that footnotes are used to give additional information or clarify something specific on the same page while bibliography is a list of sources used in the research.
Before we move to the differences, let’s understand what are Footnote and Bibliography:
- Footnote : Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of the page that provide additional information about a specific topic or reference mentioned in the text.
- Bibliography : Bibliography is a list of all the sources that have been consulted during the research process.
Now, let’s move to Footnote vs Bibliography:
Major differences between Footnote and Bibliography
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Footnotes and Bibliography are essential components of any research paper, and their proper use can greatly enhance the quality and effectiveness of your work.
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- APA Footnotes | Format & Examples
APA Footnotes | Format & Examples
Published on June 7, 2022 by Eoghan Ryan .
To cite sources in APA Style , you must use APA in-text citations , not notes.
However, you can use footnotes in APA to:
- Give additional information
- Provide copyright attribution
Table of contents
Formatting footnotes in apa, content footnotes, copyright footnotes, frequently asked questions about apa footnotes.
Footnotes use superscript numbers and should appear in consecutive order. Footnote numbers typically appear at the end of a sentence or clause, after the period or other punctuation.
However, there are exceptions:
- If a footnote relates to text in parentheses, the footnote number should also appear inside the parentheses.
- If the footnote relates to material offset by a dash , the footnote number should come before the dash, rather than after.
Don’t repeat footnotes. If you need to refer to an earlier note again, write “see Footnote 3” or similar in the text or in parentheses.
Footnotes can appear either at the bottom of the relevant page, or at the end of the paper on a separate footnotes page. You can choose which approach to use.
Footnotes at the bottom of the page
You can use your word processor to automatically insert footnotes at the bottom of the page. This will ensure that each superscript number in the text corresponds to the correct footnote. It will also separate them from the main text.
Footnotes at the bottom of a page should be single-spaced.
There should be a single space between the superscript number and the footnote text.
Footnotes page at the end of the paper
When placing footnotes at the end of a text in APA, place them on a separate footnotes page, after the reference page .
The title of the page, “Footnotes,” should be centered and bold.
Indent the first line of each footnote and place a single space between the superscript number and the footnote text. Like most text in an APA format paper, footnotes at the end of the text should be double-spaced.
Footnotes should be presented in the order their numbers appear in the text.
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You can use content footnotes in APA to provide additional information to readers. For example, you might clarify a specific point or direct the reader to sources that contain more detail on a related topic.
As APA doesn’t encourage the use of footnotes, you should keep these notes as brief as possible. They should not exceed one paragraph. You can consider including longer material in an APA appendix instead.
If you include copyright material that exceeds fair use guidelines (like an extended passage from a book, or test or scale items), you may need to obtain permission from the copyright holder. You can use footnotes in APA to acknowledge this permission.
If you receive permission to reproduce an image or infographic, include this copyright note in the relevant caption, not in a footnote.
APA Style requires you to use APA in-text citations , not footnotes, to cite sources .
However, you can use APA footnotes sparingly for two purposes:
- Giving additional information
- Providing copyright attribution
APA footnotes use superscript numbers and should appear in numerical order. You can place footnotes at the bottom of the relevant pages, or on a separate footnotes page at the end:
- For footnotes at the bottom of the page, you can use your word processor to automatically insert footnotes .
- For footnotes at the end of the text in APA, place them on a separate page entitled “Footnotes,” after the r eference page . Indent the first line of each footnote, and double-space them.
For both approaches, place a space between the superscript number and the footnote text.
To insert a footnote automatically in a Word document:
- Click on the point in the text where the footnote should appear
- Select the “References” tab at the top and then click on “Insert Footnote”
- Type the text you want into the footnote that appears at the bottom of the page
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The notes-bibliography method employs footnotes or endnotes along with a bibliography organized in alphabetical order. Often your instructor or publisher will specify whether they prefer that you use footnotes or endnotes.
Citing Sources in the Text
Notes come at the bottom of each page, separated from the text with a typed line, 1 and 1/2 inches long. Some instructors will allow you to (or prefer that you) place notes, instead, as endnotes on a separate page (titled Notes) at the end of your paper, after any appendices. To acknowledge a source in your paper, place a superscript number (raised slightly above the line) immediately after the end punctuation of a sentence containing the quotation, paraphrase, or summary–as, for example, at the end of this sentence. 1 Do not put any punctuation after the number.
In the footnote or endnote itself, use the same number, but do not raise or superscript it; put a period and one space after the number. The first line of each note is indented five spaces from the left margin. Publishers often prefer notes to be double spaced.
If a single paragraph of your paper contains several references from the same author, it is permissible to use one number after the last quotation, paraphrase, or summary to indicate the source for all of the material used in that paragraph.
Generally, there is no need to use the abbreviations “p.” and “pp.” before page numbers; simply list the appropriate numbers as the last piece of information in the note.
What follows is a sample set of footnotes/endnotes. Please notice the order of the items in each note as well as the punctuation. The first time a work is cited, full information is given (author, title, volume, publication information, page, etc.).
Sample Notes (First References)
Book by a Single Author, First Edition
Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza’s Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8.
Author First name Last name, Book title (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Book by a Singe Author, Later Edition
Paul S. Boyer, Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age , 2nd ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002), 24.
Author First name Middle initial. Last name, Book title , number ed. (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Book by a Single Author, Reprinted
Leonora Neville, Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004; repr., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 101.
Author First name Last name, Book title (Original publisher city: Original publisher, original year; repr., Reprint publisher city, Reprint publisher, reprint year), page number.
Book by Two Authors
Gerald Marwell and Pamela Oliver, The Critical Mass in Collective Action (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 104.
First author first name Last name and Second author first name Last name, Book title (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Book by Three Authors
Julia Child, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck, Mastering the Art of French Cooking (New York: Knopf, 1961), 23.
First author first name Last name, Second author first name Last name, and Third author first name Last name, Book title (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Book by More Than Three Authors
Anne Ellen Geller et al., The Everyday Writing Center (Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007), 52.
First author first name Last name et al., Book title (Publisher city, State initials: Publisher, year), page number.
An Anthology with no Known Author
O: A Presidential Novel , (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011), 3.
Anthology title , (Publisher city: Publisher, year) page number.
[If the author of an anonymously published book has been revealed, you can put that name in brackets at the beginning of the note. If the author is unknown but a particular writer is strongly suspected, you can put a question mark after the bracketed name.]
Book with Organization as Author
Central Intelligence Agency, CIA World Factbook (Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009), 64.
Organization name, Book title (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
[Since the CIA is the organization that both authored and published this book, it is referenced twice in this citation.]
An Anthology with Editors in Place of Authors
Henry Louis Gates and Nellie Y. McKay, eds., The Norton Anthology of African American Literature (New York: Norton, 1997), 172.
First editor first name Middle name Last name and Second editor first name Middle initial. Last name, eds., Anthology title (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Chapter in an Edited Collection
Colleen Dunlavy, “Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?” in Major Problems in American Business History , ed. Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton (New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006), 260.
Chapter Author First name Last name, “Chapter title” in Edited collection title , ed. First editor first name Last name and Second editor first name Last name (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Article in a Journal
Raúl Sánchez, “Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity,” College English 74 (2012): 243.
Author First name Last name, “Article title,” Journal title volume number (year): page number.
[If a journal continues pagination across issues in a volume, you do NOT need to include the issue #.]
Nancy Rose Marshall, review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913: One of the Glasgow Boys , by Vivian Hamilton, Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 359.
Reviewer first name Middle name Last name, review of Reviewed work , by Author of reviewed work first name Last name, Journal in which review appears volume number (year): page number.
Tyler Marshall, “200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated,” Los Angeles Times , March 15, 1985, sec. 1A.
Article author first name Last name, “Article title,” Newspaper name , Month day, year, sec. number.
[Since prominent newspapers may have several different daily or regional editions, you don’t need to include the page number in this note.]
- John Morris-Jones, “Wales,” in Encyclopedia Britannica , 11th ed. (1911), 260.
- Author of entry first name Last name, “Title of entry,” in Encyclopedia title , number ed. (year), page number.
- Wikipedia , s.v. “Charles R. Van Hise,” last modified April 30, 2018, 15:21, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.
- Encyclopedia name , s.v. “Title of entry,” last modified Month day, year, hour:minute, url.
[“s.v.” is an abbreviation of “sub verbo” which is Latin for “under the word”]
Interview by Writer of Research Paper
Richard Davidson, interview by author, Madison, WI, April 20, 2012.
Interviewee first name Last name, interview by Interviewer name, City, State initials, Month day, year of interview.
[Bibliographies only rarely include entries for personal interviews.]
Coie et al., “The Science of Prevention: A Conceptual Framework and Some Directions for a National Research Program,” American Psychologist 48 (1993): 1022, quoted in Mark T. Greenberg, Celene Domitrovich, and Brian Bumbarger, “The Prevention of Mental Disorders in School-Age Children: Current State of the Field,” Prevention and Treatment 4 (2001): 5.
First author Last name et al., “Title of secondary source,” Journal containing secondary source volume number (year): page number, quoted in First author firt name Middle initial. Last name, Second author First name Last name, and Third author First name Last name, “Title of Primary source,” Journal containing primary source volume number (year): page number.
[This indicates that you found the Coie et al. information in the Greenberg, Domitrovich, and Bumbarger article, not in the original article by Coie et al. In the bibliography, you would only cite the Greenberg, Domitrovich, and Bumbarger text.]
William Shakespeare, Othello , dir. Mark Clements, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 20, 2012.
Author of work performed, Title , dir. Director First name Last name, Performing company, City of performance, Month day, year of performance.
[Live performances are not usually included in bibliographies. This is because, unless it has been recorded, a live performance cannot be located and reviewed by the reader.]
Sara M. Lindberg, “Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification” (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin- Madison, 2008), 24.
Dissertation author first name Middle initial. Last name, “Dissertation title” (Ph. D. diss, University, year), page number.
Morris Young, “What Is Asian American? What is Asian American Literature?” (lecture, Survey of Asian American Literature, University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 22, 2013).
Lecturer First name Last name, “Lecture title.” (lecture, Course title, University, Month day, year of lecture).
Paper Presented at a Conference
Mary Louise Roberts, “The Public Practice of History in and for a Digital Age” (paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, New Orleans, January 3, 2013).
Author first name Middle name Last name, “Paper title” (paper presented at the Conference, Conference city, Month day, year of presentation).
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 794 (2010).
Document title, Pub. L. No. numbers, volume number Stat. number (year).
Notes: Pub. L. is an abbreviation for “public law.” Stat. is an abbreviation for “statue.”
Steven Soderbergh, dir., Che: Part One , (2008; New York: IFC Films), DVD.
Director first name Last name, dir., DVD Title , (year of release; City of production: Producer), DVD.
An Online Source That is Identical to a Print Source
Lee Palmer Wandel, “Setting the Lutheran Eucharist,” Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 133-34, doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.
Author First name Middle name Last name, “Article title,” Journal titler : volume number (year): page numbers, doi: number.
[The Chicago Manual recommends including a DOI (digital object identifier) or a URL to indicate that you consulted this source online. If there’s a DOI, you should use that rather than a URL. If there is no DOI, use the URL, including “http://.” There’s no need to include an access date if the online source includes a publication or revision date.]
An Online Newspaper
Kirk Johnson, “Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier,” New York Times , May 28, 2013, https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html.\
Article author first name Last name, “Title of article,” Newspaper , Month day, year issued.
“Human Rights,” The United Nations, accessed August 5, 2018, http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/human-rights/.
“Title of webpage,” Website moderator, Month day, year of access, url.
[If a website has a publication or revision date, use that instead of an accessed date.]
Sample Notes (Second or Subsequent References)
When a source is used a second time, its reference is given in a shorter form. The Chicago Manual and Turabian suggest two ways to shorten second references. Either plan is acceptable, but you must remain consistent throughout your paper.
Method A: Shortened Form
For the second and all subsequent references to a work, use an abbreviated form. If the work and the author remain the same and if you are using only one book or article by that author, simply give the author’s last name and page reference. The following example has been shortened from the full information provided in note #3 above:
- Neville, 92.
If, however, you are using two or more works by that author, you must indicate which of the works you are citing. Use the last name, a shortened title, and page reference. The following example is shortened from the full information provided in note #1 above:
- Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell, 121.
If you use two authors with the same last name, give the full name in the shortened reference.
Method B: Latin Abbreviations
When referring to the same work as in the citation immediately preceding, use the abbreviation “Ibid.” for the second reference. “Ibid.” is an abbreviation for the Latin word “ibidem” which means “in the same place.” The abbreviation “Ibid.” is followed by a page number if the page from which the second reference is taken is different from the first. If the pages are the same, no number is necessary. As an example, here is how you would cite the first reference to a work:
- Eliza G. Wilkins, The Delphic Maxims in Literature (Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Co., 1929), 12.
If you continue drawing from the same page of the same source, your next reference would look like this:
If you continue drawing from the same source but the information comes from a different page, then your note would look like this:
Citing Sources at the End of the Text
The bibliography (as it is called in the note-bibliography system) is placed at the end of your paper, is a double-spaced alphabetized list of books, articles, and other sources used in writing the paper. This list provides all of the information someone would need to locate the source you’re referencing. (NOTE: This list titled “Bibliography” in the note-bibliography system and “References” in the author-date system. Otherwise, both follow the same format.)
The bibliographic form differs from notes in these ways:
- Sources are alphabetized. The author’s last name appears first (Smith, Betty) in a bibliography.
- While notes use commas and parentheses to separate items, a bibliography uses periods.
- While notes use two spaces after a period, a bibliography uses only one space after a period.
- While notes usually indicate specific pages from which you took information; a bibliography lists entire books or a complete chapter to which you referred.
- The first line of a bibliographic entry begins at the left margin and all the other lines are indented 1/2”. This is called a “hanging indent.”
If the author’s name or the title (or other item) is missing, simply go on to the next item as it should appear. When alphabetizing, use the author’s last name for your entry; if it is not given, simply go on to the next item in order (the title of the book or article, for example) and use that to alphabetize the entry.
A sample bibliography follows. Notice the form and order of the entries as well as the punctuation and arrangement within the entries. The sourced referenced are the same as those used in the notes citations above.
Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age . 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.
Author last name, First name Middle initial. Book title , number ed. Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factbook . Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.
Organization name, Book title . Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.
First author last name First name, Second author first name Last name, and Third author first name Last name. Book title . Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Dunlavy, Colleen. “Social Conceptions of the Corporation: Insights from the History of Shareholder Voting Rights.” Wash. And Lee L. Rev 63 (2006a): 1347-1388.
Author last name, First name. “Article title.” Journal title volume number (year published): page numbers.
—. “Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?” In Major Problems in American Business History , edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton, 257-63. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006b.
–. “Chapter title.” In Edited collection title , edited by First editor first name Last name and Second editor first name Last name, page numbers. Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Note: –. is used when the author is the same as the citation above.
Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature . New York: Norton, 1997.
First editor last name, First name Middle name, and Second editor first name Middle initial. Last name, eds., Anthology title. Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center . Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.
First author last name, First name Middle name, Second author First name Last name, Third author First name Last name, Fourth author First name Last name, and Fifth author First name Middle initial. Last name. Book title . Publisher city, State initials: Publisher, year.
Greenberg, Mark T., Celene Domitrovich, and Brian Bumbarger. “The Prevention of Mental Disorders in School-Age Children: Current State of the Field.” Prevention and Treatment 4 (2001): 1-62.
First author last name, First name Middle initial., Second author first name Last name, and Third author first name, Last name. “Article title.” Journal title Volume number (year): page numbers.
Johnson, Kirk. “Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier.” New York Times , May 28, 2013. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html.
Article author last name, First name. “Title of article,” Newspaper , Month day, year issued. Url.
Lindberg, Sara M. “Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification.” Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin- Madison, 2008.
Dissertation author last name, First name Middle initial. “Dissertation title.” Ph. D. diss, University, year.
Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys , by Vivian Hamilton. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.
Reviewer last name, First name Middle name. Review of Reviewed work , by Author of reviewed work first name Last name, Journal in which review appears volume number (year): page number.
Marshall, Tyler. “200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated.” Los Angeles Times , 15 March 1985, sec. 1A.
Article author Last name, First name. “Article title.” Newspaper name , day Month year, sec. number.
Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
First author last name, First name, and Second author first name Last name. Book title . Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Morris-Jones, John. “Wales.” In Encyclopedia Britannica , 11th ed. 29 vols. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Corporation, 1911. 258-70.
Author of entry Last name, First name, “Title of entry.” In Encyclopedia title , number ed. Number vols. City: Publisher, year. pages.
Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza’s Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.
Author last name, First name. Book title. Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprinted. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Author Last name, First name. Book title . Original publisher city: Original publisher, original year. Reprinted. Reprint publisher city: Reprint publisher, reprint year.
O: A Presidential Novel . New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011.
Anthology title . Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Sánchez, Raúl. “Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity.” College English 74 (2012): 234-46.
Author Last name, First name. “Article title,” Journal title volume number (year): page number.
Soderbergh, Steven, dir. Che: Part One . 2008; New York: IFC Films. DVD.
Director Last name, First name, dir. DVD Title , Year of release; City of production: Producer. DVD.
United Nations. “Human Rights.” Accessed August 5, 2018. http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/human-rights/.
Website moderator. “Title of webpage.” Accessed Month day, year of access. Url.
Wandel, Lee Palmer. “Setting the Lutheran Eucharist.” Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.
Author Last name, First name Middle name. “Article title.” Journal title volume number (year): page numbers. doi: number.
Wikipedia . S.v. “Charles R. Van Hise.” Last modified April 30, 2018, 15:21, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.
Encyclopedia name . S.v. “Title of entry.” Last modified Month day, year, hour:minute, url.
Young, Morris. “What Is Asian American? What is Asian American Literature?” Lecture at University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 22, 2013.
Lecturer last name, First name. “Lecture title.” Lecture at University, Month day, year of lecture.
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Chicago/Turabian Table of Contents
Citing sources in other styles
MLA and APA are the most common citation styles, but there are many others. Below are brief descriptions and links to helpful guides to a few styles that you may see or use in some of your classes.
Chicago style is most commonly used in history and the sciences. It includes two systems for documenting sources: the Notes-Bibliography system and the Author-Date system.
- The Notes-Bibliography system uses footnotes or endnotes after the cited material in the text, which then list the citation and any commentary either at the bottom of the page or at the end of the publication. The NB system is preferred in historical research.
- The Author-Date system uses parenthetical citations, where abbreviated citation information, such as the author, date of publication, and page range directly follows the referenced material.
A reference list is then found at the end of the document to provide the full citation for anything referenced in text. This system is preferred in the sciences.
Details about how to use Chicago style can be found in the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide , The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) , or Purdue’s Online Writing Lab (OWL). The University Libraries History Guide also has information on Chicago style.
Associated Press (AP) style
AP style is used for writing in journalism. Sources are typically cited within the story or narrative, instead of in an official bibliography or footnotes, so there is no one format used to cite information. Details about writing in AP style can be found at the AP Stylebook Online . The Stylebook contains information about how to write about a variety of topics, and also includes guidelines for grammatical questions, like abbreviations or punctuation.
American Medical Association (AMA) style
The American Medical Association has its own manual of style, used in its publication, The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). Citations consist of both an in-text reference using a superscript and a reference page at the end for full citation information. You can cite multiple sources at one time. For details on this citation and writing style, consult the AMA Manual of Style online or the Purdue Online Writing Lab AMA page .
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers has set guidelines for writing within the fields of engineering, computer science, and similar technological fields. Citations consist of an in-text reference, usually a number surrounded by brackets, e.g., , that correspond to a reference page at the end of the paper. More details can be found at the Purdue Online Writing Lab IEEE page , including the general format for an IEEE paper as a whole and information on formatting tables, figures, and equations.
Council of Science Editors (CSE)
The Council of Science Editors has set guidelines for writing within the life sciences, including biology, biochemistry, environmental science, neuroscience, and agriculture. There are three main styles.
- The Citation-Name system uses numbers as an in-text citation, either as a superscript, in parentheses, or in brackets, after the content being referenced. These numbers correspond to a reference list at the end of the document. The reference list is organized alphabetically by the name of the author.
- The Citation-Sequence system also uses numbers as an in-text citation, like the Citation-Name system. The only difference between the two is that the reference list is organized numerically. The references are listed sequentially, by the order they are used in the document.
- The Name-Year system uses parenthetical in-text citations that reference the author’s name and the year of publication, with an alphabetical reference list at the end of the document.
More information about the three CSE styles can be found at this guide from the University of Wisconsin-Madison .
Home » Education » Difference Between Citation and Footnote
Difference Between Citation and Footnote
Main difference – citation vs footnote.
What is a Citation
A citation indicates the source of your information. It tells the readers from where you took the ideas and information. This is done in the text itself. There are different style guides for adding citations to your work. Stating the name of the author/s and the year of publication is one such method. This method is followed in APA style.
Research into folklore began to emerge as an independent discipline during the period of romantic nationalism in Europe. (Noyes, 2012)
This can also be phrased as,
As Noyes (2012) states, Research into folklore began to emerge as an independent discipline during the period of romantic nationalism in Europe.
However, on MLA referencing style, the page number replaces the year of publication. For example,
Research into folklore began to emerge as an independent discipline during the period of romantic nationalism in Europe. (Noyes 13)
Noyes states, Research into folklore began to emerge as an independent discipline during the period of romantic nationalism in Europe. (13)
What is a Footnote
A footnote is found at the bottom or foot of the page. Footnotes can not only indicate bibliographic information, but they can also add additional information and comments of the writer.
When a specific fact is obtained from another source, a superscript number can be found within the body of the text. The corresponding comment or information will be found at the foot of the page. For example, the text will look something like this.
Research into folklore began to emerge as an independent discipline during the period of romantic nationalism in Europe. 1 The study of folklore is termed as Folkloristics although many people are unaware of the existence of this academic field. Folklorists gather data by studying the folklores first; then they engage in fieldwork which includes interviewing people.
However, footnotes are not allowed in all style guides. The APA style guide, for example, does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes.
Citation refers to a quotation from or reference to a book, paper, or author, especially in an academic work.
Footnote refers to a piece of information printed at the bottom of a page.
Type of Information
Citation contains bibliographical information.
Footnote can contain bibliographical information, author’s comment or additional information.
Citation is allowed in all style guides.
Footnote is not allowed in APA style.
Citation is done in the text itself.
Footnote is included at the bottom of the page.
About the Author: Hasa
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