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Historians and the Great Revolt, 1857-59

Profile image of Dr. Jitendra Kumar

The mutinies that took place on 10th of May, 1857 in Meerut and their marched to Delhi on 11th May and very soon the spread of the mutinies in Kanpur, Locnow, Jhansi etc. have been called as “Sepoy Mutiny” by the colonial official and British colonial historians. But after a few decades of the revolt, perception of the historian like John. W. Kaye was different in nature. An remarkable turning point came out on the notion of the revolt in 1909 when V.D. Savarkar published his work and defined it as the Indian War of Independence. While the celebration of 100th anniversary of revolt has brought a large number of researches and books on the topic by Joshi, Chaudhary and Sen ect. where they saw the revolt of 1857 into a new perspectives. Then the new kinds of historiographies ermerged by Mukherjee and Stokes in the late 20th century and works of Dalrymple, Yadav and Rajendran in early decades of 21st century presented the historyof the revolt in the very new perspectives that had been never written by the early historians. In his article, i will highlight the issues and concept of historiography that had been done both in the colonial India and independent India.

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Utkal Research Journal

Meenu Sharma

In order to understand the nature of the revolt of 1857, they have to turn to the historical development that is at odds with both the modern British historians and the Indian scholars. Most of the writings and write ups, appeared in the 19 th and 20 th centuries for depicting the different aspects of Indian History and Culture from the earliest to the modern times, have been the subject of severe debate, criticism and distortions. Often a loop-sided picture of Indian history, tilting towards subjectivity and bias, sidelining and omitting the concept of cause and effect, has been displayed, thus endangering, thereby, the much desired 'Rational Model' and 'Consensus Model'. The first extensive major event in the annals of freedom movement against the foreign rule broke out in 1857 and shook the foundation of the colonial rule but it lacking objective assessment and systematic and scientific marshalling of facts. There has been a tug of war whether to call it a 'Sepoy Mutiny' or a 'Great Revolt'. The tradition and conservative British writers have fashioned to highlight only the military character of the revolt and completely ignoring mass participation therein. To them it was completely a military insurrection. This research paper attempts to report different European historian's interest in Indian affairs and their observations, views, liberal approaches and analysis of the events unfolding during the uprising of 1857 in India.

revolt of 1857 assignment pdf

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Prachi Deshpande

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The focus of this project is on both the nature and consequences, for India, of the Indian Mutiny of 1857. Classic British historians have offered a clear simplistic view that events should be classed as a Mutiny. However, I focus on the debate between the Indian historians that emerged in the twentieth century. I conclude that the events of 1857 must be characterised initially as a military Mutiny, but later as a collective conservative rebellion for the protection of religion, and the rejection of British rule. I go on to discuss the short term effects, looking at the social and military reform undertaken by the British, which represents how their attitudes to the culture and native peoples of India was shifted by the uprising against British rule. This shift moves away from legislative reforms imposed from above, to focus on shifting young Indian’s attitudes gradually and naturally, through Victorian style education. Furthermore I discuss the short term reorganisation of the Indian militaries, and how the events in 1857 led to the development of a material race ideology. Lastly, I discuss how the Rebellion, and its consequences led to a national sentiment developing, which leads to the onset of the early Independence Movement.

Riya Gautam

Jyotirmaya Sharma

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Mutiny at the Margins: New Perspectives on the Indian Uprising of 1857 -- Volume VI: Perception, Narration and Reinvention: The Pedagogy and Historiography of the Indian Uprising

Crispin Bates

International Research Journal Commerce arts science

The Rebellion of 1857 (also known as the Indian Mutiny) was a watershed event in the history of British India. It was by far the largest, most widespread, and dangerous threat to British rule in India in the nineteenth century. One of its most obvious repercussions was the elimination of the ruling East India Company and the transfer of control of India to the British Crown. As a military crisis of truly massive proportions, the Rebellion also inspired the structural transformation of both the British and Indian armies. In Britain, the crisis resulted in the amalgamation of the East India Company’s European forces into the line, and the commitment of a permanent, 80,000-man garrison on the subcontinent. In India, the mutiny or disbandment of sixty-nine out of the seventy-four regiments of the Bengal army necessitated its entire reconstruction with men as different in origin as possible from those who had so recently rebelled.

Centre for Land Warfare Studies(CLAWS), New Delhi

Rajendra Thakur

The bulk of the writings on the Indian Revolt of 1857 by British authors were guided by their own political and imperial motivations, with an aim to project their racial superiority as well as heroism of their citizens against the Indian rebels. The revolt was highlighted by exceptional leadership of four most prominent military leaders, namely Nana Sahib, Rani Laxmi Bai, Begum Hazrat Mahal and Kunwar Singh, whose combined efforts ensured that the fight continued for almost two years in spite of innumerable odds stacked against them. While the domestic aspect of the Indian Revolt of 1857 has been adequately covered and written about in the Indian academic landscape, not many Indians are aware about the international dimension of this defining historical moment of Indian history. Revolt led to not only public and political debates in numerous countries such as US, Russia, Ireland, Italy, China and the Middle East but also inspired their people to fight against their colonial masters.

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revolt of 1857 assignment pdf

India was under British rule for 200 years. The fight for independence was not easy and certainly not won in a day . Many revolts were won & lost which led to the moment of independence for India . One of the major revolts was the Sepoy Mutiny also known as the Revolt of 1857 or the Indian Revolution of 1857. In this blog, you will learn about the revolt of 1857, its causes & failures and how it became the harbinger of other Indian National Movements . The revolt started on the 10th of May 1857, by sepoys in Meerut. The revolt lasted for a year but was unsuccessful. Furthermore, India needed certain peaceful changes and this revolution brought her that. A major highlight of this revolt was that it abolished the East India Company’s rule in India. Additionally, central and northern parts of India took part in the Revolt of 1857 and various reasons bundled up the Indians.

NCERT Class 7 History: Chapter 8 Eighteenth-century Political Formations (Free PDF)

This Blog Includes:

Causes of the indian revolt of 1857, political causes, economic causes, military causes, the immediate cause of the revolt of 1857, what were the effects of the revolt of 1857 on india, centres of the revolt of 1857, the suppression and the revolt of 1857, historical movements of the revolt of 1857, who opposed the revolt of 1857, failure of the revolt of 1857, leaders of the revolt of 1857, list of british officials, the aftermath of the revolt of 1857, best books related to the revolt of 1857, short note on revolt of 1857, important questions on the revolt of 1857.

Timeline of the Revolt of 1857

The Timeline of the Revolt of 1857 is as follows:

There were numerous Political, Economic, Military as well as Social Causes that led to the Revolt of 1857, read below to know more!

The Political Causes of the Revolt of 1857 were:

  • The uprising’s political roots can be attributed to Britain’s expansionist strategy, characterized by the Doctrine of Lapse and the Practice of Direct Annexation.
  • Rani Lakshmi Bai’s adopted son faced the prohibition of ascending the throne of Jhansi.
  • The Doctrine of Lapse led to the annexation of Satara, Nagpur, and Jhansi.
  • Additionally, Jaitpur, Sambalpur, and Udaipur were also subjected to annexation.
  • Lord Dalhousie’s annexation of Awadh, justified by allegations of maladministration, resulted in the displacement of numerous nobles, officials, retainers, and soldiers.
  • This action transformed Awadh, previously a loyal state, into a breeding ground for discontent and intrigue.

The Economic Causes of the Revolt of 1857 were as follows:

  • Many individuals within these communities found it challenging to meet the high revenue requirements and settle their debts with moneylenders, resulting in the eventual loss of ancestral lands.
  • A significant portion of the sepoys, who were part of the peasantry, shared familial connections with the villages.
  • Consequently, the grievances faced by the rural population had a direct impact on the sepoys as well.
  • The discontent among peasants and landowners created a ripple effect, influencing the sentiments of the sepoys.
  • This influx had detrimental effects on various industries, notably the textile sector in India.
  • The indigenous handicraft industries in India were compelled to contend with inexpensive machine-made products from Britain, leading to a decline in their economic viability.

The Military Causes of the Revolt of 1857 were:

  • Comprising over 87% of the British military forces in India, these sepoys faced discriminatory treatment in comparison to their British counterparts.
  • Despite holding the same rank, Indian sepoys received lower pay than their European counterparts.
  • Adding to their grievances, in 1856, Lord Canning implemented the General Services Enlistment Act, mandating that sepoys must be prepared to serve even in British territories beyond the seas.

Social Causes 

The Social Causes of the Revolt of 1857 are as follows:

  • An 1850 legislation altered the Hindu law of inheritance, allowing a Hindu who had embraced Christianity to inherit ancestral properties.
  • This change fueled suspicions among the populace, leading many to believe that the government had intentions of converting Indians to Christianity.
  • The abolition of customs such as sati and female infanticide, along with the enactment legalizing widow remarriage, was perceived as a menace to the established social structure.
  • The introduction of Western methods of education directly challenged the traditional beliefs of both Hindus and Muslims.
  • Additionally, the arrival of railways and telegraph systems was met with scepticism, further contributing to the apprehension surrounding the impact of Western influence in the country.

Also Read: What is the Golden Revolution?

The Revolt of 1857 ultimately originated from the controversy surrounding the use of greased cartridges.

  • A rumour circulated that the cartridges for the recently introduced Enfield rifles were coated with animal fat from cows and pigs.
  • Sepoys, before loading these rifles, had to bite off the paper on the cartridges, hence leading to the refusal of both Hindu and Muslim sepoys to utilize them.

Despite attempts by Lord Canning to rectify the mistake by withdrawing the offending cartridges, the damage had already been done, sparking unrest in various regions.

  • In March 1857, Mangal Pandey, a sepoy stationed in Barrackpore, rejected the use of the controversial cartridge and assaulted his senior officers.
  • He was subsequently executed on the 8th of April.
  • On the 9th of May, 85 soldiers in Meerut also refused to employ the new rifles and were consequently sentenced to ten years of imprisonment.

Also Read: Third Carnatic War: Causes, Battles and Impact

The revolt of 1857 was not a success but created a huge impact on India. The major impact was the abolishment of the East India Company, India was under the direct control of British authority, The Indian administration was directly controlled by queen victoria. The second impact that the revolt of 1857 created was to develop unity & patriotism in the nation. Press was restricted since the Revolt of 1857 involved the Peasants as well. The press played an important role in the freedom struggle. It helped to educate Indians, influence them & aware of government policies. 

The revolt spread over the entire area from the neighbourhood of Patna to the borders of Rajasthan. Additionally, the main centres of revolt, commonly known as the sepoy mutiny in these regions namely Kanpur, Lucknow, Bareilly, Jhansi, Gwalior, and Arrah in Bihar. 

  • Lucknow : It was the capital of Awadh. Begum Hazrat Mahal, one of the begums of the ex-king of Awadh, took up the leadership of the revolt. 
  • He became a participant in the uprising mainly due to the British withholding his pension.
  • The triumph proved to be fleeting as Kanpur fell back into British hands with the arrival of additional troops.
  • Furthermore, the rebellion faced a brutal suppression, marked by merciless retribution.
  • While Nana Saheb managed to evade capture, his skilled strategist Tantia Tope persisted in the fight.
  • However, Tantia Tope was ultimately overcome, apprehended, and executed.
  • Consequently, she bravely resisted the British forces but, in the end, succumbed to the English adversaries.
  • Bihar : The revolt was led by Kunwar Singh who belonged to the royal house of Jagdispur, Bihar. 
  • The ensuing battle witnessed the Rani of Jhansi displaying remarkable courage, akin to a tigress in combat, until her demise in the thick of the struggle.
  • Unfortunately, the British managed to reclaim Gwalior after the fierce encounter.

Also Read:  Important Revolutions in India You Must Know About

The uprising of 1857 extended beyond a year before being quelled by mid-1858. On the 8th of July 1858, Lord Canning declared peace, concluding the tumultuous events that began in Meerut fourteen months earlier.

Additionally, there were many historical movements during the Revolt of 1857 which are still the centres of conversations when we talk about our Independence struggle.

  • Mangal Pandey – Mangal Pandey did not just refuse to use cartridges greased with cow or pig fat, he created an uproar within his Infantry which led to injuring the British generals. His bravery is unmatched to date though he was hanged by the East India Company.
  • Cawnpore Massacre – Cawnpore or Kanpur was the highlight of the Revolt of 1857. When Cawnpore was sieged by the sepoys, they allowed the British rescue party to travel to Allahabad through Cawnpore. However, the British soldiers and civilians (including 120 women and children) were killed by the sepoys. This enraged the East India Company who tortured, looted the Indian civilians and executed a large number of sepoys in Cawpore and recaptured the city. 
  • Rani of Jhansi’s historic win – Rani Laxmibai refused the East India Company to annex Jhansi. The British forces then slowly marched towards Jhansi. It was in the darkness of the night that the rebels attacked the fort where the British leaders and their servants were resting and killed all of them.

You will be surprised to know that a lot of the Indian communities didn’t support the Revolt of 1857. While more than a quarter of the native soldiers were Muslims, the Ulemas of the community did not support or believe that military violence was required against the East India Company. 

Furthermore, a lot of important Sikhs and Pathan leaders in the Punjab province sided and conspired with the East India Company as they feared that if the Revolt drove out the British, the Mughals would come to power. 

Gwalior was one of the centres of rebellion by the sepoys and civilians yet the state’s ruler, Jayaji Rao Scindia supported the British.

The revolt was an extraordinary event in Indian history, but the result of the revolt was unsuccessful due to some major drawbacks. Here are all the reasons for the failure of the revolt of 1857:

  • The insurgence was predominantly confined to the Doab region, with notable exceptions in the large princely states of Hyderabad, Mysore, Travancore, and Kashmir, alongside the smaller ones in Rajputana, abstaining from participation.
  • Additionally, the southern provinces refrained from engaging in the rebellion.
  • In addition, despite the bravery of figures such as Nana Saheb, Tantia Tope, and Rani Lakshmi Bai, their leadership failed to provide the necessary direction to the entire movement.
  • Resource Constraints: The rebels faced notable deficiencies in terms of manpower and financial support. In contrast, the English authorities received a consistent influx of reinforcements, funds, and weaponry within India.
  • Exclusion of the Middle Class: The English-educated middle class, affluent merchants, traders, and landowners in Bengal actively supported the British in quelling the rebellion, as they opted not to participate in the insurrection.

Also Read: What is Blue Revolution?

Many leaders took part in the Revolt of 1857, here are all the leaders:

Sepoy_Mutiny_1857

The List of British Officials:

  • General John Nicholson
  • Major Hudson
  • Sir Hugh Wheeler
  • General Neil
  • Sir Colin Campbell
  • Henry Lawrence
  • Major General Havelock
  • William Taylor and Eye
  • Colonel Oncell

White Revolution, The Story of India’s Milk Revolution

The Results of the Revolt of 1857 were:

  • End of Company Rule: The revolt marked the end of the East India Company’s rule in India
  • The direct rule of the British Crown: India came under the direct rule of the British Crown. This was announced by Lord Canning at a Durbar in Allahabad in a proclamation issued on November 1, 1858, in the name of the queen. 
  • Religious Tolerance: The British Crown promised religious tolerance and the customs and traditions of India were given more attention.
  • Administrative Change: The governor general’s office was replaced by that of the Viceroy. 
  • Military Reorganisation: The ratio of British officers to Indian soldiers increased but the armoury remained in the hands of the English to end the dominance of the Bengal army. 

Here are some books you can dig into for more details on the Revolt of 1857. 

  • Religion and Ideology of the Rebels of 1857 by Iqbal Hussain
  • Rebellion, 1857: A Symposium by Puran Chand Joshi
  • Great Mutiny by Christopher Hibbert
  • Facets of the Great Revolt 1857
  • The Indian War of Independence by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
  • Awadh in Revolt, 1857-1858 by Rudrangshu Mukherjee
  • The Indian Mutiny: 1857 by Saul David

The Revolt of 1857 was first started on May 10, 1857, by sepoy mutiny in Meerut. The revolt lasted for a year and was unsuccessful yet it brought the changes that India needed for years. A major highlight of this revolt was that it abolished the East India Company in India. Central & northern parts of India took part in the revolt of 1857. There were various reasons that bundled up the Indians. It was also known as the Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny and the Great Rebellion. The main outcome of the revolt in 1857 was the end of company rule in India and the establishment of direct rule of the British Crown. 

Download Social Science Class 7 History Chapter 8 Important Questions and Answers PDF

The revolt of 1857 was an unprecedented event in the history of British rule in India. It united, though in a limited way, many sections of Indian society for a common cause. Though the revolt failed to achieve the desired goal, it sowed the seeds of Indian nationalism. 

Why were the powers of the East India Company transferred to the British Crown?

Post the sepoy mutiny, the powers of East India Company were transferred because the company rule was ended in India after the revolt. 

How did the position of governor-general change after the revolt of 1857?

The governor-general was given the title of a viceroy who became a personal representative of the crown.

How was the revolt suppressed by the British?

The company decided to regain control over its lost territories and suppressed the revolt in complete retaliation. 

What was the role of Mangal Panday in the revolt of 1857?

Mangal Panday was a young soldier stationed in the British army at Barrackpore refused to use the rifle and attacked his British officers.

Check out Class 6 History Notes:

Relevant Blogs

There was a change in rifle, Sepoys had to tear the cartridges with their mouths & it was greased with cow & pig fat. The sepoys were also sentenced when they rejected the rifles & cartridges.

The revolt of 1857 lasted for a year.

Yes, Mangal Pandey was among the leaders of the revolt of 1857.

Yes, Rani Laxmi bai adopted a son & after the doctrine of lapse only the true & natural male heir was allowed to rule.

There were political, social, religious & military causes that resulted in the revolt of 1857.

Yes, the revolt of 1857 is considered the first war of independence.

We hope you liked our blogon the Revolt of 1857. If you want to read more articles like this, you can get Short notes on the Modern History of India here. Also, you can visit our general knowledge page on Indian History ! The Revolt of 1857 is one of the topics covered in government exams & UPSC as well. Read about such informative blogs on Leverage Edu and stay informed about Indian history.

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What was the impact of revolt of 1857??

The main impact of the 1857 revolt was the abolishment of the East India Company, India was under the direct control of British authority, The Indian administration was directly controlled by queen victoria. The second major impact that the revolt of 1857 created was to develop unity & patriotism among the nation.

Hope this answers your question!

Thanks for giving the information. It was helpful for my board project 🙏😊

Hi, Keerthana! We are glad you found it useful. Here you can also check some of our top reads: Decoding the Battle of Plassey of 1757! Battle of Buxar: Significance, Causes and Aftermath Indian Freedom Fighters

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Revolt of 1857 - Causes, Leaders, Reasons of Failure of 1857 Revolt

Sub-Categories:

Modern History

Causes of the Revolt of 1857

Course of the revolt of 1857, leaders of revolt of 1857, causes of failure of the 1857 revolt, consequences of revolt of 1857, pyqs on revolt of 1857, faqs on the revolt of 1857.

Prelims : History of India

Mains :  Indian Culture - Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

The  Revolt of 1857 , also known as the " First War of Independence ," was the first significant attempt by Indians to end British imperialism. It started on 10 May 1857, first in the form of sepoy mutiny and later as a concerted effort by Indian rulers under the de jure supervision of the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar. As the Revolt of 1857 posed a considerable threat to British power, it was proved as a watershed movement for the British perspective towards India. They became more cautious in their approach towards administration, the nature of the army, differential treatment of the vast Indian communities, etc.

The Revolt of 1857 was mainly concentrated across the vast portions of northern India, engulfing the peasantry and other civilian populations that stood side-by-side with their leaders. Many prominent leaders of the Revolt and common mass fought bravely with the British forces.

There were several factors for the 1857 Revolt, although the British's ruthless exploitation of the Indians was common in all. These factors were already in the process of pressure build-up since the consolidation of Bengal in 1764, first leading to the numerous minor rebellions and ultimately in the Revolt of 1857. These factors are briefly described below:

Political Causes of Revolt of 1857

  • Many princely states were annexed by using the  Doctrine of lapse , such as Satara in 1848 and Jhansi in 1854 by  Dalhousie.  Awadh, however, was annexed under an excuse that Nawab Wazid Ali Shah was mismanaging the state.
  • These annexations created resentment among the deposed rulers as well as their subjects, many of which were recruited as sepoys.

Economic Causes of 1857 Revolt

  • Impact on traditional industries:  The British aimed to make India a consumer of British goods, leading to the collapse of industries like textiles, metalwork, glass, and paper. By 1813, Indian handicrafts lost domestic and foreign markets, and British factories were captured and monopolised through war and colonisation.
  • Impact on agriculture:  The  land revenue policies  followed by the Britishers led to the commercialisation of agriculture and made the land a tradable commodity. It gave rise to new landlords, absentee landlords and moneylenders that created resentment in older landlords. The high burden of taxes, erstwhile cultivators being taken away from their lands, etc., made the peasants desperate for a regime change.

Social Causes of Revolt of 1857

  • Alien rule:  Britishers never mixed with the Indian people and treated even the  upper-class Indians  with contempt.
  • Interference in religion:  Religious leaders, such as  Pandits  and  Maulvis , have also lost all of their previous power and prestige.

Administrative Factors

  • Discrimination in the army:  There was discrimination in salary, cost of maintenance and the military ranks between Indian sepoys and their British counterparts. They were also treated with humiliation and abuse, which created discontent amongst Indian sepoys.
  • Discrimination in civil administration:  Indians were deprived of  higher posts,  which were primarily taken by the British.

Immediate Cause of Revolt of 1857

The atmosphere was so surcharged that even a small issue could lead to revolution.

  • Cartridges of the new Enfield rifle,  which had recently been introduced in the army, had a greased paper cover whose end had to be bitten off before the cartridge was loaded into the rifle.
  • Pig and beef fat  were used to make the  grease . The  Hindu and Muslim  soldiers were so outraged by this that they began to suspect that the government was actively attempting to undermine their religion. It was the immediate root of the uprising.
  • Barrackpore:  On 29th March 1857,  Mangal Pandey,  stationed at  Barrackpore , revolted against his British officers. He was hanged, which created anger and resentment amongst the sepoys.
  • The rest of the Indian sepoys reacted strongly to this, and the next day, on  10th May , the entire  Indian garrison revolted .
  • March to Delhi:  After freeing their comrades and killing the British officers, they decided to march on to  Delhi.
  • It was clear that it was not merely an army mutiny,  as people from surrounding areas began to loot the  military bazaars  and attacked and burnt the bungalows of the British as soon as they heard the shots fired by the sepoys on their officers.
  • Hindu-Muslim unity:  In Meerut and Delhi, the Hindu sepoys overwhelmingly declared Bahadur Shah to be their Emperor. As a sign of respect for the  Hindus' religious beliefs, cow slaughter  was banned wherever the sepoys arrived.
  • Central India:  Thousands of Indore's soldiers joined the sepoy rebels in Indore.  Gwalior's troops  went over to  Tantya Tope and Rani of Jhansi.
  • In  East Punjab, Mainpuri, Bulandshahr, Danapur, Mathura. Agra. Lucknow, Allahabad, Banaras, Shahabad, Etwah, and Aligarh,   wherever there were Indian troops, they revolted.
  • With the revolt in the army, the  police and local administration  also collapsed.
  • Telegraph lines were severed, and horsemen carrying alerts to Delhi were stopped.
  • Peasants and dispossessed zamindars attacked the moneylenders and new zamindars who had displaced them from the land.
  • Destroyed the government files and the accounting records of the moneylenders. 
  • Attacked the  British-established law courts , revenue offices, revenue records and police stations.

The  storm centres  of the uprising were located in Arrah, Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bareilly, and Lucknow. Even though they acknowledged  Emperor Bahadur Shah's suzerainty , all of these locations decided their own rulers and continued to be independent.

  • This system had lost its vitality and was unable to withstand the onslaught of the British.
  • Lack of Unity among Indians:  While the sepoys of the Bengal army were revolting, some soldiers in Punjab and south India fought on the side of the British to crush these rebellions.
  • No accompanying rebellions in most of eastern and southern India.
  • The  Sikhs  did not support the rebels because of the possibility of the revival of  Mughal authority.
  • Besides this, there were some elements of the peasantry that had profited from British rule and supported the British during the revolt.
  • Lack of Support from the Educated Indians : They did not support the revolt because, in their view, the revolt was  backwards-looking,  and they mistakenly believed that the British would lead the country towards  modernisation .
  • While the rebels lacked discipline and  central command.
  • The number of  European soldiers  was increased, and they were kept in key  geographical and military positions.
  • The Indian section of the army was now organised in accordance with the  "divide and rule" policy.
  • To prevent soldiers from developing  nationalistic feelings , regiments were formed based on  caste ,  community , and  region .
  • A  Secretary of State for India , aided by a  Council , was now in charge of  India'sgovernance . Previously, the  Company's Directors  wielded this authority.
  • Muslims were severely punished, and discrimination was made against them in  public appointments  and in other areas. 
  • A policy of preferential treatment of  Muslims  was adopted towards the end of the 19th century. 
  • These policies created problems for the Indian freedom struggle and contributed to the growth of  communalism.
  • New Policy towards the Princely:  The earlier  policy of annexation  was now abandoned, and the rulers of these states were now authorised to adopt heirs.

Question 1: The Revolt of 1857 was the culmination of the recurrent big and small local rebellions that had occurred in the preceding hundred years of British rule. (UPSC Prelims 2019)

Question 2: Explain how the Uprising of 1857 constitutes an important watershed in the evolution of British policies towards colonial India. (UPSC Prelims 2016)

Q) What are the causes of the revolt of 1857?

In 1857, Indian soldiers rose up against their British commanders. Poor terms of service and pensions, bad pay, lack of promotion, and increased cultural and racial insensitivity from British officers all contributed to the feelings of discontent among the Indian soldiers.

Q) What was the immediate reason for the revolt of 1857?

The rebellion began when sepoys refused to use new rifle cartridges, which were thought to be lubricated with grease containing a mixture of pig and cow lard and thus religiously impure for Muslims and Hindus.

Q) Who started the Revolt of 1857?

On March 29, 1857, Sepoy Mangal Pandey of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry launched the 1857 revolt at Barrackpore.

Q) Who were the main leaders of the revolt of 1857?

During the 1857 Revolt, several prominent leaders emerged from different regions of India. Mangal Pandey, Begum Hazrat Mahal, Nana Saheb, Tatya Tope, Kunwar Singh, Bakht Khan and Rani Laxmi Bai are some of the leaders.

Q) What were the causes of the failure of the Revolt of 1857?

The Indian Rebellion ultimately failed to achieve its objective of ending British rule in India because of a lack of unity and external support, the military superiority of the British and a lack of a unified programme and ideology.

Q) What are the main centres of the revolt of 1857?

Following the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny at Meerut in May 1857, uprisings occurred across northern and central India. The main centres of revolt were Delhi, Cawnpore, Lucknow, Jhansi and Gwalior.

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  5. 4 The Revolt of 1857

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  1. PDF The 1857 Revolt

    no choice but to become the leader of the rebellion. In Jhansi, rani Lakshmibai was forced by popular pressure all around her to accept the leadership of the rebellion very late in 1857. So was Kunwar Singh, a local zamindar of Jagdishpur near Arrah in Bihar. In Awadh where the annexation and the exile of the popular king, Wajid Ali Shah were

  2. History assignment

    The Revolt of 1857, sometimes referred to as the Indian Rebellion of 1857 or the First War of Indian Independence, was a pivotal moment in India's history of resistance to British colonial control. The political, economic, social, and military forces that influenced the rebellion's onset were among its many causes.

  3. PDF Revolt of 1857

    The revolt of 1857 was an unprecedented event in the history of British rule in India. It united, though in a limited way, many sections of Indian society for a common cause.Though the revolt failed to achieve the desired goal, it sowed the seeds of Indian nationalism. Books written on the Revolt of 1857.

  4. PDF THE REVOLT OF 1857

    INTRODUCTION. The revolt of 1857 forms one of the most important chapters in the history of the struggle of the Indian people for liberation from the British rule. It shook the foundations of the British Empire in India and at some points it seemed as though the British rule would end for all time to come.

  5. PDF UNIT 4 THE REVOLT OF 1857

    1857, determine the reasons for the failure of the revolt, and understand its impact and form an opinion about the nature of the revolt. 4.1 INTRODUCTION The revolt of 1857 forms one of the most important chapters in the history of the struggle of the Indian people for liberation from the British rule. It shook the

  6. PDF History of India : 1707-1950 UNIT 5 REVOLT OF 1857

    The revolt of 1857 forms one of the most important chapters in the history of the struggle of the Indian people for liberation from the British rule. It shook the foundations of the British empire in India and at some points it seemed as though the British rule would end for all time to come. What started merely

  7. PDF INDIA'S STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE 1857-1947

    1. the first major challenge: the revolt of 1857 2. civil rebellions and tribal uprisings 3. peasant movements and uprisings after 1857 4. foundation of the congress: the myth 5. foundation of the indian national congress: the reality 6. socio-religious reforms and the national awakening 7. an economic critique of colonialism 8.

  8. PDF Revolt 1857

    In 1857, the dominant 'Revolt' took place, which was a result of the policies and character of colonial rule after 1757. Because of these, significant changes took place in the British strategy for controlling India. The overall impact of British expansionist policies, economic exploitation and administrative innovations over the years had ...

  9. PDF Drishti IAS PDF

    The revolt of 1857 was the aggregation of these small revolt, mutiny and skirmish which called as a major 'Revolt', which was a product of the character and policies of colonial rule after 1757, and after which noteworthy changes took place in the British policy of ruling over India. Answer 2 Approach Briefly introduce about the revolt of 1857.

  10. PDF Revolt of 1857

    Revolt of 1857. Background: - Enfield rifle + Bone dust in atta + General service enlistment Act → Soldier felt religion in grave danger + Administration did nothing to allay the fear + 19thNative Infantry at Behrampur had protested against use of Enfield rifle and mutiny in Feb, 1857 → Disbanded + 34thNative Infantry sepoy Mangal Pandey ...

  11. Project On Revolt of 1857

    Project-on-Revolt-of-1857 - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. The document provides an overview of the causes and consequences of the 1857 Revolt in India against British rule. It discusses the various economic, political, administrative, social, religious and military causes that led to the uprising.

  12. (PDF) NATURE OF THE REVOLT OF 1857

    The Rebellion of 1857 (also known as the Indian Mutiny) was a watershed event in the history of British India. It was by far the largest, most widespread, and dangerous threat to British rule in India in the nineteenth century. One of its most obvious repercussions was the elimination of the ruling East India Company and the transfer of control ...

  13. PDF UPSC Civil Services Examination

    The revolt of 1857 was the conscious beginning of the Independence struggle against the Britishers. There are various names for the revolt of 1857 - India's First War of Independence, Mutiny of Sepoy, etc. The revolt began on May 10, 1857, at Meerut as sepoy mutiny. It was initiated by sepoys in the Bengal Presidency against the British ...

  14. (PDF) Historians and the Great Revolt, 1857-59

    Historians and the Great Revolt, 1857-59. The mutinies that took place on 10th of May, 1857 in Meerut and their marched to Delhi on 11th May and very soon the spread of the mutinies in Kanpur, Locnow, Jhansi etc. have been called as "Sepoy Mutiny" by the colonial official and British colonial historians. But after a few decades of the ...

  15. PDF The Revolt of 1857: an Impact & Upheaval Against the British Rule

    First major outbreak that finally led to the Revolt of 1857 occurred at Meerut. Following the court martial of eighty-five sepoys of the Cavalry Regiment for refusing to use the greased cartridges, on 1Oth May 1857, the sepoys broke out in open rebellion, shot their officers, released their fellow sepoys and marched towards Delhi.

  16. Revolt of 1857

    The revolt of 1857 began on May 10, 1857, at Meerut as sepoy mutiny. It was initiated by sepoys in the Bengal Presidency against the British officers. Download Revolt of 1857 PDF. Read to know more about the Revolt of 1857 in this article. For UPSC 2024, follow BYJU'S. Login. Study Materials. NCERT Solutions.

  17. Revolt of 1857 Notes (Free PDF)

    The revolt started on the 10th of May 1857, by sepoys in Meerut. The revolt lasted for a year but was unsuccessful. Furthermore, India needed certain peaceful changes and this revolution brought her that. A major highlight of this revolt was that it abolished the East India Company's rule in India.

  18. PDF Revolt of 1857: First War of Independence

    Nature of the revolt. •Revolt of 1857 began as a revolt of the sepoys but eventually secured the participation of the masses. •V.D. Savarkar called 1857 revolt as the First War of Indian Independence. •Dr S.N. Sen describes it as "having begun as a fight for religion but ended as a war of independence."

  19. (PDF) The 1857 Revolt in India: Mayhem, Murders and ...

    The 1857 Revolt suffers from various technical and archival deficits. The records preserved by the British empire are not sufficient to unearth the role of the millions of people who were martyred ...

  20. PDF Revolt of 1857

    Books written on the Revolt of 1857 The Indian War of Independence by Veer Savarkar Rebellion, 1857: A Symposium by Puran Chand Joshi o The Indian Mutiny of 1857 by George Bruce Malleson o Great Mutiny by Christopher Hibbert Religion and Ideology of the Rebels of 1857 by Iqbal Hussain Excavation of Truth: Unsung Heroes of 1857 War of Independence

  21. Causes, Leaders, Reasons of Failure of 1857 Revolt

    The Revolt of 1857, also known as the "First War of Independence," was the first significant attempt by Indians to end British imperialism. It started on 10 May 1857, first in the form of sepoy mutiny and later as a concerted effort by Indian rulers under the de jure supervision of the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar. As the Revolt of ...

  22. Revolt of 1857

    The revolt of 1857 was an unprecedented event in the history of British rule in India. It united, though in a limited way, many sections of Indian society for a common cause.Though the revolt failed to achieve the desired goal, it sowed the seeds of Indian nationalism. Books written on the Revolt of 1857.

  23. eGyanKosh: Unit-4 The Revolt of 1857

    DSpace JSPUI eGyanKosh preserves and enables easy and open access to all types of digital content including text, images, moving images, mpegs and data sets